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HA-probe (Y-11) antibody

RRID:AB_631618

Antibody ID

AB_631618

Target Antigen

HA-probe (Y-11) n/a, human

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-805, RRID:AB_631618)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Discontinued: 2016; validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: IgY Western Blot; Immunoprecipitation; ELISA; Immunofluorescence; WB, IP, IF, FCM, ELISA

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Santa Cruz Biotechnology

BAI1 Suppresses Medulloblastoma Formation by Protecting p53 from Mdm2-Mediated Degradation.

  • Zhu D
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs) encompass 33 human transmembrane proteins with long N termini involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We show the ADGRB1 gene, which encodes Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), is epigenetically silenced in medulloblastomas (MBs) through a methyl-CpG binding protein MBD2-dependent mechanism. Knockout of Adgrb1 in mice augments proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors, and leads to accelerated tumor growth in the Ptch1+/- transgenic MB mouse model. BAI1 prevents Mdm2-mediated p53 polyubiquitination, and its loss substantially reduces p53 levels. Reactivation of BAI1/p53 signaling axis by a brain-permeable MBD2 pathway inhibitor suppresses MB growth in vivo. Altogether, our data define BAI1's physiological role in tumorigenesis and directly couple an ADGR to cancer formation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - ROP99020(Canada)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P20 CA151129()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA138292()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA086335()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163722()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS055077()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS096236()

FRMD8 promotes inflammatory and growth factor signalling by stabilising the iRhom/ADAM17 sheddase complex.

  • Künzel U
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many intercellular signals are synthesised as transmembrane precursors that are released by proteolytic cleavage ('shedding') from the cell surface. ADAM17, a membrane-tethered metalloprotease, is the primary shedding enzyme responsible for the release of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα and several EGF receptor ligands. ADAM17 exists in complex with the rhomboid-like iRhom proteins, which act as cofactors that regulate ADAM17 substrate shedding. Here we report that the poorly characterised FERM domain-containing protein FRMD8 is a new component of the iRhom2/ADAM17 sheddase complex. FRMD8 binds to the cytoplasmic N-terminus of iRhoms and is necessary to stabilise iRhoms and ADAM17 at the cell surface. In the absence of FRMD8, iRhom2 and ADAM17 are degraded via the endolysosomal pathway, resulting in the reduction of ADAM17-mediated shedding. We have confirmed the pathophysiological significance of FRMD8 in iPSC-derived human macrophages and mouse tissues, thus demonstrating its role in the regulated release of multiple cytokine and growth factor signals.

Funding information:
  • Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds - PhD Fellowship()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - 659166()
  • Medical Research Council - 1374214()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_EX_MR/N50192X/1()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS054042(United States)
  • Wellcome - 101035/Z/13/Z()
  • Wellcome - Oxford Wellcome Institutional Strategic Support Fund 121302()

EP300-Mediated Lysine 2-Hydroxyisobutyrylation Regulates Glycolysis.

  • Huang H
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib) is an evolutionarily conserved and widespread histone mark like lysine acetylation (Kac). Here we report that EP300 functions as a lysine 2-hyroxyisobutyryltransferase to regulate glycolysis in response to nutritional cues. We discovered that EP300 differentially regulates Khib and Kac on distinct lysine sites, with only 6 of the 149 EP300-targeted Khib sites overlapping with the 693 EP300-targeted Kac sites. We demonstrate that diverse cellular proteins, particularly glycolytic enzymes, are targeted by EP300 for Khib, but not for Kac. Specifically, deletion of EP300 significantly reduces Khib levels on several EP300-dependent, Khib-specific sites on key glycolytic enzymes including ENO1, decreasing their catalytic activities. Consequently, EP300-deficient cells have impaired glycolysis and are hypersensitive to glucose-depletion-induced cell death. Our study reveals an EP300-catalyzed, Khib-specific molecular mechanism that regulates cellular glucose metabolism and further indicate that EP300 has an intrinsic ability to select short-chain acyl-CoA-dependent protein substrates.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA ES102205-10()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK107868()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115961()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073502(United States)

A homozygous loss-of-function CAMK2A mutation causes growth delay, frequent seizures and severe intellectual disability.

