The hippocampus is crucial for declarative memories in humans and encodes episodic and spatial memories in animals. Memory coding strengthens synaptic efficacy via a long-term potentiation (LTP)-like mechanism. Given that animals store memories of everyday experiences, the hippocampal circuit must have a mechanism that prevents saturation of overall synaptic weight for the preservation of learning capacity. Long-term depression (LTD) works to balance plasticity and prevent saturation. In addition, adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is proposed to be involved in the down-scaling of synaptic efficacy. Here, we show that adult neurogenesis in male rats plays a crucial role in the maintenance of hippocampal capacity for memory (learning and/or memory formation). Neurogenesis regulated the maintenance of LTP, with decreases and increases in neurogenesis prolonging or shortening LTP persistence, respectively. Artificial saturation of hippocampal LTP impaired memory capacity in contextual fear conditioning, which completely recovered after 14 days, which was the time required for LTP to decay to the basal level. Memory capacity gradually recovered in parallel with neurogenesis-mediated gradual decay of LTP. Ablation of neurogenesis by X-ray irradiation delayed the recovery of memory capacity, while enhancement of neurogenesis using a running wheel sped up recovery. Thus, one benefit of ongoing adult neurogenesis is the maintenance of hippocampal memory capacity through homeostatic renewing of hippocampal memory circuits. Decreased neurogenesis in aged animals may be responsible for the decline in cognitive function with age.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTLearning many events each day increases synaptic efficacy via long-term potentiation (LTP), which can prevent the storage of new memories in the hippocampal circuit. In this study, we demonstrate that hippocampal capacity for the storage of new memories is maintained by ongoing adult neurogenesis through homoeostatic renewing of hippocampal circuits in rats. A decrease or an increase in neurogenesis, respectively, delayed or sped up the recovery of memory capacity, suggesting that hippocampal adult neurogenesis plays a critical role in reducing LTP saturation and keeps the gate open for new memories by clearing out the old memories from the hippocampal memory circuit.
Literature context: 500; AbD Serotec Cat # OBT0030, RRID:AB_609568), mouse anti-NeuN (1:500; Milli
Facial vibrissae, commonly known as whiskers, are the main sensitive tactile system in rodents. Whisker stimulation triggers neuronal activity that promotes neural plasticity in the barrel cortex (BC) and helps create spatial maps in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, activity-dependent inputs and calcium homeostasis modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the neuronal activity of the BC possibly regulates hippocampal functions and neurogenesis. To assess whether tactile information from facial whiskers may modulate hippocampal functions and neurogenesis, we permanently eliminated whiskers in CD1 male mice and analyzed the effects in cellular composition, molecular expression and memory processing in the adult hippocampus. Our data indicated that the permanent deprivation of whiskers reduced in 4-fold the density of c-Fos+ cells (a calcium-dependent immediate early gene) in cornu ammonis subfields (CA1, CA2 and CA3) and 4.5-fold the dentate gyrus (DG). A significant reduction in the expression of calcium-binding proteincalbindin-D28k was also observed in granule cells of the DG. Notably, these changes coincided with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in the proliferation of neural precursor cells in the DG, which ultimately reduced the number of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+NeuN+ mature neurons generated after whisker elimination. These abnormalities in the hippocampus were associated with a significant impairment of spatial memory and navigation skills. This is the first evidence indicating that tactile inputs from vibrissal follicles strongly modify the expression of c-Fos and calbindin in the DG, disrupt different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, and support the notion that spatial memory and navigation skills strongly require tactile information in the hippocampus.
Literature context: rotec Cat#OBT0030; RRID:AB_609568 Mouse monoclonal anti-BrdU Bect
DNA polymerase ε (POLE) is a four-subunit complex and the major leading strand polymerase in eukaryotes. Budding yeast orthologs of POLE3 and POLE4 promote Polε processivity in vitro but are dispensable for viability in vivo. Here, we report that POLE4 deficiency in mice destabilizes the entire Polε complex, leading to embryonic lethality in inbred strains and extensive developmental abnormalities, leukopenia, and tumor predisposition in outbred strains. Comparable phenotypes of growth retardation and immunodeficiency are also observed in human patients harboring destabilizing mutations in POLE1. In both Pole4-/- mouse and POLE1 mutant human cells, Polε hypomorphy is associated with replication stress and p53 activation, which we attribute to inefficient replication origin firing. Strikingly, removing p53 is sufficient to rescue embryonic lethality and all developmental abnormalities in Pole4 null mice. However, Pole4-/-p53+/- mice exhibit accelerated tumorigenesis, revealing an important role for controlled CMG and origin activation in normal development and tumor prevention.
