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Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG, Whole Ab ECL Antibody, HRP Conjugated

RRID:AB_772206

Antibody ID

AB_772206

Target Antigen

IgG rabbit

Proper Citation

(GE Healthcare Cat# NA934, RRID:AB_772206)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Catalog number was changed from NA934-1ml to NA934, July 12, 2016; record consolidated with GE Healthcare Cat# NA934-100Ul, RRID:AB_772211.

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

GE Healthcare

Cat Num

NA934 also NA934-1ml, NA934-100Ul

Publications that use this research resource

Bi-allelic Loss of CDKN2A Initiates Melanoma Invasion via BRN2 Activation.

  • Zeng H
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor is associated with melanoma metastasis, but the mechanisms connecting the phenomena are unknown. Using CRISPR-Cas9 to engineer a cellular model of melanoma initiation from primary human melanocytes, we discovered that a lineage-restricted transcription factor, BRN2, is downstream of CDKN2A and directly regulated by E2F1. In a cohort of melanocytic tumors that capture distinct progression stages, we observed that CDKN2A loss coincides with both the onset of invasive behavior and increased BRN2 expression. Loss of the CDKN2A protein product p16INK4A permitted metastatic dissemination of human melanoma lines in mice, a phenotype rescued by inhibition of BRN2. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which CDKN2A suppresses the initiation of melanoma invasion through inhibition of BRN2.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - N01-AR-1-2256(United States)

Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors.

  • Pavlyukov MS
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aggressive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM) contain intermingled apoptotic cells adjacent to proliferating tumor cells. Nonetheless, intercellular signaling between apoptotic and surviving cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that apoptotic GBM cells paradoxically promote proliferation and therapy resistance of surviving tumor cells by secreting apoptotic extracellular vesicles (apoEVs) enriched with various components of spliceosomes. apoEVs alter RNA splicing in recipient cells, thereby promoting their therapy resistance and aggressive migratory phenotype. Mechanistically, we identified RBM11 as a representative splicing factor that is upregulated in tumors after therapy and shed in extracellular vesicles upon induction of apoptosis. Once internalized in recipient cells, exogenous RBM11 switches splicing of MDM4 and Cyclin D1 toward the expression of more oncogenic isoforms.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183991()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA201402()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083767()

Cardiolipin Synthesis in Brown and Beige Fat Mitochondria Is Essential for Systemic Energy Homeostasis.

  • Sustarsic EG
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activation of energy expenditure in thermogenic fat is a promising strategy to improve metabolic health, yet the dynamic processes that evoke this response are poorly understood. Here we show that synthesis of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin is indispensable for stimulating and sustaining thermogenic fat function. Cardiolipin biosynthesis is robustly induced in brown and beige adipose upon cold exposure. Mimicking this response through overexpression of cardiolipin synthase (Crls1) enhances energy consumption in mouse and human adipocytes. Crls1 deficiency in thermogenic adipocytes diminishes inducible mitochondrial uncoupling and elicits a nuclear transcriptional response through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated retrograde communication. Cardiolipin depletion in brown and beige fat abolishes adipose thermogenesis and glucose uptake, which renders animals insulin resistant. We further identify a rare human CRLS1 variant associated with insulin resistance and show that adipose CRLS1 levels positively correlate with insulin sensitivity. Thus, adipose cardiolipin has a powerful impact on organismal energy homeostasis through thermogenic fat bioenergetics.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C480/A12328(United Kingdom)

Hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α results in insulin resistance despite sustained IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

  • Chaudhari A
  • F1000Res
  • 2018 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Background: Class IA phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) is an integral mediator of insulin signaling. The p110 catalytic and p85 regulatory subunits of PI3K are the products of separate genes, and while they come together to make the active heterodimer, they have opposing roles in insulin signaling and action. Deletion of hepatic p110α results in an impaired insulin signal and severe insulin resistance, whereas deletion of hepatic p85α results in improved insulin sensitivity due to sustained levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Here, we created mice with combined hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α (L-DKO) to study the impact on insulin signaling and whole body glucose homeostasis. Methods: Six-week old male flox control and L-DKO mice were studied over a period of 18 weeks, during which weight and glucose levels were monitored, and glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance test and pyruvate tolerance test were performed. Fasting insulin, insulin signaling mediators, PI3K activity and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity were examined at 10 weeks. Liver, muscle and white adipose tissue weight was recorded at 10 weeks and 25 weeks. Results: The L-DKO mice showed a blunted insulin signal downstream of PI3K, developed markedly impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and had decreased liver and adipose tissue weights. Surprisingly, however, these mice displayed normal hepatic glucose production, normal insulin tolerance, and intact IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity without compensatory upregulated signaling of other classes of PI3K. Conclusions: The data demonstrate an unexpectedly overall mild metabolic phenotype of the L-DKO mice, suggesting that lipid kinases other than PI3Ks might partially compensate for the loss of p110α/p85α by signaling through other nodes than Akt/Protein Kinase B.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM084279(United States)

Structural Basis for Auto-Inhibition of the NDR1 Kinase Domain by an Atypically Long Activation Segment.

  • Xiong S
  • Structure
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human NDR family kinases control diverse aspects of cell growth, and are regulated through phosphorylation and association with scaffolds such as MOB1. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human NDR1 kinase domain in its non-phosphorylated state, revealing a fully resolved atypically long activation segment that blocks substrate binding and stabilizes a non-productive position of helix αC. Consistent with an auto-inhibitory function, mutations within the activation segment of NDR1 dramatically enhance in vitro kinase activity. Interestingly, NDR1 catalytic activity is further potentiated by MOB1 binding, suggesting that regulation through modulation of the activation segment and by MOB1 binding are mechanistically distinct. Lastly, deleting the auto-inhibitory activation segment of NDR1 causes a marked increase in the association with upstream Hippo pathway components and the Furry scaffold. These findings provide a point of departure for future efforts to explore the cellular functions and the mechanism of NDR1.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 1 R01 AI059492-01A1(United States)

SAD-A Promotes Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion through Phosphorylation and Inhibition of GDIα in Male Islet β-cells.

  • Nie J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDIα) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part by locking Rho GTPases in an inactive GDP-bound form. The onset of GSIS causes phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174, a critical inhibitory site for GDIα, leading to the release of Rho GTPases and their subsequent activation. However, the kinase regulator(s) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of GDIα in islet β-cells remains elusive. We propose that SAD-A, a member of AMPK-related kinases that promotes GSIS as an effector kinase for incretin signaling, interact with and inhibit GDIα through phosphorylation of Ser174 during the onset GSIS from islet β-cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and phosphorylation analyses were carried out to identify the physical interaction and phosphorylation site of GDIα by SAD-A in the context of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 β-cells and primary islets. We identified GDIα directly binds to SAD-A kinase domain and phosphorylated by SAD-A on Ser174, leading to dissociation of Rho GTPases from GDIα complexes. Accordingly, overexpression of SAD-A significantly stimulated GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174 in response to GSIS, which is dramatically potentiated by GLP-1, an incretin hormone. Conversely, SAD-A deficiency, which is mediated by shRNA transfection in INS-1 cells, significantly attenuated endogenous GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174. Consequently, co-expression of SAD-A completely prevented the inhibitory effect of GDIα on insulin secretion in islets. In summary, glucose and incretin stimulate insulin secretion through the phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174 by SAD-A which leads to the activation of Rho GTPases, culminating in insulin exocytosis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI0417351(United States)

Ca2+-Binding Protein 1 Regulates Hippocampal-dependent Memory and Synaptic Plasticity.

  • Yang T
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ca2+-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) is a Ca2+-sensing protein similar to calmodulin that potently regulates voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Unlike calmodulin, however, CaBP1 is mainly expressed in neuronal cell-types and enriched in the hippocampus, where its function is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CaBP1 in hippocampal-dependent behaviors using mice lacking expression of CaBP1 (C-KO). By western blot, the largest CaBP1 splice variant, caldendrin, was detected in hippocampal lysates from wild-type (WT) but not C-KO mice. Compared to WT mice, C-KO mice exhibited mild deficits in spatial learning and memory in both the Barnes maze and in Morris water maze reversal learning. In contextual but not cued fear-conditioning assays, C-KO mice showed greater freezing responses than WT mice. In addition, the number of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus of C-KO mice was ∼40% of that in WT mice, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Moreover, hippocampal long-term potentiation was significantly reduced in C-KO mice. We conclude that CaBP1 is required for cellular mechanisms underlying optimal encoding of hippocampal-dependent spatial and fear-related memories.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA77808(United States)

Anti-Depressant Fluoxetine Reveals its Therapeutic Effect Via Astrocytes.

  • Kinoshita M
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although psychotropic drugs act on neurons and glial cells, how glia respond, and whether glial responses are involved in therapeutic effects are poorly understood. Here, we show that fluoxetine (FLX), an anti-depressant, mediates its anti-depressive effect by increasing the gliotransmission of ATP. FLX increased ATP exocytosis via vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT). FLX-induced anti-depressive behavior was decreased in astrocyte-selective VNUT-knockout mice or when VNUT was deleted in mice, but it was increased when astrocyte-selective VNUT was overexpressed in mice. This suggests that VNUT-dependent astrocytic ATP exocytosis has a critical role in the therapeutic effect of FLX. Released ATP and its metabolite adenosine act on P2Y11 and adenosine A2b receptors expressed by astrocytes, causing an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in astrocytes. These findings suggest that in addition to neurons, FLX acts on astrocytes and mediates its therapeutic effects by increasing ATP gliotransmission.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01-HL112605(United States)

ACC2 Deletion Enhances IMCL Reduction along with Acetyl-CoA Metabolism and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Male Mice.

  • Takagi H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle greatly contributes to lipid-induced insulin resistance. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) negatively modulates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in skeletal muscle, ACC2 inhibition is expected to reduce IMCL via elevation of FAO and to attenuate insulin resistance. However, the concept of substrate competition suggests that enhanced FAO results in reduced glucose utilization because of an excessive acetyl-CoA pool in mitochondria. To identify how ACC2-regulated FAO affects IMCL accumulation and glucose metabolism, we generated ACC2 knockout (ACC2-/-) mice and investigated skeletal muscle metabolites associated with fatty acid and glucose metabolism, as well as whole-body glucose metabolism. ACC2-/- mice displayed higher capacity of glucose disposal at the whole-body levels. In skeletal muscle, ACC2-/- mice exhibited enhanced acylcarnitine formation and reduced IMCL levels without alteration in glycolytic intermediate levels. Notably, these changes were accompanied by decreased acetyl-CoA content and enhanced mitochondrial pathways related to acetyl-CoA metabolism, such as the acetylcarnitine production and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Furthermore, ACC2-/- mice exhibited lower levels of IMCL and acetyl-CoA even under HFD conditions and showed protection against HFD-induced insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that ACC2 deletion leads to IMCL reduction without suppressing glucose utilization via an elevation in acetyl-CoA metabolism even under HFD conditions and offer new mechanistic insight into the therapeutic potential of ACC2 inhibition on insulin resistance.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - KG081694(United States)

Exit from Naive Pluripotency Induces a Transient X Chromosome Inactivation-like State in Males.

