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Actin (C-11) antibody

RRID:AB_630835

Antibody ID

AB_630835

Target Antigen

ACTG1, ACTC1, ACTA1, ACTA2, ACTG2, ACTB human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-1615, RRID:AB_630835)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Discontinued: 2016; validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: ELISA; Flow Cytometry; Immunofluorescence; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation, Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, ELISA

Clone ID

C-11

Host Organism

goat

LOX-catalyzed collagen stabilization is a proximal cause for intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy.

  • Rossow L
  • Oncogene
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The potential of altering the tumor ECM to improve drug response remains fairly unexplored. To identify targets for modification of the ECM aiming to improve drug response and overcome resistance, we analyzed expression data sets from pre-treatment patient cohorts. Cross-evaluation identified a subset of chemoresistant tumors characterized by increased expression of collagens and collagen-stabilizing enzymes. We demonstrate that strong collagen expression and stabilization sets off a vicious circle of self-propagating hypoxia, malignant signaling, and aberrant angiogenesis that can be broken by an appropriate auxiliary intervention: Interfering with collagen stabilization by inhibition of lysyl oxidases significantly enhanced response to chemotherapy in various tumor models, even in metastatic disease. Inhibition of collagen stabilization by itself can reduce or enhance tumor growth depending on the tumor type. The mechanistical basis for this behavior is the dependence of the individual tumor on nutritional supply on one hand and on high tissue stiffness for FAK signaling on the other.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA122086(United States)

KLRG1+ Effector CD8+ T Cells Lose KLRG1, Differentiate into All Memory T Cell Lineages, and Convey Enhanced Protective Immunity.

  • Herndler-Brandstetter D
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protective immunity against pathogens depends on the efficient generation of functionally diverse effector and memory T lymphocytes. However, whether plasticity during effector-to-memory CD8+ T cell differentiation affects memory lineage specification and functional versatility remains unclear. Using genetic fate mapping analysis of highly cytotoxic KLRG1+ effector CD8+ T cells, we demonstrated that KLRG1+ cells receiving intermediate amounts of activating and inflammatory signals downregulated KLRG1 during the contraction phase in a Bach2-dependent manner and differentiated into all memory T cell linages, including CX3CR1int peripheral memory cells and tissue-resident memory cells. "ExKLRG1" memory cells retained high cytotoxic and proliferative capacity distinct from other populations, which contributed to effective anti-influenza and anti-tumor immunity. Our work demonstrates that developmental plasticity of KLRG1+ effector CD8+ T cells is important in promoting functionally versatile memory cells and long-term protective immunity.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32AI055434(United States)

Dissecting the Functional Consequences of De Novo DNA Methylation Dynamics in Human Motor Neuron Differentiation and Physiology.

  • Ziller MJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The somatic DNA methylation (DNAme) landscape is established early in development but remains highly dynamic within focal regions that overlap with gene regulatory elements. The significance of these dynamic changes, particularly in the central nervous system, remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a powerful human embryonic stem cell differentiation model for the generation of motor neurons (MNs) in combination with genetic mutations in the de novo DNAme machinery. We quantitatively dissect the role of DNAme in directing somatic cell fate with high-resolution genome-wide bisulfite-, bulk-, and single-cell-RNA sequencing. We find defects in neuralization and MN differentiation in DNMT3A knockouts (KO) that can be rescued by the targeting of DNAme to key developmental loci using catalytically inactive dCas9. We also find decreased dendritic arborization and altered electrophysiological properties in DNMT3A KO MNs. Our work provides a list of DNMT3A-regulated targets and a mechanistic link between de novo DNAme, cellular differentiation, and human MN function.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR000457(United States)

Post-transcriptional Regulation of De Novo Lipogenesis by mTORC1-S6K1-SRPK2 Signaling.

  • Lee G
  • Cell
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

mTORC1 is a signal integrator and master regulator of cellular anabolic processes linked to cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes lipid biogenesis via SRPK2, a key regulator of RNA-binding SR proteins. mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates SRPK2 at Ser494, which primes Ser497 phosphorylation by CK1. These phosphorylation events promote SRPK2 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of SR proteins. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that lipid biosynthetic enzymes are among the downstream targets of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling. Mechanistically, SRPK2 promotes SR protein binding to U1-70K to induce splicing of lipogenic pre-mRNAs. Inhibition of this signaling pathway leads to intron retention of lipogenic genes, which triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of SRPK2 blunts de novo lipid synthesis, thereby suppressing cell growth. These results thus reveal a novel role of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling in post-transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism and demonstrate that SRPK2 is a potential therapeutic target for mTORC1-driven metabolic disorders.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL074894(United States)

LRRK2 knockdown in zebrafish causes developmental defects, neuronal loss, and synuclein aggregation.