  • Chia PH
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) plays fundamental roles in synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Here, we describe a new recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome with global developmental delay, seizures and intellectual disability. Using linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we found that this disease maps to chromosome 5q31.1-q34 and is caused by a biallelic germline mutation in CAMK2A. The missense mutation, p.His477Tyr is located in the CAMK2A association domain that is critical for its function and localization. Biochemically, the p.His477Tyr mutant is defective in self-oligomerization and unable to assemble into the multimeric holoenzyme.In vivo, CAMK2AH477Y failed to rescue neuronal defects in C. elegans lacking unc-43, the ortholog of human CAMK2A. In vitro, neurons derived from patient iPSCs displayed profound synaptic defects. Together, our data demonstrate that a recessive germline mutation in CAMK2A leads to neurodevelopmental defects in humans and suggest that dysfunctional CAMK2 paralogs may contribute to other neurological disorders.

Funding information:
  • Agency for Science, Technology and Research - GODAFIT Strategic Positioning Fund()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM080399(United States)

Remote Coupled Drastic β-Barrel to β-Sheet Transition of the Protein Translocation Motor.

  • Furukawa A
  • Structure
  • 2018 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The membrane protein SecDF, belonging to the RND superfamily, enhances protein translocation at the extracytoplasmic side using a proton gradient. Here, we report the crystal structure of SecDF in a form we named Super-membrane-facing (Super F) form, demonstrating a β-barrel architecture instead of the previously reported β-sheet structure. Through this structural insight and supporting results of an in vivo crosslinking experiment, we propose a remote coupling model in which a structural change of the transmembrane region drives a functional, extracytoplasmic conformational transition.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50MH103222(United States)

The SS18-SSX Oncoprotein Hijacks KDM2B-PRC1.1 to Drive Synovial Sarcoma.

  • Banito A
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive cancer invariably associated with a chromosomal translocation involving genes encoding the SWI-SNF complex component SS18 and an SSX (SSX1 or SSX2) transcriptional repressor. Using functional genomics, we identify KDM2B, a histone demethylase and component of a non-canonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1.1), as selectively required for sustaining synovial sarcoma cell transformation. SS18-SSX1 physically interacts with PRC1.1 and co-associates with SWI/SNF and KDM2B complexes on unmethylated CpG islands. Via KDM2B, SS18-SSX1 binds and aberrantly activates expression of developmentally regulated genes otherwise targets of polycomb-mediated repression, which is restored upon KDM2B depletion, leading to irreversible mesenchymal differentiation. Thus, SS18-SSX1 deregulates developmental programs to drive transformation by hijacking a transcriptional repressive complex to aberrantly activate gene expression.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0900871(United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA013106()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD020122()

The Dietary Supplement Chondroitin-4-Sulfate Exhibits Oncogene-Specific Pro-tumor Effects on BRAF V600E Melanoma Cells.

  • Lin R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mechanistically, chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T) signals through its product CHSA to enhance casein kinase 2 (CK2)-PTEN binding and consequent phosphorylation and inhibition of PTEN, which requires CHSA chains and is essential to sustain AKT activation in BRAF V600E-expressing melanoma cells. However, this CHSA-dependent PTEN inhibition is dispensable in cancer cells expressing mutant NRAS or PI3KCA, which directly activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. These results suggest that dietary supplements may exhibit oncogene-dependent pro-tumor effects.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140515()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA174786()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183594()
  • Wellcome Trust - 090532(United Kingdom)

Astroglial major histocompatibility complex class I following immune activation leads to behavioral and neuropathological changes.

  • Sobue A
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the central nervous system, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules are mainly expressed in neurons, and neuronal MHCI have roles in synapse elimination and plasticity. However, the pathophysiological significance of astroglial MHCI remains unclear. We herein demonstrate that MHCI expression is up-regulated in astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following systemic immune activation by an intraperitoneal injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) or hydrodynamic interferon (IFN)-γ gene delivery in male C57/BL6J mice. In cultured astrocytes, MHCI/H-2D largely co-localized with exosomes. To investigate the role of astroglial MHCI, H-2D, or sH-2D was expressed in the mPFC of male C57/BL6J mice using an adeno-associated virus vector under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. The expression of astroglial MHCI in the mPFC impaired sociability and recognition memory in mice. Regarding neuropathological changes, MHCI expression in astrocytes significantly activated microglial cells, decreased parvalbumin-positive cell numbers, and reduced dendritic spine density in the mPFC. A treatment with GW4869 that impairs exosome synthesis ameliorated these behavioral and neuropathological changes. These results suggest that the overexpression of MHCI in astrocytes affects microglial proliferation as well as neuronal numbers and spine densities, thereby leading to social and cognitive deficits in mice, possibly via exosomes created by astrocytes.

