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Mouse Anti-Drosophila Mmp1 catalytic domain Antibody, Unconjugated


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Mouse Drosophila Mmp1 catalytic domain drosophila, drosophila/arthropod

Proper Citation

(DSHB Cat# 3A6B4, RRID:AB_579780)




manufacturer recommendations: IgG1, kappa light chain Immunoblotting

Host Organism



DSHB Go To Vendor

Apical and Basal Matrix Remodeling Control Epithelial Morphogenesis.

  • Diaz-de-la-Loza MD
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 2

Literature context: ; RRID:AB_579780 Mouse anti-MMP1 DSHB Cat# 3B8D1


Epithelial tissues can elongate in two dimensions by polarized cell intercalation, oriented cell division, or cell shape change, owing to local or global actomyosin contractile forces acting in the plane of the tissue. In addition, epithelia can undergo morphogenetic change in three dimensions. We show that elongation of the wings and legs of Drosophila involves a columnar-to-cuboidal cell shape change that reduces cell height and expands cell width. Remodeling of the apical extracellular matrix by the Stubble protease and basal matrix by MMP1/2 proteases induces wing and leg elongation. Matrix remodeling does not occur in the haltere, a limb that fails to elongate. Limb elongation is made anisotropic by planar polarized Myosin-II, which drives convergent extension along the proximal-distal axis. Subsequently, Myosin-II relocalizes to lateral membranes to accelerate columnar-to-cuboidal transition and isotropic tissue expansion. Thus, matrix remodeling induces dynamic changes in actomyosin contractility to drive epithelial morphogenesis in three dimensions.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK-069884(United States)

Serpin Facilitates Tumor-Suppressive Cell Competition by Blocking Toll-Mediated Yki Activation in Drosophila.

  • Katsukawa M
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context: 3A6B4, 5H7B11 ; RRID: AB_579781, AB_579780, AB_579779Chick anti-βeta-Galac


Normal epithelial tissue exerts an intrinsic tumor-suppressive effect against oncogenically transformed cells. In Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic polarity-deficient cells mutant for scribble (scrib) or discs large (dlg) are eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we identify Serpin5 (Spn5), a secreted negative regulator of Toll signaling, as a crucial factor for epithelial cells to eliminate scrib mutant clones from epithelium. Downregulation of Spn5 in wild-type cells leads to elevation of Toll signaling in neighboring scrib cells. Strikingly, forced activation of Toll signaling or Toll-related receptor (TRR) signaling in scrib clones transforms scrib cells from losers to supercompetitors, resulting in tumorous overgrowth of mutant clones. Mechanistically, Toll activation in scrib clones leads to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and F-actin accumulation, which cause strong activation of the Hippo pathway effector Yorkie that blocks cell death and promotes cell proliferation. Our data suggest that Spn5 secreted from normal epithelial cells acts as a component of the extracellular surveillance system that facilitates elimination of pre-malignant cells from epithelium.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA097214(United States)

Class III phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase controls epithelial integrity through endosomal LKB1 regulation.

  • O'Farrell F
  • Nat. Cell Biol.
  • 2017 Dec 12

Literature context: monoclonal antibodies AB_579779 RRID:AB_579780 AB_579781 mixed 1:1:1 and appli


The molecular mechanisms underlying the interdependence between intracellular trafficking and epithelial cell polarity are poorly understood. Here we show that inactivation of class III phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (CIII-PI3K), which produces phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) on endosomes, disrupts epithelial organization. This is caused by dysregulation of endosomally localized Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as STK11), which shows delocalized and increased activity accompanied by dysplasia-like growth and invasive behaviour of cells provoked by JNK pathway activation. CIII-PI3K inactivation cooperates with RasV12 to promote tumour growth in vivo in an LKB1-dependent manner. Strikingly, co-depletion of LKB1 reverts these phenotypes and restores epithelial integrity. The endosomal, but not autophagic, function of CIII-PI3K controls polarity. We identify the CIII-PI3K effector, WD repeat and FYVE domain-containing 2 (WDFY2), as an LKB1 regulator in Drosophila tissues and human organoids. Thus, we define a CIII-PI3K-regulated endosomal signalling platform from which LKB1 directs epithelial polarity, the dysregulation of which endows LKB1 with tumour-promoting properties.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK067324(United States)

Induction and Diagnosis of Tumors in Drosophila Imaginal Disc Epithelia.

