Literature context: am Cat# ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Rabbit polyclonal anti-FOXG1 St
Cortical deep projection neurons (DPNs) are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. Although recent findings emphasize post-mitotic programs in projection neuron fate selection, the establishment of primate DPN identity during layer formation is not well understood. The subplate lies underneath the developing cortex and is a post-mitotic compartment that is transiently and disproportionately enlarged in primates in the second trimester. The evolutionary significance of subplate expansion, the molecular identity of its neurons, and its contribution to primate corticogenesis remain open questions. By modeling subplate formation with human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), we show that all classes of cortical DPNs can be specified from subplate neurons (SPNs). Post-mitotic WNT signaling regulates DPN class selection, and DPNs in the caudal fetal cortex appear to exclusively derive from SPNs. Our findings indicate that SPNs have evolved in primates as an important source of DPNs that contribute to cortical lamination prior to their known role in circuit formation.
Literature context: am Cat# ab23345, RRID:AB_778267 Mouse monoclonal anti-bIII tubu
Cerebral cortex size differs dramatically between reptiles, birds, and mammals, owing to developmental differences in neuron production. In mammals, signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis have been identified, but genetic differences behind their evolution across amniotes remain unknown. We show that direct neurogenesis from radial glia cells, with limited neuron production, dominates the avian, reptilian, and mammalian paleocortex, whereas in the evolutionarily recent mammalian neocortex, most neurogenesis is indirect via basal progenitors. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mouse, chick, and snake embryos and in human cerebral organoids demonstrate that high Slit/Robo and low Dll1 signaling, via Jag1 and Jag2, are necessary and sufficient to drive direct neurogenesis. Attenuating Robo signaling and enhancing Dll1 in snakes and birds recapitulates the formation of basal progenitors and promotes indirect neurogenesis. Our study identifies modulation in activity levels of conserved signaling pathways as a primary mechanism driving the expansion and increased complexity of the mammalian neocortex during amniote evolution.
Diverse clustered protocadherins are thought to function in neurite morphogenesis and neuronal connectivity in the brain. Here we report that the protocadherin alpha (Pcdha) gene cluster regulates neuronal migration during cortical development and cytoskeletal dynamics in primary cortical culture through the WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family verprolin homologous protein, also known as WASP or Wasf) complex. In addition, overexpression of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2, also known as Ptk2b, Cakb, Raftk, Fak2, and Cadtk), a non-receptor cell-adhesion kinase and scaffold protein downstream of Pcdha, impairs cortical neuron migration via inactivation of the small GTPase Rac1. Thus, we define a molecular Pcdha/WAVE/Pyk2/Rac1 axis from protocadherin cell-surface receptors to actin cytoskeletal dynamics in cortical neuron migration in mouse brain.
Literature context: , a rabbit anti-Eomes (ab23345; RRID:AB_778267) antibody was used to bind the
Large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play widespread roles in epigenetic regulation during multiple differentiation processes, but little is known about their mode of action in cardiac differentiation. Here, we identified the key roles of a lincRNA, termed linc1405, in modulating the core network of cardiac differentiation by functionally interacting with Eomes. Chromatin- and RNA-immunoprecipitation assays showed that exon 2 of linc1405 physically mediates a complex consisting of Eomes, trithorax group (TrxG) subunit WDR5, and histone acetyltransferase GCN5 binding at the enhancer region of Mesp1 gene and activates its expression during cardiac mesoderm specification of embryonic stem cells. Importantly, linc1405 co-localizes with Eomes, WDR5, and GCN5 at the primitive streak, and linc1405 depletion impairs heart development and function in vivo. In summary, linc1405 mediates a Eomes/WDR5/GCN5 complex that contributes to cardiogenesis, highlighting the critical roles of lincRNA-based complexes in the epigenetic regulation of cardiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Literature context: 3345, RRID:AB_778267 Rabbit anti-Tbr2 Abcam Cat# ab1
Delamination of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the ventricular surface is a crucial prerequisite to form the subventricular zone, the germinal layer linked to the expansion of the mammalian neocortex in development and evolution. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism by which the transcription factor Insm1 promotes the generation of basal progenitors (BPs). Insm1 protein is most highly expressed in newborn BPs in mouse and human developing neocortex. Forced Insm1 expression in embryonic mouse neocortex causes NPC delamination, converting apical to basal radial glia. Insm1 represses the expression of the apical adherens junction belt-specific protein Plekha7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of Plekha7 expression suffices to cause NPC delamination. Plekha7 overexpression impedes the intrinsic and counteracts the Insm1-induced, NPC delamination. Our findings uncover a novel molecular mechanism underlying NPC delamination in which a BP-genic transcription factor specifically targets the integrity of the apical adherens junction belt, rather than adherens junction components as such.
