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Nkx2.2 transcription factor antibody - Jessell, T.M. / Brenner-Morton, S.; HHMI/Columbia University

RRID:AB_531794

Antibody ID

AB_531794

Target Antigen

Nkx2.2 transcription factor chicken, human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(DSHB Cat# 74.5A5, RRID:AB_531794)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

consolidated with AB_2314952 on 02/2018 by curator.; Application(s): FFPE,Immunofluorescence,Immunohistochemistry,Western Blot; Date Deposited: 02/12/1999

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

DSHB Go To Vendor

The Polycomb-Dependent Epigenome Controls β Cell Dysfunction, Dedifferentiation, and Diabetes.

  • Lu TT
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

To date, it remains largely unclear to what extent chromatin machinery contributes to the susceptibility and progression of complex diseases. Here, we combine deep epigenome mapping with single-cell transcriptomics to mine for evidence of chromatin dysregulation in type 2 diabetes. We find two chromatin-state signatures that track β cell dysfunction in mice and humans: ectopic activation of bivalent Polycomb-silenced domains and loss of expression at an epigenomically unique class of lineage-defining genes. β cell-specific Polycomb (Eed/PRC2) loss of function in mice triggers diabetes-mimicking transcriptional signatures and highly penetrant, hyperglycemia-independent dedifferentiation, indicating that PRC2 dysregulation contributes to disease. The work provides novel resources for exploring β cell transcriptional regulation and identifies PRC2 as necessary for long-term maintenance of β cell identity. Importantly, the data suggest a two-hit (chromatin and hyperglycemia) model for loss of β cell identity in diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI084808(United States)

R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Survival for Correct Myelination in the Central Nervous System.

  • Sanz-Rodriguez M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid and effective neural transmission of information requires correct axonal myelination. Modifications in myelination alter axonal capacity to transmit electric impulses and enable pathological conditions. In the CNS, oligodendrocytes (OLs) myelinate axons, a complex process involving various cellular interactions. However, we know little about the mechanisms that orchestrate correct myelination. Here, we demonstrate that OLs express R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Using female and male mutant mice to delete these proteins, we found that activation of the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways was weaker in mice lacking one or both of these GTPases, suggesting that both proteins coordinate the activity of these two pathways. Loss of R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 diminishes the number of OLs in major myelinated CNS tracts and increases the proportion of immature OLs. In R-Ras1-/- and R-Ras2-/--null mice, OLs show aberrant morphologies and fail to differentiate correctly into myelin-forming phenotypes. The smaller OL population and abnormal OL maturation induce severe hypomyelination, with shorter nodes of Ranvier in R-Ras1-/- and/or R-Ras2-/- mice. These defects explain the slower conduction velocity of myelinated axons that we observed in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Together, these results suggest that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are upstream elements that regulate the survival and differentiation of progenitors into OLs through the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways for proper myelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 play essential roles in regulating myelination in vivo and control fundamental aspects of oligodendrocyte (OL) survival and differentiation through synergistic activation of PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK signaling. Mice lacking R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 show a diminished OL population with a higher proportion of immature OLs, explaining the observed hypomyelination in main CNS tracts. In vivo electrophysiology recordings demonstrate a slower conduction velocity of nerve impulses in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Therefore, R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are essential for proper axonal myelination and accurate neural transmission.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC011010-06(United States)

A Glial Signature and Wnt7 Signaling Regulate Glioma-Vascular Interactions and Tumor Microenvironment.

  • Griveau A
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation. Experimentally, Olig2 promotes Wnt7b expression, a finding that correlates in human glioma profiling. Targeted Wnt7a/7b deletion or pharmacologic Wnt inhibition blocks Olig2+ glioma single-cell vessel co-option and enhances responses to temozolomide. Finally, Olig2 and Wnt7 become upregulated after anti-VEGF treatment in preclinical models and patients. Thus, glial-encoded pathways regulate distinct glioma-vascular microenvironmental interactions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ES016005(United States)

Sonic Hedgehog switches on Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling in commissural axon growth cones by reducing levels of Shisa2.

  • Onishi K
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Commissural axons switch on responsiveness to Wnt attraction during midline crossing and turn anteriorly only after exiting the floor plate. We report here that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Smoothened signaling downregulates Shisa2, which inhibits the glycosylation and cell surface presentation of Frizzled3 in rodent commissural axon growth cones. Constitutive Shisa2 expression causes randomized turning of post-crossing commissural axons along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Loss of Shisa2 led to precocious anterior turning of commissural axons before or during midline crossing. Post-crossing commissural axon turning is completely randomized along the A-P axis when Wntless, which is essential for Wnt secretion, is conditionally knocked out in the floor plate. This regulatory link between Shh and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling may also occur in other developmental processes.

Pancreatic Nonhormone Expressing Endocrine Cells in Children With Type 1 Diabetes.

