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Goat Anti-NF kappa B p65 Polyclonal antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_632037

Antibody ID

AB_632037

Target Antigen

RELA human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-372, RRID:AB_632037)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Discontinued: 2016; validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: ELISA; Immunofluorescence; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation, Immunofluorescence, ELISA
Consolidated with AB_632038, and AB_2616336 on 09/14/16

Clone ID

C-20

Host Organism

rabbit

Analysis of Drosophila STING Reveals an Evolutionarily Conserved Antimicrobial Function.

  • Martin M
  • Cell Rep
  • 2018 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The vertebrate protein STING, an intracellular sensor of cyclic dinucleotides, is critical to the innate immune response and the induction of type I interferon during pathogenic infection. Here, we show that a STING ortholog (dmSTING) exists in Drosophila, which, similar to vertebrate STING, associates with cyclic dinucleotides to initiate an innate immune response. Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes, dmSTING activates an innate immune response via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor Relish, part of the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. DmSTING-mediated activation of the immune response reduces the levels of Listeria-induced lethality and bacterial load in the host. Of significance, dmSTING triggers an innate immune response in the absence of a known functional cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-AMP synthase (cGAS) ortholog in the fly. Together, our results demonstrate that STING is an evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial effector between flies and mammals, and it comprises a key component of host defense against pathogenic infection in Drosophila.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG040061-01A1(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - K99 AI106963()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R00 AI106963()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI128103()

T Cell Receptor-Regulated TGF-β Type I Receptor Expression Determines T Cell Quiescence and Activation.

  • Tu E
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is unclear how quiescence is enforced in naive T cells, but activation by foreign antigens and self-antigens is allowed, despite the presence of inhibitory signals. We showed that active transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling was present in naive T cells, and T cell receptor (TCR) engagement reduced TGF-β signaling during T cell activation by downregulating TGF-β type 1 receptor (TβRI) through activation of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). TGF-β prevented TCR-mediated TβRI downregulation, but this was abrogated by interleukin-6 (IL-6). Mitigation of TCR-mediated TβRI downregulation through overexpression of TβRI in naive and activated T cells rendered T cells less responsive and suppressed autoimmunity. Naive T cells in autoimmune patients exhibited reduced TβRI expression and increased TCR-driven proliferation compared to healthy subjects. Thus, TCR-mediated regulation of TβRI-TGF-β signaling acts as a crucial criterion to determine T cell quiescence and activation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Coordinates a Pro-carcinogenic Inflammatory Cascade via Targeting of Colonic Epithelial Cells.

  • Chung L
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pro-carcinogenic bacteria have the potential to initiate and/or promote colon cancer, in part via immune mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Using ApcMin mice colonized with the human pathobiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) as a model of microbe-induced colon tumorigenesis, we show that the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) triggers a pro-carcinogenic, multi-step inflammatory cascade requiring IL-17R, NF-κB, and Stat3 signaling in colonic epithelial cells (CECs). Although necessary, Stat3 activation in CECs is not sufficient to trigger ETBF colon tumorigenesis. Notably, IL-17-dependent NF-κB activation in CECs induces a proximal to distal mucosal gradient of C-X-C chemokines, including CXCL1, that mediates the recruitment of CXCR2-expressing polymorphonuclear immature myeloid cells with parallel onset of ETBF-mediated distal colon tumorigenesis. Thus, BFT induces a pro-carcinogenic signaling relay from the CEC to a mucosal Th17 response that results in selective NF-κB activation in distal colon CECs, which collectively triggers myeloid-cell-dependent distal colon tumorigenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA006973()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA062924()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA151325()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK087856()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK089502()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK080817()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM033279(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM111682()

Phospholipid localization implies microglial morphology and function via Cdc42 in vitro.

