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Mouse Anti-Drosophila Hindsight protein Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_528278

Antibody ID

AB_528278

Target Antigen

Mouse Drosophila Hindsight protein drosophila/arthropod, drosophila (not grasshopper, other species not tested)

Proper Citation

(DSHB Cat# 1g9, RRID:AB_528278)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: IgG1, kappa light chain Western Blot; Immunoblotting

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

DSHB Go To Vendor

Meru couples planar cell polarity with apical-basal polarity during asymmetric cell division.

  • Banerjee JJ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polarity is a shared feature of most cells. In epithelia, apical-basal polarity often coexists, and sometimes intersects with planar cell polarity (PCP), which orients cells in the epithelial plane. From a limited set of core building blocks (e.g. the Par complexes for apical-basal polarity and the Frizzled/Dishevelled complex for PCP), a diverse array of polarized cells and tissues are generated. This suggests the existence of little-studied tissue-specific factors that rewire the core polarity modules to the appropriate conformation. In Drosophila sensory organ precursors (SOPs), the core PCP components initiate the planar polarization of apical-basal determinants, ensuring asymmetric division into daughter cells of different fates. We show that Meru, a RASSF9/RASSF10 homologue, is expressed specifically in SOPs, recruited to the posterior cortex by Frizzled/Dishevelled, and in turn polarizes the apical-basal polarity factor Bazooka (Par3). Thus, Meru belongs to a class of proteins that act cell/tissue-specifically to remodel the core polarity machinery.

Dual role for Jumu in the control of hematopoietic progenitors in the Drosophila lymph gland.

  • Hao Y
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Drosophila lymph gland is a hematopoietic organ in which the maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cell fate relies on intrinsic factors and extensive interaction with cells within a microenvironment. The posterior signaling center (PSC) is required for maintaining the balance between progenitors and their differentiation into mature hemocytes. Moreover, some factors from the progenitors cell-autonomously control blood cell differentiation. Here, we show that Jumeau (Jumu), a member of the forkhead (Fkh) transcription factor family, controls hemocyte differentiation of lymph gland through multiple regulatory mechanisms. Jumu maintains the proper differentiation of prohemocytes by cell-autonomously regulating the expression of Col in medullary zone and by non-cell-autonomously preventing the generation of expanded PSC cells. Jumu can also cell-autonomously control the proliferation of PSC cells through positive regulation of dMyc expression. We also show that a deficiency of jumu throughout the lymph gland can induce the differentiation of lamellocytes via activating Toll signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - U54 RR026140(United States)

Dpp dependent Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to Hh dependent blood progenitors in larval lymph gland of Drosophila.

  • Dey NS
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Drosophila hematopoiesis bears striking resemblance with that of vertebrates, both in the context of distinct phases and the signaling molecules. Even though, there has been no evidence of Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Drosophila, the larval lymph gland with its Hedgehog dependent progenitors served as an invertebrate model of progenitor biology. Employing lineage-tracing analyses, we have now identified Notch expressing HSCs in the first instar larval lymph gland. Our studies clearly establish the hierarchical relationship between Notch expressing HSCs and the previously described Domeless expressing progenitors. These HSCs require Decapentapelagic (Dpp) signal from the hematopoietic niche for their maintenance in an identical manner to vertebrate aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) HSCs. Thus, this study not only extends the conservation across these divergent taxa, but also provides a new model that can be exploited to gain better insight into the AGM related Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY04067(United States)

New gene evolution in the bonus-TIF1-γ/TRIM33 family impacted the architecture of the vertebrate dorsal-ventral patterning network.

  • Wisotzkey RG
  • Mol. Biol. Evol.
  • 2014 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Uncovering how a new gene acquires its function and understanding how the function of a new gene influences existing genetic networks are important topics in evolutionary biology. Here, we demonstrate nonconservation for the embryonic functions of Drosophila Bonus and its newest vertebrate relative TIF1-γ/TRIM33. We showed previously that TIF1-γ/TRIM33 functions as an ubiquitin ligase for the Smad4 signal transducer and antagonizes the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling network underlying vertebrate dorsal-ventral axis formation. Here, we show that Bonus functions as an agonist of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling network underlying dorsal-ventral axis formation in flies. The absence of conservation for the roles of Bonus and TIF1-γ/TRIM33 reveals a shift in the dorsal-ventral patterning networks of flies and mice, systems that were previously considered wholly conserved. The shift occurred when the new gene TIF1-γ/TRIM33 replaced the function of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L in the lineage leading to vertebrates. Evidence of this replacement is our demonstration that Nedd4 performs the function of TIF1-γ/TRIM33 in flies during dorsal-ventral axis formation. The replacement allowed vertebrate Nedd4L to acquire novel functions as a ubiquitin ligase of vertebrate-specific Smad proteins. Overall our data reveal that the architecture of the Dpp/BMP dorsal-ventral patterning network continued to evolve in the vertebrate lineage, after separation from flies, via the incorporation of new genes.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015128(United States)

Starvation induces FoxO-dependent mitotic-to-endocycle switch pausing during Drosophila oogenesis.