  • Md Moin AS
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been proposed that the deficit in β-cell mass in type 1 diabetes (T1D) may be due, in part, to β-cell degranulation to chromogranin-positive hormone-negative (CPHN) cells. The frequency and distribution of pancreatic CPHN cells were investigated in 19 children with T1D compared with 14 non-diabetic (ND) children. We further evaluated these cells for replication and expression of endocrine lineage markers Nkx6.1 and Nkx2.2, and compared these frequencies with those previously reported in CPHN cells in adults with T1D. In contrast to adults' cells, pancreatic CPHN cells were comparably abundant (percentage of endocrine cells ± standard error of the mean, 1.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0.2 in patients with T1D vs ND subjects, respectively; P = not significant) and comparably distributed in children with T1D vs ND donors. Replication of CPHN cells was detected but unchanged in children with T1D vs ND children, as was the percentage of CPHN cells expressing Nkx6.1 or NKx2.2. In children with T1D, the frequency of pancreatic CPHN cells was not increased, and this differed from adults with T1D.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK077967()

Gene expression analysis of developing cell groups in the pretectal region of Xenopus laevis.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Our previous analysis of progenitor domains in the pretectum of Xenopus revealed three molecularly distinct anteroposterior subdivisions, identified as precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic domains (Morona et al. [2011] J Comp Neurol 519:1024-1050). Here we analyzed at later developmental stages the nuclei derived from these areas, attending to their gene expression patterns and histogenesis. Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of each domain: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); Foxp1 and Six3 (JcP); and Xiro1, VGlut2, Ebf1, and Ebf3 (PcP). Additional genoarchitectural information was provided by the expression of Gbx2, NPY, Lhx1, and Lhx9. This allowed both unambiguous characterization of the anuran pretectal nuclei with regard to their origin in the three early anteroposterior progenitor domains, and their comparison with counterparts in the chick and mouse pretectum. Our observations demonstrated a molecular conservation, during practically all the stages analyzed, for most of the main markers used to define genoarchitecturally the main derivatives of each pretectal domain. We found molecular evidence to propose homologous derivatives from the CoP (olivary pretectal, parvocellular, and magnocellular posterior commissure and lateral terminal nuclei), JcP (spiriformis lateral and lateral terminal nuclei), and PcP (anterior pretectal nucleus) to those described in avian studies. These results represent significant progress in the comprehension of the diencephalic region of Xenopus and show that the organization of the pretectum possesses many features shared with birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:715-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007319(United States)

Diencephalic Size Is Restricted by a Novel Interplay Between GCN5 Acetyltransferase Activity and Retinoic Acid Signaling.

  • Wilde JJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diencephalic defects underlie an array of neurological diseases. Previous studies have suggested that retinoic acid (RA) signaling is involved in diencephalic development at late stages of embryonic development, but its roles and mechanisms of action during early neural development are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking enzymatic activity of the acetyltransferase GCN5 ((Gcn5hat/hat )), which were previously characterized with respect to their exencephalic phenotype, exhibit significant diencephalic expansion, decreased diencephalic RA signaling, and increased diencephalic WNT and SHH signaling. Using a variety of molecular biology techniques in both cultured neuroepithelial cells treated with a GCN5 inhibitor and forebrain tissue from (Gcn5hat/hat ) embryos, we demonstrate that GCN5, RARα/γ, and the poorly characterized protein TACC1 form a complex in the nucleus that binds specific retinoic acid response elements in the absence of RA. Furthermore, RA triggers GCN5-mediated acetylation of TACC1, which results in dissociation of TACC1 from retinoic acid response elements and leads to transcriptional activation of RA target genes. Intriguingly, RA signaling defects caused by in vitro inhibition of GCN5 can be rescued through RA-dependent mechanisms that require RARβ. Last, we demonstrate that the diencephalic expansion and transcriptional defects seen in (Gcn5hat/hat ) mutants can be rescued with gestational RA supplementation, supporting a direct link between GCN5, TACC1, and RA signaling in the developing diencephalon. Together, our studies identify a novel, nonhistone substrate for GCN5 whose modification regulates a previously undescribed, tissue-specific mechanism of RA signaling that is required to restrict diencephalic size during early forebrain development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Changes in diencephalic size and shape, as well as SNPs associated with retinoic acid (RA) signaling-associated genes, have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms that regulate diencephalic morphogenesis and the involvement of RA signaling in this process are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a novel role of the acetyltransferase GCN5 in a previously undescribed mechanism of RA signaling in the developing forebrain that is required to maintain the appropriate size of the diencephalon. Together, our experiments identify a novel nonhistone substrate of GCN5, highlight an essential role for both GCN5 and RA signaling in early diencephalic development, and elucidate a novel molecular regulatory mechanism for RA signaling that is specific to the developing forebrain.

Patched1 and Patched2 inhibit Smoothened non-cell autonomously.

