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Rabbit Anti-Raptor Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 24C12


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Raptor human, mouse

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 2280, RRID:AB_561245)


monoclonal antibody


Applications: W, IP. Consolidation on 11/2018: AB_10694695, AB_10830734, AB_561245.

Clone ID

Clone 24C12

Host Organism


Systematic Functional Annotation of Somatic Mutations in Cancer.

  • Ng PK
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


The functional impact of the vast majority of cancer somatic mutations remains unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap for implementing precision oncology. Here, we report the development of a moderate-throughput functional genomic platform consisting of efficient mutant generation, sensitive viability assays using two growth factor-dependent cell models, and functional proteomic profiling of signaling effects for select aberrations. We apply the platform to annotate >1,000 genomic aberrations, including gene amplifications, point mutations, indels, and gene fusions, potentially doubling the number of driver mutations characterized in clinically actionable genes. Further, the platform is sufficiently sensitive to identify weak drivers. Our data are accessible through a user-friendly, public data portal. Our study will facilitate biomarker discovery, prediction algorithm improvement, and drug development.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-090775(United States)

Brown Fat AKT2 Is a Cold-Induced Kinase that Stimulates ChREBP-Mediated De Novo Lipogenesis to Optimize Fuel Storage and Thermogenesis.

  • Sanchez-Gurmaches J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a therapeutic target for metabolic diseases; thus, understanding its metabolic circuitry is clinically important. Many studies of BAT compare rodents mildly cold to those severely cold. Here, we compared BAT remodeling between thermoneutral and mild-cold-adapted mice, conditions more relevant to humans. Although BAT is renowned for catabolic β-oxidative capacity, we find paradoxically that the anabolic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) genes encoding ACLY, ACSS2, ACC, and FASN were among the most upregulated by mild cold and that, in humans, DNL correlates with Ucp1 expression. The regulation and function of adipocyte DNL and its association with thermogenesis are not understood. We provide evidence suggesting that AKT2 drives DNL in adipocytes by stimulating ChREBPβ transcriptional activity and that cold induces the AKT2-ChREBP pathway in BAT to optimize fuel storage and thermogenesis. These data provide insight into adipocyte DNL regulation and function and illustrate the metabolic flexibility of thermogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL095491(United States)

mTORC2 Regulates Amino Acid Metabolism in Cancer by Phosphorylation of the Cystine-Glutamate Antiporter xCT.

  • Gu Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Mutations in cancer reprogram amino acid metabolism to drive tumor growth, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified mTORC2 as a critical regulator of amino acid metabolism in cancer via phosphorylation of the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT. mTORC2 phosphorylates serine 26 at the cytosolic N terminus of xCT, inhibiting its activity. Genetic inhibition of mTORC2, or pharmacologic inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, promotes glutamate secretion, cystine uptake, and incorporation into glutathione, linking growth factor receptor signaling with amino acid uptake and utilization. These results identify an unanticipated mechanism regulating amino acid metabolism in cancer, enabling tumor cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA186668()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM116897()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073831()

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

An Ancient, Unified Mechanism for Metformin Growth Inhibition in C. elegans and Cancer.

  • Wu L
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 15

Literature context:


Metformin has utility in cancer prevention and treatment, though the mechanisms for these effects remain elusive. Through genetic screening in C. elegans, we uncover two metformin response elements: the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member-10 (ACAD10). We demonstrate that biguanides inhibit growth by inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory capacity, which restrains transit of the RagA-RagC GTPase heterodimer through the NPC. Nuclear exclusion renders RagC incapable of gaining the GDP-bound state necessary to stimulate mTORC1. Biguanide-induced inactivation of mTORC1 subsequently inhibits growth through transcriptional induction of ACAD10. This ancient metformin response pathway is conserved from worms to humans. Both restricted nuclear pore transit and upregulation of ACAD10 are required for biguanides to reduce viability in melanoma and pancreatic cancer cells, and to extend C. elegans lifespan. This pathway provides a unified mechanism by which metformin kills cancer cells and extends lifespan, and illuminates potential cancer targets. PAPERCLIP.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA166717()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK098285()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK087941()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK040561()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK057521()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK072041()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK101522()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R03 DK098436()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440()

Liver mTOR controls IGF-I bioavailability by regulation of protein kinase CK2 and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in fetal growth restriction.

  • Abu Shehab M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes the infant to diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. No treatment for FGR is available, and the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation has been implicated as an important mechanism by which fetal growth is reduced. However, to what extent circulating IGFBP-1 is phosphorylated in FGR is unknown, and the molecular mechanisms linking FGR to IGFBP-1 phosphorylation have not been established. We used umbilical cord plasma of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and growth-restricted human fetuses and determined IGFBP-1 and IGF-I concentrations (ELISA) and site-specific IGFBP-1 phosphorylation (Western blotting using IGFBP-1 phospho-site specific antibodies). In addition, we used a baboon model of FGR produced by 30% maternal nutrient restriction and determined mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)C1 activity, CK2 expression/activity, IGFBP-1 expression and phosphorylation, and IGF-I levels in baboon fetal liver by Western blot, enzymatic assay, and ELISA. HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes were used to explore mechanistic links between mTORC1 signaling and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation. IGFBP-1 was hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in umbilical plasma of human FGR fetuses. IGFBP-1 was also hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in the liver of growth-restricted baboon fetus. mTOR signaling was markedly inhibited, whereas expression and activity of CK2 was increased in growth-restricted baboon fetal liver in vivo. Using HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes, we established a mechanistic link between mTOR inhibition, CK2 activation, IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, and decreased IGF-I-induced IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation. We provide clear evidence for IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in FGR and identified an mTOR and CK2-mediated mechanism for regulation of IGF-I bioavailability. Our findings are consistent with the model that inhibition of mTOR in the fetal liver, resulting in increased CK2 activity and IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, constitutes a novel mechanistic link between nutrient deprivation and restricted fetal growth.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS036715(United States)