  • Tokizane K
  • Glia
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Under a quiescent state, microglia exhibit a ramified shape, rather than the amoeboid-like morphology following injury or inflammation. The manipulation of microglial morphology in vitro has not been very successful, which has impeded the progress of microglial studies. We demonstrate that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), a kind of lysophospholipids, rapidly and substantially alters the morphology of primary cultured microglia to an in vivo-like ramified shape in a receptor independent manner. This mechanism is mediated by Cdc42 activity. LysoPS is incorporated into the plasma membrane and converted to phosphatidylserine (PS) via the Lands' cycle. The accumulated PS on the membrane recruits Cdc42. Both Cdc42 and PS colocalize predominantly in primary and secondary processes, but not in peripheral branches or tips of microglia. Along with the morphological changes LysoPS suppresses inflammatory cytokine production and NF-kB activity. The present study provides a tool to manipulate a microglial phenotype from an amoeboid to a fully ramified in vitro, which certainly contributes to studies exploring microglial physiology and pathology.

Intestinal Epithelial Cell Autophagy Is Required to Protect against TNF-Induced Apoptosis during Chronic Colitis in Mice.

  • Pott J
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Genome-wide association studies have linked polymorphisms in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the cell-type-specific effects of autophagy on the regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation have not been investigated. Here, we assessed the effect of myeloid-specific or intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of Atg16l1 on chronic colitis triggered by the intestinal opportunistic pathogen Helicobacter hepaticus in mice. Although Atg16l1 deficiency in myeloid cells had little effect on disease, mice selectively lacking Atg16l1 in IECs (Atg16l1VC) developed severely exacerbated pathology, accompanied by elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and increased IEC apoptosis. Using ex vivo IEC organoids, we demonstrate that autophagy intrinsically controls TNF-induced apoptosis and in vivo blockade of TNF attenuated the exacerbated pathology in Atg16l1VC mice. These findings suggest that the IBD susceptibility gene ATG16L1 and the process of autophagy within the epithelium control inflammation-induced apoptosis and barrier integrity to limit chronic intestinal inflammation.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MR/K011898/1()
  • NLM NIH HHS - R01 LM010022(United States)

PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB-Signaling Cascade Is Crucial for Epigenetic Control of the Inflammatory Response.

  • Kim D
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The inflammatory response mediated by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling is essential for host defense against pathogens. Although the regulatory mechanism of NF-κB signaling has been well studied, the molecular basis for epigenetic regulation of the inflammatory response is poorly understood. Here we identify a new signaling axis of PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB, which is critical for activation and amplification of the inflammatory response. In response to excessive inflammatory stimuli, PKCα translocates to the nucleus and phosphorylates LSD1. LSD1 phosphorylation is required for p65 binding and facilitates p65 demethylation, leading to enhanced stability. In vivo genetic analysis using Lsd1SA/SA mice with ablation of LSD1 phosphorylation and chemical approaches in wild-type mice with inhibition of PKCα or LSD1 activity show attenuated sepsis-induced inflammatory lung injury and mortality. Together, we demonstrate that the PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB signaling cascade is crucial for epigenetic control of the inflammatory response, and targeting this signaling could be a powerful therapeutic strategy for systemic inflammatory diseases, including sepsis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 1P01CA163205-01A1(United States)

B Cell Receptor and CD40 Signaling Are Rewired for Synergistic Induction of the c-Myc Transcription Factor in Germinal Center B Cells.

  • Luo W
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Positive selection of germinal center (GC) B cells is driven by B cell receptor (BCR) affinity and requires help from follicular T helper cells. The transcription factors c-Myc and Foxo1 are critical for GC B cell selection and survival. However, how different affinity-related signaling events control these transcription factors in a manner that links to selection is unknown. Here we showed that GC B cells reprogram CD40 and BCR signaling to transduce via NF-κB and Foxo1, respectively, whereas naive B cells propagate both signals downstream of either receptor. Although either BCR or CD40 ligation induced c-Myc in naive B cells, both signals were required to highly induce c-Myc, a critical mediator of GC B cell survival and cell cycle reentry. Thus, GC B cells rewire their signaling to enhance selection stringency via a requirement for both antigen receptor- and T cell-mediated signals to induce mediators of positive selection.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH091115(United States)

The Transcription Factor STAT6 Mediates Direct Repression of Inflammatory Enhancers and Limits Activation of Alternatively Polarized Macrophages.