  • Prabhudesai S
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease, their function is largely unknown. LRRK2 is pleiotropic in nature, shown to be involved in neurodegeneration and in more peripheral processes, including kidney functions, in rats and mice. Recent studies in zebrafish have shown conflicting evidence that removal of the LRRK2 WD40 domain may or may not affect dopaminergic neurons and/or locomotion. This study shows that ∼50% LRRK2 knockdown in zebrafish causes not only neuronal loss but also developmental perturbations such as axis curvature defects, ocular abnormalities, and edema in the eyes, lens, and otic vesicles. We further show that LRRK2 knockdown results in significant neuronal loss, including a reduction of dopaminergic neurons. Immunofluorescence demonstrates that endogenous LRRK2 is expressed in the lens, brain, heart, spinal cord, and kidney (pronephros), which mirror the LRRK2 morphant phenotypes observed. LRRK2 knockdown results further in the concomitant upregulation of β-synuclein, PARK13, and SOD1 and causes β-synuclein aggregation in the diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain, and postoptic commissure. LRRK2 knockdown causes mislocalization of the Na(+) /K(+) ATPase protein in the pronephric ducts, suggesting that the edema might be linked to renal malfunction and that LRRK2 might be associated with pronephric duct epithelial cell differentiation. Combined, our study shows that LRRK2 has multifaceted roles in zebrafish and that zebrafish represent a complementary model to further our understanding of this central protein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

IRAK2 directs stimulus-dependent nuclear export of inflammatory mRNAs.

  • Zhou H
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression of inflammatory genes is determined in part by post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA metabolism but how stimulus- and transcript-dependent nuclear export influence is poorly understood. Here, we report a novel pathway in which LPS/TLR4 engagement promotes nuclear localization of IRAK2 to facilitate nuclear export of a specific subset of inflammation-related mRNAs for translation in murine macrophages. IRAK2 kinase activity is required for LPS-induced RanBP2-mediated IRAK2 sumoylation and subsequent nuclear translocation. Array analysis showed that an SRSF1-binding motif is enriched in mRNAs dependent on IRAK2 for nuclear export. Nuclear IRAK2 phosphorylates SRSF1 to reduce its binding to target mRNAs, which promotes the RNA binding of the nuclear export adaptor ALYREF and nuclear export receptor Nxf1 loading for the export of the mRNAs. In summary, LPS activates a nuclear function of IRAK2 that facilitates the assembly of nuclear export machinery to export selected inflammatory mRNAs to the cytoplasm for translation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA062220()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL029582()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R00DA024754(United States)

A p53 Super-tumor Suppressor Reveals a Tumor Suppressive p53-Ptpn14-Yap Axis in Pancreatic Cancer.

  • Mello SS
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The p53 transcription factor is a critical barrier to pancreatic cancer progression. To unravel mechanisms of p53-mediated tumor suppression, which have remained elusive, we analyzed pancreatic cancer development in mice expressing p53 transcriptional activation domain (TAD) mutants. Surprisingly, the p5353,54 TAD2 mutant behaves as a "super-tumor suppressor," with an enhanced capacity to both suppress pancreatic cancer and transactivate select p53 target genes, including Ptpn14. Ptpn14 encodes a negative regulator of the Yap oncoprotein and is necessary and sufficient for pancreatic cancer suppression, like p53. We show that p53 deficiency promotes Yap signaling and that PTPN14 and TP53 mutations are mutually exclusive in human cancers. These studies uncover a p53-Ptpn14-Yap pathway that is integral to p53-mediated tumor suppression.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140875()

Inhibition of FGFR Signaling Partially Rescues Hypophosphatemic Rickets in HMWFGF2 Tg Male Mice.

