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Donkey Anti-Mouse IgG, IRDye 800CW Conjugated Antibody

RRID:AB_621847

Antibody ID

AB_621847

Target Antigen

Donkey Mouse IgG IRDye® 800CW mouse

Proper Citation

(LI-COR Biosciences Cat# 926-32212, RRID:AB_621847)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: Western Blot; Western Blotting, In-Cell Western assays, In-Gel Westerns, and many others.; Other

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

LI-COR Biosciences

Cancer Lipid Metabolism Confers Antiangiogenic Drug Resistance.

  • Iwamoto H
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intrinsic and evasive antiangiogenic drug (AAD) resistance is frequently developed in cancer patients, and molecular mechanisms underlying AAD resistance remain largely unknown. Here we describe AAD-triggered, lipid-dependent metabolic reprogramming as an alternative mechanism of AAD resistance. Unexpectedly, tumor angiogenesis in adipose and non-adipose environments is equally sensitive to AAD treatment. AAD-treated tumors in adipose environment show accelerated growth rates in the presence of a minimal number of microvessels. Mechanistically, AAD-induced tumor hypoxia initiates the fatty acid oxidation metabolic reprogramming and increases uptake of free fatty acid (FFA) that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1) significantly compromises the FFA-induced cell proliferation. Genetic and pharmacological loss of CPT1 function sensitizes AAD therapeutic efficacy and enhances its anti-tumor effects. Together, we propose an effective cancer therapy concept by combining drugs that target angiogenesis and lipid metabolism.

Funding information:
  • British Heart Foundation - G0802266(United Kingdom)

Synergistic assembly of human pre-spliceosomes across introns and exons.

  • Braun JE
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most human genes contain multiple introns, necessitating mechanisms to effectively define exons and ensure their proper connection by spliceosomes. Human spliceosome assembly involves both cross-intron and cross-exon interactions, but how these work together is unclear. We examined in human nuclear extracts dynamic interactions of single pre-mRNA molecules with individual fluorescently tagged spliceosomal subcomplexes to investigate how cross-intron and cross-exon processes jointly promote pre-spliceosome assembly. U1 subcomplex bound to the 5' splice site of an intron acts jointly with U1 bound to the 5' splice site of the next intron to dramatically increase the rate and efficiency by which U2 subcomplex is recruited to the branch site/3' splice site of the upstream intron. The flanking 5' splice sites have greater than additive effects implying distinct mechanisms facilitating U2 recruitment. This synergy of 5' splice sites across introns and exons is likely important in promoting correct and efficient splicing of multi-intron pre-mRNAs.

Funding information:
  • European Molecular Biology Organization - ALTF 890-2012()
  • Human Frontier Science Program - LT000166/2013()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01 GM053007()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01 GM081648()
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - 5P20MD001770(United States)

The Temporal Dynamics of Arc Expression Regulate Cognitive Flexibility.

  • Wall MJ
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal activity regulates the transcription and translation of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1, a key mediator of synaptic plasticity. Proteasome-dependent degradation of Arc tightly limits its temporal expression, yet the significance of this regulation remains unknown. We disrupted the temporal control of Arc degradation by creating an Arc knockin mouse (ArcKR) where the predominant Arc ubiquitination sites were mutated. ArcKR mice had intact spatial learning but showed specific deficits in selecting an optimal strategy during reversal learning. This cognitive inflexibility was coupled to changes in Arc mRNA and protein expression resulting in a reduced threshold to induce mGluR-LTD and enhanced mGluR-LTD amplitude. These findings show that the abnormal persistence of Arc protein limits the dynamic range of Arc signaling pathways specifically during reversal learning. Our work illuminates how the precise temporal control of activity-dependent molecules, such as Arc, regulates synaptic plasticity and is crucial for cognition.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R21 HD065269(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM109442()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R00 NS076364()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085093()

CARM1 Is Essential for Myeloid Leukemogenesis but Dispensable for Normal Hematopoiesis.