Tension-Dependent Stretching Activates ZO-1 to Control the Junctional Localization of Its Interactors.

  • Spadaro D
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis, but the molecular mechanisms behind this regulation are poorly understood. Using structured illumination microscopy and proximity ligation assays, we show that the tight junction protein ZO-1 exists in stretched and folded conformations within epithelial cells, depending on actomyosin-generated force. We also show that ZO-1 and ZO-2 regulate the localization of the transcription factor DbpA and the tight junction membrane protein occludin in a manner that depends on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin-II activity, and substrate stiffness, resulting in modulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, barrier function, and cyst morphogenesis. Pull-down experiments show that interactions between N-terminal (ZPSG) and C-terminal domains of ZO-1 prevent binding of DbpA to the ZPSG, suggesting that force-dependent intra-molecular interactions regulate ZPSG binding to ligands within cells. In vivo and in vitro experiments also suggest that ZO-1 heterodimerization with ZO-2 promotes the stretched conformation and ZPSG interaction with ligands. Magnetic tweezers single-molecule experiments suggest that pN-scale tensions (∼2-4 pN) are sufficient to maintain the stretched conformation of ZO-1, while keeping its structured domains intact, and that 5-20 pN force is required to disrupt the interaction between the extreme C-terminal and the ZPSG domains of ZO-1. We propose that tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis by activating ZO proteins through stretching, to control the junctional recruitment and downstream signaling of their interactors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI090166(United States)

Molecular Dissection of Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 Reveals an Essential Framework for GABAergic Synapse Development.

  • Li J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the brain, many types of interneurons make functionally diverse inhibitory synapses onto principal neurons. Although numerous molecules have been identified to function in inhibitory synapse development, it remains unknown whether there is a unifying mechanism for development of diverse inhibitory synapses. Here we report a general molecular mechanism underlying hippocampal inhibitory synapse development. In developing neurons, the establishment of GABAergic transmission depends on Neuroligin 2 (NL2), a synaptic cell adhesion molecule (CAM). During maturation, inhibitory synapse development requires both NL2 and Slitrk3 (ST3), another CAM. Importantly, NL2 and ST3 interact with nanomolar affinity through their extracellular domains to synergistically promote synapse development. Selective perturbation of the NL2-ST3 interaction impairs inhibitory synapse development with consequent disruptions in hippocampal network activity and increased seizure susceptibility. Our findings reveal how unique postsynaptic CAMs work in concert to control synaptogenesis and establish a general framework for GABAergic synapse development.

H3.3K27M Cooperates with Trp53 Loss and PDGFRA Gain in Mouse Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells to Induce Invasive High-Grade Gliomas.

  • Pathania M
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gain-of-function mutations in histone 3 (H3) variants are found in a substantial proportion of pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), often in association with TP53 loss and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) amplification. Here, we describe a somatic mouse model wherein H3.3K27M and Trp53 loss alone are sufficient for neoplastic transformation if introduced in utero. H3.3K27M-driven lesions are clonal, H3K27me3 depleted, Olig2 positive, highly proliferative, and diffusely spreading, thus recapitulating hallmark molecular and histopathological features of pHGG. Addition of wild-type PDGFRA decreases latency and increases tumor invasion, while ATRX knockdown is associated with more circumscribed tumors. H3.3K27M-tumor cells serially engraft in recipient mice, and preliminary drug screening reveals mutation-specific vulnerabilities. Overall, we provide a faithful H3.3K27M-pHGG model which enables insights into oncohistone pathogenesis and investigation of future therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA196539()

An Eya1-Notch axis specifies bipotential epibranchial differentiation in mammalian craniofacial morphogenesis.

  • Zhang H
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Craniofacial morphogenesis requires proper development of pharyngeal arches and epibranchial placodes. We show that the epibranchial placodes, in addition to giving rise to cranial sensory neurons, generate a novel lineage-related non-neuronal cell population for mouse pharyngeal arch development. Eya1 is essential for the development of epibranchial placodes and proximal pharyngeal arches. We identify an Eya1-Notch regulatory axis that specifies both the neuronal and non-neuronal commitment of the epibranchial placode, where Notch acts downstream of Eya1 and promotes the non-neuronal cell fate. Notch is regulated by the threonine phosphatase activity of Eya1. Eya1 dephosphorylates p-threonine-2122 of the Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1 ICD), which increases the stability of Notch1 ICD and maintains Notch signaling activity in the non-neuronal epibranchial placodal cells. Our data unveil a more complex differentiation program in epibranchial placodes and an important role for the Eya1-Notch axis in craniofacial morphogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007088(United States)

NOTCH2 Hajdu-Cheney Mutations Escape SCFFBW7-Dependent Proteolysis to Promote Osteoporosis.

