X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Sheep Anti-Mouse IgG - Horseradish Peroxidase antibody

RRID:AB_772210

Antibody ID

AB_772210

Target Antigen

IgG mouse

Proper Citation

(GE Healthcare Cat# NA931, RRID:AB_772210)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Catalog number was changed from NA931-1ml to NA931, July 12, 2016; record consolidated with GE Healthcare Cat# NA931-100Ul, RRID:AB_772212

Host Organism

sheep

Vendor

GE Healthcare

Hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α results in insulin resistance despite sustained IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

  • Chaudhari A
  • F1000Res
  • 2018 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Background: Class IA phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) is an integral mediator of insulin signaling. The p110 catalytic and p85 regulatory subunits of PI3K are the products of separate genes, and while they come together to make the active heterodimer, they have opposing roles in insulin signaling and action. Deletion of hepatic p110α results in an impaired insulin signal and severe insulin resistance, whereas deletion of hepatic p85α results in improved insulin sensitivity due to sustained levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Here, we created mice with combined hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α (L-DKO) to study the impact on insulin signaling and whole body glucose homeostasis. Methods: Six-week old male flox control and L-DKO mice were studied over a period of 18 weeks, during which weight and glucose levels were monitored, and glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance test and pyruvate tolerance test were performed. Fasting insulin, insulin signaling mediators, PI3K activity and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity were examined at 10 weeks. Liver, muscle and white adipose tissue weight was recorded at 10 weeks and 25 weeks. Results: The L-DKO mice showed a blunted insulin signal downstream of PI3K, developed markedly impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and had decreased liver and adipose tissue weights. Surprisingly, however, these mice displayed normal hepatic glucose production, normal insulin tolerance, and intact IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity without compensatory upregulated signaling of other classes of PI3K. Conclusions: The data demonstrate an unexpectedly overall mild metabolic phenotype of the L-DKO mice, suggesting that lipid kinases other than PI3Ks might partially compensate for the loss of p110α/p85α by signaling through other nodes than Akt/Protein Kinase B.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM084279(United States)

Structural Basis for Auto-Inhibition of the NDR1 Kinase Domain by an Atypically Long Activation Segment.

  • Xiong S
  • Structure
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human NDR family kinases control diverse aspects of cell growth, and are regulated through phosphorylation and association with scaffolds such as MOB1. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human NDR1 kinase domain in its non-phosphorylated state, revealing a fully resolved atypically long activation segment that blocks substrate binding and stabilizes a non-productive position of helix αC. Consistent with an auto-inhibitory function, mutations within the activation segment of NDR1 dramatically enhance in vitro kinase activity. Interestingly, NDR1 catalytic activity is further potentiated by MOB1 binding, suggesting that regulation through modulation of the activation segment and by MOB1 binding are mechanistically distinct. Lastly, deleting the auto-inhibitory activation segment of NDR1 causes a marked increase in the association with upstream Hippo pathway components and the Furry scaffold. These findings provide a point of departure for future efforts to explore the cellular functions and the mechanism of NDR1.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 1 R01 AI059492-01A1(United States)

SAD-A Promotes Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion through Phosphorylation and Inhibition of GDIα in Male Islet β-cells.

  • Nie J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDIα) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part by locking Rho GTPases in an inactive GDP-bound form. The onset of GSIS causes phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174, a critical inhibitory site for GDIα, leading to the release of Rho GTPases and their subsequent activation. However, the kinase regulator(s) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of GDIα in islet β-cells remains elusive. We propose that SAD-A, a member of AMPK-related kinases that promotes GSIS as an effector kinase for incretin signaling, interact with and inhibit GDIα through phosphorylation of Ser174 during the onset GSIS from islet β-cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and phosphorylation analyses were carried out to identify the physical interaction and phosphorylation site of GDIα by SAD-A in the context of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 β-cells and primary islets. We identified GDIα directly binds to SAD-A kinase domain and phosphorylated by SAD-A on Ser174, leading to dissociation of Rho GTPases from GDIα complexes. Accordingly, overexpression of SAD-A significantly stimulated GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174 in response to GSIS, which is dramatically potentiated by GLP-1, an incretin hormone. Conversely, SAD-A deficiency, which is mediated by shRNA transfection in INS-1 cells, significantly attenuated endogenous GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174. Consequently, co-expression of SAD-A completely prevented the inhibitory effect of GDIα on insulin secretion in islets. In summary, glucose and incretin stimulate insulin secretion through the phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174 by SAD-A which leads to the activation of Rho GTPases, culminating in insulin exocytosis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI0417351(United States)

Anti-Depressant Fluoxetine Reveals its Therapeutic Effect Via Astrocytes.

  • Kinoshita M
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although psychotropic drugs act on neurons and glial cells, how glia respond, and whether glial responses are involved in therapeutic effects are poorly understood. Here, we show that fluoxetine (FLX), an anti-depressant, mediates its anti-depressive effect by increasing the gliotransmission of ATP. FLX increased ATP exocytosis via vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT). FLX-induced anti-depressive behavior was decreased in astrocyte-selective VNUT-knockout mice or when VNUT was deleted in mice, but it was increased when astrocyte-selective VNUT was overexpressed in mice. This suggests that VNUT-dependent astrocytic ATP exocytosis has a critical role in the therapeutic effect of FLX. Released ATP and its metabolite adenosine act on P2Y11 and adenosine A2b receptors expressed by astrocytes, causing an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in astrocytes. These findings suggest that in addition to neurons, FLX acts on astrocytes and mediates its therapeutic effects by increasing ATP gliotransmission.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01-HL112605(United States)

Exit from Naive Pluripotency Induces a Transient X Chromosome Inactivation-like State in Males.

  • Sousa EJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A hallmark of naive pluripotency is the presence of two active X chromosomes in females. It is not clear whether prevention of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is mediated by gene networks that preserve the naive state. Here, we show that robust naive pluripotent stem cell (nPSC) self-renewal represses expression of Xist, the master regulator of XCI. We found that nPSCs accumulate Xist on the male X chromosome and on both female X chromosomes as they become NANOG negative at the onset of differentiation. This is accompanied by the appearance of a repressive chromatin signature and partial X-linked gene silencing, suggesting a transient and rapid XCI-like state in male nPSCs. In the embryo, Xist is transiently expressed in males and in females from both X chromosomes at the onset of naive epiblast differentiation. In conclusion, we propose that XCI initiation is gender independent and triggered by destabilization of naive identity, suggesting that gender-specific mechanisms follow, rather than precede, XCI initiation.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL085036(United States)

Divergent Role of Estrogen-Related Receptor α in Lipid- and Fasting-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

  • B'chir W
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, identification of intrinsic molecular programs responsible for ensuring fuel homeostasis and preventing metabolic disease is needed. We investigated whether the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), a major regulator of energy metabolism, plays a role in lipid homeostasis and the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in response to chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and long-term fasting. Systemic ablation of ERRα in mice demonstrated clear beneficial effects for loss of ERRα function in protection from HFD-provoked body weight gain manifested not only from a reduction in white adipose tissue stores but also from an impediment in intrahepatic lipid accumulation. The prevention of HFD-induced NAFLD in ERRα-null mice was underscored by transcriptional repression of de novo lipogenesis, which was upregulated in wild-type mice, a known contributing factor to lipid-stimulated hepatic steatosis. Surprisingly, given these findings, ERRα deficiency had no significant impact on the degree of fasting-induced NAFLD, involving the mobilization of adipocyte triglyceride (TG) stores into the liver. However, the presence of ERRα was essential for acute refeeding-mediated reversal of fasting-induced hepatic TG accretion, underpinned by impaired downregulation of adipose TG lipolysis and reduced hepatic mitochondrial oxidative activity. Taken together, the regulation of lipid handling by ERRα depended on the nutritional state, suggesting that negative modulation of ERRα activity could be envisaged to prevent lipid-induced NAFLD, whereas inducing its activity would be useful to treat and reverse the instilled disease.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA70723(United States)

Combined Human Genome-wide RNAi and Metabolite Analyses Identify IMPDH as a Host-Directed Target against Chlamydia Infection.

