Literature context: RRID:AB_632138 Mouse monoclonal anti-GAPDH (Cl
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself. GDF11 bioactivity is instead lost because of deficiencies in its convertase, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), causing inactive GDF11 precursor to accumulate intracellularly. PCSK5 reconstitution mobilizes the latent TNBC reservoir of GDF11 in vitro and suppresses triple-negative mammary cancer metastasis to the lung of syngeneic hosts. Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations.
Literature context: t#sc-535; RRID:AB_632138 anti-TBP S
Hypoxia augments inflammatory responses and osteoclastogenesis by incompletely understood mechanisms. We identified COMMD1 as a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis that is suppressed by hypoxia. In human macrophages, COMMD1 restrained induction of NF-κB signaling and a transcription factor E2F1-dependent metabolic pathway by the cytokine RANKL. Downregulation of COMMD1 protein expression by hypoxia augmented RANKL-induced expression of inflammatory and E2F1 target genes and downstream osteoclastogenesis. E2F1 targets included glycolysis and metabolic genes including CKB that enabled cells to meet metabolic demands in challenging environments, as well as inflammatory cytokine-driven target genes. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis linked increased COMMD1 expression with decreased bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis. Myeloid deletion of Commd1 resulted in increased osteoclastogenesis in arthritis and inflammatory osteolysis models. These results identify COMMD1 and an E2F-metabolic pathway as key regulators of osteoclastogenic responses under pathological inflammatory conditions and provide a mechanism by which hypoxia augments inflammation and bone destruction.
Literature context: (RRID:AB_632138), p97 (RRI
The ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 is a key regulator of canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulation. Here, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1 (OTUD2) as a novel interactor of TRAF6 in human cells. YOD1 binds to the C-terminal TRAF homology domain of TRAF6 that also serves as the interaction surface for the adaptor p62/Sequestosome-1, which is required for IL-1 signaling to NF-κB. We show that YOD1 competes with p62 for TRAF6 association and abolishes the sequestration of TRAF6 to cytosolic p62 aggregates by a non-catalytic mechanism. YOD1 associates with TRAF6 in unstimulated cells but is released upon IL-1β stimulation, thereby facilitating TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination as well as NEMO/IKKγ substrate ubiquitination. Further, IL-1 triggered IKK/NF-κB signaling and induction of target genes is decreased by YOD1 overexpression and augmented after YOD1 depletion. Hence, our data define that YOD1 antagonizes TRAF6/p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.
Literature context: # sc-535, RRID:AB_632138) and rabbi
Statins are competitive inhibitors of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, a key enzyme involved in the conversion of HMG-CoA to the cholesterol precursor mevalonate. Some statins, such as simvastatin (simvastatin), have been shown to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, reducing cartilage degradation in osteoarthritic rabbits in vivo. However, the regulatory mechanisms undergirding simvastatin mediated chondrocyte differentiation have not been well elucidated. Thus, we investigated the action and mechanism of simvastatin on differentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes through western blot analyses, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. Simvastatin treatment was found to induce type II collagen expression and sulfated-proteoglycan synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indeed, RT-PCR revealed increased expression of type II collagen on treatment with simvastatin. Both IHC and IF staining indicated differentiation of chondrocytes. Simvastatin treatment reduced activation of ERK-1/2 and stimulated activation of p38 kinase. Inhibition of ERK-1/2 with PD98059 enhanced simvastatin induced differentiation, whereas inhibition of p38 kinase with SB203580 inhibited simvastatin induced differentiation. Simvastatin treatment also inhibits loss of type II collagen in serial monolayer culture. Collectively, our results indicate that ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase regulate simvastatin-induced differentiation of chondrocytes in opposing manners. Thus, these findings suggest that simvastatin may be a potential therapeutic drug for osteoarthritis.