  • Sousa EJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A hallmark of naive pluripotency is the presence of two active X chromosomes in females. It is not clear whether prevention of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is mediated by gene networks that preserve the naive state. Here, we show that robust naive pluripotent stem cell (nPSC) self-renewal represses expression of Xist, the master regulator of XCI. We found that nPSCs accumulate Xist on the male X chromosome and on both female X chromosomes as they become NANOG negative at the onset of differentiation. This is accompanied by the appearance of a repressive chromatin signature and partial X-linked gene silencing, suggesting a transient and rapid XCI-like state in male nPSCs. In the embryo, Xist is transiently expressed in males and in females from both X chromosomes at the onset of naive epiblast differentiation. In conclusion, we propose that XCI initiation is gender independent and triggered by destabilization of naive identity, suggesting that gender-specific mechanisms follow, rather than precede, XCI initiation.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL085036(United States)

Defects in the Alternative Splicing-Dependent Regulation of REST Cause Deafness.

  • Nakano Y
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The DNA-binding protein REST forms complexes with histone deacetylases (HDACs) to repress neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. In differentiating neurons, REST is downregulated predominantly by transcriptional silencing. Here we report that post-transcriptional inactivation of REST by alternative splicing is required for hearing in humans and mice. We show that, in the mechanosensory hair cells of the mouse ear, regulated alternative splicing of a frameshift-causing exon into the Rest mRNA is essential for the derepression of many neuronal genes. Heterozygous deletion of this alternative exon of mouse Rest causes hair cell degeneration and deafness, and the HDAC inhibitor SAHA (Vorinostat) rescues the hearing of these mice. In humans, inhibition of the frameshifting splicing event by a novel REST variant is associated with dominantly inherited deafness. Our data reveal the necessity for alternative splicing-dependent regulation of REST in hair cells, and they identify a potential treatment for a group of hereditary deafness cases.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - 5 F32 MH064339-03(United States)

Divergent Role of Estrogen-Related Receptor α in Lipid- and Fasting-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

  • B'chir W
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, identification of intrinsic molecular programs responsible for ensuring fuel homeostasis and preventing metabolic disease is needed. We investigated whether the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), a major regulator of energy metabolism, plays a role in lipid homeostasis and the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in response to chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and long-term fasting. Systemic ablation of ERRα in mice demonstrated clear beneficial effects for loss of ERRα function in protection from HFD-provoked body weight gain manifested not only from a reduction in white adipose tissue stores but also from an impediment in intrahepatic lipid accumulation. The prevention of HFD-induced NAFLD in ERRα-null mice was underscored by transcriptional repression of de novo lipogenesis, which was upregulated in wild-type mice, a known contributing factor to lipid-stimulated hepatic steatosis. Surprisingly, given these findings, ERRα deficiency had no significant impact on the degree of fasting-induced NAFLD, involving the mobilization of adipocyte triglyceride (TG) stores into the liver. However, the presence of ERRα was essential for acute refeeding-mediated reversal of fasting-induced hepatic TG accretion, underpinned by impaired downregulation of adipose TG lipolysis and reduced hepatic mitochondrial oxidative activity. Taken together, the regulation of lipid handling by ERRα depended on the nutritional state, suggesting that negative modulation of ERRα activity could be envisaged to prevent lipid-induced NAFLD, whereas inducing its activity would be useful to treat and reverse the instilled disease.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA70723(United States)

Spred1 Safeguards Hematopoietic Homeostasis against Diet-Induced Systemic Stress.

  • Tadokoro Y
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cell self-renewal is critical for tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation can lead to organ failure or tumorigenesis. While obesity can induce varied abnormalities in bone marrow components, it is unclear how diet might affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Here, we show that Spred1, a negative regulator of RAS-MAPK signaling, safeguards HSC homeostasis in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Under steady-state conditions, Spred1 negatively regulates HSC self-renewal and fitness, in part through Rho kinase activity. Spred1 deficiency mitigates HSC failure induced by infection mimetics and prolongs HSC lifespan, but it does not initiate leukemogenesis due to compensatory upregulation of Spred2. In contrast, HFD induces ERK hyperactivation and aberrant self-renewal in Spred1-deficient HSCs, resulting in functional HSC failure, severe anemia, and myeloproliferative neoplasm-like disease. HFD-induced hematopoietic abnormalities are mediated partly through alterations to the gut microbiota. Together, these findings reveal that diet-induced stress disrupts fine-tuning of Spred1-mediated signals to govern HSC homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Arthritis Research UK - 17522(United Kingdom)

Inhibition of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Suppresses Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth.

  • Kock A
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite recent progress in diagnosis and treatment, survival for children with high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma is still poor. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-driven inflammation promotes tumor growth, immune suppression, angiogenesis and resistance to established cancer therapies. In neuroblastoma, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) residing in the tumor microenvironment are the primary source of PGE2. However, clinical targeting of PGE2 with current non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or cyclooxygenase inhibitors has been limited due to risk of adverse side effects. By specifically targeting microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) activity with a small molecule inhibitor we could block CAF-derived PGE2 production leading to reduced tumor growth, impaired angiogenesis, inhibited CAF migration and infiltration, reduced tumor cell proliferation and a favorable shift in the M1/M2 macrophage ratio. In this study, we provide proof-of-principle of the benefits of targeting mPGES-1 in neuroblastoma, applicable to a wide variety of tumors. This non-toxic single drug treatment targeting infiltrating stromal cells opens up for combination treatment options with established cancer therapies.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)

Endothelial insulin receptor restoration rescues vascular function in male insulin receptor haploinsufficient mice.

  • Sengupta A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reduced systemic insulin signaling promotes endothelial dysfunction and diminished endogenous vascular repair. We asked whether restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression could rescue this phenotype. Insulin receptor haploinsufficient mice (IRKO) were crossed with mice expressing a human insulin receptor transgene in the endothelium (hIRECO), to produce IRKO-hIRECO progeny. No metabolic differences were noted between IRKO and IRKO-hIRECO in glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests. In contrast with control IRKO littermates, IRKO-hIRECO exhibited normal blood pressure and aortic vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine, comparable to parameters noted in wild-type littermates. These phenotypic changes were associated with enhanced basal- and insulin-stimulated nitric oxide production. IRKO-hIRECO also demonstrated normalized endothelial repair after denuding arterial injury, which was associated with rescued endothelial cell migration in vitro, but not with changes in circulating progenitor populations or culture-derived myeloid angiogenic cells. These data show that restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression alone is sufficient to prevent the vascular dysfunction caused by systemically reduced insulin signaling.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - SC1-AI-078559(United States)

Combined Human Genome-wide RNAi and Metabolite Analyses Identify IMPDH as a Host-Directed Target against Chlamydia Infection.

  • Rother M
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) accounts for >130 million human infections annually. Since chronic Ctr infections are extremely difficult to treat, there is an urgent need for more effective therapeutics. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ctr strictly depends on the functional contribution of the host cell. Here, we combined a human genome-wide RNA interference screen with metabolic profiling to obtain detailed understanding of changes in the infected cell and identify druggable pathways essential for Ctr growth. We demonstrate that Ctr shifts the host metabolism toward aerobic glycolysis, consistent with increased biomass requirement. We identify key regulator complexes of glucose and nucleotide metabolism that govern Ctr infection processes. Pharmacological targeting of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, efficiently inhibits Ctr growth both in vitro and in vivo. These results highlight the potency of genome-scale functional screening for the discovery of drug targets against bacterial infections.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 094879(United Kingdom)

Evidence that TLR4 Is Not a Receptor for Saturated Fatty Acids but Mediates Lipid-Induced Inflammation by Reprogramming Macrophage Metabolism.

  • Lancaster GI
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and is linked to the development of numerous diseases. The activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by long-chain saturated fatty acids (lcSFAs) is an important process in understanding how obesity initiates inflammation. While experimental evidence supports an important role for TLR4 in obesity-induced inflammation in vivo, via a mechanism thought to involve direct binding to and activation of TLR4 by lcSFAs, several lines of evidence argue against lcSFAs being direct TLR4 agonists. Using multiple orthogonal approaches, we herein provide evidence that while loss-of-function models confirm that TLR4 does, indeed, regulate lcSFA-induced inflammation, TLR4 is not a receptor for lcSFAs. Rather, we show that TLR4-dependent priming alters cellular metabolism, gene expression, lipid metabolic pathways, and membrane lipid composition, changes that are necessary for lcSFA-induced inflammation. These results reconcile previous discordant observations and challenge the prevailing view of TLR4's role in initiating obesity-induced inflammation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-42411(Canada)

γ-Secretase Inhibition Lowers Plasma Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins by Stabilizing the LDL Receptor.

  • Kim K
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excess plasma triglycerides (TGs) are a key component of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome. We have shown that γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment improves glucose tolerance due to inhibition of hepatic Notch signaling but found additional Notch-independent reduction of plasma TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in GSI-treated, as well as hepatocyte-specific, γ-secretase knockout (L-Ncst) mice, which suggested a primary effect on hepatocyte TRL uptake. Indeed, we found increased VLDL and LDL particle uptake in L-Ncst hepatocytes and Ncst-deficient hepatoma cells, in part through reduced γ-secretase-mediated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) cleavage and degradation. To exploit this novel finding, we generated a liver-selective Nicastrin ASO, which recapitulated glucose and lipid improvements of L-Ncst mice, with increased levels of hepatocyte LDLR. Collectively, these results identify the role of hepatic γ-secretase to regulate LDLR and suggest that liver-specific GSIs may simultaneously improve multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL092969()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL125649()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103818()
  • Wellcome Trust - CA062275(United Kingdom)

Hemodynamic Forces Tune the Arrest, Adhesion, and Extravasation of Circulating Tumor Cells.

  • Follain G
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metastatic seeding is driven by cell-intrinsic and environmental cues, yet the contribution of biomechanics is poorly known. We aim to elucidate the impact of blood flow on the arrest and the extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in vivo. Using the zebrafish embryo, we show that arrest of CTCs occurs in vessels with favorable flow profiles where flow forces control the adhesion efficacy of CTCs to the endothelium. We biophysically identified the threshold values of flow and adhesion forces allowing successful arrest of CTCs. In addition, flow forces fine-tune tumor cell extravasation by impairing the remodeling properties of the endothelium. Importantly, we also observe endothelial remodeling at arrest sites of CTCs in mouse brain capillaries. Finally, we observed that human supratentorial brain metastases preferably develop in areas with low perfusion. These results demonstrate that hemodynamic profiles at metastatic sites regulate key steps of extravasation preceding metastatic outgrowth.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-097751(United States)

LKB1, Salt-Inducible Kinases, and MEF2C Are Linked Dependencies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

  • Tarumoto Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lineage-specific transcription factor (TF) MEF2C is often deregulated in leukemia. However, strategies to target this TF have yet to be identified. Here, we used a domain-focused CRISPR screen to reveal an essential role for LKB1 and its Salt-Inducible Kinase effectors (SIK3, in a partially redundant manner with SIK2) to maintain MEF2C function in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A key phosphorylation substrate of SIK3 in this context is HDAC4, a repressive cofactor of MEF2C. Consequently, targeting of LKB1 or SIK3 diminishes histone acetylation at MEF2C-bound enhancers and deprives leukemia cells of the output of this essential TF. We also found that MEF2C-dependent leukemias are sensitive to on-target chemical inhibition of SIK activity. This study reveals a chemical strategy to block MEF2C function in AML, highlighting how an oncogenic TF can be disabled by targeting of upstream kinases.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA013106()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA174793()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK64540(United States)

The yeast H+-ATPase Pma1 promotes Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation in response to H+-coupled nutrient uptake.