  • Fukushima H
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS), a rare autosomal disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in NOTCH2, is clinically characterized by acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. Recent studies identified that aberrant NOTCH2 signaling and consequent osteoclast hyperactivity are closely associated with the bone-related disorder pathogenesis, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that sustained osteoclast activity is largely due to accumulation of NOTCH2 carrying a truncated C terminus that escapes FBW7-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Mice with osteoclast-specific Fbw7 ablation revealed osteoporotic phenotypes reminiscent of HCS, due to elevated Notch2 signaling. Importantly, administration of Notch inhibitors in Fbw7 conditional knockout mice alleviated progressive bone resorption. These findings highlight the molecular basis of HCS pathogenesis and provide clinical insights into potential targeted therapeutic strategies for skeletal disorders associated with the aberrant FBW7/NOTCH2 pathway as observed in patients with HCS.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH086920(United States)

ASF1a Promotes Non-homologous End Joining Repair by Facilitating Phosphorylation of MDC1 by ATM at Double-Strand Breaks.

  • Lee KY
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) of DNA in eukaryotic cells are predominantly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The histone chaperone anti-silencing factor 1a (ASF1a) interacts with MDC1 and is recruited to sites of DSBs to facilitate the interaction of phospho-ATM with MDC1 and phosphorylation of MDC1, which are required for the recruitment of RNF8/RNF168 histone ubiquitin ligases. Thus, ASF1a deficiency reduces histone ubiquitination at DSBs, decreasing the recruitment of 53BP1, and decreases NHEJ, rendering cells more sensitive to DSBs. This role of ASF1a in DSB repair cannot be provided by the closely related ASF1b and does not require its histone chaperone activity. Homozygous deletion of ASF1A is seen in 10%-15% of certain cancers, suggesting that loss of NHEJ may be selected in some malignancies and that the deletion can be used as a molecular biomarker for cancers susceptible to radiotherapy or to DSB-inducing chemotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA044579()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA060499()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA166054()

Increased GSNOR Expression during Aging Impairs Cognitive Function and Decreases S-Nitrosation of CaMKIIα.

  • Zhang Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

As the population ages, an increasing number of people suffer from age-related cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we found that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), the key enzyme that metabolizes intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and regulates S-nitrosation, was significantly increased in the hippocampus of both aging humans and mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing GSNOR exclusively in neurons showed cognitive impairment in behavioral tests, including the Morris water maze, fear conditioning, and the Y-maze test. We also found that GSNOR transgenic mice have LTP defects and lower dendrite spine density, whereas GSNOR knock-out mice rescued the age-related cognitive impairment. Analysis of S-nitrosation showed significantly decreased hippocampal CaMKIIα S-nitrosation in naturally aged mice and GSNOR transgenic mice. Consistent with the change in CaMKIIα S-nitrosation, the accumulation of CaMKIIα in the hippocampal synaptosomal fraction, as well as its downstream signaling targets p(S831)-GLUR1, was also significantly decreased. All these effects could be rescued in the GSNOR knock-out mice. We further verified that the S-nitrosation of CaMKIIα was responsible for the CaMKIIα synaptosomal accumulation by mutating CaMKIIα S-nitrosated sites (C280/C289). Upregulation of the NO signaling pathway rescued the cognitive impairment in GSNOR transgenic mice. In summary, our research demonstrates that GSNOR impairs cognitive function in aging and it could serve as a new potential target for the treatment of age-related cognitive impairment. In contrast to the free radical theory of aging, NO signaling deficiency may be the main mediator of age-related cognitive impairment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study indicated that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), a key protein S-nitrosation metabolic enzyme, is a new potential target in age-related cognitive impairment; and in contrast to the free radical theory of aging, NO signaling deficiency may be the main cause of this process. In addition, increased GSNOR expression during aging decreases S-nitrosation of CaMKIIα and reduces CaMKIIα synaptosomal accumulation. To our knowledge, it is for the first time to show the cellular function regulation of CaMKIIα by GSNOR-dependent S-nitrosation as a new post-translational modification after its phosphorylation was explored. These findings elucidate a novel mechanism of age-related cognitive impairment and may provide a new potential target and strategy for slowing down this process.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS07092(United States)

Cdc25A Is a Critical Mediator of Ischemic Neuronal Death In Vitro and In Vivo.