  • Roberts B
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Smoothened (Smo) inhibition by Patched (Ptch) is central to Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a proton driven antiporter, is required for Smo inhibition via an unknown mechanism. Hh ligand binding to Ptch reverses this inhibition and activated Smo initiates the Hh response. To determine whether Ptch inhibits Smo strictly in the same cell or also mediates non-cell-autonomous Smo inhibition, we generated genetically mosaic neuralized embryoid bodies (nEBs) from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These experiments utilized novel mESC lines in which Ptch1, Ptch2, Smo, Shh and 7dhcr were inactivated via gene editing in multiple combinations, allowing us to measure non-cell autonomous interactions between cells with differing Ptch1/2 status. In several independent assays, the Hh response was repressed by Ptch1/2 in nearby cells. When 7dhcr was targeted, cells displayed elevated non-cell autonomous inhibition. These findings support a model in which Ptch1/2 mediate secretion of a Smo-inhibitory cholesterol precursor.

Foxa1 and Foxa2 regulate α-cell differentiation, glucagon biosynthesis, and secretion.

  • Heddad Masson M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Forkhead box A transcription factors are major regulators of glucose homeostasis. They show both distinct and redundant roles during pancreas development and in adult mouse β-cells. In vivo ablation studies have revealed critical implications of Foxa1 on glucagon biosynthesis and requirement of Foxa2 in α-cell terminal differentiation. In order to examine the respective role of these factors in mature α-cells, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against Foxa1 and Foxa2 in rat primary pancreatic α-cells and rodent α-cell lines leading to marked decreases in Foxa1 and Foxa2 mRNA levels and proteins. Both Foxa1 and Foxa2 control glucagon gene expression specifically through the G2 element. Although we found that Foxa2 controls the expression of the glucagon, MafB, Pou3f4, Pcsk2, Nkx2.2, Kir6.2, and Sur1 genes, Foxa1 only regulates glucagon gene expression. Interestingly, the Isl1 and Gipr genes were not controlled by either Foxa1 or Foxa2 alone but by their combination. Foxa1 and Foxa2 directly activate and bind the promoter region the Nkx2.2, Kir6.2 and Sur1, Gipr, Isl1, and Pou3f4 genes. We also demonstrated that glucagon secretion is affected by the combined effects of Foxa1 and Foxa2 but not by either one alone. Our results indicate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 control glucagon biosynthesis and secretion as well as α-cell differentiation with both common and unique target genes.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG044486(United States)

Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition at disease onset prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis progression through immunoregulatory and neuroprotective actions.

  • Pifarré P
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

In addition to detrimental inflammation, widespread axon degeneration is an important feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and a major correlate for permanent clinical deficits. Thus, treatments that combine immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects are beneficial for MS. Using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of MS, we recently showed that daily treatment with the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil at peak disease rapidly ameliorates clinical symptoms and neuropathology (Pifarre et al., 2011). We have now investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective actions of sildenafil treatment from the onset of EAE when the immune response prevails and show that early administration of the drug prevents disease progression. Ultrastructural analysis of spinal cord evidenced that sildenafil treatment preserves axons and myelin and increases the number of remyelinating axons. Immunostaining of oligodendrocytes at different stages of differentiation showed that sildenafil protects immature and mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a recognized neuroprotectant in EAE, was up-regulated by sildenafil in immune and neural cells suggesting its implication in the beneficial effects of the drug. RNA microarray analysis of spinal cord revealed that sildenafil up-regulates YM-1, a marker of the alternative macrophage/microglial M2 phenotype that has neuroprotective and regenerative properties. Immunostaining confirmed up-regulation of YM-1 while the classical macrophage/microglial activation marker Iba-1 was down-regulated. Microarray analysis also showed a notable up-regulation of several members of the granzyme B cluster (GrBs). Immunostaining revealed expression of GrBs in Foxp3+-T regulatory cells (Tregs) suggesting a role for these proteases in sildenafil-induced suppression of T effector cells (Teffs). In vitro analysis of splenocytes from sildenafil-treated animals showed down-regulation of Th1/Th2/Th17 responses while Tregs were up-regulated. Additionally, sildenafil treatment prevented MOG-specific IgG2b accumulation in serum. Taken together these data demonstrates that daily sildenafil treatment from the initiation of EAE symptoms prevents further clinical deterioration by stimulating immunomodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. Importantly, we also show here that sildenafil enhances the ability of human Tregs from healthy donors to down-regulate the proliferation of Teffs in vitro, strongly supporting the potential of sildenafil for therapeutic intervention in MS.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30CA068485(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY05454(United States)