  • Morimoto K
  • J Vis Exp
  • 2017 Jul 25

Literature context: l Studies Hybridoma Bank 3A6B4, RRID:AB_579780 3 mixed 1:1:1 and dilute in PBT


In the early stages of cancer, transformed mutant cells show cytological abnormalities, begin uncontrolled overgrowth, and progressively disrupt tissue organization. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a popular experimental model system in cancer biology to study the genetic and cellular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. In particular, genetic tools for Drosophila imaginal discs (developing epithelia in larvae) enable the creation of transformed pro-tumor cells within a normal epithelial tissue, a situation similar to the initial stages of human cancer. A recent study of tumorigenesis in Drosophila wing imaginal discs, however, showed that tumor initiation depends on the tissue-intrinsic cytoarchitecture and the local microenvironment, suggesting that it is important to consider the region-specific susceptibility to tumorigenic stimuli in evaluating tumor phenotypes in imaginal discs. To facilitate phenotypic analysis of tumor progression in imaginal discs, here we describe a protocol for genetic experiments using the GAL4-UAS system to induce neoplastic tumors in wing imaginal discs. We further introduce a diagnosis method to classify the phenotypes of clonal lesions induced in imaginal epithelia, as a clear classification method to discriminate various stages of tumor progression (such as hyperplasia, dysplasia, or neoplasia) had not been described before. These methods might be broadly applicable to the clonal analysis of tumor phenotypes in various organs in Drosophila.

Loss of Rab5 drives non-autonomous cell proliferation through TNF and Ras signaling in Drosophila.

  • Takino K
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2014 Nov 1

Literature context:


Deregulation of the endocytic machinery has been implicated in human cancers. However, the mechanism by which endocytic defects drive cancer development remains to be clarified. Here, we find through a genetic screen in Drosophila that loss of Rab5, a protein required for early endocytic trafficking, drives non-autonomous cell proliferation in imaginal epithelium. Our genetic data indicate that dysfunction of Rab5 leads to cell-autonomous accumulation of Eiger (a TNF homolog) and EGF receptor (EGFR), which causes activation of downstream JNK and Ras signaling, respectively. JNK signaling and its downstream component Cdc42 cooperate with Ras signaling to induce upregulation of a secreted growth factor Upd (an IL-6 homolog) through inactivation of the Hippo pathway. Such non-autonomous tissue growth triggered by Rab5 defect could contribute to epithelial homeostasis as well as cancer development within heterogeneous tumor microenvironment.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA013330(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 087618/Z/08/Z(United Kingdom)

The Scribble module regulates retromer-dependent endocytic trafficking during epithelial polarization.

  • de Vreede G
  • Development
  • 2014 Jul 9

Literature context:


Scribble (Scrib) module proteins are major regulators of cell polarity, but how they influence membrane traffic is not known. Endocytosis is also a key regulator of polarity through roles that remain unclear. Here we link Scrib to a specific arm of the endocytic trafficking system. Drosophila mutants that block AP-2-dependent endocytosis share many phenotypes with Scrib module mutants, but Scrib module mutants show intact internalization and endolysosomal transport. However, defective traffic of retromer pathway cargo is seen, and retromer components show strong genetic interactions with the Scrib module. The Scrib module is required for proper retromer localization to endosomes and promotes appropriate cargo sorting into the retromer pathway via both aPKC-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We propose that the Scrib module regulates epithelial polarity by influencing endocytic itineraries of Crumbs and other retromer-dependent cargo.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS057674(United States)

Crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in tumorigenesis and imaginal disc development.