Literature context: /AbD Serotec Cat# OBT0030, RRID:AB_609568), goat anti-Sox2 (1:500, Santa
Neural stem cells give rise to granule dentate neurons throughout life in the hippocampus. Upon activation, these stem cells generate fast proliferating progenitors that complete several rounds of divisions before differentiating into neurons. Although the mechanisms regulating the activation of stem cells have been intensively studied, little attention has been given so far to the intrinsic machinery allowing the expansion of the progenitor pool. The cell cycle protein Cdk6 positively regulates the proliferation of hippocampal progenitors, but the mechanism involved remains elusive. Whereas Cdk6 functions primarily as a cell cycle kinase, it can also act as transcriptional regulator in cancer cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Using mouse genetics, we show here that the function of Cdk6 in hippocampal neurogenesis relies specifically on its kinase activity. The present study also reveals a specific regulatory mechanism for Cdk6 in hippocampal progenitors. In contrast to the classical model of the cell cycle, we observe that the Cip/Kip family member p27, rather than the Ink4 family, negatively regulates Cdk6 in the adult hippocampus. Altogether, our data uncover a unique, cell type-specific regulatory mechanism controlling the expansion of hippocampal progenitors, where Cdk6 kinase activity is modulated by p27.
Literature context: AbD Serotec, 1:300, catalog no. OBT0030). Fluorescently labeled highly
Circulating systemic factors can regulate adult neural stem cell (NSC) biology, but the identity of these circulating cues is still being defined. Here, we have focused on the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), since increased circulating levels of IL-6 are associated with neural pathologies such as autism and bipolar disorder. We show that IL-6 promotes proliferation of post-natal murine forebrain NSCs and that, when the IL-6 receptor is inducibly knocked out in post-natal or adult neural precursors, this causes a long-term decrease in forebrain NSCs. Moreover, a transient circulating surge of IL-6 in perinatal or adult mice causes an acute increase in neural precursor proliferation followed by long-term depletion of adult NSC pools. Thus, IL-6 signaling is both necessary and sufficient for adult NSC self-renewal, and acute perturbations in circulating IL-6, as observed in many pathological situations, have long-lasting effects on the size of adult NSC pools.
Literature context: 30; RRID:AB_609568 Goat anti-mouse Alexa Fluor 488
Hard-to-replicate regions of chromosomes (e.g., pericentromeres, centromeres, and telomeres) impede replication fork progression, eventually leading, in the event of replication stress, to chromosome fragility, aging, and cancer. Our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the stability of these regions is essentially limited to telomeres, where fragility is counteracted by the shelterin proteins. Here we show that the shelterin subunit TRF2 ensures progression of the replication fork through pericentromeric heterochromatin, but not centromeric chromatin. In a process involving its N-terminal basic domain, TRF2 binds to pericentromeric Satellite III sequences during S phase, allowing the recruitment of the G-quadruplex-resolving helicase RTEL1 to facilitate fork progression. We also show that TRF2 is required for the stability of other heterochromatic regions localized throughout the genome, paving the way for future research on heterochromatic replication and its relationship with aging and cancer.
Literature context: (ICR1)- catalog number OBT0030; RRID:AB_609568 Antibody polyclonal anti-GFP, r
Most neurogenesis in the mammalian brain is completed embryonically, but in certain areas the production of neurons continues throughout postnatal life. The functional properties of mature postnatally generated neurons often match those of their embryonically produced counterparts. However, we show here that in the olfactory bulb (OB), embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis produce functionally distinct subpopulations of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We define two subclasses of OB DA neuron by the presence or absence of a key subcellular specialisation: the axon initial segment (AIS). Large AIS-positive axon-bearing DA neurons are exclusively produced during early embryonic stages, leaving small anaxonic AIS-negative cells as the only DA subtype generated via adult neurogenesis. These populations are functionally distinct: large DA cells are more excitable, yet display weaker and - for certain long-latency or inhibitory events - more broadly tuned responses to odorant stimuli. Embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis can therefore generate distinct neuronal subclasses, placing important constraints on the functional roles of adult-born neurons in sensory processing.
Literature context: #OBT0030; RRID:AB_609568 GFP Santa
Replicating Lgr5+ stem cells and quiescent Bmi1+ cells behave as intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in vivo. Disrupting Lgr5+ ISCs triggers epithelial renewal from Bmi1+ cells, from secretory or absorptive progenitors, and from Paneth cell precursors, revealing a high degree of plasticity within intestinal crypts. Here, we show that GFP+ cells from Bmi1GFP mice are preterminal enteroendocrine cells and we identify CD69+CD274+ cells as related goblet cell precursors. Upon loss of native Lgr5+ ISCs, both populations revert toward an Lgr5+ cell identity. While active histone marks are distributed similarly between Lgr5+ ISCs and progenitors of both major lineages, thousands of cis elements that control expression of lineage-restricted genes are selectively open in secretory cells. This accessibility signature dynamically converts to that of Lgr5+ ISCs during crypt regeneration. Beyond establishing the nature of Bmi1GFP+ cells, these findings reveal how chromatin status underlies intestinal cell diversity and dedifferentiation to restore ISC function and intestinal homeostasis.