  • Rother M
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) accounts for >130 million human infections annually. Since chronic Ctr infections are extremely difficult to treat, there is an urgent need for more effective therapeutics. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ctr strictly depends on the functional contribution of the host cell. Here, we combined a human genome-wide RNA interference screen with metabolic profiling to obtain detailed understanding of changes in the infected cell and identify druggable pathways essential for Ctr growth. We demonstrate that Ctr shifts the host metabolism toward aerobic glycolysis, consistent with increased biomass requirement. We identify key regulator complexes of glucose and nucleotide metabolism that govern Ctr infection processes. Pharmacological targeting of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, efficiently inhibits Ctr growth both in vitro and in vivo. These results highlight the potency of genome-scale functional screening for the discovery of drug targets against bacterial infections.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 094879(United Kingdom)

AR Signaling in Prostate Cancer Regulates a Feed-forward Mechanism of Androgen Synthesis by Way of HSD3B1 Upregulation.

  • Hettel D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

3βHSD1 enzymatic activity is essential for synthesis of potent androgens from adrenal precursor steroids in prostate cancer. A germline variant in HSD3B1, the gene that encodes 3βHSD1, encodes for a stable enzyme, regulates adrenal androgen dependence, and is a predictive biomarker of poor clinical outcomes after gonadal testosterone deprivation therapy. However, little is known about HSD3B1 transcriptional regulation. Generally, it is thought that intratumoral androgen synthesis is up-regulated after gonadal testosterone deprivation, enabling development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Given its critical role in extragonadal androgen synthesis, we sought to directly interrogate the transcriptional regulation of HSD3B1 in multiple metastatic prostate cancer cell models. Surprisingly, we found that VCaP, CWR22Rv1, LNCaP, and LAPC4 models demonstrate induction of HSD3B1 upon androgen stimulation for approximately 72 hours followed by attenuation around 120 hours. 3βHSD1 protein levels mirrored transcriptional changes in models harboring variant (LNCaP) and wild type (LAPC4) HSD3B1, and in these models androgen induction of HSD3B1 is abrogated via enzalutamide treatment. Androgen treatment increased flux from [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and other downstream metabolites. HSD3B1 expression was reduced 72 hours post-castration in the VCaP xenograft mouse model, suggesting AR regulation of HSD3B1 also occurs in vivo. Overall, these data suggest that HSD3B1 is unexpectedly positively regulated by androgens. These data may have implications for the development of treatment strategies tailored to HSD3B1 genotype status.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009207(United States)

Spred1 Safeguards Hematopoietic Homeostasis against Diet-Induced Systemic Stress.

  • Tadokoro Y
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cell self-renewal is critical for tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation can lead to organ failure or tumorigenesis. While obesity can induce varied abnormalities in bone marrow components, it is unclear how diet might affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Here, we show that Spred1, a negative regulator of RAS-MAPK signaling, safeguards HSC homeostasis in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Under steady-state conditions, Spred1 negatively regulates HSC self-renewal and fitness, in part through Rho kinase activity. Spred1 deficiency mitigates HSC failure induced by infection mimetics and prolongs HSC lifespan, but it does not initiate leukemogenesis due to compensatory upregulation of Spred2. In contrast, HFD induces ERK hyperactivation and aberrant self-renewal in Spred1-deficient HSCs, resulting in functional HSC failure, severe anemia, and myeloproliferative neoplasm-like disease. HFD-induced hematopoietic abnormalities are mediated partly through alterations to the gut microbiota. Together, these findings reveal that diet-induced stress disrupts fine-tuning of Spred1-mediated signals to govern HSC homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Arthritis Research UK - 17522(United Kingdom)

Endothelial insulin receptor restoration rescues vascular function in male insulin receptor haploinsufficient mice.

  • Sengupta A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reduced systemic insulin signaling promotes endothelial dysfunction and diminished endogenous vascular repair. We asked whether restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression could rescue this phenotype. Insulin receptor haploinsufficient mice (IRKO) were crossed with mice expressing a human insulin receptor transgene in the endothelium (hIRECO), to produce IRKO-hIRECO progeny. No metabolic differences were noted between IRKO and IRKO-hIRECO in glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests. In contrast with control IRKO littermates, IRKO-hIRECO exhibited normal blood pressure and aortic vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine, comparable to parameters noted in wild-type littermates. These phenotypic changes were associated with enhanced basal- and insulin-stimulated nitric oxide production. IRKO-hIRECO also demonstrated normalized endothelial repair after denuding arterial injury, which was associated with rescued endothelial cell migration in vitro, but not with changes in circulating progenitor populations or culture-derived myeloid angiogenic cells. These data show that restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression alone is sufficient to prevent the vascular dysfunction caused by systemically reduced insulin signaling.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - SC1-AI-078559(United States)

The yeast H+-ATPase Pma1 promotes Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation in response to H+-coupled nutrient uptake.

  • Saliba E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The yeast Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling growth. How amino acids and other nutrients stimulate its activity via the Rag/Gtr GTPases remains poorly understood. We here report that the signal triggering Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation upon amino-acid uptake is the coupled H+ influx catalyzed by amino-acid/H+ symporters. H+-dependent uptake of other nutrients, ionophore-mediated H+ diffusion, and inhibition of the vacuolar V-ATPase also activate TORC1. As the increase in cytosolic H+ elicited by these processes stimulates the compensating H+-export activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Pma1), we have examined whether this major ATP-consuming enzyme might be involved in TORC1 control. We find that when the endogenous Pma1 is replaced with a plant H+-ATPase, H+ influx or increase fails to activate TORC1. Our results show that H+ influx coupled to nutrient uptake stimulates TORC1 activity and that Pma1 is a key actor in this mechanism.

Funding information:
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 22396499()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 30274494()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 22396499()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 30274494()
  • Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture - 21074048()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Regulation of Kinase Activity in the Caenorhabditis elegans EGF Receptor, LET-23.

  • Liu L
  • Structure
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the active HER receptor dimers, kinases play distinct roles; one is the catalytically active kinase and the other is its allosteric activator. This specialization enables signaling by the catalytically inactive HER3, which functions exclusively as an allosteric activator upon heterodimerization with other HER receptors. It is unclear whether the allosteric activation mechanism evolved before HER receptors functionally specialized. We determined the crystal structure of the kinase domain of the only EGF receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans, LET-23. Our structure of a non-human EGFR kinase reveals autoinhibitory features conserved in the human counterpart. Strikingly, mutations within the putative allosteric dimer interface abrogate activity of the isolated LET-23 kinase and of the full-length receptor despite these regions being only partially conserved with human EGFR. Our results indicate that ancestral EGFRs have built-in features that poise them for allosteric activation that could facilitate emergence of the catalytically dead, yet functional, orthologs.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F32 CA216928()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA154989(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA198164()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM109176()

The soluble form of LOTUS inhibits Nogo receptor-mediated signaling by interfering with the interaction between Nogo receptor type 1 and p75 neurotrophin receptor.