  • Herranz H
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2014 Jul 7

Literature context:


BACKGROUND: Cancers develop in a complex mutational landscape. Interaction of genetically abnormal cancer cells with normal stromal cells can modify the local microenvironment to promote disease progression for some tumor types. Genetic models of tumorigenesis provide the opportunity to explore how combinations of cancer driver mutations confer distinct properties on tumors. Previous Drosophila models of EGFR-driven cancer have focused on epithelial neoplasia. RESULTS: Here, we report a Drosophila genetic model of EGFR-driven tumorigenesis in which the neoplastic transformation depends on interaction between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. We provide evidence that the secreted proteoglycan Perlecan can act as a context-dependent oncogene cooperating with EGFR to promote tumorigenesis. Coexpression of Perlecan in the EGFR-expressing epithelial cells potentiates endogenous Wg/Wnt and Dpp/BMP signals from the epithelial cells to support expansion of a mesenchymal compartment. Wg activity is required in the epithelial compartment, whereas Dpp activity is required in the mesenchymal compartment. This genetically normal mesenchymal compartment is required to support growth and neoplastic transformation of the genetically modified epithelial population. CONCLUSIONS: We report a genetic model of tumor formation that depends on crosstalk between a genetically modified epithelial cell population and normal host mesenchymal cells. Tumorigenesis in this model co-opts a regulatory mechanism that is normally involved in controlling growth of the imaginal disc during development.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR056296(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM-11772(United States)

In Drosophila, RhoGEF2 cooperates with activated Ras in tumorigenesis through a pathway involving Rho1-Rok-Myosin-II and JNK signalling.

  • Khoo P
  • Dis Model Mech
  • 2013 May 25

Literature context:


The Ras oncogene contributes to ≈ 30% of human cancers, but alone is not sufficient for tumorigenesis. In a Drosophila screen for oncogenes that cooperate with an activated allele of Ras (Ras(ACT)) to promote tissue overgrowth and invasion, we identified the GTP exchange factor RhoGEF2, an activator of Rho-family signalling. Here, we show that RhoGEF2 also cooperates with an activated allele of a downstream effector of Ras, Raf (Raf(GOF)). We dissect the downstream pathways through which RhoGEF2 cooperates with Ras(ACT) (and Raf(GOF)), and show that RhoGEF2 requires Rho1, but not Rac, for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, of the Rho1 effectors, we show that RhoGEF2 + Ras (Raf)-mediated tumorigenesis requires the Rho kinase (Rok)-Myosin-II pathway, but not Diaphanous, Lim kinase or protein kinase N. The Rho1-Rok-Myosin-II pathway leads to the activation of Jun kinase (JNK), in cooperation with Ras(ACT). Moreover, we show that activation of Rok or Myosin II, using constitutively active transgenes, is sufficient for cooperative tumorigenesis with Ras(ACT), and together with Ras(ACT) leads to strong activation of JNK. Our results show that Rok-Myosin-II activity is necessary and sufficient for Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. Our observation that activation of Myosin II, which regulates Filamentous actin (F-actin) contractility without affecting F-actin levels, cooperates with Ras(ACT) to promote JNK activation and tumorigenesis, suggests that increased cell contractility is a key factor in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we show that signalling via the Tumour necrosis factor (TNF; also known as Egr)-ligand-JNK pathway is most likely the predominant pathway that activates JNK upon Rok activation. Overall, our analysis highlights the need for further analysis of the Rok-Myosin-II pathway in cooperation with Ras in human cancers.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - U54 RR022220(United States)

Parvin overexpression uncovers tissue-specific genetic pathways and disrupts F-actin to induce apoptosis in the developing epithelia in Drosophila.

  • Chountala M
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Oct 18

Literature context:


Parvin is a putative F-actin binding protein important for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Here we used overexpression of Drosophila Parvin to uncover its functions in different tissues in vivo. Parvin overexpression caused major defects reminiscent of metastatic cancer cells in developing epithelia, including apoptosis, alterations in cell shape, basal extrusion and invasion. These defects were closely correlated with abnormalities in the organization of F-actin at the basal epithelial surface and of integrin-matrix adhesion sites. In wing epithelium, overexpressed Parvin triggered increased Rho1 protein levels, predominantly at the basal side, whereas in the developing eye it caused a rough eye phenotype and severely disrupted F-actin filaments at the retina floor of pigment cells. We identified genes that suppressed these Parvin-induced dominant effects, depending on the cell type. Co-expression of both ILK and the apoptosis inhibitor DIAP1 blocked Parvin-induced lethality and apoptosis and partially ameliorated cell delamination in epithelia, but did not rescue the elevated Rho1 levels, the abnormal organization of F-actin in the wing and the assembly of integrin-matrix adhesion sites. The rough eye phenotype was suppressed by coexpression of either PTEN or Wech, or by knock-down of Xrp1. Two main conclusions can be drawn from our studies: (1), high levels of cytoplasmic Parvin are toxic in epithelial cells; (2) Parvin in a dose dependent manner affects the organization of actin cytoskeleton in both wing and eye epithelia, independently of its role as a structural component of the ILK-PINCH-Parvin complex that mediates the integrin-actin link. Thus, distinct genetic interactions of Parvin occur in different cell types and second site modifier screens are required to uncover such genetic circuits.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG004059(United States)