  • Greenblatt SM
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromatin-modifying enzymes, and specifically the protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), have emerged as important targets in cancer. Here, we investigated the role of CARM1 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Using conditional knockout mice, we show that loss of CARM1 has little effect on normal hematopoiesis. Strikingly, knockout of Carm1 abrogates both the initiation and maintenance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) driven by oncogenic transcription factors. We show that CARM1 knockdown impairs cell-cycle progression, promotes myeloid differentiation, and ultimately induces apoptosis. Finally, we utilize a selective, small-molecule inhibitor of CARM1 to validate the efficacy of CARM1 inhibition in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, this work suggests that targeting CARM1 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for AML.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - A11961(United Kingdom)

Phase Separation of FUS Is Suppressed by Its Nuclear Import Receptor and Arginine Methylation.

  • Hofweber M
  • Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytoplasmic FUS aggregates are a pathological hallmark in a subset of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A key step that is disrupted in these patients is nuclear import of FUS mediated by the import receptor Transportin/Karyopherin-β2. In ALS-FUS patients, this is caused by mutations in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of FUS that weaken Transportin binding. In FTD-FUS patients, Transportin is aggregated, and post-translational arginine methylation, which regulates the FUS-Transportin interaction, is lost. Here, we show that Transportin and arginine methylation have a crucial function beyond nuclear import-namely to suppress RGG/RG-driven phase separation and stress granule association of FUS. ALS-associated FUS-NLS mutations weaken the chaperone activity of Transportin and loss of FUS arginine methylation, as seen in FTD-FUS, promote phase separation, and stress granule partitioning of FUS. Our findings reveal two regulatory mechanisms of liquid-phase homeostasis that are disrupted in FUS-associated neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM48435(United States)

Switch of Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase into a Prooxidant Peroxidase in Manganese-Deficient Cells and Mice.

  • Ganini D
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Superoxide radical anion (O2⋅‒) and other reactive oxygen species are constantly produced during respiration. In mitochondria, the dismutation of O2⋅‒ is accelerated by the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), an enzyme that has been traditionally associated with antioxidant protection. However, increases in SOD2 expression promote oxidative stress, indicating that there may be a prooxidant role for SOD2. Here we show that SOD2, which normally binds manganese, can incorporate iron and generate an alternative isoform with peroxidase activity. The switch from manganese to iron allows FeSOD2 to utilize H2O2 to promote oxidative stress. We found that FeSOD2 is formed in cultured cells and in vivo. FeSOD2 causes mitochondrial dysfunction and higher levels of oxidative stress in cultured cells and in vivo. We show that formation of FeSOD2 converts an antioxidant defense into a prooxidant peroxidase that leads to cellular changes seen in multiple human diseases.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 287512(Canada)

Design and Profiling of a Subcellular Targeted Optogenetic cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase.

  • O'Banion CP
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed, it is sequestered at specific subcellular locations throughout the cell, thereby resulting in compartmentalized cellular signaling that triggers site-specific behavioral phenotypes. We developed a three-step engineering strategy to construct an optogenetic PKA (optoPKA) and demonstrated that, upon illumination, optoPKA migrates to specified intracellular sites. Furthermore, we designed intracellular spatially segregated reporters of PKA activity and confirmed that optoPKA phosphorylates these reporters in a light-dependent fashion. Finally, proteomics experiments reveal that light activation of optoPKA results in the phosphorylation of known endogenous PKA substrates as well as potential novel substrates.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA207160()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL024136-250014(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093617()

Smc3 Deacetylation by Hos1 Facilitates Efficient Dissolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion during Early Anaphase.