  • Saliba E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The yeast Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling growth. How amino acids and other nutrients stimulate its activity via the Rag/Gtr GTPases remains poorly understood. We here report that the signal triggering Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation upon amino-acid uptake is the coupled H+ influx catalyzed by amino-acid/H+ symporters. H+-dependent uptake of other nutrients, ionophore-mediated H+ diffusion, and inhibition of the vacuolar V-ATPase also activate TORC1. As the increase in cytosolic H+ elicited by these processes stimulates the compensating H+-export activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Pma1), we have examined whether this major ATP-consuming enzyme might be involved in TORC1 control. We find that when the endogenous Pma1 is replaced with a plant H+-ATPase, H+ influx or increase fails to activate TORC1. Our results show that H+ influx coupled to nutrient uptake stimulates TORC1 activity and that Pma1 is a key actor in this mechanism.

Funding information:
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 22396499()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 30274494()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 22396499()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 30274494()
  • Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture - 21074048()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Disease Variants of FGFR3 Reveal Molecular Basis for the Recognition and Additional Roles for Cdc37 in Hsp90 Chaperone System.

  • Bunney TD
  • Structure
  • 2018 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR3 is involved in many signaling networks and is frequently mutated in developmental disorders and cancer. The Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone system is essential for function of normal and neoplastic cells. Here we uncover the mechanistic inter-relationships between these proteins by combining approaches including NMR, HDX-MS, and SAXS. We show that several disease-linked mutations convert FGFR3 to a stronger client, where the determinant underpinning client strength involves an allosteric network through the N-lobe and at the lobe interface. We determine the architecture of the client kinase/Cdc37 complex and demonstrate, together with site-specific information, that binding of Cdc37 to unrelated kinases induces a common, extensive conformational remodeling of the kinase N-lobe, beyond localized changes and interactions within the binary complex. As further shown for FGFR3, this processing by Cdc37 deactivates the kinase and presents it, in a specific orientation established in the complex, for direct recognition by Hsp90.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

High-Density Proximity Mapping Reveals the Subcellular Organization of mRNA-Associated Granules and Bodies.

  • Youn JY
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

mRNA processing, transport, translation, and ultimately degradation involve a series of dedicated protein complexes that often assemble into large membraneless structures such as stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs). Here, systematic in vivo proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) analysis of 119 human proteins associated with different aspects of mRNA biology uncovers 7424 unique proximity interactions with 1,792 proteins. Classical bait-prey analysis reveals connections of hundreds of proteins to distinct mRNA-associated processes or complexes, including the splicing and transcriptional elongation machineries (protein phosphatase 4) and the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex (CEP85, RNF219, and KIAA0355). Analysis of correlated patterns between endogenous preys uncovers the spatial organization of RNA regulatory structures and enables the definition of 144 core components of SGs and PBs. We report preexisting contacts between most core SG proteins under normal growth conditions and demonstrate that several core SG proteins (UBAP2L, CSDE1, and PRRC2C) are critical for the formation of microscopically visible SGs.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK071041(United States)

The soluble form of LOTUS inhibits Nogo receptor-mediated signaling by interfering with the interaction between Nogo receptor type 1 and p75 neurotrophin receptor.

  • Kawakami Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nogo receptor type 1 (NgR1) is known to inhibit neuronal regeneration in the CNS. We have previously identified lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) interacts with NgR1 and inhibits its function by blocking its ligand binding. Therefore, LOTUS is expected to have therapeutic potential for the promotion of neuronal regeneration. However, it remains unknown whether the soluble form of LOTUS (s-LOTUS) also has an inhibitory action on NgR1 function as a candidate for therapeutic agents. Here, we show that s-LOTUS inhibits NgR1-mediated signaling by inhibiting the molecular interaction between NgR1 and its co-receptor p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). In contrast to the membrane-bound form of LOTUS, s-LOTUS did not block ligand binding to NgR1. However, we identified p75NTR as a novel LOTUS binding partner, and found that s-LOTUS suppressed the interaction between p75NTR and NgR1. s-LOTUS inhibited myelin-associated inhibitor (MAI)-induced RhoA activation in murine cortical neurons. Functional analyses revealed that s-LOTUS inhibited MAI-induced growth cone collapse and neurite outgrowth inhibition in chick DRG neurons. In addition, while olfactory bulb (OB) neurons of lotus-KO mice are sensitive to MAI due to a lack of LOTUS expression, treatment with s-LOTUS inhibited MAI-induced growth cone collapse in these neurons. Finally, we observed that s-LOTUS promoted axonal regeneration in optic nerve crush injury of mice (either sex). These findings suggest that s-LOTUS inhibits NgR1-mediated signaling possibly by interfering with the interaction between NgR1 and p75NTR Thus, s-LOTUS may have potential as a therapeutic agent for neuronal regeneration in the damaged CNS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTNogo receptor type 1 (NgR1) is a well-known receptor to inhibit neuronal regeneration in the CNS. Because the membrane-bound form of LOTUS antagonizes NgR1 through a cis-type molecular interaction between LOTUS and NgR1, the soluble form of LOTUS (s-LOTUS) is expected to be a therapeutic agent for neuronal regeneration. In our present study, we show that s-LOTUS inhibits the interaction between NgR1 and p75NTR, NgR1 ligand-induced RhoA activation, growth cone collapse and neurite outgrowth inhibition, and promotes axonal regeneration. Our results indicate that s-LOTUS inhibits NgR1-mediated signaling through a trans-type molecular interaction between LOTUS and NgR1, and therefore, s-LOTUS may have therapeutic potential for neuronal regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM083204(United States)

Lentivirus-mediated expression of human secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha prevents development of memory and plasticity deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Tan VTY
  • Mol Brain
  • 2018 Feb 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease driven in large part by accumulated deposits in the brain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage product amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, AD is also characterised by reductions in secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), an alternative cleavage product of APP. In contrast to the neurotoxicity of accumulated Αβ, sAPPα has many neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. Increasing sAPPα levels has the potential to serve as a therapeutic treatment that mitigates the effects of Aβ and rescue cognitive function. Here we tested the hypothesis that lentivirus-mediated expression of a human sAPPα construct in a mouse model of AD (APPswe/PS1dE9), begun before the onset of plaque pathology, could prevent later behavioural and electrophysiological deficits. Male mice were given bilateral intra-hippocampal injections at 4 months of age and tested 8-10 months later. Transgenic mice expressing sAPPα performed significantly better than untreated littermates in all aspects of the spatial water maze task. Expression of sAPPα also resulted in partial rescue of long-term potentiation (LTP), tested in vitro. These improvements occurred in the absence of changes in amyloid pathology. Supporting these findings on LTP, lentiviral-mediated expression of sAPPα for 3 months from 10 months of age, or acute sAPPα treatment in hippocampal slices from 18 to 20 months old transgenic mice, completely reversed the deficits in LTP. Together these findings suggest that sAPPα has wide potential to act as either a preventative or restorative therapeutic treatment in AD by mitigating the effects of Aβ toxicity and enhancing cognitive reserve.

Funding information:
  • Health Research Council of New Zealand - 10-170()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM028301-28(United States)

β2 Adrenergic-Neurotrophin Feedforward Loop Promotes Pancreatic Cancer.

  • Renz BW
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Catecholamines stimulate epithelial proliferation, but the role of sympathetic nerve signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is poorly understood. Catecholamines promoted ADRB2-dependent PDAC development, nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion, and pancreatic nerve density. Pancreatic Ngf overexpression accelerated tumor development in LSL-Kras+/G12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mice. ADRB2 blockade together with gemcitabine reduced NGF expression and nerve density, and increased survival of LSL-Kras+/G12D;LSL-Trp53+/R172H;Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mice. Therapy with a Trk inhibitor together with gemcitabine also increased survival of KPC mice. Analysis of PDAC patient cohorts revealed a correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, nerve density, and increased survival of patients on nonselective β-blockers. These findings suggest that catecholamines drive a feedforward loop, whereby upregulation of neurotrophins increases sympathetic innervation and local norepinephrine accumulation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA013696()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA210088()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025686()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK053904(United States)

Endosomal Rab cycles regulate Parkin-mediated mitophagy.

  • Yamano K
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Damaged mitochondria are selectively eliminated by mitophagy. Parkin and PINK1, gene products mutated in familial Parkinson's disease, play essential roles in mitophagy through ubiquitination of mitochondria. Cargo ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is important to trigger selective autophagy. Although autophagy receptors recruit LC3-labeled autophagic membranes onto damaged mitochondria, how other essential autophagy units such as ATG9A-integrated vesicles are recruited remains unclear. Here, using mammalian cultured cells, we demonstrate that RABGEF1, the upstream factor of the endosomal Rab GTPase cascade, is recruited to damaged mitochondria via ubiquitin binding downstream of Parkin. RABGEF1 directs the downstream Rab proteins, RAB5 and RAB7A, to damaged mitochondria, whose associations are further regulated by mitochondrial Rab-GAPs. Furthermore, depletion of RAB7A inhibited ATG9A vesicle assembly and subsequent encapsulation of the mitochondria by autophagic membranes. These results strongly suggest that endosomal Rab cycles on damaged mitochondria are a crucial regulator of mitophagy through assembling ATG9A vesicles.

Funding information:
  • Japan Science and Technology Agency - JPMJCR13M7(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - 16K15095(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP15H01196(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP16K18545(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26000014(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26111729(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26840033(International)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R03 DE018415-02(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - Intramural program(United States)

Lessons in PROTAC Design from Selective Degradation with a Promiscuous Warhead.

  • Bondeson DP
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibiting protein function selectively is a major goal of modern drug discovery. Here, we report a previously understudied benefit of small molecule proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) that recruit E3 ubiquitin ligases to target proteins for their ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Using promiscuous CRBN- and VHL-recruiting PROTACs that bind >50 kinases, we show that only a subset of bound targets is degraded. The basis of this selectivity relies on protein-protein interactions between the E3 ubiquitin ligase and the target protein, as illustrated by engaged proteins that are not degraded as a result of unstable ternary complexes with PROTAC-recruited E3 ligases. In contrast, weak PROTAC:target protein affinity can be stabilized by high-affinity target:PROTAC:ligase trimer interactions, leading to efficient degradation. This study highlights design guidelines for generating potent PROTACs as well as possibilities for degrading undruggable proteins immune to traditional small-molecule inhibitors.

An Antimicrobial Peptide and Its Neuronal Receptor Regulate Dendrite Degeneration in Aging and Infection.

  • E L
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Infections have been identified as possible risk factors for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, but it remains unclear whether infection-related immune molecules have a causative role in neurodegeneration during aging. Here, we reveal an unexpected role of an epidermally expressed antimicrobial peptide, NLP-29 (neuropeptide-like protein 29), in triggering aging-associated dendrite degeneration in C. elegans. The age-dependent increase of nlp-29 expression is regulated by the epidermal tir-1/SARM-pmk-1/p38 MAPK innate immunity pathway. We further identify an orphan G protein-coupled receptor NPR-12 (neuropeptide receptor 12) acting in neurons as a receptor for NLP-29 and demonstrate that the autophagic machinery is involved cell autonomously downstream of NPR-12 to transduce degeneration signals. Finally, we show that fungal infections cause dendrite degeneration using a similar mechanism as in aging, through NLP-29, NPR-12, and autophagy. Our findings reveal an important causative role of antimicrobial peptides, their neuronal receptors, and the autophagy pathway in aging- and infection-associated dendrite degeneration.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U137973817(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA031833()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014423()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM054657()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007240()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K99 NS076646()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R00 NS076646()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094171()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS096352()

Establishment of DNA-DNA Interactions by the Cohesin Ring.