  • Xiao L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transgenic mice harboring high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 isoforms (HMWTg) in osteoblast lineage cells phenocopy human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) and Hyp murine model of XLH demonstrating increased FGF23/FGF receptor signaling and hypophosphatemic rickets. Because HMWFGF2 was upregulated in bones of Hyp mice and abnormal FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling is important in XLH, HMWTg mice were used to examine the effect of the FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, now in clinical trials for cancer therapy, on hypophosphatemic rickets. Short-term treatment with NVP-BGJ398 rescued abnormal FGFR signaling and hypophosphatemia in HMWTg. Long-term treatment with NVP-BGJ398 normalized tail, tibia, and femur length. Four weeks NVP-BGJ398 treatment significantly increased total body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in HMWTg mice; however, at 8 weeks, total body BMD and BMC was indistinguishable among groups. Micro-computed tomography revealed decreased vertebral bone volume, trabecular number, and increased trabecular spacing, whereas femur trabecular tissue density was increased; however, NVP-BGJ398 rescued defective cortical bone mineralization, increased thickness, reduced porosity, and increased endosteal perimeter and cortical tissue density in HMWTg. NVP-BGJ398 improved femur cancellous bone, cortical bone structure, growth plate, and double labeling in cortical bone and also increased femur trabeculae double labeled surface, mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoclast number and surface in HMWTg. The decreased NPT2a protein that is important for renal phosphate excretion was rescued by NVP-BGJ398 treatment. We conclude that NVP-BGJ398 partially rescued hypophosphatemic rickets in HMWTg. However, long-term treatment with NVP-BGJ398 further increased serum FGF23 that could exacerbate the mineralization defect.

Foxp3 Reprograms T Cell Metabolism to Function in Low-Glucose, High-Lactate Environments.

  • Angelin A
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Immune cells function in diverse metabolic environments. Tissues with low glucose and high lactate concentrations, such as the intestinal tract or ischemic tissues, frequently require immune responses to be more pro-tolerant, avoiding unwanted reactions against self-antigens or commensal bacteria. T-regulatory cells (Tregs) maintain peripheral tolerance, but how Tregs function in low-glucose, lactate-rich environments is unknown. We report that the Treg transcription factor Foxp3 reprograms T cell metabolism by suppressing Myc and glycolysis, enhancing oxidative phosphorylation, and increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidation. These adaptations allow Tregs a metabolic advantage in low-glucose, lactate-rich environments; they resist lactate-mediated suppression of T cell function and proliferation. This metabolic phenotype may explain how Tregs promote peripheral immune tolerance during tissue injury but also how cancer cells evade immune destruction in the tumor microenvironment. Understanding Treg metabolism may therefore lead to novel approaches for selective immune modulation in cancer and autoimmune diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R33 CA182384()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - K08 AI095353()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01 AI073489()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI073938()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R56 AI095276()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK092282()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K23 DK101600()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK098656()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK106243()
  • NIH HHS - R01 OD010944()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH108592()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS021328()

A Slow Conformational Switch in the BMAL1 Transactivation Domain Modulates Circadian Rhythms.

  • Gustafson CL
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like 1) is a regulatory hub for transcriptional coactivators and repressors that compete for binding and, consequently, contributes to period determination of the mammalian circadian clock. Here, we report the discovery of two distinct conformational states that slowly exchange within the dynamic TAD to control timing. This binary switch results from cis/trans isomerization about a highly conserved Trp-Pro imide bond in a region of the TAD that is required for normal circadian timekeeping. Both cis and trans isomers interact with transcriptional regulators, suggesting that isomerization could serve a role in assembling regulatory complexes in vivo. Toward this end, we show that locking the switch into the trans isomer leads to shortened circadian periods. Furthermore, isomerization is regulated by the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases, highlighting the potential for regulation of BMAL1 protein dynamics in period determination.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA189660()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR020939()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R00 GM094293()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM107069()

DNA-PK Promotes the Mitochondrial, Metabolic, and Physical Decline that Occurs During Aging.

  • Park SJ
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hallmarks of aging that negatively impact health include weight gain and reduced physical fitness, which can increase insulin resistance and risk for many diseases, including type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanism(s) for these phenomena is poorly understood. Here we report that aging increases DNA breaks and activates DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in skeletal muscle, which suppresses mitochondrial function, energy metabolism, and physical fitness. DNA-PK phosphorylates threonines 5 and 7 of HSP90α, decreasing its chaperone function for clients such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is critical for mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. Decreasing DNA-PK activity increases AMPK activity and prevents weight gain, decline of mitochondrial function, and decline of physical fitness in middle-aged mice and protects against type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, DNA-PK is one of the drivers of the metabolic and fitness decline during aging, and therefore DNA-PK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in obesity and low exercise capacity.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA HL006118-02()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL073167()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD021331()

A Potential Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Progesterone Deficiency in Obese Women.