  • Kawakami Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nogo receptor type 1 (NgR1) is known to inhibit neuronal regeneration in the CNS. We have previously identified lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) interacts with NgR1 and inhibits its function by blocking its ligand binding. Therefore, LOTUS is expected to have therapeutic potential for the promotion of neuronal regeneration. However, it remains unknown whether the soluble form of LOTUS (s-LOTUS) also has an inhibitory action on NgR1 function as a candidate for therapeutic agents. Here, we show that s-LOTUS inhibits NgR1-mediated signaling by inhibiting the molecular interaction between NgR1 and its co-receptor p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). In contrast to the membrane-bound form of LOTUS, s-LOTUS did not block ligand binding to NgR1. However, we identified p75NTR as a novel LOTUS binding partner, and found that s-LOTUS suppressed the interaction between p75NTR and NgR1. s-LOTUS inhibited myelin-associated inhibitor (MAI)-induced RhoA activation in murine cortical neurons. Functional analyses revealed that s-LOTUS inhibited MAI-induced growth cone collapse and neurite outgrowth inhibition in chick DRG neurons. In addition, while olfactory bulb (OB) neurons of lotus-KO mice are sensitive to MAI due to a lack of LOTUS expression, treatment with s-LOTUS inhibited MAI-induced growth cone collapse in these neurons. Finally, we observed that s-LOTUS promoted axonal regeneration in optic nerve crush injury of mice (either sex). These findings suggest that s-LOTUS inhibits NgR1-mediated signaling possibly by interfering with the interaction between NgR1 and p75NTR Thus, s-LOTUS may have potential as a therapeutic agent for neuronal regeneration in the damaged CNS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTNogo receptor type 1 (NgR1) is a well-known receptor to inhibit neuronal regeneration in the CNS. Because the membrane-bound form of LOTUS antagonizes NgR1 through a cis-type molecular interaction between LOTUS and NgR1, the soluble form of LOTUS (s-LOTUS) is expected to be a therapeutic agent for neuronal regeneration. In our present study, we show that s-LOTUS inhibits the interaction between NgR1 and p75NTR, NgR1 ligand-induced RhoA activation, growth cone collapse and neurite outgrowth inhibition, and promotes axonal regeneration. Our results indicate that s-LOTUS inhibits NgR1-mediated signaling through a trans-type molecular interaction between LOTUS and NgR1, and therefore, s-LOTUS may have therapeutic potential for neuronal regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM083204(United States)

Dissecting the Causal Mechanism of X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism by Integrating Genome and Transcriptome Assembly.

  • Aneichyk T
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) is a Mendelian neurodegenerative disease that is endemic to the Philippines and is associated with a founder haplotype. We integrated multiple genome and transcriptome assembly technologies to narrow the causal mutation to the TAF1 locus, which included a SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) retrotransposition into intron 32 of the gene. Transcriptome analyses identified decreased expression of the canonical cTAF1 transcript among XDP probands, and de novo assembly across multiple pluripotent stem-cell-derived neuronal lineages discovered aberrant TAF1 transcription that involved alternative splicing and intron retention (IR) in proximity to the SVA that was anti-correlated with overall TAF1 expression. CRISPR/Cas9 excision of the SVA rescued this XDP-specific transcriptional signature and normalized TAF1 expression in probands. These data suggest an SVA-mediated aberrant transcriptional mechanism associated with XDP and may provide a roadmap for layered technologies and integrated assembly-based analyses for other unsolved Mendelian disorders.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0601618(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS102423()

High-Density Proximity Mapping Reveals the Subcellular Organization of mRNA-Associated Granules and Bodies.

  • Youn JY
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

mRNA processing, transport, translation, and ultimately degradation involve a series of dedicated protein complexes that often assemble into large membraneless structures such as stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs). Here, systematic in vivo proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) analysis of 119 human proteins associated with different aspects of mRNA biology uncovers 7424 unique proximity interactions with 1,792 proteins. Classical bait-prey analysis reveals connections of hundreds of proteins to distinct mRNA-associated processes or complexes, including the splicing and transcriptional elongation machineries (protein phosphatase 4) and the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex (CEP85, RNF219, and KIAA0355). Analysis of correlated patterns between endogenous preys uncovers the spatial organization of RNA regulatory structures and enables the definition of 144 core components of SGs and PBs. We report preexisting contacts between most core SG proteins under normal growth conditions and demonstrate that several core SG proteins (UBAP2L, CSDE1, and PRRC2C) are critical for the formation of microscopically visible SGs.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK071041(United States)

Targeting the Senescence-Overriding Cooperative Activity of Structurally Unrelated H3K9 Demethylases in Melanoma.

  • Yu Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oncogene-induced senescence, e.g., in melanocytic nevi, terminates the expansion of pre-malignant cells via transcriptional silencing of proliferation-related genes due to decoration of their promoters with repressive trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) marks. We show here that structurally distinct H3K9-active demethylases-the lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) and several Jumonji C domain-containing moieties (such as JMJD2C)-disable senescence and permit Ras/Braf-evoked transformation. In mouse and zebrafish models, enforced LSD1 or JMJD2C expression promoted Braf-V600E-driven melanomagenesis. A large subset of established melanoma cell lines and primary human melanoma samples presented with a collective upregulation of related and unrelated H3K9 demethylase activities, whose targeted inhibition restored senescence, even in Braf inhibitor-resistant melanomas, evoked secondary immune effects and controlled tumor growth in vivo.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - MC_U120085811()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z99 CA999999(United States)
  • Medical Research Council - R01 CA103846()

Establishment of DNA-DNA Interactions by the Cohesin Ring.

  • Murayama Y
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ring-shaped structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are multi-subunit ATPases that topologically encircle DNA. SMC rings make vital contributions to numerous chromosomal functions, including mitotic chromosome condensation, sister chromatid cohesion, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. They are thought to do so by establishing interactions between more than one DNA. Here, we demonstrate DNA-DNA tethering by the purified fission yeast cohesin complex. DNA-bound cohesin efficiently and topologically captures a second DNA, but only if that is single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Like initial double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) embrace, second ssDNA capture is ATP-dependent, and it strictly requires the cohesin loader complex. Second-ssDNA capture is relatively labile but is converted into stable dsDNA-dsDNA cohesion through DNA synthesis. Our study illustrates second-DNA capture by an SMC complex and provides a molecular model for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM069900(United States)

Inhibition of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium (Kir) 4.1 Channels Facilitates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in Astrocytes.