  • Li S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cohesins establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase and are removed when cohesin Scc1 is cleaved by separase at anaphase onset. During this process, cohesin Smc3 undergoes a cycle of acetylation: Smc3 acetylation by Eco1 in S phase stabilizes cohesin association with chromosomes, and its deacetylation by Hos1 in anaphase allows re-use of Smc3 in the next cell cycle. Here we find that Smc3 deacetylation by Hos1 has a more immediate effect in the early anaphase of budding yeast. Hos1 depletion significantly delayed sister chromatid separation and segregation. Smc3 deacetylation facilitated removal of cohesins from chromosomes without changing Scc1 cleavage efficiency, promoting dissolution of cohesion. This action is probably due to disengagement of Smc1-Smc3 heads prompted by de-repression of their ATPase activity. We suggest Scc1 cleavage per se is insufficient for efficient dissolution of cohesion in early anaphase; subsequent Smc3 deacetylation, triggered by Scc1 cleavage, is also required.

A Genetic Tool to Track Protein Aggregates and Control Prion Inheritance.

  • Newby GA
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many diseases but also underlies a wide range of positive cellular functions. This phenomenon has been difficult to study because of a lack of quantitative and high-throughput cellular tools. Here, we develop a synthetic genetic tool to sense and control protein aggregation. We apply the technology to yeast prions, developing sensors to track their aggregation states and employing prion fusions to encode synthetic memories in yeast cells. Utilizing high-throughput screens, we identify prion-curing mutants and engineer "anti-prion drives" that reverse the non-Mendelian inheritance pattern of prions and eliminate them from yeast populations. We extend our technology to yeast RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) by tracking their propensity to aggregate, searching for co-occurring aggregates, and uncovering a group of coalescing RBPs through screens enabled by our platform. Our work establishes a quantitative, high-throughput, and generalizable technology to study and control diverse protein aggregation processes in cells.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - DP2 AI131083()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM056350()

Inhibition of IRE1α-mediated XBP1 mRNA cleavage by XBP1 reveals a novel regulatory process during the unfolded protein response.

  • Chalmers F
  • Wellcome Open Res
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Background: The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) continuously adapts to the cellular secretory load by the activation of an unfolded protein response (UPR).  This stress response results in expansion of the ER, upregulation of proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, and attenuation of protein synthesis.  The response is orchestrated by three signalling pathways each activated by a specific signal transducer, either inositol requiring enzyme α (IRE1α), double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) or activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6).  Activation of IRE1α results in its oligomerisation, autophosphorylation and stimulation of its ribonuclease activity.  The ribonuclease initiates the splicing of an intron from mRNA encoding the transcription factor, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as degradation of specific mRNAs and microRNAs. Methods: To investigate the consequence of expression of exogenous XBP1, we generated a stable cell-line expressing spliced XBP1 mRNA under the control of an inducible promotor. Results: Following induction of expression, high levels of XBP1 protein were detected, which allowed upregulation of target genes in the absence of induction of the UPR.  Remarkably under stress conditions, the expression of exogenous XBP1 repressed splicing of endogenous XBP1 mRNA without repressing the activation of PERK. Conclusions: These results illustrate that a feedback mechanism exists to attenuate Ire1α ribonuclease activity in the presence of XBP1.

Reactive Neutrophil Responses Dependent on the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-MET Limit Cancer Immunotherapy.

  • Glodde N
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Oct 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET are currently used in the clinic to target oncogenic signaling in tumor cells. We found that concomitant c-MET inhibition promoted adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint immunotherapies in murine cancer models by increasing effector T cell infiltration in tumors. This therapeutic effect was independent of tumor cell-intrinsic c-MET dependence. Mechanistically, c-MET inhibition impaired the reactive mobilization and recruitment of neutrophils into tumors and draining lymph nodes in response to cytotoxic immunotherapies. In the absence of c-MET inhibition, neutrophils recruited to T cell-inflamed microenvironments rapidly acquired immunosuppressive properties, restraining T cell expansion and effector functions. In cancer patients, high serum levels of the c-MET ligand HGF correlated with increasing neutrophil counts and poor responses to checkpoint blockade therapies. Our findings reveal a role for the HGF/c-MET pathway in neutrophil recruitment and function and suggest that c-MET inhibitor co-treatment may improve responses to cancer immunotherapy in settings beyond c-MET-dependent tumors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 2-U54-AI-057153(United States)

Glial overexpression of Dube3a causes seizures and synaptic impairments in Drosophila concomitant with down regulation of the Na+/K+ pump ATPα.