Literature context: bridge, United Kingdom ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Antibody Cy3-conjugated goat an
The postembryonic brain exhibits experience-dependent development, in which sensory experience guides normal brain growth. This neuroplasticity is thought to occur primarily through structural and functional changes in pre-existing neurons. Whether neurogenesis also mediates the effects of experience on brain growth is unclear. Here, we characterized the importance of motor experience on postembryonic neurogenesis in larval zebrafish. We found that movement maintains an expanded pool of forebrain neural precursors by promoting progenitor self-renewal over the production of neurons. Physical cues associated with swimming (bodily movement) increase neurogenesis and these cues appear to be conveyed by dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in the zebrafish body: DRG-deficient larvae exhibit attenuated neurogenic responses to movement and targeted photoactivation of DRG in immobilized larvae expands the pallial pool of proliferative cells. Our results demonstrate the importance of movement in neurogenic brain growth and reveal a fundamental sensorimotor association that may couple early motor and brain development.
Literature context: 3345; RRID:AB_778267 rat anti-Ctip2 Abcam Cat# ab184
The mechanisms instructing genesis of neuronal subtypes from mammalian neural precursors are not well understood. To address this issue, we have characterized the transcriptional landscape of radial glial precursors (RPs) in the embryonic murine cortex. We show that individual RPs express mRNA, but not protein, for transcriptional specifiers of both deep and superficial layer cortical neurons. Some of these mRNAs, including the superficial versus deep layer neuron transcriptional regulators Brn1 and Tle4, are translationally repressed by their association with the RNA-binding protein Pumilio2 (Pum2) and the 4E-T protein. Disruption of these repressive complexes in RPs mid-neurogenesis by knocking down 4E-T or Pum2 causes aberrant co-expression of deep layer neuron specification proteins in newborn superficial layer neurons. Thus, cortical RPs are transcriptionally primed to generate diverse types of neurons, and a Pum2/4E-T complex represses translation of some of these neuronal identity mRNAs to ensure appropriate temporal specification of daughter neurons.
Literature context: omes Abcam Cat#ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Pax6 Cov
Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.
Literature context: am Cat# ab23345;RRID:AB_778267 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Pax6 Bio
Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG. Expression of TMEM14B in embryonic NPs induces cortical thickening and gyrification in postnatal mice. This is accompanied by SVZ expansion, the appearance of outer RG-like cells, and the proliferation of multiple NP subsets, with proportional increases in all cortical layers and normal lamination. TMEM14B drives NP proliferation by increasing the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IQGAP1, which in turn promotes G1/S cell cycle transitions. These data show that a single primate-specific gene can drive neurodevelopmental changes that contribute to brain evolution.
Literature context: included anti-Tbr2 (Abcam, UK, RRID:AB_778267), anti-Pax6 (Covance, Princeton
Although it has been believed that the evolution of cortical folds was a milestone, allowing for an increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, the mechanisms underlying the formation of cortical folds are largely unknown. Here we show regional differences in the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in the developing cerebral cortex of ferrets even before cortical folds are formed. By taking the advantage of our in utero electroporation technique for ferrets, we found that cortical folding was impaired in the ferret cerebral cortex when FGF signaling was inhibited. We also found that FGF signaling was crucial for producing Pax6-positive neural progenitors in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) of the developing cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we found that upper layers of the cerebral cortex were preferentially reduced by inhibiting FGF signaling. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of cortical folding in gyrencephalic mammalian brains.