  • Kinboshi M
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2018 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) 4.1 channels in astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability by mediating spatial potassium buffering. Although dysfunction of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels is implicated in the development of epileptic seizures, the functional mechanisms of Kir4.1 channels in modulating epileptogenesis remain unknown. We herein evaluated the effects of Kir4.1 inhibition (blockade and knockdown) on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key modulator of epileptogenesis, in the primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. For blockade of Kir4.1 channels, we tested several antidepressant agents which reportedly bound to and blocked Kir4.1 channels in a subunit-specific manner. Treatment of astrocytes with fluoxetine enhanced BDNF mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the BDNF protein level. Other antidepressants (e.g., sertraline and imipramine) also increased the expression of BDNF mRNA with relative potencies similar to those for inhibition of Kir4.1 channels. In addition, suppression of Kir4.1 expression by the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Kir4.1 significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF. The BDNF induction by Kir4.1 siRNA transfection was suppressed by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. The present results demonstrated that inhibition of Kir4.1 channels facilitates BDNF expression in astrocytes primarily by activating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which may be linked to the development of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS021072(United States)

An Antimicrobial Peptide and Its Neuronal Receptor Regulate Dendrite Degeneration in Aging and Infection.

  • E L
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Infections have been identified as possible risk factors for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, but it remains unclear whether infection-related immune molecules have a causative role in neurodegeneration during aging. Here, we reveal an unexpected role of an epidermally expressed antimicrobial peptide, NLP-29 (neuropeptide-like protein 29), in triggering aging-associated dendrite degeneration in C. elegans. The age-dependent increase of nlp-29 expression is regulated by the epidermal tir-1/SARM-pmk-1/p38 MAPK innate immunity pathway. We further identify an orphan G protein-coupled receptor NPR-12 (neuropeptide receptor 12) acting in neurons as a receptor for NLP-29 and demonstrate that the autophagic machinery is involved cell autonomously downstream of NPR-12 to transduce degeneration signals. Finally, we show that fungal infections cause dendrite degeneration using a similar mechanism as in aging, through NLP-29, NPR-12, and autophagy. Our findings reveal an important causative role of antimicrobial peptides, their neuronal receptors, and the autophagy pathway in aging- and infection-associated dendrite degeneration.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U137973817(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA031833()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014423()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM054657()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007240()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K99 NS076646()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R00 NS076646()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094171()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS096352()

Topoisomerase 3α Is Required for Decatenation and Segregation of Human mtDNA.

  • Nicholls TJ
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

How mtDNA replication is terminated and the newly formed genomes are separated remain unknown. We here demonstrate that the mitochondrial isoform of topoisomerase 3α (Top3α) fulfills this function, acting independently of its nuclear role as a component of the Holliday junction-resolving BLM-Top3α-RMI1-RMI2 (BTR) complex. Our data indicate that mtDNA replication termination occurs via a hemicatenane formed at the origin of H-strand replication and that Top3α is essential for resolving this structure. Decatenation is a prerequisite for separation of the segregating unit of mtDNA, the nucleoid, within the mitochondrial network. The importance of this process is highlighted in a patient with mitochondrial disease caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in TOP3A, characterized by muscle-restricted mtDNA deletions and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) plus syndrome. Our work establishes Top3α as an essential component of the mtDNA replication machinery and as the first component of the mtDNA separation machinery.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U54 AI081680(United States)

Lessons in PROTAC Design from Selective Degradation with a Promiscuous Warhead.

  • Bondeson DP
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibiting protein function selectively is a major goal of modern drug discovery. Here, we report a previously understudied benefit of small molecule proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) that recruit E3 ubiquitin ligases to target proteins for their ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Using promiscuous CRBN- and VHL-recruiting PROTACs that bind >50 kinases, we show that only a subset of bound targets is degraded. The basis of this selectivity relies on protein-protein interactions between the E3 ubiquitin ligase and the target protein, as illustrated by engaged proteins that are not degraded as a result of unstable ternary complexes with PROTAC-recruited E3 ligases. In contrast, weak PROTAC:target protein affinity can be stabilized by high-affinity target:PROTAC:ligase trimer interactions, leading to efficient degradation. This study highlights design guidelines for generating potent PROTACs as well as possibilities for degrading undruggable proteins immune to traditional small-molecule inhibitors.

Therapeutic Antibody Targeting Tumor- and Osteoblastic Niche-Derived Jagged1 Sensitizes Bone Metastasis to Chemotherapy.

  • Zheng H
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone metastasis is a major health threat to breast cancer patients. Tumor-derived Jagged1 represents a central node in mediating tumor-stromal interactions that promote osteolytic bone metastasis. Here, we report the development of a highly effective fully human monoclonal antibody against Jagged1 (clone 15D11). In addition to its inhibitory effect on bone metastasis of Jagged1-expressing tumor cells, 15D11 dramatically sensitizes bone metastasis to chemotherapy, which induces Jagged1 expression in osteoblasts to provide a survival niche for cancer cells. We further confirm the bone metastasis-promoting function of osteoblast-derived Jagged1 using osteoblast-specific Jagged1 transgenic mouse model. These findings establish 15D11 as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of bone metastasis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA072720()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA134519()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA141062()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA212410()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R29 GM053989(United States)

Smc3 Deacetylation by Hos1 Facilitates Efficient Dissolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion during Early Anaphase.

  • Li S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cohesins establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase and are removed when cohesin Scc1 is cleaved by separase at anaphase onset. During this process, cohesin Smc3 undergoes a cycle of acetylation: Smc3 acetylation by Eco1 in S phase stabilizes cohesin association with chromosomes, and its deacetylation by Hos1 in anaphase allows re-use of Smc3 in the next cell cycle. Here we find that Smc3 deacetylation by Hos1 has a more immediate effect in the early anaphase of budding yeast. Hos1 depletion significantly delayed sister chromatid separation and segregation. Smc3 deacetylation facilitated removal of cohesins from chromosomes without changing Scc1 cleavage efficiency, promoting dissolution of cohesion. This action is probably due to disengagement of Smc1-Smc3 heads prompted by de-repression of their ATPase activity. We suggest Scc1 cleavage per se is insufficient for efficient dissolution of cohesion in early anaphase; subsequent Smc3 deacetylation, triggered by Scc1 cleavage, is also required.

11β-HSD2 SUMOylation Modulates Cortisol-Induced Mineralocorticoid Receptor Nuclear Translocation Independently of Effects on Transactivation.

  • Jiménez-Canino R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) has an essential role in aldosterone target tissues, conferring aldosterone selectivity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by converting 11β-hydroxyglucocorticoids to inactive 11-ketosteroids. Congenital deficiency of 11β-HSD2 causes a form of salt-sensitive hypertension known as the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. The disease phenotype, which ranges from mild to severe, correlates well with reduction in enzyme activity. Furthermore, polymorphisms in the 11β-HSD2 coding gene (HSD11B2) have been linked to high blood pressure and salt sensitivity, major cardiovascular risk factors. 11β-HSD2 expression is controlled by different factors such as cytokines, sex steroids, or vasopressin, but posttranslational modulation of its activity has not been explored. Analysis of 11β-HSD2 sequence revealed a consensus site for conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) peptide, a major posttranslational regulatory event in several cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that 11β-HSD2 is SUMOylated at lysine 266. Non-SUMOylatable mutant K266R showed slightly higher substrate affinity and decreased Vmax, but no effects on protein stability or subcellular localization. Despite mild changes in enzyme activity, mutant K266R was unable to prevent cortisol-dependent MR nuclear translocation. The same effect was achieved by coexpression of wild-type 11β-HSD2 with sentrin-specific protease 1, a protease that catalyzes SUMO deconjugation. In the presence of 11β-HSD2-K266R, increased nuclear MR localization did not correlate with increased response to cortisol or increased recruitment of transcriptional coregulators. Taken together, our data suggests that SUMOylation of 11β-HSD2 at residue K266 modulates cortisol-mediated MR nuclear translocation independently of effects on transactivation.