Notch and Mef2 synergize to promote proliferation and metastasis through JNK signal activation in Drosophila.

  • Pallavi SK
  • EMBO J.
  • 2012 Jun 29

Literature context:


Genetic analyses in Drosophila revealed a synergy between Notch and the pleiotropic transcription factor Mef2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), which profoundly influences proliferation and metastasis. We show that these hyperproliferative and invasive Drosophila phenotypes are attributed to upregulation of eiger, a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily of ligands, and the consequent activation of Jun N-terminal kinase signalling, which in turn triggers the expression of the invasive marker MMP1. Expression studies in human breast tumour samples demonstrate correlation between Notch and Mef2 paralogues and support the notion that Notch-MEF2 synergy may be significant for modulating human mammary oncogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS063360(United States)

A secreted MMP is required for reepithelialization during wound healing.

  • Stevens LJ
  • Mol. Biol. Cell
  • 2012 Mar 14

Literature context:


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular proteases highly expressed at wound sites. However, the precise function of MMPs during reepithelialization in vivo has been elusive in mammalian models because of the high level of redundancy among the 24 mammalian MMPs. For this reason we used Drosophila melanogaster, whose genome encodes only two MMPs-one secreted type (Mmp1) and one membrane-anchored type (Mmp2)-to study the function and regulation of the secreted class of MMPs in vivo. In the absence of redundancy, we found that the Drosophila secreted MMP, Mmp1, is required in the epidermis to facilitate reepithelialization by remodeling the basement membrane, promoting cell elongation and actin cytoskeletal reorganization, and activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. In addition, we report that the jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway upregulates Mmp1 expression after wounding, but that Mmp1 is expressed independent of the JNK pathway in unwounded epidermis. When the JNK pathway is ectopically activated to overexpress Mmp1, the rate of healing is accelerated in an Mmp1-dependent manner. A primary function of Mmp1, under the control of the JNK pathway, is to promote basement membrane repair, which in turn may permit cell migration and the restoration of a continuous tissue.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007516(United States)

Requirement of matrix metalloproteinase-1 for intestinal homeostasis in the adult Drosophila midgut.

  • Lee SH
  • Exp. Cell Res.
  • 2012 Mar 10

Literature context:


Stem cells are tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes, modulate the turnover of numerous substrates, including cytokine precursors, growth factors, and ECM molecules. However, the roles of MMPs in the regulation of adult stem cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we utilize the Drosophila midgut, which is an excellent model system for studying stem cell biology, to show that Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The results showed that Mmp1 is expressed in the adult midgut and that its expression increases with age and with exposure to oxidative stress. Mmp1 knockdown or Timp-overexpressing flies and flies heterozygous for a viable, hypomorphic Mmp1 allele increased ISC proliferation in the gut, as shown by staining with an anti-phospho-histone H3 antibody and BrdU incorporation assays. Reduced Mmp1 levels induced intestinal hyperplasia, and the Mmp1depletion-induced ISC proliferation was rescued by the suppression of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that Mmp1 regulates ISC proliferation through the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, adult gut-specific knockdown and whole-animal heterozygotes of Mmp1 increased additively sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress and shortened lifespan. Our data suggest that Drosophila Mmp1 is involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation for maintenance of gut homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - AG21068(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI062428(United States)

Drosophila endocytic neoplastic tumor suppressor genes regulate Sav/Wts/Hpo signaling and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway.