Literature context: RRID:AB_778267 Chicken anti-GFP Aveslab GFP-10
Zika virus (ZIKV) directly infects neural progenitors and impairs their proliferation. How ZIKV interacts with the host molecular machinery to impact neurogenesis in vivo is not well understood. Here, by systematically introducing individual proteins encoded by ZIKV into the embryonic mouse cortex, we show that expression of ZIKV-NS2A, but not Dengue virus (DENV)-NS2A, leads to reduced proliferation and premature differentiation of radial glial cells and aberrant positioning of newborn neurons. Mechanistically, in vitro mapping of protein-interactomes and biochemical analysis suggest interactions between ZIKA-NS2A and multiple adherens junction complex (AJ) components. Functionally, ZIKV-NS2A, but not DENV-NS2A, destabilizes the AJ complex, resulting in impaired AJ formation and aberrant radial glial fiber scaffolding in the embryonic mouse cortex. Similarly, ZIKA-NS2A, but not DENV-NS2A, reduces radial glial cell proliferation and causes AJ deficits in human forebrain organoids. Together, our results reveal pathogenic mechanisms underlying ZIKV infection in the developing mammalian brain.
Literature context: am Cat# ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Melanops
The size and shape of dendritic arbors are prime determinants of neuronal connectivity and function. We asked how ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (ooDSGCs) in mouse retina acquire their bistratified dendrites, in which responses to light onset and light offset are segregated to distinct strata. We found that the transcriptional regulator Satb1 is selectively expressed by ooDSGCs. In Satb1 mutant mice, ooDSGC dendrites lack ON arbors, and the cells selectively lose ON responses. Satb1 regulates expression of a homophilic adhesion molecule, Contactin 5 (Cntn5). Both Cntn5 and its co-receptor Caspr4 are expressed not only by ooDSGCs, but also by interneurons that form a scaffold on which ooDSGC ON dendrites fasciculate. Removing Cntn5 from either ooDSGCs or interneurons partially phenocopies Satb1 mutants, demonstrating that Satb1-dependent Cntn5 expression in ooDSGCs leads to branch-specific homophilic interactions with interneurons. Thus, Satb1 directs formation of a morphologically and functionally specialized compartment within a complex dendritic arbor.
Literature context: ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Chicken po
During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs. This in turn diminished the embryonic origin of postnatal NSCs, resulting in loss of adult NSCs and defective V-SVZ regeneration. VCAM1 affects the NSC fate by signaling through its intracellular domain to regulate β-catenin signaling in a context-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insight on how stem cells in the embryo are preserved to meet the need for growth and regeneration.
Literature context: cam Cat# ab23345 RRID:AB_778267) at 1:000; mouse anti-Vimentin
Hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) integrate inputs from multiple sources to balance quiescence and activation. Notch signaling plays a key role during this process. Here, we report that Lunatic fringe (Lfng), a key modifier of the Notch receptor, is selectively expressed in NSCs. Further, Lfng in NSCs and Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged1, expressed by their progeny, together influence NSC recruitment, cell cycle duration, and terminal fate. We propose a new model in which Lfng-mediated Notch signaling enables direct communication between a NSC and its descendants, so that progeny can send feedback signals to the 'mother' cell to modify its cell cycle status. Lfng-mediated Notch signaling appears to be a key factor governing NSC quiescence, division, and fate.
Literature context: # ab23345 RRID:AB_778267), anti-Ki6
The cerebral cortical tissue of murine embryo and pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neurons can survive in the brain and extend axons to the spinal cord. For efficient cell integration to the corticospinal tract (CST) after transplantation, the induction or selection of cortical motor neurons is important. However, precise information about the appropriate cell population remains unclear. To address this issue, we isolated cells expressing Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a major axon guidance molecule receptor during the early developmental stage, from E14.5 mouse embryonic frontal cortex by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Aggregates of NRP1+ cells gradually expressed subcortical projection neuron markers, Ctip2 and VGluT1, and axon guidance molecule receptors, Robo1 and deleted in colorectal calcinoma (Dcc), in vitro, suggesting that they contained early-stage subcortical projection neurons. We transplanted NRP1+ cells into the frontal cortex of P2 neonatal mice. Compared with grafts derived from NRP1- or unsorted cells, those derived from NRP1+ cells extended a larger number of axons to the spinal cord along the CST. Our data suggest that sorting NRP1+ cells from the embryonic cerebral cortex enriches subcortical projection neurons to reconstruct the CST.