Spatiotemporal patterns of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expression in the developing brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The onset and developmental dynamics of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system (CNS) of embryos, larvae, and recently metamorphosed juveniles of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. During the embryonic period, the Pax proteins start being detectable in neuroepithelial domains. Subsequently, they become restricted to subsets of cells in distinct brain regions, maintaining different degrees of expression in late larvae and juvenile brains. Specifically, Pax6 is broadly expressed all along the urodele CNS (olfactory bulbs, pallium, basal ganglia, diencephalon, mesencephalic tegmentum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord) and the developing olfactory organ and retina. Pax3 and Pax7 are excluded from the rostral forebrain and were usually observed in overlapping regions during embryonic development, whereas Pax3 expression is highly downregulated as development proceeds. Thus, Pax3 is restricted to the roof plate of prosomere 2, pretectum, optic tectum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord. Comparatively, Pax7 was more conspicuous in all these regions. Pax7 cells were also found in the paraphysis, intermediate lobe of the hypophysis, and basal plate of prosomere 3. Our data show that the expression patterns of the three Pax genes studied are overall evolutionarily conserved, and therefore could unequivocally be used to identify subdivisions in the urodele brain similar to other vertebrates, which are not clearly discernable with classical techniques. In addition, the spatiotemporal sequences of expression provide indirect evidence of putative migratory routes across neuromeric limits and the alar-basal boundary.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA126189(United States)

Elucidation of target muscle and detailed development of dorsal motor neurons in chick embryo spinal cord.

  • Kobayashi N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The avian cervical spinal cord includes motoneurons (MNs) that send their axons through the dorsal roots. They have been called dorsal motoneurons (dMNs) and assumed to correspond to MNs of the accessory nerve that innervate the cucullaris muscle (SAN-MNs). However, their target muscles have not been elucidated to date. The present study sought to determine the targets and the specific combination of transcription factors expressed by dMNs and SAN-MNs and to describe the detailed development of dMNs. Experiments with tracing techniques confirmed that axons of dMNs innervated the cucullaris muscle. Retrogradely labeled dMNs were distributed in the ventral horn of C3 and more caudal segments. In most cases, some dMNs were also observed in the C2 segment. It was also demonstrated that SAN-MNs existed in the ventral horn of the C1-2 segments and the adjacent caudal hindbrain. Both SAN-MNs and dMNs expressed Isl1 but did not express Isl2, MNR2, or Lhx3. Rather, these MNs expressed Phox2b, a marker for branchial motoneurons (brMNs), although the intensity of expression was weaker. Dorsal MNs and SAN-MNs were derived from the Nkx2.2-positive precursor domain and migrated dorsally. Dorsal MNs remain in the ventral domain of the neural tube, unlike brMNs in the brainstem. These results indicate that dMNs and SAN-MNs belong to a common MN population innervating the cucullaris muscle and also suggest that they are similar to brMNs of the brainstem, although there are differences in Phox2b expression and in the final location of each population. J. Comp. Neurol. 521: 2987-3002, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/D523186/1(United Kingdom)
  • Wellcome Trust - AG13792(United Kingdom)

Expression patterns of Pax6 and Pax7 in the adult brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression patterns of Pax6, Pax7, and, to a lesser extent, Pax3 genes were analyzed by a combination of immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system of adult specimens of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. Only Pax6 was found in the telencephalon, specifically the olfactory bulbs, striatum, septum, and lateral and central parts of the amygdala. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, respectively, of prosomere 3. The distribution of Pax6, Pax7, and Pax3 cells correlated with the three pretectal domains. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the dorsal mesencephalon, mainly in the optic tectum, and Pax6 cells were the only cells found in the tegmentum. Large populations of Pax7 cells occupied the rostral rhombencephalon, along with lower numbers of Pax6 and Pax3 cells. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum. Pax6 cells also formed a column of scattered neurons in the reticular formation and were found in the octavolateral area. The rhombencephalic ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Dorsal Pax7 cells and ventral Pax6 cells were found along the spinal cord. Our results show that the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 is widely maintained in the brains of adult urodeles, in contrast to the situation in other tetrapods. This discrepancy could be due to the generally pedomorphic features of urodele brains. Although the precise role of these transcription factors in adult brains remains to be determined, our findings support the idea that they may also function in adult urodeles.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R03 EB012461-01(United States)

Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. I. The alar regions.

  • Domínguez L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The patterns of expression of a set of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the alar hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development. Combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques were used for the identification of subdivisions and their boundaries. The alar hypothalamus was located rostral to the diencephalon in the secondary prosencephalon and represents the rostral continuation of the alar territories of the diencephalon and brainstem, according to the prosomeric model. It is composed of the supraoptoparaventricular (dorsal) and the suprachiasmatic (ventral) regions, and limits dorsally with the preoptic region, caudally with the prethalamic eminence and the prethalamus, and ventrally with the basal hypothalamus. The supraoptoparaventricular area is defined by the orthopedia (Otp) expression and is subdivided into rostral and caudal portions, on the basis of the Nkx2.2 expression only in the rostral portion. This region is the source of many neuroendocrine cells, primarily located in the rostral subdivision. The suprachiasmatic region is characterized by Dll4/Isl1 expression, and was also subdivided into rostral and caudal portions, based on the expression of Nkx2.1/Nkx2.2 and Lhx1/7 exclusively in the rostral portion. Both alar regions are mainly connected with subpallial areas strongly implicated in the limbic system and show robust intrahypothalamic connections. Caudally, both regions project to brainstem centers and spinal cord. All these data support that in terms of topology, molecular specification, and connectivity the subdivisions of the anuran alar hypothalamus possess many features shared with their counterparts in amniotes, likely controlling similar reflexes, responses, and behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - LM009382(United States)

The ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 negatively regulates the Sonic hedgehog pathway via cAMP signaling.