  • Murayama Y
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ring-shaped structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are multi-subunit ATPases that topologically encircle DNA. SMC rings make vital contributions to numerous chromosomal functions, including mitotic chromosome condensation, sister chromatid cohesion, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. They are thought to do so by establishing interactions between more than one DNA. Here, we demonstrate DNA-DNA tethering by the purified fission yeast cohesin complex. DNA-bound cohesin efficiently and topologically captures a second DNA, but only if that is single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Like initial double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) embrace, second ssDNA capture is ATP-dependent, and it strictly requires the cohesin loader complex. Second-ssDNA capture is relatively labile but is converted into stable dsDNA-dsDNA cohesion through DNA synthesis. Our study illustrates second-DNA capture by an SMC complex and provides a molecular model for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM069900(United States)

Cell Size and Growth Rate Are Modulated by TORC2-Dependent Signals.

  • Lucena R
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The size of all cells, from bacteria to vertebrates, is proportional to the growth rate set by nutrient availability, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that nutrients modulate cell size and growth rate via the TORC2 signaling network in budding yeast. An important function of the TORC2 network is to modulate synthesis of ceramide lipids, which play roles in signaling. TORC2-dependent control of ceramide signaling strongly influences both cell size and growth rate. Thus, cells that cannot make ceramides fail to modulate their growth rate or size in response to changes in nutrients. PP2A associated with the Rts1 regulatory subunit (PP2ARts1) is embedded in a feedback loop that controls TORC2 signaling and helps set the level of TORC2 signaling to match nutrient availability. Together, the data suggest a model in which growth rate and cell size are mechanistically linked by ceramide-dependent signals arising from the TORC2 network.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM053959()

Derivation of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line lacking DMD exons 49 and 50 (CCMi001DMD-A-3, ∆49, ∆50).

  • Spaltro G
  • Stem Cell Res
  • 2017 Nov 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and is clinically characterised by childhood muscle degeneration and cardiomyopathy. We produced an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a DMD patient's dermal fibroblasts by electroporation with episomal vectors containing: hL-MYC, hLIN28, hSOX2, hKLF4, hOCT3/4. The resultant DMD iPSC line (CCMi001DMD-A-3) displayed iPSC morphology, expressed pluripotency markers, possessed trilineage differentiation potential and was karyotypically normal. MLPA analyses performed on DNA extracted from CCMi001DMD-A-3 showed a deletion of exons 49 and 50 (CCMi001DMD-A-3, ∆49, ∆50).

Smc3 Deacetylation by Hos1 Facilitates Efficient Dissolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion during Early Anaphase.

  • Li S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cohesins establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase and are removed when cohesin Scc1 is cleaved by separase at anaphase onset. During this process, cohesin Smc3 undergoes a cycle of acetylation: Smc3 acetylation by Eco1 in S phase stabilizes cohesin association with chromosomes, and its deacetylation by Hos1 in anaphase allows re-use of Smc3 in the next cell cycle. Here we find that Smc3 deacetylation by Hos1 has a more immediate effect in the early anaphase of budding yeast. Hos1 depletion significantly delayed sister chromatid separation and segregation. Smc3 deacetylation facilitated removal of cohesins from chromosomes without changing Scc1 cleavage efficiency, promoting dissolution of cohesion. This action is probably due to disengagement of Smc1-Smc3 heads prompted by de-repression of their ATPase activity. We suggest Scc1 cleavage per se is insufficient for efficient dissolution of cohesion in early anaphase; subsequent Smc3 deacetylation, triggered by Scc1 cleavage, is also required.

Late rDNA Condensation Ensures Timely Cdc14 Release and Coordination of Mitotic Exit Signaling with Nucleolar Segregation.

  • de Los Santos-Velázquez AI
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nucleolus plays a pivotal role in multiple key cellular processes. An illustrative example is the regulation of mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the nucleolar sequestration of the Cdc14 phosphatase. The peculiar structure of the nucleolus, however, has also its drawbacks. The repetitive nature of the rDNA gives rise to cohesion-independent linkages whose resolution in budding yeast requires the Cdc14-dependent inhibition of rRNA transcription, which facilitates condensin accessibility to this locus. Thus, the rDNA condenses and segregates later than most other yeast genomic regions. Here, we show that defective function of a small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP) assembly factor facilitates condensin accessibility to the rDNA and induces nucleolar hyper-condensation. Interestingly, this increased compaction of the nucleolus interferes with the proper release of Cdc14 from this organelle. This observation provides an explanation for the delayed rDNA condensation in budding yeast, which is necessary to efficiently coordinate timely Cdc14 release and mitotic exit with nucleolar compaction and segregation.

11β-HSD2 SUMOylation Modulates Cortisol-Induced Mineralocorticoid Receptor Nuclear Translocation Independently of Effects on Transactivation.

  • Jiménez-Canino R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) has an essential role in aldosterone target tissues, conferring aldosterone selectivity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by converting 11β-hydroxyglucocorticoids to inactive 11-ketosteroids. Congenital deficiency of 11β-HSD2 causes a form of salt-sensitive hypertension known as the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. The disease phenotype, which ranges from mild to severe, correlates well with reduction in enzyme activity. Furthermore, polymorphisms in the 11β-HSD2 coding gene (HSD11B2) have been linked to high blood pressure and salt sensitivity, major cardiovascular risk factors. 11β-HSD2 expression is controlled by different factors such as cytokines, sex steroids, or vasopressin, but posttranslational modulation of its activity has not been explored. Analysis of 11β-HSD2 sequence revealed a consensus site for conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) peptide, a major posttranslational regulatory event in several cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that 11β-HSD2 is SUMOylated at lysine 266. Non-SUMOylatable mutant K266R showed slightly higher substrate affinity and decreased Vmax, but no effects on protein stability or subcellular localization. Despite mild changes in enzyme activity, mutant K266R was unable to prevent cortisol-dependent MR nuclear translocation. The same effect was achieved by coexpression of wild-type 11β-HSD2 with sentrin-specific protease 1, a protease that catalyzes SUMO deconjugation. In the presence of 11β-HSD2-K266R, increased nuclear MR localization did not correlate with increased response to cortisol or increased recruitment of transcriptional coregulators. Taken together, our data suggests that SUMOylation of 11β-HSD2 at residue K266 modulates cortisol-mediated MR nuclear translocation independently of effects on transactivation.

Organelle Specific O-Glycosylation Drives MMP14 Activation, Tumor Growth, and Metastasis.

  • Nguyen AT
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancers grow within tissues through molecular mechanisms still unclear. Invasiveness correlates with perturbed O-glycosylation, a covalent modification of cell-surface proteins. Here, we show that, in human and mouse liver cancers, initiation of O-glycosylation by the GALNT glycosyl-transferases increases and shifts from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In a mouse liver cancer model, expressing an ER-targeted GALNT1 (ER-G1) massively increased tumor expansion, with median survival reduced from 23 to 10 weeks. In vitro cell growth was unaffected, but ER-G1 strongly enabled matrix degradation and tissue invasion. Unlike its Golgi-localized counterpart, ER-G1 glycosylates the matrix metalloproteinase MMP14, a process required for tumor expansion. Together, our results indicate that GALNTs strongly promote liver tumor growth after relocating to the ER.

Bortezomib Alone and in Combination With Salinosporamid A Induces Apoptosis and Promotes Pheochromocytoma Cell Death In Vitro and in Female Nude Mice.

  • Bullova P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proteasome inhibitors have been frequently used in treating hematologic and solid tumors. They are administered individually or in combination with other regimens, to prevent severe side effects and resistance development. Because they have been shown to be efficient and are pharmaceutically available, we tested the first Food and Drug Administration-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib alone and in combination with another proteasome inhibitor, salinosporamid A, in pheochromocytoma cells. Pheochromocytomas/Paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors for which no definite cure is yet available. Therefore, drugs with a wide spectrum of mechanisms of action are being tested to identify suitable candidates for PHEO/PGL treatment. In the current study, we show that bortezomib induces PHEO cell death via the apoptotic pathway in vitro and in vivo. The combination of bortezomib with salinosporamid A exhibits additive effect on these cells and inhibits proliferation, cell migration and invasion, and angiogenesis more potently than bortezomib alone. Altogether, we suggest these proteasome inhibitors, especially bortezomib, could be potentially tested in PHEO/PGL patients who might benefit from treatment with either the inhibitors alone or in combination with other treatment options.

A map of human PRDM9 binding provides evidence for novel behaviors of PRDM9 and other zinc-finger proteins in meiosis.

  • Altemose N
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

PRDM9 binding localizes almost all meiotic recombination sites in humans and mice. However, most PRDM9-bound loci do not become recombination hotspots. To explore factors that affect binding and subsequent recombination outcomes, we mapped human PRDM9 binding sites in a transfected human cell line and measured PRDM9-induced histone modifications. These data reveal varied DNA-binding modalities of PRDM9. We also find that human PRDM9 frequently binds promoters, despite their low recombination rates, and it can activate expression of a small number of genes including CTCFL and VCX. Furthermore, we identify specific sequence motifs that predict consistent, localized meiotic recombination suppression around a subset of PRDM9 binding sites. These motifs strongly associate with KRAB-ZNF protein binding, TRIM28 recruitment, and specific histone modifications. Finally, we demonstrate that, in addition to binding DNA, PRDM9's zinc fingers also mediate its multimerization, and we show that a pair of highly diverged alleles preferentially form homo-multimers.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR029731-01(United States)

The role of endothelial nitric oxide in the anti-restenotic effects of liraglutide in a mouse model of restenosis.

  • Kushima H
  • Cardiovasc Diabetol
  • 2017 Oct 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Previous animal studies have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) suppress arterial restenosis, a major complication of angioplasty, presumably through their direct action on vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the contribution of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) to this process remains unknown. In addition, the potential interference caused by severe hyperglycemia and optimal treatment regimen remain to be determined. METHODS: Nine-week-old male C57BL6 (wild-type) and diabetic db/db mice were randomly divided into vehicle or liraglutide treatment groups (Day 1), and subject to femoral artery wire injuries (Day 3). The injured arteries were collected on Day 29 for morphometric analysis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for in vitro experiments. One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test, was used for comparisons. RESULTS: In wild-type mice, liraglutide treatment (5.7, 17, or 107 nmol/kg/day) dose-dependently reduced the neointimal area (20, 50, and 65%) without inducing systemic effects, and caused an associated decrease in the percentage of vascular proliferating cells. However, these effects were completely abolished by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Next, we investigated the optimal treatment regimen. Early treatment (Days 1-14) was as effective in reducing the neointimal area and vascular cell proliferation as full treatment (Days 1-29), whereas delayed treatment (Days 15-29) was ineffective. In HUVECs, liraglutide treatment dose-dependently stimulated NO production, which was dependent on GLP-1R, cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and NOS. Subsequently, we investigated the role of liver kinase B (LKB)-1 in this process. Liraglutide increased the phosphorylation of LKB-1, and siRNA-induced LKB-1 knockdown abolished liraglutide-stimulated NO production. In severe hyperglycemic db/db mice, liraglutide treatment also suppressed neointimal hyperplasia, which was accompanied by reductions in vascular cell proliferation and density. Furthermore, liraglutide treatment suppressed hyperglycemia-enhanced vascular inflammation 7 days after arterial injury. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that endothelial cells are targets of liraglutide, and suppress restenosis via endothelial NO. Furthermore, the protective effects are maintained in severe hyperglycemia. Our findings provide an evidence base for a future clinical trial to determine whether treatment with GLP-1RAs represents potentially effective pharmacological therapy following angioplasty in patients with diabetes.