  • Hope KA
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Duplication 15q syndrome (Dup15q) is an autism-associated disorder co-incident with high rates of pediatric epilepsy. Additional copies of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A are thought to cause Dup15q phenotypes, yet models overexpressing UBE3A in neurons have not recapitulated the epilepsy phenotype. We show that Drosophila endogenously expresses Dube3a (fly UBE3A homolog) in glial cells and neurons, prompting an investigation into the consequences of glial Dube3a overexpression. Here we expand on previous work showing that the Na+/K+ pump ATPα is a direct ubiquitin ligase substrate of Dube3a. A robust seizure-like phenotype was observed in flies overexpressing Dube3a in glial cells, but not neurons. Glial-specific knockdown of ATPα also produced seizure-like behavior, and this phenotype was rescued by simultaneously overexpressing ATPα and Dube3a in glia. Our data provides the basis of a paradigm shift in Dup15q research given that clinical phenotypes have long been assumed to be due to neuronal UBE3A overexpression.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R21 HD091541()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R21 GM118962()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS059902()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS082296()

Global Inhibition with Specific Activation: How p53 and MYC Redistribute the Transcriptome in the DNA Double-Strand Break Response.

  • Porter JR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In response to stresses, cells often halt normal cellular processes, yet stress-specific pathways must bypass such inhibition to generate effective responses. We investigated how cells redistribute global transcriptional activity in response to DNA damage. We show that an oscillatory increase of p53 levels in response to double-strand breaks drives a counter-oscillatory decrease of MYC levels. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of newly synthesized transcripts, we found that p53-mediated reduction of MYC suppressed general transcription, with the most highly expressed transcripts reduced to a greater extent. In contrast, upregulation of p53 targets was relatively unaffected by MYC suppression. Reducing MYC during the DNA damage response was important for cell-fate regulation, as counteracting MYC repression reduced cell-cycle arrest and elevated apoptosis. Our study shows that global inhibition with specific activation of transcriptional pathways is important for the proper response to DNA damage; this mechanism may be a general principle used in many stress responses.

The RNA Surveillance Factor UPF1 Represses Myogenesis via Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity.

  • Feng Q
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

UPF1 is an RNA helicase that orchestrates nonsense-mediated decay and other RNA surveillance pathways. While UPF1 is best known for its basal cytoprotective role in degrading aberrant RNAs, UPF1 also degrades specific, normally occurring mRNAs to regulate diverse cellular processes. Here we describe a role for UPF1 in regulated protein decay, wherein UPF1 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to repress human skeletal muscle differentiation. Suppressing UPF1 accelerates myogenesis, while ectopically increasing UPF1 levels slows myogenesis. UPF1 promotes the decay of MYOD protein, a transcription factor that is a master regulator of myogenesis, while leaving MYOD mRNA stability unaffected. UPF1 acts as an E3 ligase via its RING domain to promote MYOD protein ubiquitination and degradation. Our data characterize a regulatory role for UPF1 in myogenesis, and they demonstrate that UPF1 provides a mechanistic link between the RNA and protein decay machineries in human cells.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS069539()

Astrocyte Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Protects Synapses against Aβ Oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease Model.