Literature context: # OBT0030 RRID:AB_609568), rabbit-Î±
Sequencing studies have implicated haploinsufficiency of ARID1B, a SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling subunit, in short stature (Yu et al., 2015), autism spectrum disorder (O'Roak et al., 2012), intellectual disability (Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015), and corpus callosum agenesis (Halgren et al., 2012). In addition, ARID1B is the most common cause of Coffin-Siris syndrome, a developmental delay syndrome characterized by some of the above abnormalities (Santen et al., 2012; Tsurusaki et al., 2012; Wieczorek et al., 2013). We generated Arid1b heterozygous mice, which showed social behavior impairment, altered vocalization, anxiety-like behavior, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and growth impairment. In the brain, Arid1b haploinsufficiency resulted in changes in the expression of SWI/SNF-regulated genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. A focus on reversible mechanisms identified Insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) deficiency with inadequate compensation by Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and Growth hormone (GH), underappreciated findings in ARID1B patients. Therapeutically, GH supplementation was able to correct growth retardation and muscle weakness. This model functionally validates the involvement of ARID1B in human disorders, and allows mechanistic dissection of neurodevelopmental diseases linked to chromatin-remodeling.
Literature context: e in rat, RRID:AB_609568; HuC/D, 1:
Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates many cellular events underlying perinatal brain development in vertebrates. Whether and how TH regulates brain development when neural circuits are first forming is less clear. Furthermore, although the molecular mechanisms that impose spatiotemporal constraints on TH action in the brain have been described, the effects of local TH signaling are poorly understood. We determined the effects of manipulating TH signaling on development of the optic tectum in stage 46-49 Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Global TH treatment caused large-scale morphological effects in tadpoles, including changes in brain morphology and increased tectal cell proliferation. Either increasing or decreasing endogenous TH signaling in tectum, by combining targeted DIO3 knockdown and methimazole, led to corresponding changes in tectal cell proliferation. Local increases in TH, accomplished by injecting suspensions of tri-iodothyronine (T3) in coconut oil into the midbrain ventricle or into the eye, selectively increased tectal or retinal cell proliferation, respectively. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that local TH first increased tectal progenitor cell proliferation, expanding the progenitor pool, and subsequently increased neuronal differentiation. Local T3 also dramatically increased dendritic arbor growth in neurons that had already reached a growth plateau. The time-lapse data indicate that the same cells are differentially sensitive to T3 at different time points. Finally, TH increased expression of genes pertaining to proliferation and neuronal differentiation. These experiments indicate that endogenous TH locally regulates neurogenesis at developmental stages relevant to circuit assembly by affecting cell proliferation and differentiation and by acting on neurons to increase dendritic arbor elaboration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Thyroid hormone (TH) is a critical regulator of perinatal brain development in vertebrates. Abnormal TH signaling in early pregnancy is associated with significant cognitive deficits in humans; however, it is difficult to probe the function of TH in early brain development in mammals because of the inaccessibility of the fetal brain in the uterine environment and the challenge of disambiguating maternal versus fetal contributions of TH. The external development of tadpoles allows manipulation and direct observation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying TH's effects on brain development in ways not possible in mammals. We find that endogenous TH locally regulates neurogenesis at developmental stages relevant to circuit assembly by affecting neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and by acting on neurons to enhance dendritic arbor elaboration.
Literature context: # OBT0030 RRID:AB609568) plus mous
Sleep deprivation (SD) affects spatial memory and proliferation in the dentate gyrus. It is unknown whether these deleterious effects persist in the long run. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of neural progenitors as well as spatial memory 21 days after suffering SD. Sixty-day old male Balb/C mice were exposed to 72-h REM-SD. Spatial memory, cell fate, apoptosis and expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) were evaluated in the hippocampus at 0, 14, and 21 days after SD or control conditions. After 21-days recovery period, memory performance was assessed with the Barnes maze, we found a significant memory impairment in SD mice vs. control (94.0 ± 10.2 s vs. 25.2 ± 4.5 s; p < 0.001). The number of BrdU+ cells was significantly decreased in the SD groups at day 14 (controls = 1.6 ± 0.1 vs. SD mice = 1.2 ± 0.1 cells/field; p = 0.001) and at day 21 (controls = 0.2 ± 0.03 vs. SD mice = 0.1 ± 0.02 cells/field; p < 0.001). A statistically significant decrease was observed in neuronal differentiation (1.4 ± 0.1 cells/field vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 cells/field, p = 0.003). Apoptosis was significantly increased at day 14 after SD (0.53 ± 0.06 TUNEL+ cells/field) compared to controls (0.19 ± 0.03 TUNEL+ cells/field p < 0.001) and at 21-days after SD (SD mice 0.53 ± 0.15 TUNEL+ cells/field; p = 0.035). At day 0, IGF-1R expression showed a statistically significant reduction in SD animals (64.6 ± 12.2 units) when compared to the control group (102.0 ± 9.8 units; p = 0.043). However, no statistically significant differences were found at days 14 and 21 after SD. In conclusion, a single exposition to SD for 72-h can induce deleterious effects that persist for at least 3 weeks. These changes are characterized by spatial memory impairment, reduction in the number of hippocampal BrdU+ cells and persistent apoptosis rate. In contrast, changes IGF-1R expression appears to be a transient event. Highlight Sleep deprivation affects spatial memory and proliferation in the dentate gyrus. To date it is unknown whether these deleterious effects are persistent over a long period of time. We analyzed the effects of sleep deprivation in the hippocampus after 21 days of recovery sleep. Our findings indicate that after sleep recovery, the detrimental effects of SD can be observed for at least 2 weeks, as shown by a reduction in memory performance, changes in the hippocampal cellular composition and higher apoptotic rate over a long period of time.