Pitx1 determines characteristic hindlimb morphologies in cartilage micromass culture.

  • Butterfield NC
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The shapes of homologous skeletal elements in the vertebrate forelimb and hindlimb are distinct, with each element exquisitely adapted to their divergent functions. Many of the signals and signalling pathways responsible for patterning the developing limb bud are common to both forelimb and hindlimb. How disparate morphologies are generated from common signalling inputs during limb development remains poorly understood. We show that, similar to what has been shown in the chick, characteristic differences in mouse forelimb and hindlimb cartilage morphology are maintained when chondrogenesis proceeds in vitro away from the endogenous limb bud environment. Chondrogenic nodules that form in high-density micromass cultures derived from forelimb and hindlimb buds are consistently different in size and shape. We described analytical tools we have developed to quantify these differences in nodule morphology and demonstrate that characteristic hindlimb nodule morphology is lost in the absence of the hindlimb-restricted limb modifier gene Pitx1. Furthermore, we show that ectopic expression of Pitx1 in the forelimb is sufficient to generate nodule patterns characteristic of the hindlimb. We also demonstrate that hindlimb cells are less adhesive to the tissue culture substrate and, within the limb environment, to the extracellular matrix and to each other. These results reveal autonomously programmed differences in forelimb and hindlimb cartilage precursors of the limb skeleton are controlled, at least in part, by Pitx1 and suggest this has an important role in generating distinct limb-type morphologies. Our results demonstrate that the micromass culture system is ideally suited to study cues governing morphogenesis of limb skeletal elements in a simple and experimentally tractable in vitro system that reflects in vivo potential.

Ubiquitin Linkage-Specific Affimers Reveal Insights into K6-Linked Ubiquitin Signaling.

  • Michel MA
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several ubiquitin chain types have remained unstudied, mainly because tools and techniques to detect these posttranslational modifications are scarce. Linkage-specific antibodies have shaped our understanding of the roles and dynamics of polyubiquitin signals but are available for only five out of eight linkage types. We here characterize K6- and K33-linkage-specific "affimer" reagents as high-affinity ubiquitin interactors. Crystal structures of affimers bound to their cognate chain types reveal mechanisms of specificity and a K11 cross-reactivity in the K33 affimer. Structure-guided improvements yield superior affinity reagents suitable for western blotting, confocal fluorescence microscopy and pull-down applications. This allowed us to identify RNF144A and RNF144B as E3 ligases that assemble K6-, K11-, and K48-linked polyubiquitin in vitro. A protocol to enrich K6-ubiquitinated proteins from cells identifies HUWE1 as a main E3 ligase for this chain type, and we show that mitofusin-2 is modified with K6-linked polyubiquitin in a HUWE1-dependent manner.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 309756()

Conditional Deletion of the L-Type Calcium Channel Cav1.2 in NG2-Positive Cells Impairs Remyelination in Mice.

  • Santiago González DA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Exploring the molecular mechanisms that drive the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) during the remyelination process is essential to developing new therapeutic tools to intervene in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. To determine whether L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are required for OPC development during remyelination, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VGCC isoform Cav1.2 was deleted in NG2-positive OPCs (Cav1.2KO). Using the cuprizone (CPZ) model of demyelination and mice of either sex, we establish that Cav1.2 deletion in OPCs leads to less efficient remyelination of the adult brain. Specifically, Cav1.2KO OPCs mature slower and produce less myelin than control oligodendrocytes during the recovery period after CPZ intoxication. This reduced remyelination was accompanied by an important decline in the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and in the rate of OPC proliferation. Furthermore, during the remyelination phase of the CPZ model, the corpus callosum of Cav1.2KO animals presented a significant decrease in the percentage of myelinated axons and a substantial increase in the mean g-ratio of myelinated axons compared with controls. In addition, in a mouse line in which the Cav1.2KO OPCs were identified by a Cre reporter, we establish that Cav1.2KO OPCs display a reduced maturational rate through the entire remyelination process. These results suggest that Ca2+ influx mediated by L-VGCCs in oligodendroglial cells is necessary for normal remyelination and is an essential Ca2+ channel for OPC maturation during the remyelination of the adult brain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ion channels implicated in oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation may induce positive signals for myelin recovery. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are important for normal myelination by acting at several critical steps during oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development. To determine whether voltage Ca2+ entry is involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination, we used a conditional knockout mouse for VGCCs in OPCs. Our results indicate that VGCCs can modulate oligodendrocyte maturation in the demyelinated brain and suggest that voltage-gated Ca2+ influx in OPCs is critical for remyelination. These findings could lead to novel approaches for obtaining a better understanding of the factors that control OPC maturation in order to stimulate this pool of progenitors to replace myelin in demyelinating diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001412()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG052934()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM62116(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM095459()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078041()

IGFBP4 Is Required for Adipogenesis and Influences the Distribution of Adipose Depots.

  • Maridas DE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulinlike growth factor (IGF) I induces adipogenesis in vitro. IGF-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) is highly expressed in adipocytes and osteoblasts and is inhibitory of IGFs in vitro. We previously reported that Igfbp4 null mice (Igfbp4-/-) had decreased fat proportions at 8 and 16 weeks of age. However, the mechanism leading to the reduced adiposity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how IGFBP4 mediates adipose tissue development in vivo. Our results showed that inguinal and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from Igfbp4-/- mice had decreased weights and Pparγ expression. Cultures of primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and ear mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) from mutant mice showed reduced adipogenesis. Both BMSCs and eMSC had a strong induction of Igfbp4 expression during adipogenesis. Furthermore, the increase in phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), a downstream target of IGF-I signaling, in wild-type cells, was blunted in mutant eMSCs. On a high-fat diet (HFD) there were sexual differences in adipocyte expansion of Igfbp4-/- mice. Mutant males gained weight by expanding their white fat depots. However, Igfbp4-/- female mice were protected against diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized Igfbp4-/- female mice gained weight in a manner similar to that seen in ovariectomized controls. Thus, Igfbp4 is required for inguinal fat expansion in female mice but not in male mice. However, gWAT expansion, which is prevented by estrogen during HFD, does not require Igfbp4.

Muscle hypertrophy in hypoxia with inflammation is controlled by bromodomain and extra-terminal domain proteins.

  • Chabert C
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Some of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients engaged in exercise-based muscle rehabilitation programs are unresponsive. To unravel the respective role of chronic hypoxia and pulmonary inflammation on soleus muscle hypertrophic capacities, we challenged male Wistar rats to repeated lipopolysaccharide instillations, associated or not with a chronic hypoxia exposure. Muscle hypertrophy was initiated by bilateral ablation of soleus agonists 1 week before sacrifice. To understand the role played by the histone acetylation, we also treated our animals with an inhibitor of bromodomains and extra terminal proteins (I-BET) during the week after surgery. Pulmonary inflammation totally inhibited this hypertrophy response under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (26% lower than control surgery, p < 0.05), consistent with the S6K1 and myogenin measurements. Changes in histone acetylation and class IIa histone deacetylases expression, following pulmonary inflammation, suggested a putative role for histone acetylation signaling in the altered hypertrophy response. The I-BET drug restored the hypertrophy response suggesting that the non-response of muscle to a hypertrophic stimulus could be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including histone-acetylation dependant pathways. Drugs targeting such epigenetic mechanisms may open therapeutic perspectives for COPD patients with systemic inflammation who are unresponsive to rehabilitation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS023022-23(United States)

Firing of Replication Origins Frees Dbf4-Cdc7 to Target Eco1 for Destruction.

  • Seoane AI
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Robust progression through the cell-division cycle depends on the precisely ordered phosphorylation of hundreds of different proteins by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other kinases. The order of CDK substrate phosphorylation depends on rising CDK activity, coupled with variations in substrate affinities for different CDK-cyclin complexes and the opposing phosphatases [1-4]. Here, we address the ordering of substrate phosphorylation by a second major cell-cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 or Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK). The primary function of DDK is to initiate DNA replication by phosphorylating the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase [5-7]. DDK also phosphorylates the cohesin acetyltransferase Eco1 [8]. Sequential phosphorylations of Eco1 by CDK, DDK, and Mck1 create a phosphodegron that is recognized by the ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4. DDK, despite being activated in early S phase, does not phosphorylate Eco1 to trigger its degradation until late S phase [8]. DDK associates with docking sites on loaded Mcm double hexamers at unfired replication origins [9, 10]. We hypothesized that these docking interactions sequester limiting amounts of DDK, delaying Eco1 phosphorylation by DDK until replication is complete. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that overproduction of DDK leads to premature Eco1 degradation. Eco1 degradation also occurs prematurely if Mcm complex loading at origins is prevented by depletion of Cdc6, and Eco1 is stabilized if loaded Mcm complexes are prevented from firing by a Cdc45 mutant. We propose that the timing of Eco1 phosphorylation, and potentially that of other DDK substrates, is determined in part by sequestration of DDK at unfired replication origins during S phase.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118053()

Neurosecretory protein GL stimulates food intake, de novo lipogenesis, and onset of obesity.

  • Iwakoshi-Ukena E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanisms underlying the central regulation of food intake and fat accumulation are not fully understood. We found that neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), a newly-identified neuropeptide, increased food intake and white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats. NPGL-precursor gene overexpression in the hypothalamus caused increases in food intake, WAT, body mass, and circulating insulin when fed a high calorie diet. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPGL induced de novo lipogenesis in WAT, increased insulin, and it selectively induced carbohydrate intake. Neutralizing antibody administration decreased the size of lipid droplets in WAT. Npgl mRNA expression was upregulated by fasting and low insulin levels. Additionally, NPGL-producing cells were responsive to insulin. These results point to NPGL as a novel neuronal regulator that drives food intake and fat deposition through de novo lipogenesis and acts to maintain steady-state fat level in concert with insulin. Dysregulation of NPGL may be a root cause of obesity.

Anti-Inflammatory Chromatinscape Suggests Alternative Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Receptor Action.

  • Oh KS
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the widespread use of glucocorticoids (GCs), their anti-inflammatory effects are not understood mechanistically. Numerous investigations have examined the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation prior to inflammatory challenges. However, clinical situations are emulated by a GC intervention initiated in the midst of rampant inflammatory responses. To characterize the effects of a late GC treatment, we profiled macrophage transcriptional and chromatinscapes with Dexamethasone (Dex) treatment before or after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The late activation of GR had a similar gene-expression profile as from GR pre-activation, while ameliorating the disruption of metabolic genes. Chromatin occupancy of GR was not predictive of Dex-regulated gene expression, contradicting the "trans-repression by tethering" model. Rather, GR activation resulted in genome-wide blockade of NF-κB interaction with chromatin and directly induced inhibitors of NF-κB and AP-1. Our investigation using GC treatments with clinically relevant timing highlights mechanisms underlying GR actions for modulating the "inflamed epigenome."