  • Czimmerer Z
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The molecular basis of signal-dependent transcriptional activation has been extensively studied in macrophage polarization, but our understanding remains limited regarding the molecular determinants of repression. Here we show that IL-4-activated STAT6 transcription factor is required for the direct transcriptional repression of a large number of genes during in vitro and in vivo alternative macrophage polarization. Repression results in decreased lineage-determining transcription factor, p300, and RNA polymerase II binding followed by reduced enhancer RNA expression, H3K27 acetylation, and chromatin accessibility. The repressor function of STAT6 is HDAC3 dependent on a subset of IL-4-repressed genes. In addition, STAT6-repressed enhancers show extensive overlap with the NF-κB p65 cistrome and exhibit decreased responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide after IL-4 stimulus on a subset of genes. As a consequence, macrophages exhibit diminished inflammasome activation, decreased IL-1β production, and pyroptosis. Thus, the IL-4-STAT6 signaling pathway establishes an alternative polarization-specific epigenenomic signature resulting in dampened macrophage responsiveness to inflammatory stimuli.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - 1DP2OD001315-01(United States)

Myeloid Cell-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Induce Epithelial Mutagenesis.

  • Canli Ö
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to initiate and promote tumorigenesis by inducing DNA damage and to suppress tumor development by triggering apoptosis and senescence. The contribution of individual cell types in the tumor microenvironment to these contrasting effects remains poorly understood. We provide evidence that during intestinal tumorigenesis, myeloid cell-derived H2O2 triggers genome-wide DNA mutations in intestinal epithelial cells to stimulate invasive growth. Moreover, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in myeloid cells initiates tumor growth in various organs also in the absence of a carcinogen challenge in a paracrine manner. Our data identify an intricate crosstalk between myeloid cell-derived ROS molecules, oxidative DNA damage, and tumor necrosis factor α-mediated signaling to orchestrate a tumor-promoting microenvironment causing invasive cancer.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA100426-0141(United States)

Targeting Interleukin-1β Protects from Aortic Aneurysms Induced by Disrupted Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling.

  • Da Ros F
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aortic aneurysms are life-threatening conditions with effective treatments mainly limited to emergency surgery or trans-arterial endovascular stent grafts, thus calling for the identification of specific molecular targets. Genetic studies have highlighted controversial roles of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in aneurysm development. Here, we report on aneurysms developing in adult mice after smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific inactivation of Smad4, an intracellular transducer of TGF-β. The results revealed that Smad4 inhibition activated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in SMCs. This danger signal later recruited innate immunity in the adventitia through chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and modified the mechanical properties of the aortic wall, thus favoring vessel dilation. SMC-specific Smad4 deletion in Il1r1- or Ccr2-null mice resulted in milder aortic pathology. A chronic treatment with anti-IL-1β antibody effectively hampered aneurysm development. These findings identify a mechanistic target for controlling the progression of aneurysms with compromised TGF-β signaling, such as those driven by SMAD4 mutations.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039600(United States)

Role of A3 adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

  • Yan H
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Although the A1 and A2A adenosine receptors are important pharmacological targets in alleviating diabetic neuropathy, the role of the A3 adenosine receptor remains unknown. Because the A3 adenosine receptor regulates pain induced by chronic constriction injury or chemotherapy, its stimulation might also attenuate diabetic neuropathy. This study examines the effects of systemic treatment with the A3 adenosine receptor agonist 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamide (IB-MECA) on diabetic neuropathy and explores the putative mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects. We show that IB-MECA alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hypoalgesia in mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after streptozocin (STZ) treatment. Furthermore, IB-MECA prevented the reduction in sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. Similarly, IB-MECA inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord of mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. These phenomena were associated with reduction of A3 adenosine receptor expression in the spinal cord after long-term diabetes. Our results suggest that the A3 adenosine receptor plays a critical role in regulating diabetic neuropathy and that reduction in A3 adenosine receptor expression/function might contribute to the progression of diabetic neuropathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA ES102805(United States)

Anti-Inflammatory Chromatinscape Suggests Alternative Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Receptor Action.