Literature context: B_90632; Millipore); anti-BrdU (AB_609568; Accurate), anti-MBP (AB_510039
Several studies have elucidated the significance of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase proteins (ADAMs) in PNS myelination, but there is no evidence if they also play a role in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Our study identifies ADAM17, also called tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE), as a novel key modulator of oligodendrocyte (OL) development and CNS myelination. Genetic deletion of TACE in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPs) induces premature cell cycle exit and reduces OL cell survival during postnatal myelination of the subcortical white matter (SCWM). These cellular and molecular changes lead to deficits in SCWM myelination and motor behavior. Mechanistically, TACE regulates oligodendrogenesis by modulating the shedding of EGFR ligands TGFα and HB-EGF and, consequently, EGFR signaling activation in OL lineage cells. Constitutive TACE depletion in OPs in vivo leads to similar alterations in CNS myelination and motor behavior as to what is observed in the EGFR hypofunctional mouse line EgfrWa2. EGFR overexpression in TACE-deficient OPs restores OL survival and development. Our study reveals an essential function of TACE in oligodendrogenesis, and demonstrates how this molecule modulates EGFR signaling activation to regulate postnatal CNS myelination.
Literature context: OBT0030, RRID:AB_609568; clone BU1
Proliferation of stem/progenitor cells during development provides for the generation of mature cell types in the CNS. While adult brain proliferation is highly restricted in the mammals, it is widespread in teleosts. The extent of adult neural proliferation in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum has not yet been described. To address this, we used double thymidine analog pulse-chase labeling of proliferating cells to identify brain proliferation zones, characterize their cellular composition, and analyze the fate of newborn cells in adult G. omarorum. Short thymidine analog chase periods revealed the ubiquitous distribution of adult brain proliferation, similar to other teleosts, particularly Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Proliferating cells were abundant at the ventricular-subventricular lining of the ventricular-cisternal system, adjacent to the telencephalic subpallium, the diencephalic preoptic region and hypothalamus, and the mesencephalic tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. Extraventricular proliferation zones, located distant from the ventricular-cisternal system surface, were found in all divisions of the rombencephalic cerebellum. We also report a new adult proliferation zone at the caudal-lateral border of the electrosensory lateral line lobe. All proliferation zones showed a heterogeneous cellular composition. The use of short (24 h) and long (30 day) chase periods revealed abundant fast cycling cells (potentially intermediate amplifiers), sparse slow cycling (potentially stem) cells, cells that appear to have entered a quiescent state, and cells that might correspond to migrating newborn neural cells. Their abundance and migration distance differed among proliferation zones: greater numbers and longer range and/or pace of migrating cells were associated with subpallial and cerebellar proliferation zones.
Literature context: B_91789; Millipore), anti-BrdU (AB_609568; Accurate), anti-MBP (AB_510039
Research on myelination has focused on identifying molecules capable of inducing oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in an effort to develop strategies that promote functional myelin regeneration in demyelinating disorders. Here, we show that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is crucial for allowing oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cell cycle withdrawal, and therefore, for oligodendrogenesis and postnatal CNS myelination. Enhanced oligodendrogenesis and subcortical white matter (SCWM) myelination was detected after TGFβ gain of function, while TGFβ receptor II (TGFβ-RII) deletion in OPs prevents their development into mature myelinating OLs, leading to SCWM hypomyelination in mice. TGFβ signaling modulates OP cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation through the transcriptional modulation of c-myc and p21 gene expression, mediated by the interaction of SMAD3/4 with Sp1 and FoxO1 transcription factors. Our study is the first to demonstrate an autonomous and crucial role of TGFβ signaling in OL development and CNS myelination, and may provide new avenues in the treatment of demyelinating diseases.