Late rDNA Condensation Ensures Timely Cdc14 Release and Coordination of Mitotic Exit Signaling with Nucleolar Segregation.

  • de Los Santos-Velázquez AI
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nucleolus plays a pivotal role in multiple key cellular processes. An illustrative example is the regulation of mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the nucleolar sequestration of the Cdc14 phosphatase. The peculiar structure of the nucleolus, however, has also its drawbacks. The repetitive nature of the rDNA gives rise to cohesion-independent linkages whose resolution in budding yeast requires the Cdc14-dependent inhibition of rRNA transcription, which facilitates condensin accessibility to this locus. Thus, the rDNA condenses and segregates later than most other yeast genomic regions. Here, we show that defective function of a small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP) assembly factor facilitates condensin accessibility to the rDNA and induces nucleolar hyper-condensation. Interestingly, this increased compaction of the nucleolus interferes with the proper release of Cdc14 from this organelle. This observation provides an explanation for the delayed rDNA condensation in budding yeast, which is necessary to efficiently coordinate timely Cdc14 release and mitotic exit with nucleolar compaction and segregation.

Organelle Specific O-Glycosylation Drives MMP14 Activation, Tumor Growth, and Metastasis.

  • Nguyen AT
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancers grow within tissues through molecular mechanisms still unclear. Invasiveness correlates with perturbed O-glycosylation, a covalent modification of cell-surface proteins. Here, we show that, in human and mouse liver cancers, initiation of O-glycosylation by the GALNT glycosyl-transferases increases and shifts from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In a mouse liver cancer model, expressing an ER-targeted GALNT1 (ER-G1) massively increased tumor expansion, with median survival reduced from 23 to 10 weeks. In vitro cell growth was unaffected, but ER-G1 strongly enabled matrix degradation and tissue invasion. Unlike its Golgi-localized counterpart, ER-G1 glycosylates the matrix metalloproteinase MMP14, a process required for tumor expansion. Together, our results indicate that GALNTs strongly promote liver tumor growth after relocating to the ER.

Ubiquitin Linkage-Specific Affimers Reveal Insights into K6-Linked Ubiquitin Signaling.

  • Michel MA
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several ubiquitin chain types have remained unstudied, mainly because tools and techniques to detect these posttranslational modifications are scarce. Linkage-specific antibodies have shaped our understanding of the roles and dynamics of polyubiquitin signals but are available for only five out of eight linkage types. We here characterize K6- and K33-linkage-specific "affimer" reagents as high-affinity ubiquitin interactors. Crystal structures of affimers bound to their cognate chain types reveal mechanisms of specificity and a K11 cross-reactivity in the K33 affimer. Structure-guided improvements yield superior affinity reagents suitable for western blotting, confocal fluorescence microscopy and pull-down applications. This allowed us to identify RNF144A and RNF144B as E3 ligases that assemble K6-, K11-, and K48-linked polyubiquitin in vitro. A protocol to enrich K6-ubiquitinated proteins from cells identifies HUWE1 as a main E3 ligase for this chain type, and we show that mitofusin-2 is modified with K6-linked polyubiquitin in a HUWE1-dependent manner.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 309756()

Firing of Replication Origins Frees Dbf4-Cdc7 to Target Eco1 for Destruction.

  • Seoane AI
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Robust progression through the cell-division cycle depends on the precisely ordered phosphorylation of hundreds of different proteins by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other kinases. The order of CDK substrate phosphorylation depends on rising CDK activity, coupled with variations in substrate affinities for different CDK-cyclin complexes and the opposing phosphatases [1-4]. Here, we address the ordering of substrate phosphorylation by a second major cell-cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 or Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK). The primary function of DDK is to initiate DNA replication by phosphorylating the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase [5-7]. DDK also phosphorylates the cohesin acetyltransferase Eco1 [8]. Sequential phosphorylations of Eco1 by CDK, DDK, and Mck1 create a phosphodegron that is recognized by the ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4. DDK, despite being activated in early S phase, does not phosphorylate Eco1 to trigger its degradation until late S phase [8]. DDK associates with docking sites on loaded Mcm double hexamers at unfired replication origins [9, 10]. We hypothesized that these docking interactions sequester limiting amounts of DDK, delaying Eco1 phosphorylation by DDK until replication is complete. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that overproduction of DDK leads to premature Eco1 degradation. Eco1 degradation also occurs prematurely if Mcm complex loading at origins is prevented by depletion of Cdc6, and Eco1 is stabilized if loaded Mcm complexes are prevented from firing by a Cdc45 mutant. We propose that the timing of Eco1 phosphorylation, and potentially that of other DDK substrates, is determined in part by sequestration of DDK at unfired replication origins during S phase.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118053()

CRISPR-Mediated Base Editing Enables Efficient Disruption of Eukaryotic Genes through Induction of STOP Codons.

  • Billon P
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Standard CRISPR-mediated gene disruption strategies rely on Cas9-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that CRISPR-dependent base editing efficiently inactivates genes by precisely converting four codons (CAA, CAG, CGA, and TGG) into STOP codons without DSB formation. To facilitate gene inactivation by induction of STOP codons (iSTOP), we provide access to a database of over 3.4 million single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for iSTOP (sgSTOPs) targeting 97%-99% of genes in eight eukaryotic species, and we describe a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that allows the rapid detection of iSTOP-mediated editing in cell populations and clones. To simplify the selection of sgSTOPs, our resource includes annotations for off-target propensity, percentage of isoforms targeted, prediction of nonsense-mediated decay, and restriction enzymes for RFLP analysis. Additionally, our database includes sgSTOPs that could be employed to precisely model over 32,000 cancer-associated nonsense mutations. Altogether, this work provides a comprehensive resource for DSB-free gene disruption by iSTOP.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA197774()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009503()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM117064()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118180()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008798()

GCL and CUL3 Control the Switch between Cell Lineages by Mediating Localized Degradation of an RTK.

  • Pae J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The separation of germline from somatic lineages is fundamental to reproduction and species preservation. Here, we show that Drosophila Germ cell-less (GCL) is a critical component in this process by acting as a switch that turns off a somatic lineage pathway. GCL, a conserved BTB (Broad-complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac) protein, is a substrate-specific adaptor for Cullin3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3GCL). We show that CRL3GCL promotes PGC fate by mediating degradation of Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and major determinant of somatic cell fate. This mode of RTK degradation does not depend upon receptor activation but is prompted by release of GCL from the nuclear envelope during mitosis. The cell-cycle-dependent change in GCL localization provides spatiotemporal specificity for RTK degradation and sequesters CRL3GCL to prevent it from participating in excessive activities. This precisely orchestrated mechanism of CRL3GCL function and regulation defines cell fate at the single-cell level.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R37 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA160002()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD041900()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R37 HD041900()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM057587()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

Amplification of F-Actin Disassembly and Cellular Repulsion by Growth Factor Signaling.