  • Mukhopadhyay S
  • Cell
  • 2013 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The primary cilium is required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in vertebrates. In contrast to mutants affecting ciliary assembly, mutations in the intraflagellar transport complex A (IFT-A) paradoxically cause increased Shh signaling. We previously showed that the IFT-A complex, in addition to its canonical role in retrograde IFT, binds to the tubby-like protein, Tulp3, and recruits it to cilia. Here, we describe a conserved vertebrate G-protein-coupled receptor, Gpr161, which localizes to primary cilia in a Tulp3/IFT-A-dependent manner. Complete loss of Gpr161 in mouse causes midgestation lethality and increased Shh signaling in the neural tube, phenocopying Tulp3/IFT-A mutants. Constitutive Gpr161 activity increases cAMP levels and represses Shh signaling by determining the processing of Gli3 to its repressor form. Conversely, Shh signaling directs Gpr161 to be internalized from cilia, preventing its activity. Thus, Gpr161 defines a morphogenetic pathway coupling protein kinase A activation to Shh signaling during neural tube development.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA DA000206-28(United States)

DCC mediated axon guidance of spinal interneurons is essential for normal locomotor central pattern generator function.

  • Rabe Bernhardt N
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2012 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Coordinated limb rhythmic movements take place through organized signaling in local spinal cord neuronal networks. The establishment of these circuitries during development is dependent on the correct guidance of axons to their targets. It has previously been shown that the well-known axon guidance molecule netrin-1 is required for configuring the circuitry that provides left-right alternating coordination in fictive locomotion. The attraction of commissural axons to the midline in response to netrin-1 has been shown to involve the netrin-1 receptor DCC (deleted in Colorectal Cancer). However, the role of DCC for the establishment of CPG coordination has not yet been resolved. We show that mice carrying a null mutation of DCC displayed an uncoordinated left-right activity during fictive locomotion accompanied by a loss of interneuronal subpopulations originating from commissural progenitors. Thus, DCC plays a crucial role in the formation of spinal neuronal circuitry coordinating left-right activities. Together with the previously published results from netrin-1 deficient mice, the data presented in this study suggest a role for the most ventral originating V3 interneurons in synchronous activities over the midline. Further, it provides evidence that axon crossing in the spinal cord is more intricately controlled than in previously suggested models of DCC-netrin-1 interaction.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - T32-DC00046(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - K99 MH090237(United States)

Small ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) modification inhibits GLI2 protein transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo.

  • Han L
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2012 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Gli transcription factors are key downstream mediators of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. How the activities of Gli transcription factors are regulated by upstream Hh signaling events and protein modifications are not fully understood. Here we show that GLI2 is conjugated by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) at lysine residues 630 and 716 in the cell. The level of GLI2 sumoylation is reduced by either mutations in six serine residues that are normally phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) or stimulation by HH. This suggests that PKA phosphorylation enhances GLI2 sumoylation, whereas HH signaling inhibits it. In addition, mutation of these two lysines into arginine residues significantly increases GLI2 transcriptional activity in a cell-based reporter assay. The same mutations in the GLI2 locus also result in an increase in GLI2 activity in the mouse. Interestingly, GLI2 can interact with HDAC5 (histone deacetylase 5), but the GLI2 mutant cannot. Taken together, our results suggest that SUMO modification inhibits GLI2 transcriptional activity by recruiting HDAC5.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 091593(United Kingdom)

Onecut transcription factors are required for the second phase of development of the A13 dopaminergic nucleus in the mouse.