A previous clinical trial studied the effect of long-term treatment with levodopa (LD) or the dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX) on disease progression in Parkinson disease using SPECT with the dopamine transporter (DAT)-radioligand [(123)I]β-CIT as surrogate marker. [(123)I]β-CIT binding declined to significantly lower levels in patients receiving LD compared to PPX. However, the interpretation of this difference as LD-induced neurotoxicity, PPX-induced neuroprotection/-regeneration, or only drug-induced regulatory changes of DAT-availability remained controversial. To address this question experimentally, we induced a subtotal lesion of the substantia nigra in mice by bilateral injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. After 4 weeks, mice were treated for 20 weeks orally with LD (100mg/kg/day) or PPX (3mg/kg/day), or water (vehicle) only. The integrity of nigrostriatal projections was assessed by repeated [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT in vivo and by immunostaining for DAT and the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) after sacrifice. In sham-lesioned mice, we found that both LD and PPX treatment significantly decreased the striatal FP-CIT binding (LD: -21%; PPX: -14%) and TH-immunoreactivity (LD: -42%; PPX: -45%), but increased DAT-immunoreactivity (LD: +42%; PPX: +33%) compared to controls without dopaminergic treatment. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned mice, however, neither LD nor PPX significantly influenced the stably reduced FP-CIT SPECT signal (LD: -66%; PPX: -66%; controls -66%), TH-immunoreactivity (LD: -70%; PPX: -72%; controls: -77%) and DAT-immunoreactivity (LD: -70%; PPX: -75%; controls: -75%) in the striatum or the number of TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra (LD: -88%; PPX: -88%; controls: -86%), compared to lesioned mice without dopaminergic treatment. In conclusion, chronic dopaminergic stimulation with LD or PPX induced similar adaptive presynaptic changes in healthy mice, but no discernible changes in severely lesioned mice. These findings allow to more reliably interpret the results from clinical trials using neuroimaging of DAT as surrogate parameter.
Several brain areas in the diencephalon are involved in the activation and expression of sexual behavior, including in quail the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). However, the ontogeny of these diencephalic brain nuclei has not to this date been examined in detail. We investigated the ontogeny of POM and other steroid-sensitive brain regions by injecting quail eggs with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at various stages between embryonic day (E)3 and E16 and killing animals at postnatal (PN) days 3 or 56. In the POM, large numbers of BrdU-positive cells were observed in subjects injected from E3-E10, the numbers of these cells was intermediate in birds injected on E12, and most cells were postmitotic in both sexes on E14-E16. Injections on E3-E4 labeled large numbers of Hu-positive cells in POM. In contrast, injections performed at a later stage labeled cells that do not express aromatase nor neuronal markers such as Hu or NeuN in the POM and other steroid-sensitive nuclei and thus do not have a neuronal phenotype in these locations, contrary to what is observed in the telencephalon and cerebellum. No evidence could also be collected to demonstrate that these cells have a glial nature. Converging data, including the facts that these cells divide in the brain mantle and express proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell cycling marker, indicate that cells labeled by BrdU during the second half of embryonic life are slow-cycling progenitors born and residing in the brain mantle. Future research should now identify their functional significance.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being used to treat movement, neurological, and psychiatric disorders; recently it has been successfully applied to patients with treatment-resistant depression or in minimally conscious state. In addition to its clinical importance, DBS presents a powerful approach to target specific neural circuits and determine the functional relationship between the components of these circuits. We examined the effect of high-frequency stimulation of a crucial component of the limbic circuitry, the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), on the generation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, another component of the same circuitry. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis emerges as a strong correlate of antidepressant treatments; however, in most cases, the progenitor cell population targeted by a specific treatment is not known. Using reporter mouse lines designed to quantify changes in selected classes of neural progenitors, we found that high-frequency stimulation of the ATN increases symmetric divisions of a defined class of neural progenitors in the DG; this effect is later manifested as an increased number of new neurons. The affected class of neural progenitors is also affected by the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac) and physical exercise (running). This indicates that neurogenic stimuli of different natures can converge on the same neurogenic target in the DG. Our results also suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may be used as a sensitive indicator of the limbic circuitry activation induced by DBS.
New neurons are continuously added throughout life to the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus. During embryonic and early postnatal development, the dentate gyrus is formed in an outside-in layering pattern that may extend through adulthood. In this work, we sought to quantify systematically the relative position of dentate granule cells generated at different ages. We used 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and retroviral methodologies to birth date cells born in the embryonic, early postnatal, and adult hippocampus and assessed their final position in the adult mouse granule cell layer. We also quantified both developmental and adult-born cohorts of neural progenitor cells that contribute to the pool of adult progenitor cells. Our data confirm that the outside-in layering of the dentate gyrus continues through adulthood and that early-born cells constitute most of the adult dentate gyrus. We also found that substantial numbers of the dividing cells in the adult dentate gyrus were derived from early-dividing cells and retained BrdU, suggesting that a subpopulation of hippocampal progenitors divides infrequently from early development onward.
Age-related changes in cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and cell death in mouse olfactory neuroepithelium were investigated. Mice at the age of 10 days through 16 months were given a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The olfactory mucosae were fixed at 9 timepoints ranging from 2 hours to 3 months after the injection and examined using double immunostaining for BrdU and olfactory marker protein (OMP), and double staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and immunostaining for OMP. The number of BrdU-labeled cells/mm epithelial length initially increased, peaked at 2-3 days after the BrdU injection, then declined at each age. The number of BrdU- and TUNEL-labeled neuronal cells both decreased with increasing age, suggesting that the rates of both cell proliferation and cell death in the olfactory neuroepithelium decrease with increasing age. Double-labeled cells for BrdU and OMP appeared at 7 days after injection in all age groups, suggesting that the time required for neuronal differentiation is broadly similar irrespective of age. In older age groups, smaller amounts of the newly produced cohort are integrated into the OMP-positive ORN population, and even once it is integrated it is eliminated from the population more rapidly compared to the younger age groups. Furthermore, TUNEL assay showed that the fraction of apoptotic cells distributed in the OMP-positive layer/total apoptotic cells decreased with age. This observation suggests that the turnover of mature ORNs is slower in the older neuroepithelium compared to the younger neuroepithelium.