  • Takahashi N
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity in reproductive-aged women is associated with a shorter luteal phase and lower progesterone levels. Lipid accumulation in follicles of obese women compromises endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, activating ER stress in granulosa cells. We hypothesized that ER stress activation in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs) would modulate progesterone production and contribute to obesity-associated progesterone deficiency. Pretreatment with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin or thapsigargin, inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone production in cultured human GLCs. Pretreatment of human GLCs with tunicamycin inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) without affecting expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment with tunicamycin also inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of StAR protein and 3β-HSD enzyme activity in cultured human GLCs, as determined by Western blot analysis and an enzyme immunoassay, respectively, but did not affect hCG-induced intracellular 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation. Furthermore, tunicamycin attenuated hCG-induced protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. In vivo administration of tunicamycin to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-treated immature mice prior to hCG treatment inhibited the hCG-stimulated increase in serum progesterone levels and hCG-induced expression of StAR and 3β-HSD mRNA in the ovary without affecting serum estradiol levels or the number of corpora lutea. Our findings indicate that ER stress in the follicles of obese women contributes to progesterone deficiency by inhibiting hCG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK027627(United States)

TRα protects against atherosclerosis in male mice: identification of a novel anti-inflammatory property for TRα in mice.

  • Billon C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased occurrence of atherosclerosis, suggesting some protective role for thyroid hormones (THs). Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factor to develop this disease. Here, we show that the well-known TH cholesterol lowering effect was dependent on TH nuclear receptor (TR)β liver activity. But most importantly, TRα was also shown to contribute of slowing down atherosclerosis progression via an independent mechanism. Introduction of TRα(0/0) deletion in the ApoE(-/-) background accelerated the appearance of plaques. Earlier cholesterol accumulation was detected in aorta macrophages, likely due to impaired cholesterol efflux. The IL-1β inflammatory cytokine was elevated in serum and macrophages in correlation with an activation of the AKT/nuclear factor κB pathway in these cells. Inhibition of AKT prevented inflammation and restored normal cholesterol efflux. Similar low-grade inflammation was identified in TRα(0/0) male mice. Thus, the mere absence of TRα is associated with elevated levels of cytokines likely responsible for cholesterol accumulation and atherosclerosis. This TRα protective activity should be relevant for other inflammatory pathologies.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM072881(United States)

Müllerian inhibiting substance in the caudate amphibian Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Al-Asaad I
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS, also known as anti-Müllerian hormone), is a key factor of male sex differentiation in vertebrates. In amniotes, it is responsible for Müllerian duct regression in male embryos. In fish, despite the absence of Müllerian ducts, MIS is produced and controls germ cell proliferation during gonad differentiation. Here we show for the first time the presence of MIS in an amphibian species, Pleurodeles waltl. This is very astonishing because in caudate amphibians, Müllerian ducts do not regress in males. Phylogenetic analysis of MIS P. waltl ortholog revealed that the deduced protein segregates with MIS from other vertebrates and is clearly separated from other TGF-β family members. In larvae, MIS mRNA was expressed at higher levels in the developing testes than in the ovaries. In the testis, MIS mRNA expression was located within the lobules that contain Sertoli cells. Besides, expression of MIS was modified in the case of sex reversal: it increased after masculinizing heat treatment and decreased after estradiol feminizing exposure. In addition to the data obtained recently in the fish medaka, our results suggest that the role of MIS on Müllerian ducts occurred secondarily during the course of evolution.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - 5R01AG021189-10(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH-072880(United States)

ROCK1 in AgRP neurons regulates energy expenditure and locomotor activity in male mice.

  • Huang H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Normal leptin signaling is essential for the maintenance of body weight homeostasis. Proopiomelanocortin- and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-producing neurons play critical roles in regulating energy metabolism. Our recent work demonstrates that deletion of Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) in the AgRP neurons of mice increased body weight and adiposity. Here, we report that selective loss of ROCK1 in AgRP neurons caused a significant decrease in energy expenditure and locomotor activity of mice. These effects were independent of any change in food intake. Furthermore, AgRP neuron-specific ROCK1-deficient mice displayed central leptin resistance, as evidenced by impaired Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 activation in response to leptin administration. Leptin's ability to hyperpolarize and decrease firing rate of AgRP neurons was also abolished in the absence of ROCK1. Moreover, diet-induced and genetic forms of obesity resulted in reduced ROCK1 activity in murine arcuate nucleus. Of note, high-fat diet also impaired leptin-stimulated ROCK1 activity in arcuate nucleus, suggesting that a defect in hypothalamic ROCK1 activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of central leptin resistance in obesity. Together, these data demonstrate that ROCK1 activation in hypothalamic AgRP neurons is required for the homeostatic regulation of energy expenditure and adiposity. These results further support previous work identifying ROCK1 as a key regulator of energy balance and suggest that targeting ROCK1 in the hypothalamus may lead to development of antiobesity therapeutics.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY13879(United States)