  • Yoon J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extracellular cues that regulate cellular shape, motility, and navigation are generally classified as growth promoting (i.e., growth factors/chemoattractants and attractive guidance cues) or growth preventing (i.e., repellents and inhibitors). Yet, these designations are often based on complex assays and undefined signaling pathways and thus may misrepresent direct roles of specific cues. Here, we find that a recognized growth-promoting signaling pathway amplifies the F-actin disassembly and repulsive effects of a growth-preventing pathway. Focusing on Semaphorin/Plexin repulsion, we identified an interaction between the F-actin-disassembly enzyme Mical and the Abl tyrosine kinase. Biochemical assays revealed Abl phosphorylates Mical to directly amplify Mical Redox-mediated F-actin disassembly. Genetic assays revealed that Abl allows growth factors and Semaphorin/Plexin repellents to combinatorially increase Mical-mediated F-actin disassembly, cellular remodeling, and repulsive axon guidance. Similar roles for Mical in growth factor/Abl-related cancer cell behaviors further revealed contexts in which characterized positive effectors of growth/guidance stimulate such negative cellular effects as F-actin disassembly/repulsion.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085923()

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

The Mammalian Malonyl-CoA Synthetase ACSF3 Is Required for Mitochondrial Protein Malonylation and Metabolic Efficiency.

  • Bowman CE
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) is a central metabolite in mammalian fatty acid biochemistry generated and utilized in the cytoplasm; however, little is known about noncanonical organelle-specific malonyl-CoA metabolism. Intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA is generated by a malonyl-CoA synthetase, ACSF3, which produces malonyl-CoA from malonate, an endogenous competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. To determine the metabolic requirement for mitochondrial malonyl-CoA, ACSF3 knockout (KO) cells were generated by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing. ACSF3 KO cells exhibited elevated malonate and impaired mitochondrial metabolism. Unbiased and targeted metabolomics analysis of KO and control cells in the presence or absence of exogenous malonate revealed metabolic changes dependent on either malonate or malonyl-CoA. While ACSF3 was required for the metabolism and therefore detoxification of malonate, ACSF3-derived malonyl-CoA was specifically required for lysine malonylation of mitochondrial proteins. Together, these data describe an essential role for ACSF3 in dictating the metabolic fate of mitochondrial malonate and malonyl-CoA in mammalian metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL108882()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072241()

Histone Deacetylase 6-Controlled Hsp90 Acetylation Significantly Alters Mineralocorticoid Receptor Subcellular Dynamics But Not its Transcriptional Activity.

  • Jiménez-Canino R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that transduces the biological effects of corticosteroids. Its best-characterized role is to enhance transepithelial sodium reabsorption in response to increased aldosterone levels. In addition, MR participates in other aldosterone- or glucocorticoid-controlled processes such as cardiovascular homeostasis, adipocyte differentiation or neurogenesis, and regulation of neuronal activity in the hippocampus. Like other steroid receptors, MR forms cytosolic heterocomplexes with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90), Hsp70, and other proteins such as immunophilins. Interaction with Hsp90 is thought to maintain MR in a ligand-binding competent conformation and to regulate ligand-dependent and -independent nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling. It has previously been shown that acetylation of residue K295 in Hsp90 regulates its interaction with the androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In this work we hypothesized that Hsp90 acetylation provides a regulatory step to modulate MR cellular dynamics and activity. We used Hsp90 acetylation mimic mutant K295Q or nonacetylatable mutant K295R to examine whether MR nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling and gene transactivation are affected. Furthermore, we manipulated endogenous Hsp90 acetylation levels by controlling expression or activity of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), the enzyme responsible for deacetylation of Hsp90-K295. Our data demonstrates that HDAC6-mediated Hsp90 acetylation regulates MR cellular dynamics but it does not alter its function. This stands in contrast with the down-regulation of GR by HDAC6, suggesting that Hsp90 acetylation may play a role in balancing relative MR and GR activity when both factors are co-expressed in the same cell.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - U1051178808(United Kingdom)

Structural Basis for Mitotic Centrosome Assembly in Flies.

  • Feng Z
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In flies, Centrosomin (Cnn) forms a phosphorylation-dependent scaffold that recruits proteins to the mitotic centrosome, but how Cnn assembles into a scaffold is unclear. We show that scaffold assembly requires conserved leucine zipper (LZ) and Cnn-motif 2 (CM2) domains that co-assemble into a 2:2 complex in vitro. We solve the crystal structure of the LZ:CM2 complex, revealing that both proteins form helical dimers that assemble into an unusual tetramer. A slightly longer version of the LZ can form micron-scale structures with CM2, whose assembly is stimulated by Plk1 phosphorylation in vitro. Mutating individual residues that perturb LZ:CM2 tetramer assembly perturbs the formation of these micron-scale assemblies in vitro and Cnn-scaffold assembly in vivo. Thus, Cnn molecules have an intrinsic ability to form large, LZ:CM2-interaction-dependent assemblies that are critical for mitotic centrosome assembly. These studies provide the first atomic insight into a molecular interaction required for mitotic centrosome assembly.

EDEM Function in ERAD Protects against Chronic ER Proteinopathy and Age-Related Physiological Decline in Drosophila.

  • Sekiya M
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model. ERAD activity in the brain decreased with aging, and upregulation of EDEMs suppressed age-dependent behavioral decline and extended the lifespan without affecting the UPR gene expression network. Intriguingly, EDEM mannosidase activity was dispensable for these protective effects. Therefore, upregulation of EDEM function in the ERAD protects against ER proteinopathy in vivo and thus represents a potential therapeutic target for chronic diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG032279()
  • NIA NIH HHS - U01 AG046170()

Releasing Syntaphilin Removes Stressed Mitochondria from Axons Independent of Mitophagy under Pathophysiological Conditions.

  • Lin MY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic mitochondrial stress is a central problem associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. Here we investigate axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked neurons. We show that stressed mitochondria are removed from axons triggered by the bulk release of mitochondrial anchoring protein syntaphilin via a new class of mitochondria-derived cargos independent of Parkin, Drp1, and autophagy. Immuno-electron microscopy and super-resolution imaging show the budding of syntaphilin cargos, which then share a ride on late endosomes for transport toward the soma. Releasing syntaphilin is also activated in the early pathological stages of ALS- and AD-linked mutant neurons. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance of axonal mitochondrial quality through SNPH-mediated coordination of mitochondrial stress and motility before activation of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 NS002946-12()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946-20()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029-10()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089737()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029()

An Essential Role for SHARPIN in the Regulation of Caspase 1 Activity in Sepsis.