The birth of small-diameter TrkA+ neurons that mediate pain and thermoreception begins approximately 24 hours after the cessation of neural crest cell migration from progenitors residing in the nascent dorsal root ganglion. Although multiple geographically distinct progenitor pools have been proposed, this study is the first to comprehensively characterize the derivation of small-diameter neurons. In the developing chick embryo we identify novel patterns in neural crest cell migration and colonization that sculpt the incipient ganglion into a postmitotic neuronal core encapsulated by a layer of proliferative progenitor cells. Furthermore, we show that this outer progenitor layer is composed of three spatially, temporally, and molecularly distinct progenitor zones, two of which give rise to distinct populations of TrkA+ neurons.
Life-long addition and elimination of neurons within the adult olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb allows for adaptive structural responses to sensory experience, learning, and recovery after injury. The interdependence of the two structures is highlighted by the shortened life span of sensory neurons deprived of bulb contact, and has prompted the hypothesis that trophic cues from the bulb contribute to their survival. The specific identity and source of these signals remain unknown. To investigate the potential role of target neurons in this support, we employed a neurotoxic lesion to selectively remove them while preserving the remaining nerve projection pathway, and examined the dynamics of sensory neuron proliferation and survival. Pulse-labeling of progenitors with bromodeoxyuridine showed that, as with surgical bulb removal, increased apoptosis in the epithelium triggered accelerated production of new neurons after chemical depletion of target cells. Rather than undergoing premature death, a large subpopulation of these neurons survived long term. The combination of increased proliferation and extended survival resulted in essentially normal numbers of new sensory neurons surviving for as long as 5 weeks, with an accompanying restoration of olfactory marker protein expression. Changes in neurotrophic factor expression levels as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), and in bulb cell populations, including the addition of new neurons generated in the subventricular zone, were observed in the injured bulb. These data indicate that olfactory sensory neurons can adapt to reductions in their normal target field by obtaining sufficient support from remaining or alternative cell sources to survive and maintain their projections.
The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) contains progenitors cells, which continually give rise to new neurons that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulbs (OB). Prokineticin receptor 2 (ProKR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that plays an essential role in this migration process. However, the identity of the prokr2-expressing cells has not yet been clearly established. Here, we have characterized in detail the identity of the prokr2-expressing cells in the SVZ/RMS/OB pathway in adult mice. In the SVZ, accumulation of prokr2 transcripts was detected in almost all migrating neuroblasts or type A cells as well as in a large population of their precursors, the rapidly dividing type C cells. Moreover, we observed that, in dissociated SVZ cells from Mash1::GFP postnatal mice, ProKR2 protein is also present in type C and type A cells. We found that, along the RMS and in the OB, prokr2 expression was restricted to migrating type A cells and was absent in astrocytes. Finally, we observed a highly marked decrease of prokr2 expression in Mash1-/- mutant mice, suggesting that this transcription factor directly or indirectly regulates prokr2 expression. Although the expression of ProKR2 in migrating type A cells is in good agreement with the essential role played by this receptor during this migration process, its expression in a large population of their progenitors suggests an additional function for ProKR2, providing novel insights into the role of ProKR2/ProK2 signalling in adult neurogenesis.
The subventricular zone of the striatal wall of adult rodents is an active neurogenic region for life. Cubic multiciliated ependyma separates the subventricular zone from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is involved in the control of adult neurogenesis. By injecting neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens into the right lateral ventricle of the rat, we provoked a partial detachment of the ependyma in the striatal wall. The contralateral ventricle was never affected and was used as the experimental control. Neuraminidase caused widening of the intercellular spaces among some ependymal cells and their subsequent detachment and disintegration in the CSF. Partial ependymal denudation was followed by infiltration of the CSF with macrophages and neutrophils from the local choroid plexus, which ependymal cells never detached after neuraminidase administration. Inflammation extended toward the periventricular parenchyma. The ependymal cells that did not detach and remained in the ventricle wall never proliferated. The lost ependyma was never recovered, and ependymal cells never behaved as neural stem cells. Instead, a scar formed by overlapping astrocytic processes sealed those regions devoid of ependyma. Some ependymal cells at the border of the denudated areas lost contact with the ventricle and became located under the glial layer. Concomitantly with scar formation, some subependymal cells protruded toward the ventricle through the ependymal breaks, proliferated, and formed clusters of rounded ventricular cells that expressed the phenotype of neuroblasts. Ventricular clusters of neuroblasts remained in the ventricle up to 90 days after injection. In the subventricular zone, adult neurogenesis persisted.