  • Diniz LP
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, increasingly attributed to neuronal dysfunction induced by amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Although the impact of AβOs on neurons has been extensively studied, only recently have the possible effects of AβOs on astrocytes begun to be investigated. Given the key roles of astrocytes in synapse formation, plasticity, and function, we sought to investigate the impact of AβOs on astrocytes, and to determine whether this impact is related to the deleterious actions of AβOs on synapses. We found that AβOs interact with astrocytes, cause astrocyte activation and trigger abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species, which is accompanied by impairment of astrocyte neuroprotective potential in vitro We further show that both murine and human astrocyte conditioned media (CM) increase synapse density, reduce AβOs binding, and prevent AβO-induced synapse loss in cultured hippocampal neurons. Both a neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) antibody and siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGF-β1, previously identified as an important synaptogenic factor secreted by astrocytes, abrogated the protective action of astrocyte CM against AβO-induced synapse loss. Notably, TGF-β1 prevented hippocampal dendritic spine loss and memory impairment in mice that received an intracerebroventricular infusion of AβOs. Results suggest that astrocyte-derived TGF-β1 is part of an endogenous mechanism that protects synapses against AβOs. By demonstrating that AβOs decrease astrocyte ability to protect synapses, our results unravel a new mechanism underlying the synaptotoxic action of AβOs in AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, mainly attributed to synaptotoxicity of the amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Here, we investigated the impact of AβOs in astrocytes, a less known subject. We show that astrocytes prevent synapse loss induced by AβOs, via production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). We found that AβOs trigger morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes, and impair their neuroprotective potential. Notably, TGF-β1 reduced hippocampal dendritic spine loss and memory impairment in mice that received intracerebroventricular infusions of AβOs. Our results describe a new mechanism underlying the toxicity of AβOs and indicate novel therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease, mainly focused on TGF-β1 and astrocytes.

The Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Integrates Proteostasis and Aging by Regulation of Insulin Receptor Turnover.

  • Tawo R
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is attended by a progressive decline in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), aggravating the risk for protein aggregation diseases. To understand the coordination between proteome imbalance and longevity, we addressed the mechanistic role of the quality-control ubiquitin ligase CHIP, which is a key regulator of proteostasis. We observed that CHIP deficiency leads to increased levels of the insulin receptor (INSR) and reduced lifespan of worms and flies. The membrane-bound INSR regulates the insulin and IGF1 signaling (IIS) pathway and thereby defines metabolism and aging. INSR is a direct target of CHIP, which triggers receptor monoubiquitylation and endocytic-lysosomal turnover to promote longevity. However, upon proteotoxic stress conditions and during aging, CHIP is recruited toward disposal of misfolded proteins, reducing its capacity to degrade the INSR. Our study indicates a competitive relationship between proteostasis and longevity regulation through CHIP-assisted proteolysis, providing a mechanistic concept for understanding the impact of proteome imbalance on aging.

An Approach to Spatiotemporally Resolve Protein Interaction Networks in Living Cells.

  • Lobingier BT
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells operate through protein interaction networks organized in space and time. Here, we describe an approach to resolve both dimensions simultaneously by using proximity labeling mediated by engineered ascorbic acid peroxidase (APEX). APEX has been used to capture entire organelle proteomes with high temporal resolution, but its breadth of labeling is generally thought to preclude the higher spatial resolution necessary to interrogate specific protein networks. We provide a solution to this problem by combining quantitative proteomics with a system of spatial references. As proof of principle, we apply this approach to interrogate proteins engaged by G-protein-coupled receptors as they dynamically signal and traffic in response to ligand-induced activation. The method resolves known binding partners, as well as previously unidentified network components. Validating its utility as a discovery pipeline, we establish that two of these proteins promote ubiquitin-linked receptor downregulation after prolonged activation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA186568()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM082250()

Ribonucleotide Reductase Requires Subunit Switching in Hypoxia to Maintain DNA Replication.

  • Foskolou IP
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells exposed to hypoxia experience replication stress but do not accumulate DNA damage, suggesting sustained DNA replication. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the only enzyme capable of de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). However, oxygen is an essential cofactor for mammalian RNR (RRM1/RRM2 and RRM1/RRM2B), leading us to question the source of dNTPs in hypoxia. Here, we show that the RRM1/RRM2B enzyme is capable of retaining activity in hypoxia and therefore is favored over RRM1/RRM2 in order to preserve ongoing replication and avoid the accumulation of DNA damage. We found two distinct mechanisms by which RRM2B maintains hypoxic activity and identified responsible residues in RRM2B. The importance of RRM2B in the response to tumor hypoxia is further illustrated by correlation of its expression with a hypoxic signature in patient samples and its roles in tumor growth and radioresistance. Our data provide mechanistic insight into RNR biology, highlighting RRM2B as a hypoxic-specific, anti-cancer therapeutic target.