  • Robinson BS
  • Cell Cycle
  • 2011 Dec 1

Literature context:


Genetic screens in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have identified a class of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (endocytic nTSGs), which encode proteins that localize to endosomes and facilitate the trafficking of membrane-bound receptors and adhesion molecules into the degradative lysosome. Loss of endocytic nTSGs transforms imaginal disc epithelia into highly proliferative, invasive tissues that fail to differentiate and display defects in cellular apicobasal polarity, adhesion and tissue architecture. As vertebrate homologs of some Drosophila nTSGs are linked to tumor formation, identifying molecular changes in signaling associated with nTSG loss could inform understanding of neoplastic transformation in vertebrates. Here we show that mutations in genes that act at multiple steps of the endolysosomal pathway lead to autonomous activation of the Sav/Wts/Hpo (SWH) transcriptional effector Yki (YAP/TAZ in vertebrates) and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which is known to promote Yki activity in cells with disrupted polarity. Yki and JNK activity are elevated by mutations at multiple steps in the endolysosomal pathway including mutations in the AP-2σ gene, which encodes a component of the AP-2 adaptor complex that recruits cargoes into clathrin-coated pits for subsequent internalization. Moreover, reduction of JNK activity can decrease elevated Yki-signaling caused by altered endocytosis. These studies reveal a broad requirement for components of the endocytic pathway in regulating SWH and JNK outputs, and place Drosophila endocytic nTSGs into a network that involving two major signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P40 RR012546(United States)

The Drosophila Netrin receptor frazzled/DCC functions as an invasive tumor suppressor.

  • VanZomeren-Dohm A
  • BMC Dev. Biol.
  • 2011 Jun 14

Literature context:


BACKGROUND: Loss of heterozygosity at 18q, which includes the Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) gene, has been linked to many human cancers. However, it is unclear if loss of DCC is the specific underlying cause of these cancers. The Drosophila imaginal discs are excellent systems in which to study DCC function, as it is possible to model human tumors through the generation of somatic clones of cells bearing multiple genetic lesions. Here, these attributes of the fly system were utilized to investigate the potential tumor suppressing functions of the Drosophila DCC homologue frazzled (fra) during eye-antennal disc development. RESULTS: Most fra loss of function clones are eliminated during development. However, when mutant clone cells generated in the developing eye were rescued from death, partially differentiated eye cells were found outside of the normal eye field, and in extreme cases distant sites of the body. Characterization of these cells during development indicates that fra mutant cells display characteristics of invasive tumor cells, including increased levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and Mmp-1, changes in cadherin expression, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and loss of polarity. Mutation of fra promotes basement membrane degradation and invasion which are repressed by inhibition of Rho1 signaling. Although inhibition of JNK signaling blocks invasive phenotypes in some metastatic cancer models in flies, blocking JNK signaling inhibits fra mutant cell death, thereby enhancing the fra mutant phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation provide the first direct link between point mutations in fra/DCC and metastatic phenotypes in an animal model and suggest that Fra functions as an invasive tumor suppressor during Drosophila development.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R24CA095841(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM021473(United States)

Drosophila Smt3 negatively regulates JNK signaling through sequestering Hipk in the nucleus.

  • Huang H
  • Development
  • 2011 Jun 25

Literature context:


Post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is important for a variety of cellular and developmental processes. However, the precise mechanism(s) that connects sumoylation to specific developmental signaling pathways remains relatively less clear. Here, we show that Smt3 knockdown in Drosophila wing discs causes phenotypes resembling JNK gain of function, including ectopic apoptosis and apoptosis-induced compensatory growth. Smt3 depletion leads to an increased expression of JNK target genes Mmp1 and puckered. We show that, although knockdown of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) suppresses Smt3 depletion-induced activation of JNK, Hipk overexpression synergistically enhances this type of JNK activation. We further demonstrate that Hipk is sumolylated in vivo, and its nuclear localization is dependent on the sumoylation pathway. Our results thus establish a mechanistic connection between the sumoylation pathway and the JNK pathway through the action of Hipk. We propose that the sumoylation-controlled balance between cytoplasmic and nuclear Hipk plays a crucial role in regulating JNK signaling.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R21HD065290(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS 055064(United States)

Rho1 regulates apoptosis via activation of the JNK signaling pathway at the plasma membrane.