Synapsin III is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein that is expressed in cells of the subgranular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, a brain region known to sustain substantial levels of neurogenesis into adulthood. Here we tested the hypothesis that synapsin III plays a role in adult neurogenesis with synapsin III knockout and wild-type mice. Immunocytochemistry of the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus revealed that synapsin III colocalizes with markers of neural progenitor cell development (nestin, PSA-NCAM, NeuN, and Tuj1) but did not colocalize with markers of mitosis (Ki67 and PCNA). Because neurogenesis consists of a number of stages, the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of neural progenitor cells were systematically quantitated in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult synapsin III knockout and wild-type mice. We found a 30% decrease in proliferation and a 55% increase in survival of neural progenitor cells in synapsin III knockout mice. We also observed a 6% increase in the number of neural progenitor cells that differentiated into neurons. No difference in the volume of the dentate gyrus was observed between synapsin III knockout and wild-type mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel role for synapsin III in regulating the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. These findings suggest a distinct function for this synaptic vesicle protein, in addition to its role in neurotransmission.
Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone and innermost part of the dentate granule cell layer. To examine how neural precursor cells proliferate, migrate, and extend their neurites, we performed BrdU- and improved retrovirus-green fluorescence protein (GFP)-labeling analyses. Soon after labeling the majority of BrdU+ cells and GFP+ cells expressed Ki67, a cell cycle marker, and formed clusters together with PSA+ neuroblasts. Most of the Ki67+ proliferating cells expressed Hu, an immature and mature neuronal marker, and the subpopulation expressed both Hu+ and GFAP+. In the clusters, Ki67+ and PSA+ cells strongly expressed beta-catenin and N-cadherin, but PSA+ cells outside the clusters did not. Therefore, it was mainly Hu+ neuronal precursor cells that proliferated within clusters in which the cluster cells are closely associated via cell adhesion molecules, such as N-cadherin/beta-cateninIn and PSA. The newly generated cells appeared to stay in the clusters for a few days and then disperse around the clusters. The findings of this in vivo analysis and in vitro time-lapse imaging of early postnatal hippocampal slices support the notion that most postmitotic neuroblasts migrate tangentially from clusters, extending tangentially oriented processes, one of which often retains close contact with the clusters, and finally extend radial processes, or prospective apical dendrites. These results suggest that the clustering cells and tangentially migrating cells have a systematic cellular arrangement and intercellular interaction.
It is well established that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus slows with aging, but it is unclear whether this change is due to slowing of the cell cycle, as occurs during development, or to loss of precursor cells. In the current study, we find that the cell cycle time of granule cell precursors in middle-aged male rats is not significantly different from that in young adults. The size of the precursor pool, however, was 3-4 times smaller in the middle-aged rats, as determined using both cumulative bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling as well as labeling with the endogenous marker of cell proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Loss of precursor cells was much greater in the granule cell layer than in the hilus, suggesting that dividing cells in the hilus belong to a distinct population, most likely glial progenitors, that are less affected by aging than neuronal precursors. BrdU-labeled precursor cells and young neurons, labeled with doublecortin, appeared to be lost equally from rostral and caudal, as well as suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal, subregions of the granule cell layer. However, doublecortin staining did show large parts of the caudal granule cell layer with few if any young neurons at both ages. Taken together, these findings indicate that precursor cells are not distributed evenly within the dentate gyrus in adulthood but that precursors are lost from throughout the dentate gyrus in old age with no concomitant change in the cell cycle time.
Neurogenesis persists throughout life under normal and degenerative conditions. The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) generates neural stem cells capable of differentiating to neuroblasts and migrating to the site of injury in response to brain insults. In the present study, we investigated whether estradiol increases neurogenesis in the SVZ in an animal model of stroke to potentially promote the ability of the brain to undergo repair. Ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice were implanted with capsules containing either vehicle or 17beta-estradiol, and 1 week later they underwent experimental ischemia. We utilized double-label immunocytochemistry to identify the phenotype of newborn cells (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled) with various cellular markers; doublecortin and PSA-NCAM as the early neuronal marker, NeuN to identify mature neurons, and glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. We report that low physiological levels of estradiol treatment, which exert no effect in the uninjured state, significantly increase the number of newborn neurons in the SVZ following stroke injury. This effect of estradiol is limited to the dorsal region of the SVZ and is absent from the ventral SVZ. The proliferative actions of estradiol are confined to neuronal precursors and do not influence gliosis. Furthermore, we show that both estrogen receptors alpha and beta play pivotal functional roles, insofar as knocking out either of these receptors blocks the ability of estradiol to increase neurogenesis. These findings clearly demonstrate that estradiol stimulates neurogenesis in the adult SVZ, thus potentially facilitating the brain to remodel and repair after injury.