  • Iyirhiaro GO
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dysregulation of cell cycle machinery is implicated in a number of neuronal death contexts, including stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are inappropriately activated in mature neurons under ischemic stress conditions. We previously demonstrated a functional role for the cyclin D1/Cdk4/pRb (retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) pathway in delayed neuronal death induced by ischemia. However, the molecular signals leading to cyclin D/Cdk4/pRb activation following ischemic insult are presently not clear. Here, we investigate the cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) dual-specificity phosphatases as potential upstream regulators of ischemic neuronal death and Cdk4 activation. We show that a pharmacologic inhibitor of Cdc25 family members (A, B, and C) protects mouse primary neurons from hypoxia-induced delayed death. The major contributor to the death process appears to be Cdc25A. shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cdc25A protects neurons in a delayed model of hypoxia-induced death in vitro Similar results were observed in vivo following global ischemia in the rat. In contrast, neurons singly or doubly deficient for Cdc25B/C were not significantly protective. We show that Cdc25A activity, but not level, is upregulated in vitro following hypoxia and global ischemic insult in vivo Finally, we show that shRNA targeting Cdc25A blocks Ser795 pRb phosphorylation. Overall, our results indicate a role for Cdc25A in delayed neuronal death mediated by ischemia.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A major challenge in stroke is finding an effective neuroprotective strategy to treat cerebral ischemic injury. Cdc25 family member A (Cdc25A) is a phosphatase normally activated during cell division in proliferating cells. We found that Cdc25A is activated in neurons undergoing ischemic stress mediated by hypoxia in vitro and global cerebral ischemia in rats in vivo We show that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of Cdc25A activity protects neurons from delayed death in vitro and in vivo Downregulation of Cdc25A led to reduction in retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) phosphorylation. An increase in pRb phosphorylation has been previously linked to ischemic neuronal death. Our results identify Cdc25A as a potential target for neuroprotectant strategy for the treatment of delayed ischemic neuronal death.

EDEM Function in ERAD Protects against Chronic ER Proteinopathy and Age-Related Physiological Decline in Drosophila.

  • Sekiya M
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model. ERAD activity in the brain decreased with aging, and upregulation of EDEMs suppressed age-dependent behavioral decline and extended the lifespan without affecting the UPR gene expression network. Intriguingly, EDEM mannosidase activity was dispensable for these protective effects. Therefore, upregulation of EDEM function in the ERAD protects against ER proteinopathy in vivo and thus represents a potential therapeutic target for chronic diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG032279()
  • NIA NIH HHS - U01 AG046170()

The Super Elongation Complex Drives Neural Stem Cell Fate Commitment.

  • Liu K
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription. HES in turn upregulates SEC activity, forming an unexpected self-reinforcing feedback loop with SEC. SEC inactivation leads to neuroblast loss, whereas its forced activation results in neural progenitor dedifferentiation and tumorigenesis. Our studies unveil an SEC-mediated intracellular amplifier mechanism in ensuring robustness and precision in stem cell fate commitment and provide mechanistic explanation for the highly frequent association of SEC overactivation with human cancers.

An Interaction Landscape of Ubiquitin Signaling.

  • Zhang X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intracellular signaling via the covalent attachment of different ubiquitin linkages to protein substrates is fundamental to many cellular processes. Although linkage-selective ubiquitin interactors have been studied on a case-by-case basis, proteome-wide analyses have not been conducted yet. Here, we present ubiquitin interactor affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry (UbIA-MS), a quantitative interaction proteomics method that makes use of chemically synthesized diubiquitin to enrich and identify ubiquitin linkage interactors from crude cell lysates. UbIA-MS reveals linkage-selective diubiquitin interactions in multiple cell types. For example, we identify TAB2 and TAB3 as novel K6 diubiquitin interactors and characterize UCHL3 as a K27-linkage selective interactor that regulates K27 polyubiquitin chain formation in cells. Additionally, we show a class of monoubiquitin and K6 diubiquitin interactors whose binding is induced by DNA damage. We expect that our proteome-wide diubiquitin interaction landscape and established workflows will have broad applications in the ongoing efforts to decipher the complex language of ubiquitin signaling.