  • Neisch AL
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2010 Apr 19

Literature context:


Precisely controlled growth and morphogenesis of developing epithelial tissues require coordination of multiple factors, including proliferation, adhesion, cell shape, and apoptosis. RhoA, a small GTPase, is known to control epithelial morphogenesis and integrity through its ability to regulate the cytoskeleton. In this study, we examine a less well-characterized RhoA function in cell survival. We demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster RhoA, Rho1, promotes apoptosis independently of Rho kinase through its effects on c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. In addition, Rho1 forms a complex with Slipper (Slpr), an upstream activator of the JNK pathway. Loss of Moesin (Moe), an upstream regulator of Rho1 activity, results in increased levels of Rho1 at the plasma membrane and cortical accumulation of Slpr. Together, these results suggest that Rho1 functions at the cell cortex to regulate JNK activity and implicate Rho1 and Moe in epithelial cell survival.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - F021135(United Kingdom)

Distinct functions for the catalytic and hemopexin domains of a Drosophila matrix metalloproteinase.

  • Glasheen BM
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2009 Feb 24

Literature context:


Human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to contribute to tumor progression. Therapies based on inhibiting the catalytic domain of MMPs have been unsuccessful, but these studies raise the question of whether other MMP domains might be appropriate targets. The genetic dissection of domain function has been stymied in mouse because there are 24 related and partially redundant MMP genes in the mouse genome. Here, we present a genetic dissection of the functions of the hemopexin and catalytic domains of a canonical MMP in Drosophila melanogaster, an organism with only 2 MMPs that function nonredundantly. We compare the phenotypes of Mmp1 null alleles with alleles that have specific hemopexin domain lesions, and we also examine phenotypes of dominant-negative mutants. We find that, although the catalytic domain appears to be required for all MMP functions including extracellular matrix remodeling of the tracheal system, the hemopexin domain is required specifically for tissue invasion events later in metamorphosis but not for tracheal remodeling. Thus, we find that this MMP hemopexin domain has an apparent specialization for tissue invasion events, a finding with potential implications for inhibitor therapies.

An MMP liberates the Ninjurin A ectodomain to signal a loss of cell adhesion.

  • Zhang S
  • Genes Dev.
  • 2006 Jul 15

Literature context:


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important for developmental tissue remodeling and for the inflammatory response. Although the vertebrate MMP family is large and functionally redundant, the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has only two MMPs, both essential genes. Our previous work demonstrated that Mmp1 is required for growth of the tracheal system, and we suggested that the mutant phenotype resulted from aberrant persistence of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Here we report the identification of NijA, a transmembrane protein whose vertebrate homologs regulate cell adhesion, as a two-hybrid binding partner for Mmp1. The binding of Mmp1 and NijA was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins from flies, and the endogenous proteins were found to colocalize at the tracheal cell surface in larvae. When NijA is expressed in S2 cells, they lose adhesion to surfaces; this adhesion-loss phenotype is dependent on the expression and catalytic activity of Mmp1. Our data indicate that Mmp1 releases the N-terminal extracellular domain of NijA. This liberated ectodomain promotes the loss of cell adhesion in a cell-nonautonomous manner. We suggest that tracheal cell adhesion is regulated by a novel mechanism utilizing an MMP and a ninjurin family member.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL64541(United States)

Drosophila matrix metalloproteinases are required for tissue remodeling, but not embryonic development.

  • Page-McCaw A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2003 Jan 17

Literature context:


The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is heavily implicated in many diseases, including cancer. The developmental functions of these genes are not clear, however, because the >20 mammalian MMPs can be functionally redundant. Drosophila melanogaster has only two MMPs, which are expressed in embryos in distinct patterns. We created mutations in both genes: Mmp1 mutants have defects in larval tracheal growth and pupal head eversion, and Mmp2 mutants have defects in larval tissue histolysis and epithelial fusion during metamorphosis; neither is required for embryonic development. Double mutants also complete embryogenesis, and these represent the first time, to our knowledge, that all MMPs have been disrupted in any organism. Thus, MMPs are not required for Drosophila embryonic development, but, rather, for tissue remodeling.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK057038(United States)