  • Oh KS
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the widespread use of glucocorticoids (GCs), their anti-inflammatory effects are not understood mechanistically. Numerous investigations have examined the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation prior to inflammatory challenges. However, clinical situations are emulated by a GC intervention initiated in the midst of rampant inflammatory responses. To characterize the effects of a late GC treatment, we profiled macrophage transcriptional and chromatinscapes with Dexamethasone (Dex) treatment before or after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The late activation of GR had a similar gene-expression profile as from GR pre-activation, while ameliorating the disruption of metabolic genes. Chromatin occupancy of GR was not predictive of Dex-regulated gene expression, contradicting the "trans-repression by tethering" model. Rather, GR activation resulted in genome-wide blockade of NF-κB interaction with chromatin and directly induced inhibitors of NF-κB and AP-1. Our investigation using GC treatments with clinically relevant timing highlights mechanisms underlying GR actions for modulating the "inflamed epigenome."

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AG000390-01()

DNA strand breaks and TDP-43 mislocation are absent in the murine hSOD1G93A model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in vivo and in vitro.

  • Penndorf D
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase type-1 (hSOD1) gene are common in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). The pathophysiology has been linked to, e.g., organelle dysfunction, RNA metabolism and oxidative DNA damage conferred by SOD1 malfunction. However, apart from metabolically evoked DNA oxidation, it is unclear whether severe genotoxicity including DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs), originates from loss of function of nuclear SOD1 enzyme. Factors that endogenously interfere with DNA integrity and repair complexes in hSOD1-mediated fALS remain similarly unexplored. In this regard, uncontrolled activation of transposable elements (TEs) might contribute to DNA disintegration and neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the fALS-causing hSOD1G93A mutation in the generation of severe DNA damage beyond well-characterized DNA base oxidation. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in spinal tissue of hSOD1G93A-overexpressing mice and in corresponding motor neuron-enriched cell cultures in vitro. Overexpression of the hSOD1G93A locus did not change the threshold for severe DNA damage per se. We found that levels of SSBs and DSBs were unaltered between hSOD1G93A and control conditions, as demonstrated in post-mitotic motor neurons and in astrocytes susceptible to replication-dependent DNA breakage. Analogously, parameters indicative of DNA damage response processes were not activated in vivo or in vitro. Evidence for a mutation-related elevation in TE activation was not detected, in accordance with the absence of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy in terms of cytoplasmic mislocation or nuclear loss, as nuclear TDP-43 is supposed to silence TEs physiologically. Conclusively, the superoxide dismutase function of SOD1 might not be required to preserve DNA integrity in motor neurons, at least when the function of TDP-43 is unaltered. Our data establish a foundation for further investigations addressing functional TDP-43 interaction with ALS-relevant genetic mutations.

The role of autophagy in pro-inflammatory responses of microglia activation via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in vitro.

  • Ye J
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglia over-activation contributes to neurodegenerative processes by neurotoxin factors and pro-inflammatory molecules of pro-inflammatory processes. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy pathway might be involved in microglial activation, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we regulated autophagy pathway of microglia in vitro by autophagy inhibition (3-methyladenine treatment, siRNA-Beclin 1 or siRNA-ATG5 transfection) or induction (rapamycin treatment) in murine microglial BV-2 cells or cultured primary mouse microglial cells. And we found that autophagy inhibition could sensitize mitochondrial profile and microglial activation of cultured microglial cells, demonstrated by significant production of mitochondrial ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α and marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). These effects could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB or mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Meanwhile, induction of autophagy with rapamycin treatment could significantly suppress microglial inflammatory responses, mitochondrial ROS production, activation of MAPKs and NF-κB. Taken together, our in vitro results from primary cultured microglia and BV-2 cell lines indicated that autophagy inhibition might participate in brain macrophage or microglia over-activation and mitochondrial ROS generation might be involved in the regulatory microglial pro-inflammatory responses.

Hypothalamic AMPK-ER Stress-JNK1 Axis Mediates the Central Actions of Thyroid Hormones on Energy Balance.