  • Espana A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The A13 dopaminergic nucleus belongs to the incerto-hypothalamic area. It is thought to exert autonomous roles by integrating sensory input to autonomic, neuroendocrine, and motor output. Although its early development has been well characterized, the factors that contribute to later steps of its formation remain unknown. Transcription factors of the Onecut family have been detected in the A13 nucleus, raising the question of possible roles of these factors during A13 development. Using a combination of immunofluorescence analyses on sections and after whole-mount labeling followed by 3D reconstructions, we further characterized the second phase of development of the A13 nucleus in the mouse, described the distribution of the Onecut proteins throughout A13 development, and analyzed the phenotype of this nucleus in single or compound mutant embryos for the Onecut factors. Here we show that A13 development can be divided into two successive phases. First, during radial migration toward the pial surface the A13 cells differentiate into dopaminergic neurons. Second, these cells gather in the vicinity of the third ventricle. Onecut factors are dynamically and differentially expressed in the A13 nucleus during these two phases of development. In Onecut mutant embryos, the A13 neurons differentiate normally but scatter in the diencephalon and fail to properly gather close to the third ventricle. Hence, Onecut factors are markers of the A13 nucleus throughout embryonic development. They are dispensable for the first phase of A13 development but are required for the second phase of development and for maintenance of this nucleus.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK057038(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS22695(United States)

Dynamic spatiotemporal gene expression in embryonic mouse thalamus.

  • Suzuki-Hirano A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The anatomy of the mammalian thalamus is characterized by nuclei, which can be readily identified in postnatal animals. However, the molecular mechanisms that guide specification and differentiation of neurons in specific thalamic nuclei are still largely unknown, and few molecular markers are available for most of these thalamic subregions at early stages of development. We therefore searched for patterned gene expression restricted to specific mouse thalamic regions by in situ hybridization during the onset of thalamic neurogenesis (embryonic [E] days E10.5-E12.5). To obtain correct regional information, we used Shh as a landmark and compared spatial relationships with the zona limitans intrathalamica (Zli), the border of the p2 and p3 compartments of the diencephalon. We identified genes that are expressed specifically in the ventricular zone of the thalamic neuroepithelium and also identified a number of genes that already exhibited regional identity at E12.5. Although many genes expressed in the mantle regions of the thalamus at E12.5 showed regionally restricted patterns, none of these clearly corresponded to individual thalamic nuclei. We next examined gene expression at E15.5, when thalamocortical axons (TCAs) project from distinct regions of the thalamus and reach their targets in the cerebral cortex. Regionally restricted patterns of gene expression were again seen for many genes, but some regionally bounded expression patterns in the early postnatal thalamus had shifted substantially by E15.5. These findings reveal that nucleogenesis in the developing thalamus is associated with selective and complex changes in gene expression and provide a list of genes that may actively regulate the development of thalamic nuclei.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - R01LM011177(United States)

Distinct requirements for Ascl1 in subpopulations of midbrain GABAergic neurons.

  • Peltopuro P
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2010 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Midbrain GABAergic neurons regulate multiple aspects of behavior and play important roles in psychiatric and neurological disease. These neurons constitute several anatomical and functional subpopulations, but their molecular heterogeneity and developmental regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we have studied the involvement of the proneural gene Ascl1 in the development of the midbrain GABAergic neurons. Analysis of Ascl1 mutant mice demonstrated highly region-specific requirements for Ascl1 for development of different GABAergic neuron subpopulations. Ascl1 is dispensable for the development of the ventral-most midbrain GABAergic neurons associated with dopaminergic nuclei substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABAergic neurons. In the ventrolateral midbrain, loss of Ascl1 results in markedly delayed neurogenesis in the midbrain domains m3-m5. Within this region, Ascl1 has a unique role in m4, where it also regulates glutamatergic neurogenesis. Our results suggest that the m3-m5 midbrain neuroepithelium gives rise to the GABAergic neuron groups located in the midbrain reticular formation and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. In contrast to m3-m5, Ascl1 is absolutely required in the dorsal midbrain domains m1-m2, for generation of the GABAergic neurons populating the superior and inferior colliculi as well as dorsal periaqueductal gray. These studies demonstrate different molecular regulatory mechanisms for the distinct midbrain GABAergic neuron subpopulations. Also, our results have implications on understanding the origins of the various midbrain GABAergic neuron groups in the embryonic neuroepithelium.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS061111(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - BB/D521865/1(United Kingdom)

Genoarchitectonic profile of developing nuclear groups in the chicken pretectum.

  • Ferran JL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Earlier results on molecularly coded progenitor domains in the chicken pretectum revealed an anteroposterior subdivision of the pretectum in precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic areas, each specified differentially (Ferran et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 505:379-403). Here we examined the nuclei derived from these areas with regard to characteristic gene expression patterns and gradual histogenesis (eventually, migration patterns). We sought a genoarchitectonic schema of the avian pretectum within the prosomeric model of the vertebrate forebrain (Puelles and Rubenstein [2003] Trends Neurosci 26:469-476; Puelles et al. [2007] San Diego: Academic Press). Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of the three pretectal histogenetic domains: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); FoxP1 and Six3 (JcP); and FoxP2, Ebf1, and Bhlhb4 (PcP). The combination of this genoarchitectonic information with additional data on Lim1, Tal2, and Nbea mRNA expression and other chemoarchitectonic results allowed unambiguous characterization of some 30 pretectal nuclei. Apart from grouping them as derivatives of the three early anteroposterior domains, we also assigned them to postulated dorsoventral subdomains (Ferran et al. [2007]). Several previously unknown neuronal populations were detected, thus expanding the list of pretectal structures, and we corrected some apparently confused concepts in the earlier literature. The composite gene expression map represents a substantial advance in anatomical and embryological knowledge of the avian pretectum. Many nuclear primordia can be recognized long before the mature differentiated state of the pretectum is achieved. This study provides fundamental notions for ultimate scientific study of the specification and regionalization processes building up this brain area, both in birds and other vertebrates.