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AG000390-01()

GCL and CUL3 Control the Switch between Cell Lineages by Mediating Localized Degradation of an RTK.

  • Pae J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The separation of germline from somatic lineages is fundamental to reproduction and species preservation. Here, we show that Drosophila Germ cell-less (GCL) is a critical component in this process by acting as a switch that turns off a somatic lineage pathway. GCL, a conserved BTB (Broad-complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac) protein, is a substrate-specific adaptor for Cullin3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3GCL). We show that CRL3GCL promotes PGC fate by mediating degradation of Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and major determinant of somatic cell fate. This mode of RTK degradation does not depend upon receptor activation but is prompted by release of GCL from the nuclear envelope during mitosis. The cell-cycle-dependent change in GCL localization provides spatiotemporal specificity for RTK degradation and sequesters CRL3GCL to prevent it from participating in excessive activities. This precisely orchestrated mechanism of CRL3GCL function and regulation defines cell fate at the single-cell level.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R37 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA160002()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD041900()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R37 HD041900()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM057587()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

Amplification of F-Actin Disassembly and Cellular Repulsion by Growth Factor Signaling.

  • Yoon J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extracellular cues that regulate cellular shape, motility, and navigation are generally classified as growth promoting (i.e., growth factors/chemoattractants and attractive guidance cues) or growth preventing (i.e., repellents and inhibitors). Yet, these designations are often based on complex assays and undefined signaling pathways and thus may misrepresent direct roles of specific cues. Here, we find that a recognized growth-promoting signaling pathway amplifies the F-actin disassembly and repulsive effects of a growth-preventing pathway. Focusing on Semaphorin/Plexin repulsion, we identified an interaction between the F-actin-disassembly enzyme Mical and the Abl tyrosine kinase. Biochemical assays revealed Abl phosphorylates Mical to directly amplify Mical Redox-mediated F-actin disassembly. Genetic assays revealed that Abl allows growth factors and Semaphorin/Plexin repellents to combinatorially increase Mical-mediated F-actin disassembly, cellular remodeling, and repulsive axon guidance. Similar roles for Mical in growth factor/Abl-related cancer cell behaviors further revealed contexts in which characterized positive effectors of growth/guidance stimulate such negative cellular effects as F-actin disassembly/repulsion.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085923()

A Novel Small Molecule GDNF Receptor RET Agonist, BT13, Promotes Neurite Growth from Sensory Neurons in Vitro and Attenuates Experimental Neuropathy in the Rat.

  • Sidorova YA
  • Front Pharmacol
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage is a common and severe class of chronic pain. Disease-modifying clinical therapies are needed as current treatments typically provide only symptomatic relief; show varying clinical efficacy; and most have significant adverse effects. One approach is targeting either neurotrophic factors or their receptors that normalize sensory neuron function and stimulate regeneration after nerve damage. Two candidate targets are glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and artemin (ARTN), as these GDNF family ligands (GFLs) show efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain (Boucher et al., 2000; Gardell et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2008, 2014). As these protein ligands have poor drug-like properties and are expensive to produce for clinical use, we screened 18,400 drug-like compounds to develop small molecules that act similarly to GFLs (GDNF mimetics). This screening identified BT13 as a compound that selectively targeted GFL receptor RET to activate downstream signaling cascades. BT13 was similar to NGF and ARTN in selectively promoting neurite outgrowth from the peptidergic class of adult sensory neurons in culture, but was opposite to ARTN in causing neurite elongation without affecting initiation. When administered after spinal nerve ligation in a rat model of neuropathic pain, 20 and 25 mg/kg of BT13 decreased mechanical hypersensitivity and normalized expression of sensory neuron markers in dorsal root ganglia. In control rats, BT13 had no effect on baseline mechanical or thermal sensitivity, motor coordination, or weight gain. Thus, small molecule BT13 selectively activates RET and offers opportunities for developing novel disease-modifying medications to treat neuropathic pain.

G6pd Deficiency Does Not Affect the Cytosolic Glutathione or Thioredoxin Antioxidant Defense in Mouse Cochlea.

  • White K
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP+ to NADPH and is thought to be the principal source of NADPH for the cytosolic glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant defense systems. We investigated the roles of G6PD in the cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea of G6pd hypomorphic mice that were backcrossed onto normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice. Young G6pd-deficient mice displayed a significant decrease in cytosolic G6PD protein levels and activities in the inner ears. However, G6pd deficiency did not affect the cytosolic NADPH redox state, or glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in the inner ears. No histological abnormalities or oxidative damage was observed in the cochlea of G6pd hemizygous males or homozygous females. Furthermore, G6pd deficiency did not affect auditory brainstem response hearing thresholds, wave I amplitudes or wave I latencies in young males or females. In contrast, G6pd deficiency resulted in increased activities and protein levels of cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and NADP+ to NADPH, in the inner ear. In a mouse inner ear cell line, knockdown of Idh1, but not G6pd, decreased cell growth rates, cytosolic NADPH levels, and thioredoxin reductase activities. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, G6pd deficiency does not affect the cytosolic glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in mouse cochlea. Under G6pd deficiency conditions, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 likely functions as the principal source of NADPH for cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP+ to NADPH and is thought to be the principal source of NADPH for the cytosolic glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant defense systems. In the current study, we show that, under normal physiological conditions, G6pd deficiency does not affect the cytosolic glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in the mouse cochlea. However, under G6pd deficiency conditions, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 likely functions as the principal source of NADPH for cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG028740()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC012552()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014437()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R03 DC011840()

Histone Deacetylase 6-Controlled Hsp90 Acetylation Significantly Alters Mineralocorticoid Receptor Subcellular Dynamics But Not its Transcriptional Activity.

  • Jiménez-Canino R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that transduces the biological effects of corticosteroids. Its best-characterized role is to enhance transepithelial sodium reabsorption in response to increased aldosterone levels. In addition, MR participates in other aldosterone- or glucocorticoid-controlled processes such as cardiovascular homeostasis, adipocyte differentiation or neurogenesis, and regulation of neuronal activity in the hippocampus. Like other steroid receptors, MR forms cytosolic heterocomplexes with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90), Hsp70, and other proteins such as immunophilins. Interaction with Hsp90 is thought to maintain MR in a ligand-binding competent conformation and to regulate ligand-dependent and -independent nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling. It has previously been shown that acetylation of residue K295 in Hsp90 regulates its interaction with the androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In this work we hypothesized that Hsp90 acetylation provides a regulatory step to modulate MR cellular dynamics and activity. We used Hsp90 acetylation mimic mutant K295Q or nonacetylatable mutant K295R to examine whether MR nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling and gene transactivation are affected. Furthermore, we manipulated endogenous Hsp90 acetylation levels by controlling expression or activity of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), the enzyme responsible for deacetylation of Hsp90-K295. Our data demonstrates that HDAC6-mediated Hsp90 acetylation regulates MR cellular dynamics but it does not alter its function. This stands in contrast with the down-regulation of GR by HDAC6, suggesting that Hsp90 acetylation may play a role in balancing relative MR and GR activity when both factors are co-expressed in the same cell.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - U1051178808(United Kingdom)

Structural Basis for Mitotic Centrosome Assembly in Flies.

  • Feng Z
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In flies, Centrosomin (Cnn) forms a phosphorylation-dependent scaffold that recruits proteins to the mitotic centrosome, but how Cnn assembles into a scaffold is unclear. We show that scaffold assembly requires conserved leucine zipper (LZ) and Cnn-motif 2 (CM2) domains that co-assemble into a 2:2 complex in vitro. We solve the crystal structure of the LZ:CM2 complex, revealing that both proteins form helical dimers that assemble into an unusual tetramer. A slightly longer version of the LZ can form micron-scale structures with CM2, whose assembly is stimulated by Plk1 phosphorylation in vitro. Mutating individual residues that perturb LZ:CM2 tetramer assembly perturbs the formation of these micron-scale assemblies in vitro and Cnn-scaffold assembly in vivo. Thus, Cnn molecules have an intrinsic ability to form large, LZ:CM2-interaction-dependent assemblies that are critical for mitotic centrosome assembly. These studies provide the first atomic insight into a molecular interaction required for mitotic centrosome assembly.

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

The Mammalian Malonyl-CoA Synthetase ACSF3 Is Required for Mitochondrial Protein Malonylation and Metabolic Efficiency.

  • Bowman CE
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) is a central metabolite in mammalian fatty acid biochemistry generated and utilized in the cytoplasm; however, little is known about noncanonical organelle-specific malonyl-CoA metabolism. Intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA is generated by a malonyl-CoA synthetase, ACSF3, which produces malonyl-CoA from malonate, an endogenous competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. To determine the metabolic requirement for mitochondrial malonyl-CoA, ACSF3 knockout (KO) cells were generated by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing. ACSF3 KO cells exhibited elevated malonate and impaired mitochondrial metabolism. Unbiased and targeted metabolomics analysis of KO and control cells in the presence or absence of exogenous malonate revealed metabolic changes dependent on either malonate or malonyl-CoA. While ACSF3 was required for the metabolism and therefore detoxification of malonate, ACSF3-derived malonyl-CoA was specifically required for lysine malonylation of mitochondrial proteins. Together, these data describe an essential role for ACSF3 in dictating the metabolic fate of mitochondrial malonate and malonyl-CoA in mammalian metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL108882()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072241()

EDEM Function in ERAD Protects against Chronic ER Proteinopathy and Age-Related Physiological Decline in Drosophila.

  • Sekiya M
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model. ERAD activity in the brain decreased with aging, and upregulation of EDEMs suppressed age-dependent behavioral decline and extended the lifespan without affecting the UPR gene expression network. Intriguingly, EDEM mannosidase activity was dispensable for these protective effects. Therefore, upregulation of EDEM function in the ERAD protects against ER proteinopathy in vivo and thus represents a potential therapeutic target for chronic diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG032279()
  • NIA NIH HHS - U01 AG046170()

Releasing Syntaphilin Removes Stressed Mitochondria from Axons Independent of Mitophagy under Pathophysiological Conditions.

  • Lin MY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic mitochondrial stress is a central problem associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. Here we investigate axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked neurons. We show that stressed mitochondria are removed from axons triggered by the bulk release of mitochondrial anchoring protein syntaphilin via a new class of mitochondria-derived cargos independent of Parkin, Drp1, and autophagy. Immuno-electron microscopy and super-resolution imaging show the budding of syntaphilin cargos, which then share a ride on late endosomes for transport toward the soma. Releasing syntaphilin is also activated in the early pathological stages of ALS- and AD-linked mutant neurons. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance of axonal mitochondrial quality through SNPH-mediated coordination of mitochondrial stress and motility before activation of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 NS002946-12()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946-20()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029-10()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089737()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS002946()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - ZIA NS003029()

An Essential Role for SHARPIN in the Regulation of Caspase 1 Activity in Sepsis.

  • Nastase MV
  • Am. J. Pathol.
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sepsis is burdened by high mortality due to uncontrolled inflammatory response to pathogens. Increased caspase 1 activation causing maturation of IL1β/18 remains a therapeutic challenge in sepsis. SHARPIN (shank-associated regulator of G-protein signaling homology domain-interacting protein), a component of the LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain-assembly complex), regulates inflammation, with unknown effects on caspase 1 activation. Mice lacking Casp1, Casp11, or both in a Sharpin-deficient background were generated, exposed to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, and injected with caspase 1 inhibitor. We monitored survival, Il1β/18, and caspase 1/11 levels in plasma and organs and deciphered mechanisms of SHARPIN-dependent caspase 1 inhibition. A correlation between LUBAC and active caspase 1 was found in blood mononuclear cells from septic patients. SHARPIN bound caspase 1 and disrupted p20/p10 dimer formation, the last step of caspase 1 processing, thereby inhibiting enzyme activation and maturation of IL1β/18 in a LUBAC-independent manner. In septic patients, LUBAC-independent decline in SHARPIN correlated with enhancement of active caspase 1 in circulating mononuclear cells. Septic Sharpin-deficient mice displayed enrichment in mature Il1β/18 and active caspase 1, and shortened survival. Inhibition of caspase 1 reduced levels of Il1β/18 and splenic cell death, and prolonged survival in septic Sharpin-deficient mice. Our findings identify SHARPIN as a potent in vivo caspase 1 inhibitor and propose the caspase 1-SHARPIN interaction as a target in sepsis.

An Orchestrated Intron Retention Program in Meiosis Controls Timely Usage of Transcripts during Germ Cell Differentiation.

  • Naro C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Global transcriptome reprogramming during spermatogenesis ensures timely expression of factors in each phase of male germ cell differentiation. Spermatocytes and spermatids require particularly extensive reprogramming of gene expression to switch from mitosis to meiosis and to support gamete morphogenesis. Here, we uncovered an extensive alternative splicing program during this transmeiotic differentiation. Notably, intron retention was largely the most enriched pattern, with spermatocytes showing generally higher levels of retention compared with spermatids. Retained introns are characterized by weak splice sites and are enriched in genes with strong relevance for gamete function. Meiotic intron-retaining transcripts (IRTs) were exclusively localized in the nucleus. However, differently from other developmentally regulated IRTs, they are stable RNAs, showing longer half-life than properly spliced transcripts. Strikingly, fate-mapping experiments revealed that IRTs are recruited onto polyribosomes days after synthesis. These studies reveal an unexpected function for regulated intron retention in modulation of the timely expression of select transcripts during spermatogenesis.

The Drosophila speciation factor HMR localizes to genomic insulator sites.

  • Gerland TA
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups. One group belongs to gypsy insulators and another one borders HP1a bound regions at active genes. The transcription of the latter group genes is strongly affected in larvae and ovaries of Hmr mutant flies. Our data suggest a novel link between HMR and insulator proteins, a finding that implicates a potential role for genome organization in the formation of species.

KCTD Hetero-oligomers Confer Unique Kinetic Properties on Hippocampal GABAB Receptor-Induced K+ Currents.

  • Fritzius T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA. GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, KCTD12, KCTD12b, and KCTD16 subunits (named after their T1 K+-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12. We show that the KCTD proteins hetero-oligomerize through self-interacting T1 and H1 homology domains. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in live cells reveal that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers associate with both the receptor and the G-protein. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties on G-protein-activated Kir3 currents. During prolonged receptor activation (one min) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce moderately desensitizing fast deactivating K+ currents, whereas KCTD12 and KCTD16 homo-oligomers produce strongly desensitizing fast deactivating currents and nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents, respectively. During short activation (2 s) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal neurons of KCTD knock-out mice are consistent with these findings and indicate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers increase the duration of slow IPSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that simultaneous assembly of distinct KCTDs at the receptor increases the molecular and functional repertoire of native GABAB receptors and modulates physiologically induced K+ current responses in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The KCTD proteins 8, 12, and 16 are auxiliary subunits of GABAB receptors that differentially regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. The KCTD proteins are generally assumed to function as homo-oligomers. Here we show that the KCTD proteins also assemble hetero-oligomers in all possible dual combinations. Experiments in live cells demonstrate that KCTD hetero-oligomers form at least tetramers and that these tetramers directly interact with the receptor and the G-protein. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties to GABAB receptor-induced Kir3 currents in heterologous cells. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers are abundant in the hippocampus, where they prolong the duration of slow IPSCs in pyramidal cells. Our data therefore support that KCTD hetero-oligomers modulate physiologically induced K+ current responses in the brain.

CDK Substrate Phosphorylation and Ordering the Cell Cycle.

  • Swaffer MP
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

S phase and mitotic onset are brought about by the action of multiple different cyclin-CDK complexes. However, it has been suggested that changes in the total level of CDK kinase activity, rather than substrate specificity, drive the temporal ordering of S phase and mitosis. Here, we present a phosphoproteomics-based systems analysis of CDK substrates in fission yeast and demonstrate that the phosphorylation of different CDK substrates can be temporally ordered during the cell cycle by a single cyclin-CDK. This is achieved by rising CDK activity and the differential sensitivity of substrates to CDK activity over a wide dynamic range. This is combined with rapid phosphorylation turnover to generate clearly resolved substrate-specific activity thresholds, which in turn ensures the appropriate ordering of downstream cell-cycle events. Comparative analysis with wild-type cells expressing multiple cyclin-CDK complexes reveals how cyclin-substrate specificity works alongside activity thresholds to fine-tune the patterns of substrate phosphorylation.

Nervous System Expression of PPARγ and Mutant PPARγ Has Profound Effects on Metabolic Regulation and Brain Development.

  • Stump M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. Recent studies suggest PPARγ may mediate some of its metabolic effects through actions in the brain. We used a Cre-recombinase-dependent (using NestinCre) conditionally activatable transgene expressing either wild-type (WT) or dominant-negative (P467L) PPARγ to examine mechanisms by which PPARγ in the nervous system controls energy balance. Inducible expression of PPARγ was evident throughout the brain. Expression of 2 PPARγ target genes, aP2 and CD36, was induced by WT but not P467L PPARγ in the brain. Surprisingly, NesCre/PPARγ-WT mice exhibited severe microcephaly and brain malformation, suggesting that PPARγ can modulate brain development. On the contrary, NesCre/PPARγ-P467L mice exhibited blunted weight gain to high-fat diet, which correlated with a decrease in lean mass and tissue masses, accompanied by elevated plasma GH, and depressed plasma IGF-1, indicative of GH resistance. There was no expression of the transgene in the pancreas but both fasting plasma glucose, and fed and fasted plasma insulin levels were markedly decreased. NesCre/PPARγ-P467L mice fed either control diet or high-fat diet displayed impaired glucose tolerance yet exhibited increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin and increased insulin receptor signaling in white adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. These observations support the concept that alterations in PPARγ-driven mechanisms in the nervous system play a role in the regulation of growth and glucose metabolic homeostasis.

Conditional Deletion of the L-Type Calcium Channel Cav1.2 in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Affects Postnatal Myelination in Mice.

  • Cheli VT
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2KO) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1.2KO animals showed an important decrease in the percentage of myelinated axons and a substantial increase in the mean g-ratio of myelinated axons. The reduced myelination was accompanied by an important decline in the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and in the rate of OPC proliferation. Furthermore, using a triple transgenic mouse in which all of the Cav1.2KO OPCs were tracked by a Cre reporter, we found that Cav1.2KO OPCs produce less mature oligodendrocytes than control cells. Finally, live-cell imaging in early postnatal brain slices revealed that the migration and proliferation of subventricular zone OPCs is decreased in the Cav1.2KO mice. These results indicate that the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 modulates oligodendrocyte development and suggest that Ca2+ influx mediated by L-VOCCs in OPCs is necessary for normal myelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Overall, it is clear that cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage exhibit remarkable plasticity with regard to the expression of Ca2+ channels and that perturbation of Ca2+ homeostasis likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis underlying demyelinating diseases. To determine whether voltage-gated Ca2+ entry is involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, we used a conditional knock-out mouse for voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our results indicate that voltage-operated Ca2+ channels can modulate oligodendrocyte development in the postnatal brain and suggest that voltage-gated Ca2+ influx in oligodendroglial cells is critical for normal myelination. These findings could lead to novel approaches to intervene in neurodegenerative diseases in which myelin is lost or damaged.

Regulation of mTORC1 by lysosomal calcium and calmodulin.

  • Li RJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Blockade of lysosomal calcium release due to lysosomal lipid accumulation has been shown to inhibit mTORC1 signaling. However, the mechanism by which lysosomal calcium regulates mTORC1 has remained undefined. Herein we report that proper lysosomal calcium release through the calcium channel TRPML1 is required for mTORC1 activation. TRPML1 depletion inhibits mTORC1 activity, while overexpression or pharmacologic activation of TRPML1 has the opposite effect. Lysosomal calcium activates mTORC1 by inducing association of calmodulin (CaM) with mTOR. Blocking the interaction between mTOR and CaM by antagonists of CaM significantly inhibits mTORC1 activity. Moreover, CaM is capable of stimulating the kinase activity of mTORC1 in a calcium-dependent manner in vitro. These results reveal that mTOR is a new type of CaM-dependent kinase, and TRPML1, lysosomal calcium and CaM play essential regulatory roles in the mTORC1 signaling pathway.

Inheritable Silencing of Endogenous Genes by Hit-and-Run Targeted Epigenetic Editing.

  • Amabile A
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 22

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Abstract:

Gene silencing is instrumental to interrogate gene function and holds promise for therapeutic applications. Here, we repurpose the endogenous retroviruses' silencing machinery of embryonic stem cells to stably silence three highly expressed genes in somatic cells by epigenetics. This was achieved by transiently expressing combinations of engineered transcriptional repressors that bind to and synergize at the target locus to instruct repressive histone marks and de novo DNA methylation, thus ensuring long-term memory of the repressive epigenetic state. Silencing was highly specific, as shown by genome-wide analyses, sharply confined to the targeted locus without spreading to nearby genes, resistant to activation induced by cytokine stimulation, and relieved only by targeted DNA demethylation. We demonstrate the portability of this technology by multiplex gene silencing, adopting different DNA binding platforms and interrogating thousands of genomic loci in different cell types, including primary T lymphocytes. Targeted epigenome editing might have broad application in research and medicine.

Nuclear pore assembly proceeds by an inside-out extrusion of the nuclear envelope.

  • Otsuka S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 15

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Abstract:

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear envelope. How the NPC assembles into this double membrane boundary has remained enigmatic. Here, we captured temporally staged assembly intermediates by correlating live cell imaging with high-resolution electron tomography and super-resolution microscopy. Intermediates were dome-shaped evaginations of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), that grew in diameter and depth until they fused with the flat outer nuclear membrane. Live and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy revealed the molecular maturation of the intermediates, which initially contained the nuclear and cytoplasmic ring component Nup107, and only later the cytoplasmic filament component Nup358. EM particle averaging showed that the evagination base was surrounded by an 8-fold rotationally symmetric ring structure from the beginning and that a growing mushroom-shaped density was continuously associated with the deforming membrane. Quantitative structural analysis revealed that interphase NPC assembly proceeds by an asymmetric inside-out extrusion of the INM.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS051255(United States)

Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes.

  • Pylypenko O
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 13

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Abstract:

There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01DC009236(United States)

Immunotherapy With the PreS-based Grass Pollen Allergy Vaccine BM32 Induces Antibody Responses Protecting Against Hepatitis B Infection.

  • Cornelius C
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2016 Sep 28

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: We have constructed and clinically evaluated a hypoallergenic vaccine for grass pollen allergy, BM32, which is based on fusion proteins consisting of peptides from the IgE binding sites of the major grass pollen allergens fused to preS (preS1+preS2), a domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) large envelope protein which mediates the viral attachment and entry. Aim of this study was the characterization of the HBV-specific immune response induced by vaccination of allergic patients with BM32 and the investigation of the vaccines' potential to protect against infection with HBV. METHODS: Hepatitis B-specific antibody and T cell responses of patients vaccinated with BM32 were studied using recombinant preS and synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the preS sequence. The specificities of the antibody responses were compared with those of patients with chronic HBV infection. Furthermore, the capacity of BM32-induced antibodies, to inhibit HBV infection was investigated using HepG2-hNTCP cell-based in vitro virus neutralization assays. FINDINGS: IgG antibodies from BM32-vaccinated but not of HBV-infected individuals recognized the sequence motif implicated in NTCP (sodium-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide)-receptor interaction of the hepatitis B virus and inhibited HBV infection. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates that the recombinant hypoallergenic grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 induces hepatitis B-specific immune responses which protect against hepatitis B virus infection in vitro.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072197(United States)

Improvement of Physical Decline Through Combined Effects of Muscle Enhancement and Mitochondrial Activation by a Gastric Hormone Ghrelin in Male 5/6Nx CKD Model Mice.

  • Tamaki M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Oct 19

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Abstract:

Because a physical decline correlates with an increased risk of a wide range of disease and morbidity, an improvement of physical performance is expected to bring significant clinical benefits. The primary cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) chronic kidney disease model mice has been regarded as a decrease in muscle mass; however, our recent study showed that a decrease in muscle mitochondria plays a critical role. In the present study, we examined the effects of a gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to promote muscle mitochondrial oxidation, on the physical decline in the chronic kidney disease model mice, focusing on the epigenetic modulations of a mitochondrial activator gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Ghrelin treatment improved a decline in exercise endurance of 5/6Nx mice, associated with an increase in both of the muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. The expression level of PGC-1α was decreased in the skeletal muscle of 5/6Nx mice, which was associated with an increase in the methylation ratio of the cytosine residue at 260 base pairs upstream of the initiation point. Conversely, ghrelin treatment de-methylated the cytosine residue and increased the expression of PGC-1α. A representative muscle anabolic factor, IGF-1, did not affect the expression of PGC-1α and muscle mitochondrial amount, although it increased muscle mass. As a result, IGF-1 treatment in 5/6Nx mice did not increase the decreased exercise endurance as effectively as ghrelin treatment did. These findings indicate an advantage of ghrelin treatment for a recovery of physical decline.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG029430(United States)

Intrarenal ghrelin receptor antagonism prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension in male rats.

  • Kemp BA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

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Abstract:

Excess weight gain contributes up to 65% of the risk of primary hypertension, and the increase in blood pressure in response to high-fat diet (HFD) is preceded by significant increases in renal tubular sodium (Na(+)) reabsorption. In normal rats, intrarenal ghrelin infusion increases distal nephron-dependent Na(+) reabsorption via activation of the intrarenal ghrelin receptor (GHSR). This study focusses on the role of intrarenal GHSR-mediated Na(+) reabsorption in HFD-induced hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive rats received standard diet or HFD for 6 weeks. Rats underwent uninephrectomy and osmotic minipump implantation for chronic intrarenal delivery of vehicle (0.25 μL/h × 28 d), selective GHSR antagonist [D-Lys-3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (0.2μM/d), or GHSR inverse agonist [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-substance P (SUB-P) (3.6μM/d). HFD rats with vehicle pumps had significantly increased renal GHSR expression compared with standard diet (0.092 ± 0.005 vs 0.065 ± 0.004 arbitrary units; P < .05), whereas acyl ghrelin levels were similar (16.3±6.2 vs 15.7±8.7 pg/g tissue). HFD rats with vehicle pumps became hypertensive after 2 weeks (P < .05) and showed a significant reduction in 24-hour urine Na(+) before hypertension. At this time, these rats showed an increase in collecting duct α-epithelial Na(+) channel, thereby providing a potential mechanism for the excess Na(+) reabsorption. In contrast, HFD rats with [D-Lys-3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 or SUB-P pumps never became hypertensive and did not show the reduction in urine Na(+). Because SUB-P blocks the constitutive, but not ghrelin-dependent, activity of the GHSR, and HFD-induced α-epithelial Na(+) channel up-regulation was abolished during GHSR antagonism, these data suggest that HFD increases the constitutive activity of renal GHSR to increase Na(+) reabsorption and induce hypertension in rats.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007276(United States)

Wnt-dependent T-cell factor-4 controls human etravillous trophoblast motility.

  • Meinhardt G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

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Abstract:

Formation of migratory extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) is critical for human placentation and hence embryonic development. However, key regulatory growth factors, hormones, and nuclear proteins controlling the particular differentiation process remain poorly understood. Here, the role of the Wingless (Wnt)-dependent transcription factor T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4) in proliferation and motility was investigated using different trophoblast cell models. Immunofluorescence of first-trimester placental tissues revealed induction of TCF-4 and nuclear recruitment of its coactivator β-catenin in nonproliferating EVTs, whereas membrane-associated β-catenin decreased upon differentiation. In addition, EVTs expressed the TCF-4/β-catenin coactivator Pygopus 2 as well as repressors of the Groucho/transducin-like enhancer of split family. Western blotting revealed Pygopus 2 expression and up-regulation of integrin α1 and nuclear TCF-4 in purified first-trimester cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) differentiating on fibronectin. Concomitantly, elevated TCF-4 mRNA, quantitated by real-time PCR, and increased TCF-dependent luciferase reporter activity were noticed in EVTs of villous explant cultures and differentiated primary CTBs. Gene silencing using specific small interfering RNA decreased TCF-4 transcript and protein levels, TCF-dependent reporter activity as well as basal and Wnt3a-stimulated migration of trophoblastic SGHPL-5 cells and primary CTBs through fibronectin-coated transwells. In contrast, proliferation of SGHPL-5 cells and primary cells, measured by cumulative cell numbers and 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine labeling, respectively, was not affected. Moreover, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of TCF-4 in primary CTBs diminished markers of the differentiated EVT, such as integrin α1 and α5, Snail1, and Notch2. In summary, the data suggest that Wnt/TCF-4-dependent signaling could play a role in EVT differentiation promoting motility and expression of promigratory genes.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 323183(International)

Importance of C/EBPβ binding and histone acetylation status in the promoter regions for induction of IGFBP-1, PRL, and Mn-SOD by cAMP in human endometrial stromal cells.

  • Tamura I
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

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Abstract:

Dynamic changes of gene expressions occur in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) during decidualization. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteinβ (C/EBPβ) regulates the expression of a number of decidualization-related genes. In addition to transcription factors, it is important to know the role of epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications in the regulation of decidualization-related genes. This study investigated the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms by which cAMP up-regulates the expression of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), prolactin (PRL), and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in ESC. ESCs isolated from proliferative phase endometrium were incubated with cAMP to induce decidualization. IGFBP-1, PRL, and Mn-SOD mRNA expressions were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The C/EBPβ binding and histone modification status (acetylation of histone-H3 lysine-27 [H3K27ac]) in the promoter were examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Knockdowns of C/EBPβ were performed using the small interfering RNA method. cAMP induced mRNA expressions of IGFBP-1 and PRL accompanied by the increases in both C/EBPβ binding activities and H3K27ac levels in the promoters. The stimulatory effects of cAMP on mRNA levels and H3K27ac levels were completely abolished by C/EBPβ knockdown. cAMP increased Mn-SOD mRNA levels and C/EBPβ binding activities in the enhancer region. C/EBPβ knockdown inhibited Mn-SOD mRNA levels. The H3K27ac levels in the enhancer were high before cAMP stimulus but were not further increased by cAMP and were not inhibited by C/EBPβ knockdown. These results show that C/EBPβ regulates the expression of IGFBP-1 and PRL by altering the histone acetylation status of their promoters but differently regulates Mn-SOD gene expression in human ESC during decidualization.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA189437(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK098576(United States)

Lactational anovulation in mice results from a selective loss of kisspeptin input to GnRH neurons.

  • Liu X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

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Abstract:

In mammals, lactation is associated with a period of infertility characterized by the loss of pulsatile secretion of GnRH and cessation of ovulatory cycles. Despite the importance of lactational infertility in determining overall fecundity of a species, the mechanisms by which the suckling stimulus suppresses GnRH secretion remain unclear. Because kisspeptin neurons are critical for fertility, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced kisspeptin expression might mediate the lactation-induced suppression of fertility, using mouse models. In the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V), a progressive decrease in RP3V Kiss1 mRNA levels was observed during pregnancy culminating in a 10-fold reduction during lactation compared with diestrous controls. This was associated with approximately 60% reduction in the numbers of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the RP3V detected during lactation. Similarly, in the arcuate nucleus there was also a significant decrease in Kiss1 mRNA levels during late pregnancy and midlactation, and a notable decrease in kisspeptin fiber density during lactation. The functional characteristics of the RP3V kisspeptin input to GnRH neurons were assessed using electrophysiological approaches in an acute brain slice preparation. Although endogenous RP3V kisspeptin neurons were found to activate GnRH neurons in diestrous mice, this was never observed during lactation. This did not result from an absence of kisspeptin receptors because GnRH neurons responded normally to 100 nM exogenous kisspeptin during lactation. The kisspeptin deficit in lactating mice was selective, because GnRH neurons responded normally to RP3V gamma aminobutryic acid inputs during lactation. These data demonstrate that a selective loss of RP3V kisspeptin inputs to GnRH neurons during lactation is the likely mechanism causing lactational anovulation in the mouse.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R21DE025352(United States)

Alternative splice variants of the rainbow trout leptin receptor encode multiple circulating leptin-binding proteins.

  • Gong N
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

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Abstract:

In mammals, leptin (Lep) binding proteins (LepBPs) derived from Lep receptor (LepR) gene or protein bind most of the circulating Lep, but to date, information on LepBPs in nonmammalian vertebrate classes is lacking. This study details the characterization of multiple LepBPs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an early poikilothermic vertebrate, and presents the complete coding sequences for 3 of them. Size-exclusion chromatography and cross-linking assay identified plasma proteins bound to Lep ranging from 70 to 100 kDa. LepBPs were isolated from plasma by affinity chromatography, and their binding specificity was assessed by a competitive binding assay. A RIA for LepBPs indicates that plasma LepBP levels decline after fasting for 3 weeks. Immunoblotting of LepBPs using antibodies against different LepR epitopes shows that the LepBPs are indeed LepR isoforms. The alternatively spliced LepR transcripts (LepR(S1-3)) that include only the extracellular segment transcribe the 90-kDa LepBP1, the 80-kDa LepBP2, and the 70-kDa LepBP3, respectively. LepR(S1) generally has lower expression than the long-form LepR in most tissues. LepR(S2) is primarily expressed in adipose tissue, whereas LepR(S3) is expressed abundantly in brain and spleen, and moderately in liver and gills. The mRNA levels of hepatic LepR(S3) increase after 2 weeks of fasting. This study demonstrates a mechanism in fish for the generation of LepBPs that differs from that seen in mammals and indicates that the physiologic action of Lep in these poikilothermic vertebrates can be modulated, both centrally and peripherally, by the differentiated, tissue-specific expression of multiple LepBPs.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)