  • Martínez-Sánchez N
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thyroid hormones (THs) act in the brain to modulate energy balance. We show that central triiodothyronine (T3) regulates de novo lipogenesis in liver and lipid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), respectively. Central T3 promotes hepatic lipogenesis with parallel stimulation of the thermogenic program in BAT. The action of T3 depends on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced regulation of two signaling pathways in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH): decreased ceramide-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which promotes BAT thermogenesis, and increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which controls hepatic lipid metabolism. Of note, ablation of AMPKα1 in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons of the VMH fully recapitulated the effect of central T3, pointing to this population in mediating the effect of central THs on metabolism. Overall, these findings uncover the underlying pathways through which central T3 modulates peripheral metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 DK107220()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK112698()
  • Wellcome Trust - P01 HL084207()

Caspase-8 contributes to angiogenesis and chemotherapy resistance in glioblastoma.

  • Fianco G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Caspase-8 is a key player in extrinsic apoptosis and its activity is often downregulated in cancer. However, human Caspase-8 expression is retained in some tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), suggesting that it may support cancer growth in these contexts. GBM, the most aggressive of the gliomas, is characterized by extensive angiogenesis and by an inflammatory microenvironment that support its development and resistance to therapies. We have recently shown that Caspase-8 sustains neoplastic transformation in vitro in human GBM cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that Caspase-8, through activation of NF-kB, enhances the expression and secretion of VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta and MCP-1, leading to neovascularization and increased resistance to Temozolomide. Importantly, the bioinformatics analysis of microarray gene expression data derived from a set of high-grade human gliomas, shows that high Caspase-8 expression levels correlate with a worse prognosis.

CRISPR/Cas9 Screens Reveal Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed B Cell Host Dependency Factors.

  • Ma Y
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and immunosuppression-related lymphomas. These B cell malignancies arise by distinct transformation pathways and have divergent viral and host expression programs. To identify host dependency factors resulting from these EBV+, B cell-transformed cell states, we performed parallel genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 loss-of-function screens in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These highlighted 57 BL and 87 LCL genes uniquely important for their growth and survival. LCL hits were enriched for EBV-induced genes, including viral super-enhancer targets. Our systematic approach uncovered key mechanisms by which EBV oncoproteins activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and evade tumor suppressor responses. LMP1-induced cFLIP was found to be critical for LCL defense against TNFα-mediated programmed cell death, whereas EBV-induced BATF/IRF4 were critical for BIM suppression and MYC induction in LCLs. Finally, EBV super-enhancer-targeted IRF2 protected LCLs against Blimp1-mediated tumor suppression. Our results identify viral transformation-driven synthetic lethal targets for therapeutic intervention.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI123420()

YOD1/TRAF6 association balances p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.

  • Schimmack G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 is a key regulator of canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulation. Here, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1 (OTUD2) as a novel interactor of TRAF6 in human cells. YOD1 binds to the C-terminal TRAF homology domain of TRAF6 that also serves as the interaction surface for the adaptor p62/Sequestosome-1, which is required for IL-1 signaling to NF-κB. We show that YOD1 competes with p62 for TRAF6 association and abolishes the sequestration of TRAF6 to cytosolic p62 aggregates by a non-catalytic mechanism. YOD1 associates with TRAF6 in unstimulated cells but is released upon IL-1β stimulation, thereby facilitating TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination as well as NEMO/IKKγ substrate ubiquitination. Further, IL-1 triggered IKK/NF-κB signaling and induction of target genes is decreased by YOD1 overexpression and augmented after YOD1 depletion. Hence, our data define that YOD1 antagonizes TRAF6/p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.

S-Nitrosylation of NF-κB p65 Inhibits TSH-Induced Na(+)/I(-) Symporter Expression.

  • Nicola JP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in a wide variety of cellular physiological processes. In thyroid cells, NO-synthase III-endogenously produced NO reduces TSH-stimulated thyroid-specific gene expression, suggesting a potential autocrine role of NO in modulating thyroid function. Further studies indicate that NO induces thyroid dedifferentiation, because NO donors repress TSH-stimulated iodide (I(-)) uptake. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the NO-inhibited Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated I(-) uptake in thyroid cells. We showed that NO donors reduce I(-) uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, which correlates with decreased NIS protein expression. NO-reduced I(-) uptake results from transcriptional repression of NIS gene rather than posttranslational modifications reducing functional NIS expression at the plasma membrane. We observed that NO donors repress TSH-induced NIS gene expression by reducing the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB subunit p65. NO-promoted p65 S-nitrosylation reduces p65-mediated transactivation of the NIS promoter in response to TSH stimulation. Overall, our data are consistent with the notion that NO plays a role as an inhibitory signal to counterbalance TSH-stimulated nuclear factor-κB activation, thus modulating thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS067017(United States)

Oleate Abrogates Palmitate-Induced Lipotoxicity and Proinflammatory Response in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells.