Literature context: #AB23345; RRID:AB_778267 Rabbit ant
The folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex into sulci and gyri is thought to be favored by the amplification of basal progenitor cells and their tangential migration. Here, we provide a molecular mechanism for the role of migration in this process by showing that changes in intercellular adhesion of migrating cortical neurons result in cortical folding. Mice with deletions of FLRT1 and FLRT3 adhesion molecules develop macroscopic sulci with preserved layered organization and radial glial morphology. Cortex folding in these mutants does not require progenitor cell amplification but is dependent on changes in neuron migration. Analyses and simulations suggest that sulcus formation in the absence of FLRT1/3 results from reduced intercellular adhesion, increased neuron migration, and clustering in the cortical plate. Notably, FLRT1/3 expression is low in the human cortex and in future sulcus areas of ferrets, suggesting that intercellular adhesion is a key regulator of cortical folding across species.
Literature context: ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Anti-Oct4
Of all known cultured stem cell types, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) sit atop the landscape of developmental potency and are characterized by their ability to generate all cell types of an adult organism. However, PSCs show limited contribution to the extraembryonic placental tissues in vivo. Here, we show that a chemical cocktail enables the derivation of stem cells with unique functional and molecular features from mice and humans, designated as extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which are capable of chimerizing both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Notably, a single mouse EPS cell shows widespread chimeric contribution to both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages in vivo and permits generating single-EPS-cell-derived mice by tetraploid complementation. Furthermore, human EPS cells exhibit interspecies chimeric competency in mouse conceptuses. Our findings constitute a first step toward capturing pluripotent stem cells with extraembryonic developmental potentials in culture and open new avenues for basic and translational research. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Chicken po
Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis. Specifically, DBI dampens GABA activity in stem cells, thereby sustaining the proproliferative effect of physical exercise and enriched environment. Our data lend credence to the notion that the modulatory effect of DBI constitutes a general mechanism that regulates postnatal neurogenesis.
Literature context: #ab23345 RRID:AB-778267, 1:400), m
Diencephalic defects underlie an array of neurological diseases. Previous studies have suggested that retinoic acid (RA) signaling is involved in diencephalic development at late stages of embryonic development, but its roles and mechanisms of action during early neural development are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking enzymatic activity of the acetyltransferase GCN5 ((Gcn5hat/hat )), which were previously characterized with respect to their exencephalic phenotype, exhibit significant diencephalic expansion, decreased diencephalic RA signaling, and increased diencephalic WNT and SHH signaling. Using a variety of molecular biology techniques in both cultured neuroepithelial cells treated with a GCN5 inhibitor and forebrain tissue from (Gcn5hat/hat ) embryos, we demonstrate that GCN5, RARα/γ, and the poorly characterized protein TACC1 form a complex in the nucleus that binds specific retinoic acid response elements in the absence of RA. Furthermore, RA triggers GCN5-mediated acetylation of TACC1, which results in dissociation of TACC1 from retinoic acid response elements and leads to transcriptional activation of RA target genes. Intriguingly, RA signaling defects caused by in vitro inhibition of GCN5 can be rescued through RA-dependent mechanisms that require RARβ. Last, we demonstrate that the diencephalic expansion and transcriptional defects seen in (Gcn5hat/hat ) mutants can be rescued with gestational RA supplementation, supporting a direct link between GCN5, TACC1, and RA signaling in the developing diencephalon. Together, our studies identify a novel, nonhistone substrate for GCN5 whose modification regulates a previously undescribed, tissue-specific mechanism of RA signaling that is required to restrict diencephalic size during early forebrain development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Changes in diencephalic size and shape, as well as SNPs associated with retinoic acid (RA) signaling-associated genes, have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms that regulate diencephalic morphogenesis and the involvement of RA signaling in this process are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a novel role of the acetyltransferase GCN5 in a previously undescribed mechanism of RA signaling in the developing forebrain that is required to maintain the appropriate size of the diencephalon. Together, our experiments identify a novel nonhistone substrate of GCN5, highlight an essential role for both GCN5 and RA signaling in early diencephalic development, and elucidate a novel molecular regulatory mechanism for RA signaling that is specific to the developing forebrain.