PCGF6-PRC1 suppresses premature differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by regulating germ cell-related genes.

  • Endoh M
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a subset of PRC1 target genes by recruiting RING1B and mediating downstream mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A. PCGF6-PRC1 bound loci are highly enriched for promoters of germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conditional ablation of Pcgf6 in ESCs leads to robust de-repression of such germ cell-related genes, in turn affecting cell growth and viability. We also find a role for PCGF6 in pre- and peri-implantation mouse embryonic development. We further show that a heterodimer of the transcription factors MAX and MGA recruits PCGF6 to target loci. PCGF6 thus links sequence specific target recognition by the MAX/MGA complex to PRC1-dependent transcriptional silencing of germ cell-specific genes in pluripotent stem cells.

Prohibitin 2 Is an Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Mitophagy Receptor.

  • Wei Y
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The removal of unwanted or damaged mitochondria by autophagy, a process called mitophagy, is essential for key events in development, cellular homeostasis, tumor suppression, and prevention of neurodegeneration and aging. However, the precise mechanisms of mitophagy remain uncertain. Here, we identify the inner mitochondrial membrane protein, prohibitin 2 (PHB2), as a crucial mitophagy receptor involved in targeting mitochondria for autophagic degradation. PHB2 binds the autophagosomal membrane-associated protein LC3 through an LC3-interaction region (LIR) domain upon mitochondrial depolarization and proteasome-dependent outer membrane rupture. PHB2 is required for Parkin-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells and for the clearance of paternal mitochondria after embryonic fertilization in C. elegans. Our findings pinpoint a conserved mechanism of eukaryotic mitophagy and demonstrate a function of prohibitin 2 that may underlie its roles in physiology, aging, and disease.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA142543()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA109618()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - K08 AI099150()

The novel SH3 domain protein Dlish/CG10933 mediates fat signaling in Drosophila by binding and regulating Dachs.

  • Zhang Y
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue. Our evidence supports dual roles for Dlish. Dlish tethers Dachs to the subapical cell cortex, an effect partly mediated by the palmitoyltransferase Approximated under the control of Fat. Conversely, Dlish promotes the Fat-mediated degradation of Dachs.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007516(United States)

Toxic PR Poly-Dipeptides Encoded by the C9orf72 Repeat Expansion Target LC Domain Polymers.

  • Lin Y
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Two complementary approaches were used in search of the intracellular targets of the toxic PR poly-dipeptide encoded by the repeat sequences expanded in the C9orf72 form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The top categories of PRn-bound proteins include constituents of non-membrane invested cellular organelles and intermediate filaments. PRn targets are enriched for the inclusion of low complexity (LC) sequences. Evidence is presented indicating that LC sequences represent the direct target of PRn binding and that interaction between the PRn poly-dipeptide and LC domains is polymer-dependent. These studies indicate that PRn-mediated toxicity may result from broad impediments to the dynamics of cell structure and information flow from gene to message to protein.

Germline NLRP1 Mutations Cause Skin Inflammatory and Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes via Inflammasome Activation.

  • Zhong FL
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inflammasome complexes function as key innate immune effectors that trigger inflammation in response to pathogen- and danger-associated signals. Here, we report that germline mutations in the inflammasome sensor NLRP1 cause two overlapping skin disorders: multiple self-healing palmoplantar carcinoma (MSPC) and familial keratosis lichenoides chronica (FKLC). We find that NLRP1 is the most prominent inflammasome sensor in human skin, and all pathogenic NLRP1 mutations are gain-of-function alleles that predispose to inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, NLRP1 mutations lead to increased self-oligomerization by disrupting the PYD and LRR domains, which are essential in maintaining NLRP1 as an inactive monomer. Primary keratinocytes from patients experience spontaneous inflammasome activation and paracrine IL-1 signaling, which is sufficient to cause skin inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia. Our findings establish a group of non-fever inflammasome disorders, uncover an unexpected auto-inhibitory function for the pyrin domain, and provide the first genetic evidence linking NLRP1 to skin inflammatory syndromes and skin cancer predisposition.

GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons.

  • Gu X
  • Nat Commun
  • 2016 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs.