Literature context: yl Laboratories Cat# A300-774A; RRID:AB_669756 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Tet1 Gen
Transcription factor (TF)-mediated reprogramming to pluripotency is a slow and inefficient process, because most pluripotency TFs fail to access relevant target sites in a refractory chromatin environment. It is still unclear how TFs actually orchestrate the opening of repressive chromatin during the long latency period of reprogramming. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb plays a pioneering role in recruiting the core pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog to inactive enhancers in closed chromatin during the reprogramming of epiblast stem cells. Esrrb binds to silenced enhancers containing stable nucleosomes and hypermethylated DNA, which are inaccessible to the core factors. Esrrb binding is accompanied by local loss of DNA methylation, LIF-dependent engagement of p300, and nucleosome displacement, leading to the recruitment of core factors within approximately 2 days. These results suggest that TFs can drive rapid remodeling of the local chromatin structure, highlighting the remarkable plasticity of stable epigenetic information.
Literature context: Bethyl Laboratories A300-774A; RRID:AB_669756 CDK8 Bethyl Laboratories A302-5
Enhancers are thought to activate transcription by physically contacting promoters via looping. However, direct assays demonstrating these contacts are required to mechanistically verify such cellular determinants of enhancer function. Here, we present versatile cell-free assays to further determine the role of enhancer-promoter contacts (EPCs). We demonstrate that EPC is linked to mutually stimulatory transcription at the enhancer and promoter in vitro. SRC-3 was identified as a critical looping determinant for the estradiol-(E2)-regulated GREB1 locus. Surprisingly, the GREB1 enhancer and promoter contact two internal gene body SRC-3 binding sites, GBS1 and GBS2, which stimulate their transcription. Utilizing time-course 3C assays, we uncovered SRC-3-dependent dynamic chromatin interactions involving the enhancer, promoter, GBS1, and GBS2. Collectively, these data suggest that the enhancer and promoter remain "poised" for transcription via their contacts with GBS1 and GBS2. Upon E2 induction, GBS1 and GBS2 disengage from the enhancer, allowing direct EPC for active transcription.
Literature context: hyl Laboratories Cat#A300-774A; RRID:AB_669756 Mouse monoclonal anti-FLAG M2 S
Whereas the actions of enhancers in gene transcriptional regulation are well established, roles of JmjC-domain-containing proteins in mediating enhancer activation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that recruitment of the JmjC-domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-bound active enhancers is required for RNA polymerase II recruitment and enhancer RNA production on enhancers, resulting in transcriptional pause release of cognate estrogen target genes. JMJD6 is found to interact with MED12 in the mediator complex to regulate its recruitment. Unexpectedly, JMJD6 is necessary for MED12 to interact with CARM1, which methylates MED12 at multiple arginine sites and regulates its chromatin binding. Consistent with its role in transcriptional activation, JMJD6 is required for estrogen/ERα-induced breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis. Our data have uncovered a critical regulator of estrogen/ERα-induced enhancer coding gene activation and breast cancer cell potency, providing a potential therapeutic target of ER-positive breast cancers.
Literature context: 300-774A; RRID:AB_669756 anti-AFF4
The cellular transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 is required for initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) lytic infection and for reactivation from latency in sensory neurons. HCF-1 stabilizes the viral Immediate Early (IE) gene enhancer complex and mediates chromatin transitions to promote IE transcription initiation. In infected cells, HCF-1 was also found to be associated with a network of transcription elongation components including the super elongation complex (SEC). IE genes exhibit characteristics of genes controlled by transcriptional elongation, and the SEC-P-TEFb complex is specifically required to drive the levels of productive IE mRNAs. Significantly, compounds that enhance the levels of SEC-P-TEFb also potently stimulated HSV reactivation from latency both in a sensory ganglia model system and in vivo. Thus, transcriptional elongation of HSV IE genes is a key limiting parameter governing both the initiation of HSV infection and reactivation of latent genomes.