Tulp3 is a critical repressor of mouse hedgehog signaling.

  • Cameron DA
  • Dev. Dyn.
  • 2009 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Precise regulation of the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) and modulation of the Shh signaling pathway is required for proper specification of cell fate within the developing limbs and neural tube, and resultant tissue morphogenesis. Tulp3 (tubby-like protein 3) is a protein of unknown function which has been implicated in nervous system development through gene knockout studies. We demonstrate here that mice lacking the Tulp3 gene develop abnormalities of both the neural tube and limbs consistent with improper regulation of Shh signaling. Tulp3(-/-) embryos show expansion of Shh target gene expression and display a ventralization of neural progenitor cells in the caudal neural tube. We further show that Tulp3(-/-)/Shh(-/-) compound mutant embryos resemble Tulp3 mutants, and express Shh target genes in the neural tube and limbs which are not expressed in Shh(-/-) embryos. This work uncovers a novel role for Tulp3 as a negative regulatory factor in the Hh pathway.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U24NS050606(United States)

Endogenous Nkx2.2+/Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells fail to remyelinate the demyelinated adult rat spinal cord in the absence of astrocytes.

  • Talbott JF
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2005 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic demyelination is a pathophysiologic component of compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and a characteristic finding in demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). A better characterization of endogenous cells responsible for successful remyelination is essential for designing therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring functional myelin. The present study examined the spatiotemporal response of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) following ethidium bromide (EB)-induced demyelination of the adult rat spinal cord. Beginning at 2 days post-EB injection (dpi), a robust mobilization of highly proliferative NG2(+) cells within the lesion was observed, none of which expressed the oligodendrocyte lineage-associated transcription factor Nkx2.2. At 7 dpi, a significant up-regulation of Nkx2.2 by OPCs within the lesion was observed, 90% of which coexpressed NG2 and virtually all of which coexpressed the bHLH transcription factor Olig2. Despite successful recruitment of Nkx2.2(+)/Olig2(+) OPCs within the lesion, demyelinated axons were not remyelinated by these OPCs in regions lacking astrocytes. Rather, Schwann cell remyelination predominated throughout the central core of the lesion, particularly around blood vessels. Oligodendrocyte remyelination was observed in the astrogliotic perimeter, suggesting a necessary role for astrocytes in oligodendrocyte maturation. In addition, reexpression of the radial glial antigen, RC-1, by reactive astrocytes and ependymal cells was observed following injury. However, these cells did not express the neural stem cell (NSC)-associated transcription factors Sox1 or Sox2, suggesting that the endogenous response is primarily mediated by glial progenitors. In vivo electrophysiology demonstrated a limited and unsustained functional recovery concurrent with endogenous remyelination following EB-induced lesions.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM088076(United States)

Molecular profiling indicates avian branchiomotor nuclei invade the hindbrain alar plate.

  • Ju MJ
  • Neuroscience
  • 2004 Oct 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is generally believed that the spinal cord and hindbrain consist of a motor basal plate and a sensory alar plate. We now have molecular markers for these territories. The relationship of migrating branchiomotor neurons to molecularly defined alar and basal domains was examined in the chicken embryo by mapping the expression of cadherin-7 and cadherin-6B, in comparison to genetic markers for ventrodorsal patterning (Otp, Pax6, Pax7, Nkx2.2, and Shh) and motoneuron subpopulations (Phox2b and Isl1). We show cadherin-7 is expressed in a complete radial domain occupying a lateral region of the hindbrain basal plate. The cadherin-7 domain abuts the medial border of Pax7 expression; this common limit defines, or at least approximates, the basal/alar boundary. The hindbrain branchiomotor neurons originate in the medial part of the basal plate, close to the floor plate. Their cadherin-7-positive axons grow into the alar plate and exit the hindbrain close to the corresponding afferent nerve root. The cadherin-7-positive neuronal cell bodies later translocate laterally, following this axonal trajectory, thereby passing through the cadherin-7-positive basal plate domain. Finally, the cell bodies traverse the molecularly defined basal/alar boundary and move into positions within the alar plate. After the migration has ended, the branchiomotor neurons switch expression from cadherin-7 to cadherin-6B. These findings demonstrate that a specific subset of primary motor neurons, the branchiomotor neurons, migrate into the alar plate of the chicken embryo. Consequently, the century-old concept that all primary motor neurons come to reside in the basal plate should be revised.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA113001(United States)

The basic helix-loop-helix factor olig2 is essential for the development of motoneuron and oligodendrocyte lineages.