ATPase activity of the DEAD-box protein Dhh1 controls processing body formation.

  • Mugler CF
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Translational repression and mRNA degradation are critical mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene regulation that help cells respond to internal and external cues. In response to certain stress conditions, many mRNA decay factors are enriched in processing bodies (PBs), cellular structures involved in degradation and/or storage of mRNAs. Yet, how cells regulate assembly and disassembly of PBs remains poorly understood. Here, we show that in budding yeast, mutations in the DEAD-box ATPase Dhh1 that prevent ATP hydrolysis, or that affect the interaction between Dhh1 and Not1, the central scaffold of the CCR4-NOT complex and an activator of the Dhh1 ATPase, prevent PB disassembly in vivo. Intriguingly, this process can be recapitulated in vitro, since recombinant Dhh1 and RNA, in the presence of ATP, phase-separate into liquid droplets that rapidly dissolve upon addition of Not1. Our results identify the ATPase activity of Dhh1 as a critical regulator of PB formation.

Limited mitochondrial capacity of visceral versus subcutaneous white adipocytes in male C57BL/6N mice.

  • Schöttl T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Accumulation of visceral fat is associated with metabolic risk whereas excessive amounts of peripheral fat are considered less problematic. At the same time, altered white adipocyte mitochondrial bioenergetics has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the metabolic risk of visceral vs peripheral fat coincides with a difference in mitochondrial capacity of white adipocytes. We assessed bioenergetic parameters of subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal white adipocytes from male C57BL/6N mice employing a comprehensive respirometry setup of intact and permeabilized adipocytes as well as isolated mitochondria. Inguinal adipocytes clearly featured a higher respiratory capacity attributable to increased mitochondrial respiratory chain content compared with epididymal adipocytes. The lower capacity of mitochondria from epididymal adipocytes was accompanied by an increased generation of reactive oxygen species per oxygen consumed. Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1 week reduced white adipocyte mitochondrial capacity, with stronger effects in epididymal when compared with inguinal adipocytes. This was accompanied by impaired body glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the limited bioenergetic performance combined with the proportionally higher generation of reactive oxygen species of visceral adipocytes could be seen as a candidate mechanism mediating the elevated metabolic risk associated with this fat depot.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - C06 RR018928(United States)

The active zone protein family ELKS supports Ca2+ influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.

  • Liu C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle exocytosis is restricted to specialized sites called active zones. At these sites, neurotransmitter release is determined by the number of releasable vesicles and their probability of release. Proteins at the active zone set these parameters by controlling the presynaptic Ca(2+) signal, and through docking and priming of synaptic vesicles. Vertebrate ELKS proteins are enriched at presynaptic active zones, but their functions are not well understood. ELKS proteins are produced by two genes in vertebrates, and each gene contributes ∼50% to total brain ELKS. We generated knock-out mice for ELKS1 and found that its constitutive removal causes lethality. To bypass lethality, and to circumvent redundancy between ELKS1 and ELKS2 in synaptic transmission, we used a conditional genetic approach to remove both genes in cultured hippocampal neurons after synapses are established. Simultaneous removal of ELKS1 and ELKS2 resulted in a 50% decrease of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses, paralleled by a reduction in release probability. Removal of ELKS did not affect synapse numbers or their electron microscopic appearance. Using Ca(2+) imaging, we found that loss of ELKS caused a 30% reduction in single action potential-triggered Ca(2+) influx in inhibitory nerve terminals, consistent with the deficits in synaptic transmission and release probability. Unlike deletion of the active zone proteins RIM, RIM-BP, or bruchpilot, ELKS removal did not lead to a measurable reduction in presynaptic Ca(2+) channel levels. Our results reveal that ELKS is required for normal Ca(2+) influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.