  • Nastase MV
  • Am. J. Pathol.
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sepsis is burdened by high mortality due to uncontrolled inflammatory response to pathogens. Increased caspase 1 activation causing maturation of IL1β/18 remains a therapeutic challenge in sepsis. SHARPIN (shank-associated regulator of G-protein signaling homology domain-interacting protein), a component of the LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain-assembly complex), regulates inflammation, with unknown effects on caspase 1 activation. Mice lacking Casp1, Casp11, or both in a Sharpin-deficient background were generated, exposed to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, and injected with caspase 1 inhibitor. We monitored survival, Il1β/18, and caspase 1/11 levels in plasma and organs and deciphered mechanisms of SHARPIN-dependent caspase 1 inhibition. A correlation between LUBAC and active caspase 1 was found in blood mononuclear cells from septic patients. SHARPIN bound caspase 1 and disrupted p20/p10 dimer formation, the last step of caspase 1 processing, thereby inhibiting enzyme activation and maturation of IL1β/18 in a LUBAC-independent manner. In septic patients, LUBAC-independent decline in SHARPIN correlated with enhancement of active caspase 1 in circulating mononuclear cells. Septic Sharpin-deficient mice displayed enrichment in mature Il1β/18 and active caspase 1, and shortened survival. Inhibition of caspase 1 reduced levels of Il1β/18 and splenic cell death, and prolonged survival in septic Sharpin-deficient mice. Our findings identify SHARPIN as a potent in vivo caspase 1 inhibitor and propose the caspase 1-SHARPIN interaction as a target in sepsis.

The RNF168 paralog RNF169 defines a new class of ubiquitylated histone reader involved in the response to DNA damage.

  • Kitevski-LeBlanc J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Site-specific histone ubiquitylation plays a central role in orchestrating the response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs elicit a cascade of events controlled by the ubiquitin ligase RNF168, which promotes the accumulation of repair factors such as 53BP1 and BRCA1 on the chromatin flanking the break site. RNF168 also promotes its own accumulation, and that of its paralog RNF169, but how they recognize ubiquitylated chromatin is unknown. Using methyl-TROSY solution NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, we present an atomic resolution model of human RNF169 binding to a ubiquitylated nucleosome, and validate it by electron cryomicroscopy. We establish that RNF169 binds to ubiquitylated H2A-Lys13/Lys15 in a manner that involves its canonical ubiquitin-binding helix and a pair of arginine-rich motifs that interact with the nucleosome acidic patch. This three-pronged interaction mechanism is distinct from that by which 53BP1 binds to ubiquitylated H2A-Lys15 highlighting the diversity in site-specific recognition of ubiquitylated nucleosomes.

Systematic Analysis of Human Protein Phosphatase Interactions and Dynamics.

  • Yadav L
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Coordinated activities of protein kinases and phosphatases ensure phosphorylation homeostasis, which, when perturbed, can instigate diseases, including cancer. Yet, in contrast to kinases, much less is known about protein phosphatase functions and their interactions and complexes. Here, we used quantitative affinity proteomics to assay protein-protein interactions for 54 phosphatases distributed across the three major protein phosphatase families, with additional analysis of their 12 co-factors. We identified 838 high-confidence interactions, of which 631, to our knowledge, have not been reported before. We show that inhibiting the activity of phosphatases PP1 and PP2A by okadaic acid disrupts their specific interactions, supporting the potential of therapeutics that target these proteins. Additional analyses revealed candidate physical and functional interaction links to phosphatase-based regulation of several signaling pathways and to human cancer. Our study provides an initial glimpse of the protein interaction landscape of phosphatases and their functions in cellular regulation.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH080420-05(United States)

The Drosophila speciation factor HMR localizes to genomic insulator sites.

  • Gerland TA
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups. One group belongs to gypsy insulators and another one borders HP1a bound regions at active genes. The transcription of the latter group genes is strongly affected in larvae and ovaries of Hmr mutant flies. Our data suggest a novel link between HMR and insulator proteins, a finding that implicates a potential role for genome organization in the formation of species.

Low level of PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1) predicts poor clinical outcome in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  • Zheng J
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2017 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal neoplasm of the urologic system. Clinical therapeutic effect varies greatly between individual ccRCC patients, so there is an urgent need to develop prognostic molecular biomarkers to help clinicians identify patients in need of early aggressive management. In this study, samples from primary ccRCC tumor and their corresponding nontumor adjacent tissues (n=18) were analyzed by quantitative proteomic assay. Proteins downregulated in tumors were studied by GO and KEGG pathways enrichment analyses. Six proteins were found both downregulated and annotated with cell proliferation in ccRCC patients. Of these proteins, PDZK1 and FABP1 were also involved in the lipid metabolism pathway. The downregulation of PDZK1 was further validated in TCGA_KIRC dataset (n=532) and independent set (n=202). PDZK1 could discriminate recurrence, metastasis and prognosis between ccRCC patients. Low level of PDZK1 in both mRNA and protein was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in two independent sets. In univariate and multivariate analyses, PDZK1 was defined as an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS. These findings indicated that low level of PDZK1 could predict poor clinical outcome in patients with ccRCC.

KCTD Hetero-oligomers Confer Unique Kinetic Properties on Hippocampal GABAB Receptor-Induced K+ Currents.

  • Fritzius T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA. GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, KCTD12, KCTD12b, and KCTD16 subunits (named after their T1 K+-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12. We show that the KCTD proteins hetero-oligomerize through self-interacting T1 and H1 homology domains. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in live cells reveal that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers associate with both the receptor and the G-protein. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties on G-protein-activated Kir3 currents. During prolonged receptor activation (one min) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce moderately desensitizing fast deactivating K+ currents, whereas KCTD12 and KCTD16 homo-oligomers produce strongly desensitizing fast deactivating currents and nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents, respectively. During short activation (2 s) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal neurons of KCTD knock-out mice are consistent with these findings and indicate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers increase the duration of slow IPSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that simultaneous assembly of distinct KCTDs at the receptor increases the molecular and functional repertoire of native GABAB receptors and modulates physiologically induced K+ current responses in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The KCTD proteins 8, 12, and 16 are auxiliary subunits of GABAB receptors that differentially regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. The KCTD proteins are generally assumed to function as homo-oligomers. Here we show that the KCTD proteins also assemble hetero-oligomers in all possible dual combinations. Experiments in live cells demonstrate that KCTD hetero-oligomers form at least tetramers and that these tetramers directly interact with the receptor and the G-protein. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties to GABAB receptor-induced Kir3 currents in heterologous cells. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers are abundant in the hippocampus, where they prolong the duration of slow IPSCs in pyramidal cells. Our data therefore support that KCTD hetero-oligomers modulate physiologically induced K+ current responses in the brain.

Klf5 regulates muscle differentiation by directly targeting muscle-specific genes in cooperation with MyoD in mice.

  • Hayashi S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls various biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that Klf5 is also an essential mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation. During muscle regeneration after injury (cardiotoxin injection), Klf5 was induced in the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts and newly formed myofibers expressing myogenin in vivo. Satellite cell-specific Klf5 deletion severely impaired muscle regeneration, and myotube formation was suppressed in Klf5-deleted cultured C2C12 myoblasts and satellite cells. Klf5 knockdown suppressed induction of muscle differentiation-related genes, including myogenin. Klf5 ChIP-seq revealed that Klf5 binding overlaps that of MyoD and Mef2, and Klf5 physically associates with both MyoD and Mef2. In addition, MyoD recruitment was greatly reduced in the absence of Klf5. These results indicate that Klf5 is an essential regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, acting in concert with myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD and Mef2.

Endocrine Response Phenotypes Are Altered by Charcoal-Stripped Serum Variability.