  • Gillet C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease associated with unequilibrated bone remodeling resulting from decreased bone formation and/or increased bone resorption, leading to progressive bone loss. In osteoporotic patients, low bone mass is associated with an increase of bone marrow fat resulting from accumulation of adipocytes within the bone marrow. Marrow adipocytes are active secretory cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids (FA) that influence the bone marrow microenvironment and alter the biology of neighboring cells. Therefore, we examined the effect of palmitate (Palm) and oleate (Ole), 2 highly prevalent FA in human organism and diet, on the function and survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and MSC-derived osteoblastic cells. The saturated FA Palm exerted a cytotoxic action via initiation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and ERK pathways. In addition, Palm induced a proinflammatory response, as determined by the up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 expression as well as the increase of IL-6 and IL-8 expression and secretion. Moreover, we showed that MSC-derived osteoblastic cells were more sensitive to lipotoxicity than undifferentiated MSC. The monounsaturated FA Ole fully neutralized Palm-induced lipotoxicity by impairing activation of the pathways triggered by the saturated FA. Moreover, Ole promoted Palm detoxification by fostering its esterification into triglycerides and storage in lipid droplets. Altogether, our data showed that physiological concentrations of Palm and Ole differently modulated cell death and function in bone cells. We therefore propose that FA could influence skeletal health.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK085916(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007104(United States)

TNF-α Suppressed FSH-Induced LH Receptor Expression Through Transcriptional Regulation in Rat Granulosa Cells.

  • Nakao K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several inflammatory cytokines regulate ovarian function. TNF-α is produced in granulosa cells under physiological conditions and has a reciprocal action on follicle development. In contrast, in pelvic inflammatory diseases, TNF-α is excessively produced in the pelvic cavity and has an adverse effect on reproductive functions. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of TNF-α on the expression of LH receptor (LHR) in immature rat granulosa cells. TNF-α suppressed FSH-induced LHR mRNA and protein expression and was not associated with cAMP accumulation. By using a luciferase assay, the construct containing base pairs -1389 to -1 of the rat Lhcgr promoter revealed that TNF-α decreased FSH-induced promoter activity. In response to TNF-α, nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 was translocated to the nucleus, and the suppressive effect of TNF-α on LHR mRNA expression was abrogated by an NF-κB inhibitor. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TNF-α induced the association of NF-κB p65 with the rat Lhcgr transcriptional promoter region. NF-κB p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) interact to mediate expression of several genes at a transcriptional level. HDAC activity is thought to induce tight connections within local chromatin structures and repress gene transcription. Furthermore, the TNF-α-induced suppression of LHR mRNA expression was blocked by an HDAC inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction of NF-κB p65 with HDAC in the promoter region of rat Lhcgr might be responsible for TNF-α action on the regulation of LHR.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078214(United States)

TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation stimulates skeletal muscle glycolytic metabolism through activation of HIF-1α.

  • Remels AH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

A shift in quadriceps muscle metabolic profile toward decreased oxidative metabolism and increased glycolysis is a consistent finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a trigger of this pathological metabolic adaptation. Indeed, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α impairs muscle oxidative metabolism through activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Putative effects on muscle glycolysis, however, are unclear. We hypothesized that TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling stimulates muscle glycolytic metabolism through activation of the glycolytic regulator hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Wild-type C2C12 and C2C12-IκBα-SR (blocked NF-κB signaling) myotubes were stimulated with TNF-α, and its effects on glycolytic metabolism and involvement of the HIF pathway herein were investigated. As proof of principle, expression of HIF signaling constituents was investigated in quadriceps muscle biopsies of a previously well-characterized cohort of clinically stable patients with severe COPD and healthy matched controls. TNF-α increased myotube glucose uptake and lactate production and enhanced the activity and expression levels of multiple effectors of muscle glycolytic metabolism in a NF-κB-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-α activated HIF signaling, which required classical NF-κB activation. Moreover, the knockdown of HIF-1α largely attenuated TNF-α-induced increases in glycolytic metabolism. Accordingly, the mRNA levels of HIF-1α and the HIF-1α target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were increased in muscle biopsies of COPD patients compared with controls, which was most pronounced in the patients with high levels of muscle TNF-α. In conclusion, these data show that TNF-α-induced classical NF-κB activation enhances muscle glycolytic metabolism in a HIF-1α-dependent manner.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