Literature context: AB23345, RRID:AB_778267 Biological
The Reelin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating neocortical development. However, little is known about how Reelin controls the cytoskeleton during neuronal migration. Here, we identify CLASP2 as a key cytoskeletal effector in the Reelin signaling pathway. We demonstrate that CLASP2 has distinct roles during neocortical development regulating neuron production and controlling neuron migration, polarity, and morphogenesis. We found downregulation of CLASP2 in migrating neurons leads to mislocalized cells in deeper cortical layers, abnormal positioning of the centrosome-Golgi complex, and aberrant length/orientation of the leading process. We discovered that Reelin regulates several phosphorylation sites within the positively charged serine/arginine-rich region that constitute consensus GSK3β phosphorylation motifs of CLASP2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of CLASP2 regulates its interaction with the Reelin adaptor Dab1 and this association is required for CLASP2 effects on neurite extension and motility. Together, our data reveal that CLASP2 is an essential Reelin effector orchestrating cytoskeleton dynamics during brain development.
Literature context: #ab23345 RRID:AB_778267), anti-Cux
The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for prevention of a broad spectrum of different human neurologic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of the DDR at a physiological level is lacking. In contrast to many in vitro cellular studies, here we demonstrate independent biological roles for the DDR kinases DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR during neurogenesis. We show that DNA-PKcs is central to DNA repair in nonproliferating cells, and restricts DNA damage accumulation, whereas ATR controls damage-induced G2 checkpoint control and apoptosis in proliferating cells. Conversely, ATM is critical for controlling apoptosis in immature noncycling neural cells after DNA damage. These data demonstrate functionally distinct, but cooperative, roles for each kinase in preserving genome stability in the nervous system.
Literature context: 0; Abcam, RRID:AB_778267), rat anti
The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) dictates neurogenesis and proper brain development. We found that the RNA- binding protein Sam68 (Khdrbs1) is strongly expressed in neurogenic areas of the neocortex and supports the self-renewing potential of mouse NPCs. Knockout of Khdrbs1 constricted the pool of proliferating NPCs by accelerating their cell cycle exit and differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. Sam68 function was linked to regulation of Aldh1a3 pre-mRNA 3'-end processing. Binding of Sam68 to an intronic polyadenylation site prevents its recognition and premature transcript termination, favoring expression of a functional enzyme. The lower ALDH1A3 expression and activity in Khdrbs1-/- NPCs results in reduced glycolysis and clonogenicity, thus depleting the embryonic NPC pool and limiting cortical expansion. Our study identifies Sam68 as a key regulator of NPC self-renewal and establishes a novel link between modulation of ALDH1A3 expression and maintenance of high glycolytic metabolism in the developing cortex.
Literature context: 5, Abcam, RRID:AB_778267; 4Â°C, over
Valproic acid (VPA), a widely used antiepileptic drug, is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, which epigenetically modify cell proliferation/differentiation in developing tissues. A series of recent clinical studies in humans reported that VPA exposure in utero impaired histogenesis and the development of the central nervous system, leading to increased risks of congenital malformation and the impairment of higher brain functions in children. In the present study conducted in mice, we report that VPA exposure in utero (1) increases the amount of acetylated histone proteins, (2) alters the expression of G1-phase regulatory proteins, (3) inhibits the cell cycle exit of neural progenitor cells during the early stage of neocortical histogenesis, and (4) increases the production of projection neurons distributed in the superficial neocortical layers in embryonic brains. Together, our findings show that VPA exposure in utero alters proliferation/differentiation characteristics of neural progenitor cells and hence leads to the neocortical dysgenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study provides new insight into the mechanisms of how an altered in utero environment, such as drug exposure, affects the generation of neurons prenatally. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is a good target molecule as in utero exposure to VPA has been repeatedly reported to increase the risk of nervous system malformations and to impair higher brain functions in children. We show that VPA decreases the probability of differentiation of the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in mice, resulting in an abnormally increased number of projection neurons in the superficial layers of the neocortex. Further, we suggest that histone deacetylase inhibition by VPA may be involved in the dysregulation of proliferation/differentiation characteristics of NPCs.
Literature context: #ab23345; RRID:AB_778267 Chemicals,
Alternative splicing is prevalent in the mammalian brain. To interrogate the functional role of alternative splicing in neural development, we analyzed purified neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons from developing cerebral cortices, revealing hundreds of differentially spliced exons that preferentially alter key protein domains-especially in cytoskeletal proteins-and can harbor disease-causing mutations. We show that Ptbp1 and Rbfox proteins antagonistically govern the NPC-to-neuron transition by regulating neuron-specific exons. Whereas Ptbp1 maintains apical progenitors partly through suppressing a poison exon of Flna in NPCs, Rbfox proteins promote neuronal differentiation by switching Ninein from a centrosomal splice form in NPCs to a non-centrosomal isoform in neurons. We further uncover an intronic human mutation within a PTBP1-binding site that disrupts normal skipping of the FLNA poison exon in NPCs and causes a brain-specific malformation. Our study indicates that dynamic control of alternative splicing governs cell fate in cerebral cortical development.