  • Sikora MJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Oct 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Charcoal-stripped bovine serum (CSS) is a critical reagent in the study of steroid hormones. However, CSS has high lot-to-lot variability, including residual growth factor and steroid hormone content. Assessing and reporting this variability is challenging but may affect experimental outcomes and data reproducibility. We hypothesized that CSS lot variability would affect endocrine response phenotypes in breast cancer cells, and we tested the effects of five individual CSS lots on endocrine response in MCF-7 and MDA MB 134VI (MM134) cells. Based on the effects of antiestrogens on MCF-7 cell proliferation, we defined CSS lots as having complete vs partial hormone deprivation. In partial deprivation CSS, the absolute effects of residual estrogens on cell proliferation were modest, but these effects masked the partial agonist activity of 4-hydroxytamoxifen in MM134 cells. Importantly, this effectively reversed the interpretation of tamoxifen-resistance in MM134 cells. Variable effects of CSS lots on endocrine resistance phenotypes were also observed in MCF-7 cells. In this context, we observed that partial vs complete deprivation CSS allowed for the development of unique early endocrine resistance phenotypes that correlated with the presence or absence of residual estrogenic hormones. We evaluated the methods of CSS preparation and identified factors contributing to the extent of hormone deprivation. Our observations suggest that CSS lot-to-lot variability has substantial effects on endocrine response phenotypes and that this ubiquitous factor in study methodology may confound reproducibility. Renewed vigilance in testing and reporting CSS phenotypes will greatly aid in interpreting and reproducing endocrine response and resistance data by the community.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA129825(United States)

Nuclear pore assembly proceeds by an inside-out extrusion of the nuclear envelope.

  • Otsuka S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear envelope. How the NPC assembles into this double membrane boundary has remained enigmatic. Here, we captured temporally staged assembly intermediates by correlating live cell imaging with high-resolution electron tomography and super-resolution microscopy. Intermediates were dome-shaped evaginations of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), that grew in diameter and depth until they fused with the flat outer nuclear membrane. Live and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy revealed the molecular maturation of the intermediates, which initially contained the nuclear and cytoplasmic ring component Nup107, and only later the cytoplasmic filament component Nup358. EM particle averaging showed that the evagination base was surrounded by an 8-fold rotationally symmetric ring structure from the beginning and that a growing mushroom-shaped density was continuously associated with the deforming membrane. Quantitative structural analysis revealed that interphase NPC assembly proceeds by an asymmetric inside-out extrusion of the INM.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS051255(United States)

Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes.

  • Pylypenko O
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01DC009236(United States)

Immunotherapy With the PreS-based Grass Pollen Allergy Vaccine BM32 Induces Antibody Responses Protecting Against Hepatitis B Infection.

  • Cornelius C
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2016 Sep 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: We have constructed and clinically evaluated a hypoallergenic vaccine for grass pollen allergy, BM32, which is based on fusion proteins consisting of peptides from the IgE binding sites of the major grass pollen allergens fused to preS (preS1+preS2), a domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) large envelope protein which mediates the viral attachment and entry. Aim of this study was the characterization of the HBV-specific immune response induced by vaccination of allergic patients with BM32 and the investigation of the vaccines' potential to protect against infection with HBV. METHODS: Hepatitis B-specific antibody and T cell responses of patients vaccinated with BM32 were studied using recombinant preS and synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the preS sequence. The specificities of the antibody responses were compared with those of patients with chronic HBV infection. Furthermore, the capacity of BM32-induced antibodies, to inhibit HBV infection was investigated using HepG2-hNTCP cell-based in vitro virus neutralization assays. FINDINGS: IgG antibodies from BM32-vaccinated but not of HBV-infected individuals recognized the sequence motif implicated in NTCP (sodium-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide)-receptor interaction of the hepatitis B virus and inhibited HBV infection. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates that the recombinant hypoallergenic grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 induces hepatitis B-specific immune responses which protect against hepatitis B virus infection in vitro.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072197(United States)

A shunt pathway limits the CaaX processing of Hsp40 Ydj1p and regulates Ydj1p-dependent phenotypes.

  • Hildebrandt ER
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The modifications occurring to CaaX proteins have largely been established using few reporter molecules (e.g. Ras, yeast a-factor mating pheromone). These proteins undergo three coordinated COOH-terminal events: isoprenylation of the cysteine, proteolytic removal of aaX, and COOH-terminal methylation. Here, we investigated the coupling of these modifications in the context of the yeast Ydj1p chaperone. We provide genetic, biochemical, and biophysical evidence that the Ydj1p CaaX motif is isoprenylated but not cleaved and carboxylmethylated. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ydj1p-dependent thermotolerance and Ydj1p localization are perturbed when alternative CaaX motifs are transplanted onto Ydj1p. The abnormal phenotypes revert to normal when post-isoprenylation events are genetically interrupted. Our findings indicate that proper Ydj1p function requires an isoprenylatable CaaX motif that is resistant to post-isoprenylation events. These results expand on the complexity of protein isoprenylation and highlight the impact of post-isoprenylation events in regulating the function of Ydj1p and perhaps other CaaX proteins.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046929(United States)

Growth hormone secretion is correlated with neuromuscular innervation rather than motor neuron number in early-symptomatic male amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

  • Steyn FJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

GH deficiency is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, therapy with GH and/or IGF-I has not shown benefit. To gain a better understanding of the role of GH secretion in ALS pathogenesis, we assessed endogenous GH secretion in wild-type and hSOD1(G93A) mice throughout the course of ALS disease. Male wild-type and hSOD1(G93A) mice were studied at the presymptomatic, onset, and end stages of disease. To assess the pathological features of disease, we measured motor neuron number and neuromuscular innervation. We report that GH secretion profile varies at different stages of disease progression in hSOD1(G93A) mice; compared with age-matched controls, GH secretion is unchanged prior to the onset of disease symptoms, elevated at the onset of disease symptoms, and reduced at the end stage of disease. In hSOD1(G93A) mice at the onset of disease, GH secretion is positively correlated with the percentage of neuromuscular innervation but not with motor neuron number. Moreover, this occurs in parallel with an elevation in the expression of muscle IGF-I relative to controls. Our data imply that increased GH secretion at symptom onset may be an endogenous endocrine response to increase the local production of muscle IGF-I to stimulate reinnervation of muscle, but that in the latter stages of disease this response no longer occurs.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 5P20GM103636(United States)

KISS1R induces invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

  • Cvetkovic D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the KISS1 metastasis-suppressor gene, are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor (KISS1R). KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and KISS1R expression in patient breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. We have shown that KP-10 stimulates invasion of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we report that either KP-10 treatment of ERα-negative nonmalignant mammary epithelial MCF10A cells or expression of KISS1R in MCF10A cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype and stimulated invasiveness. Similarly, exogenous expression of KISS1R in ERα-negative SKBR3 breast cancer cells was sufficient to trigger invasion and induced extravasation in vivo. In contrast, KP-10 failed to transactivate EGFR or stimulate invasiveness in the ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. This suggested that ERα negatively regulates KISS1R-dependent breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and EGFR transactivation. In support of this, we found that these KP-10-induced effects were ablated upon exogenous expression of ERα in the MDA-MB-231 cells, by down-regulating KISS1R expression. Lastly, we have identified IQGAP1, an actin cytoskeletal binding protein as a novel binding partner of KISS1R, and have shown that KISS1R regulates EGFR transactivation in breast cancer cells in an IQGAP1-dependent manner. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the ERα status of mammary cells dictates whether KISS1R may be a novel clinical target for treating breast cancer metastasis.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - IK2 BX002505(United States)