MicroRNA-7 protects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced cell death by targeting RelA.

  • Choi DC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial complex I impairment in PD is modeled in vitro by the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to the complex I inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). In the present study, we demonstrate that microRNA-7 (miR-7), which is expressed in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral neurons in mice and humans, protects cells from MPP+-induced toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, differentiated human neural progenitor ReNcell VM cells, and primary mouse neurons. RelA, a component of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), was identified to be downregulated by miR-7 using quantitative proteomic analysis. Through a series of validation experiments, it was confirmed that RelA mRNA is a target of miR-7 and is required for cell death following MPP+ exposure. Further, RelA mediates MPP+-induced suppression of NF-κB activity, which is essential for MPP+-induced cell death. Accordingly, the protective effect of miR-7 is exerted through relieving NF-κB suppression by reducing RelA expression. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which NF-κB suppression, rather than activation, underlies the cell death mechanism following MPP+ toxicity, have implications for the pathogenesis of PD, and suggest miR-7 as a therapeutic target for this disease.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR-17072(United States)

TRα protects against atherosclerosis in male mice: identification of a novel anti-inflammatory property for TRα in mice.

  • Billon C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased occurrence of atherosclerosis, suggesting some protective role for thyroid hormones (THs). Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factor to develop this disease. Here, we show that the well-known TH cholesterol lowering effect was dependent on TH nuclear receptor (TR)β liver activity. But most importantly, TRα was also shown to contribute of slowing down atherosclerosis progression via an independent mechanism. Introduction of TRα(0/0) deletion in the ApoE(-/-) background accelerated the appearance of plaques. Earlier cholesterol accumulation was detected in aorta macrophages, likely due to impaired cholesterol efflux. The IL-1β inflammatory cytokine was elevated in serum and macrophages in correlation with an activation of the AKT/nuclear factor κB pathway in these cells. Inhibition of AKT prevented inflammation and restored normal cholesterol efflux. Similar low-grade inflammation was identified in TRα(0/0) male mice. Thus, the mere absence of TRα is associated with elevated levels of cytokines likely responsible for cholesterol accumulation and atherosclerosis. This TRα protective activity should be relevant for other inflammatory pathologies.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM072881(United States)

Selective contribution of interleukin-6 and leptin to brain inflammatory signals induced by systemic LPS injection in mice.

  • Rummel C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study aimed to address the relative contributions of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the cytokine-like hormone leptin to the genomic activation of brain cells during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation. Wildtype and IL-6KO mice were injected with LPS (50 microg/kg, intraperitoneally) and the brains analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). LPS induced a pronounced nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) throughout the brains of wildtype mice, an effect that was significantly diminished, but not abolished, in the IL-6KOs. The remnant STAT3-activation, although still observed within some of the same areas activated by IL-6, was most intense in ependymal and meningial cells and along distinct blood vessels throughout the brain. This expression was almost totally abolished in the presence of an anti-leptin antiserum. Interestingly, the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES), the rate-limiting enzymes for synthesis of PGE2 by LPS, was diminished to a degree that correlated with the absence of IL-6 but not entirely with leptin. These results demonstrate that the induction of the inflammatory pathway in the brain is mediated by both IL-6 and leptin, which appear to work in tandem. Unlike IL-6, however, the contribution of leptin to this response was limited to distinct cell types/brain areas and STAT3-responsive target genes implicated in the brain-controlled sickness-type response. The physiological significance of leptin's action on meningeal and endothelial cells remains to be clarified but might reflect a role in LPS-induced immune cell infiltration into the brain.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01-DC00200(United States)