Literature context: ab23345, RRID:AB_778267 1:500
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is greatly expanded in primates with gyrencephalic cortices and is thought to be absent from vertebrates with three-layered, lissencephalic cortices, such as the turtle. Recent work in rodents has shown that Tbr2-expressing neural precursor cells in the SVZ produce excitatory neurons for each cortical layer in the neocortex. Many excitatory neurons are generated through a two-step process in which Pax6-expressing radial glial cells divide in the VZ to produce Tbr2-expressing intermediate progenitor cells, which divide in the SVZ to produce cortical neurons. We investigated the evolutionary origin of SVZ neural precursor cells in the prenatal cerebral cortex by testing for the presence and distribution of Tbr2-expressing cells in the prenatal cortex of reptilian and avian species. We found that mitotic Tbr2(+) cells are present in the prenatal cortex of lizard, turtle, chicken, and dove. Furthermore, Tbr2(+) cells are organized into a distinct SVZ in the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) of turtle forebrain and in the cortices of chicken and dove. Our results are consistent with the concept that Tbr2(+) neural precursor cells were present in the common ancestor of mammals and reptiles. Our data also suggest that the organizing principle guiding the assembly of Tbr2(+) cells into an anatomically distinct SVZ, both developmentally and evolutionarily, may be shared across vertebrates. Finally, our results indicate that Tbr2 expression can be used to test for the presence of a distinct SVZ and to define the boundaries of the SVZ in developing cortices.
Literature context: ab23345, RRID:AB_778267, rabbit po
The evolutionary expansion of the neocortex primarily reflects increases in abundance and proliferative capacity of cortical progenitors and in the length of the neurogenic period during development. Cell cycle parameters of neocortical progenitors are an important determinant of cortical development. The ferret (Mustela putorius furo), a gyrencephalic mammal, has gained increasing importance as a model for studying corticogenesis. Here, we have studied the abundance, proliferation, and cell cycle parameters of different neural progenitor types, defined by their differential expression of the transcription factors Pax6 and Tbr2, in the various germinal zones of developing ferret neocortex. We focused our analyses on postnatal day 1, a late stage of cortical neurogenesis when upper-layer neurons are produced. Based on cumulative 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling as well as Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence, we determined the duration of the various cell cycle phases of the different neocortical progenitor subpopulations. Ferret neocortical progenitors were found to exhibit longer cell cycles than those of rodents and little variation in the duration of G1 among distinct progenitor types, also in contrast to rodents. Remarkably, the main difference in cell cycle parameters among the various progenitor types was the duration of S-phase, which became shorter as progenitors progressively changed transcription factor expression from patterns characteristic of self-renewal to those of neuron production. Hence, S-phase duration emerges as major target of cell cycle regulation in cortical progenitors of this gyrencephalic mammal.
Literature context: ab23345, RRID:AB_778267). This Tbr
The development of the mammalian brain requires the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons, cellular processes that are dependent on a dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton. Mutations in tubulin genes, which encode for the structural subunits of microtubules, cause detrimental neurological disorders known as the tubulinopathies. The disease spectra associated with different tubulin genes are overlapping but distinct, an observation believed to reflect functional specification of this multigene family. Perturbation of the β-tubulin TUBB2B is known to cause polymicrogyria, pachygyria, microcephaly, and axon guidance defects. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of its murine homolog Tubb2b. The generation and characterization of BAC-transgenic eGFP reporter mouse lines has revealed that it is highly expressed in progenitors and postmitotic neurons during cortical development. This contrasts with the 8-week-old cortex, in which Tubb2b expression is restricted to macroglia, and expression is almost completely absent in mature neurons. This developmental transition in neurons is mirrored in the adult hippocampus and the cerebellum but is not a universal feature of Tubb2b; its expression persists in a population of postmitotic neurons in the 8-week-old retina. We propose that the dynamic spatial and temporal expression of Tubb2b reflects specific functional requirements of the microtubule cytoskeleton.