  • Takebayashi H
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2002 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sonic hedgehog (Shh), an organizing signal from ventral midline structures, is essential for the induction and maintenance of many ventral cell types in the embryonic neural tube. Olig1 and Olig2 are related basic helix-loop-helix factors induced by Shh in the ventral neural tube. Although expression analyses and gain-of-function experiments suggested that these factors were involved in motoneuron and oligodendrocyte development, they do not clearly define the functional differences between Olig1 and Olig2. We generated mice with a homozygous inactivation of Olig2. These mice did not feed and died on the day of birth. In the spinal cord of the mutant mice, motoneurons are largely eliminated and oligodendrocytes are not produced. Olig2(-/-) neuroepithelial cells in the ventral spinal cord failed to differentiate into motoneurons or oligodendrocytes and expressed an astrocyte marker, S100beta, at the time of oligodendrogenesis. Olig1 or Olig3, other family members, were expressed in the descendent cells that should have expressed Olig2. We concluded that Olig2 is an essential transcriptional regulator in motoneuron and oligodendrocyte development. Our data provide the first evidence that a single gene mutation leads to the loss of two cell types, motoneuron and oligodendrocyte.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM095867(United States)

Non-overlapping expression of Olig3 and Olig2 in the embryonic neural tube.

  • Takebayashi H
  • Mech. Dev.
  • 2002 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Olig family is a novel sub-family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors recently identified. Olig1 and Olig2 were first reported to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation, and later Olig2 was reported to be involved in motoneuron specification as well. Olig3 was isolated as a third member of Olig family, but its precise expression pattern is poorly understood. Here, we describe detailed Olig3 expression analyses in the neural tube of embryonic mice. Olig3 was first detected in the dorsal neural tube from the midbrain/hindbrain boundary to the spinal cord. In E11.5 spinal cord, Olig3 was transiently expressed in the lateral margin of the subventricular zone as three ventral clusters at the level of the p3, p2 and p0 domains, as well as in the dorsal neural tube. Olig3 was co-expressed with Nkx2.2 in the lateral margin of the p3 domain. In forebrain, Olig3 was expressed in the dorsal thalamus while Olig2 was complementarily expressed in the ventral thalamus with an adjacent boundary at E12.5. Olig3 is specifically and transiently expressed in different types of progenitors of embryonic central nervous system and then disappears in the course of development.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01AR056129(United States)

Distinct sites of origin of oligodendrocytes and somatic motoneurons in the chick spinal cord: oligodendrocytes arise from Nkx2.2-expressing progenitors by a Shh-dependent mechanism.

  • Soula C
  • Development
  • 2001 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the vertebrate spinal cord, oligodendrocytes arise from the ventral part of the neuroepithelium, a region also known to generate somatic motoneurons. The emergence of oligodendrocytes, like that of motoneurons, depends on an inductive signal mediated by Sonic hedgehog. We have defined the precise timing of oligodendrocyte progenitor specification in the cervico-brachial spinal cord of the chick embryo. We show that ventral neuroepithelial explants, isolated at various development stages, are unable to generate oligodendrocytes in culture until E5 but become able to do so in an autonomous way from E5.5. This indicates that the induction of oligodendrocyte precursors is a late event that occurs between E5 and E5.5, precisely at the time when the ventral neuroepithelium stops producing somatic motoneurons. Analysis of the spatial restriction of oligodendrocyte progenitors, evidenced by their expression of O4 or PDGFR(&agr;), indicate that they always lie within the most ventral Nkx2.2-expressing domain of the neuroepithelium, and not in the adjacent domain characterized by Pax6 expression from which somatic motoneurons emerge. We then confirm that Shh is necessary between E5 and E5.5 to specify oligodendrocyte precursors but is no longer required beyond this stage to maintain ongoing oligodendrocyte production. Furthermore, Shh is sufficient to induce oligodendrocyte formation from ventral neuroepithelial explants dissected at E5. Newly induced oligodendrocytes expressed Nkx2.2 but not Pax6, correlating with the in vivo observation. Altogether, our results show that, in the chick spinal cord, oligodendrocytes originate from Nkx2.2-expressing progenitors.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM49883(United States)

Pax6 controls progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in response to graded Shh signaling.

  • Ericson J
  • Cell
  • 1997 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Distinct classes of motor neurons and ventral interneurons are generated by the graded signaling activity of Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Shh controls neuronal fate by establishing different progenitor cell populations in the ventral neural tube that are defined by the expression of Pax6 and Nkx2.2. Pax6 establishes distinct ventral progenitor cell populations and controls the identity of motor neurons and ventral interneurons, mediating graded Shh signaling in the ventral spinal cord and hindbrain.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P 41 RR08605-06(United States)