The adult mammalian spinal cord contains neural stem and/or progenitor cells that slowly multiply throughout life and differentiate exclusively into glia. The contribution of adult progenitors to repair has been highlighted in recent studies, demonstrating extensive cell proliferation and gliogenesis following central nervous system (CNS) trauma. The present experiments aimed to determine the relative roles of endogenously dividing progenitor cells versus quiescent progenitor cells in posttraumatic gliogenesis. Using the mitotic indicator bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and a retroviral vector, we found that, in the adult female Fisher 344 rat, endogenously dividing neural progenitors are acutely vulnerable in response to T8 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury. We then studied the population of cells that divide postinjury in the injury epicenter by delivering BrdU or retrovirus at 24 hours after spinal cord injury. Animals were euthanized at five timepoints postinjury, ranging from 6 hours to 9 weeks after BrdU delivery. At all timepoints, we observed extensive proliferation of ependymal and periependymal cells that immunohistochemically resembled stem/progenitor cells. BrdU+ incorporation was noted to be prominent in NG2-immunoreactive progenitors that matured into oligodendrocytes, and in a transient population of microglia. Using a green fluorescence protein (GFP) hematopoietic chimeric mouse, we determined that 90% of the dividing cells in this early proliferation event originate from the spinal cord, whereas only 10% originate from the bone marrow. Our results suggest that dividing, NG2-expressing progenitor cells are vulnerable to injury, but a separate, immature population of neural stem and/or progenitor cells is activated by injury and rapidly divides to replace this vulnerable population.
The MRL mouse is unique in its capacity for regenerative healing of wounds. This regenerative ability includes complete closure, with little scarring, of wounds to the ear pinna and repair of cardiac muscle, without fibrosis, following cryoinjury. Here, we examine whether neurogenic zones within the MRL brain show enhanced regenerative capacity. The largest neurogenic zone in the adult brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ), lies adjacent to the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle and is responsible for replacement of interneuron populations within the olfactory bulb. Initial gross observation of the anterior forebrain in MRL mice revealed enlarged lateral ventricles; however, little neurodegeneration was detected within the SVZ or surrounding tissues. Instead, increased proliferation within the SVZ was observed, based on incorporation of the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine. Closer examination using electron microscopy revealed that a significant number of SVZ astrocytes interpolated within the ependyma and established contact with the ventricle. In addition, subependymal, protuberant nests of cells, consisting primarily of neuroblasts, were found along the anterior SVZ of MRL mice. Whole mounts of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle stained for the neuroblast marker doublecortin revealed normal formation of chains of migratory neuroblasts along the entire wall and introduction of enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged retrovirus into the lateral ventricles confirmed that newly generated neuroblasts were able to track into the olfactory bulb.
The generation of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mammals has been characterized in rodents, but the details of this process have not been described in the primate. Eleven young adult rhesus monkeys were given an injection of the DNA synthesis phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed at varying survival intervals (2 hours to 98 days). The immature neuronal marker TUC-4 (TOAD/Ulip/CRMP-4) was used to define three stages of morphological maturation. Stage I neurons had small somata and lacked dendrites. Stage II neurons had larger somata and short dendrites. Stage III neurons were similar in size to mature granule cells and had branching dendrites that extended into the molecular layer. Examination of TUC-4-positive immature neurons colabeled with BrdU indicated that stage I neurons first appeared 2 days after BrdU injection, stage II neurons at 14 days, and stage III neurons at 35 days. Electron microscopy of TUC-4-labeled cells showed that stage I cells had ultrastructural features of immature neurons, whereas stage III neurons were similar to mature granule cells and formed synapses in the molecular layer. This suggests that stage III neurons could potentially integrate into the circuitry of the dentate gyrus. This study shows that the maturational sequence for new neurons in the adult monkey is similar to that of the adult rodent; however, maturation takes a minimum of 5 weeks in the monkey, which is substantially longer than what has been reported in rodents.
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is assuming an increasingly important role in supporting hippocampal-dependent learning and the modulation of mood and anxiety. Moreover, injury to the developing postnatal dentate gyrus has profound effects on neurogenesis and hippocampal learning throughout life. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures represent an attractive model for studying neurogenesis both in the early postnatal and adult hippocampus, as they retain much of their anatomical and functional circuitry in vitro. Ongoing neurogenesis has been recently demonstrated in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. However, cell proliferation, one of the critical components of neurogenesis, has yet to be characterized in this culture system. We examined single-pulse S-phase bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling in the dentate granule layer with respect to the septotemporal position of origin of the slice culture, the medium the cultures were grown in, and the time the cultures were maintained in vitro up to 14 days, when they are believed to have matured to a near adult state. Using single 10-microm sections through a culture as our reference volume, we report significant effects of septotemporal position on the number of granule layer cells and the number of cells in S-phase, as estimated by short-survival (2 hours) BrdU studies. We report a declining rate of BrdU incorporation, evidence of significant structural changes within the granule cell layer, and differences in cell death between culture media over the first 14 days in vitro. We report caution with the use of BrdU cell density and changes in cell number to indirectly estimate proliferation.