  • Jouandin P
  • Development
  • 2014 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

When exposed to nutrient challenge, organisms have to adapt their physiology in order to balance reproduction with adult fitness. In mammals, ovarian follicles enter a massive growth phase during which they become highly dependent on gonadotrophic factors and nutrients. Somatic tissues play a crucial role in integrating these signals, controlling ovarian follicle atresia and eventually leading to the selection of a single follicle for ovulation. We used Drosophila follicles as a model to study the effect of starvation on follicle maturation. Upon starvation, Drosophila vitellogenic follicles adopt an 'atresia-like' behavior, in which some slow down their development whereas others enter degeneration. The mitotic-to-endocycle (M/E) transition is a critical step during Drosophila oogenesis, allowing the entry of egg chambers into vitellogenesis. Here, we describe a specific and transient phase during M/E switching that is paused upon starvation. The Insulin pathway induces the pausing of the M/E switch, blocking the entry of egg chambers into vitellogenesis. Pausing of the M/E switch involves a previously unknown crosstalk between FoxO, Cut and Notch that ensures full reversion of the process and rapid resumption of oogenesis upon refeeding. Our work reveals a novel genetic mechanism controlling the extent of the M/E switch upon starvation, thus integrating metabolic cues with development, growth and reproduction.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI118985(United States)

Drosophila Hindsight and mammalian RREB-1 are evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding transcriptional attenuators.

  • Ming L
  • Differentiation
  • 2014 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Drosophila Hindsight (hnt) gene encodes a C2H2-type Zinc-finger protein, HNT, that plays multiple developmental roles including control of embryonic germ band retraction and regulation of retinal cell fate and morphogenesis. While the developmental functions of the human HNT homolog, RREB-1, are unknown, it has been shown to function as a transcriptional modulator of several tumor suppressor genes. Here we investigate HNT's functional motifs, target genes and its regulatory abilities. We show that the C-terminal region of HNT, containing the last five of its 14 Zinc fingers, binds in vitro to DNA elements very similar to those identified for RREB-1. We map HNT's in vivo binding sites on salivary gland polytene chromosomes and define, at high resolution, where HNT is bound to two target genes, hnt itself and nervy (nvy). Data from both loss-of-function and over-expression experiments show that HNT attenuates the transcription of these two targets in a tissue-specific manner. RREB-1, when expressed in Drosophila, binds to the same polytene chromosome sites as HNT, attenuates expression of the hnt and nvy genes, and rescues the germ band retraction phenotype. HNT's ninth Zinc finger has degenerated or been lost in the vertebrate lineage. We show that a HNT protein mutant for this finger can also attenuate target gene expression and rescue germ band retraction. Thus HNT and RREB-1 are functional homologs at the level of DNA binding, transcriptional regulation and developmental control.

Notch signaling during development requires the function of awd, the Drosophila homolog of human metastasis suppressor gene Nm23.

  • Ignesti M
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2014 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The Drosophila abnormal wing discs (awd) belongs to a highly conserved family of genes implicated in metastasis suppression, metabolic homeostasis and epithelial morphogenesis. The cellular function of the mammalian members of this family, the Nm23 proteins, has not yet been clearly defined. Previous awd genetic analyses unraveled its endocytic role that is required for proper internalization of receptors controlling different signaling pathways. In this study, we analyzed the role of Awd in controlling Notch signaling during development. RESULTS: To study the awd gene function we used genetic mosaic approaches to obtain cells homozygous for a loss of function allele. In awd mutant follicle cells and wing disc cells, Notch accumulates in enlarged early endosomes, resulting in defective Notch signaling. Our results demonstrate that awd function is required before γ-secretase mediated cleavage since over-expression of the constitutively active form of the Notch receptor in awd mutant follicle cells allows rescue of the signaling. By using markers of different endosomal compartments we show that Notch receptor accumulates in early endosomes in awd mutant follicle cells. A trafficking assay in living wing discs also shows that Notch accumulates in early endosomes. Importantly, constitutively active Rab5 cannot rescue the awd phenotype, suggesting that awd is required for Rab5 function in early endosome maturation. CONCLUSIONS: In this report we demonstrate that awd is essential for Notch signaling via its endocytic role. In addition, we identify the endocytic step at which Awd function is required for Notch signaling and we obtain evidence indicating that Awd is necessary for Rab5 function. These findings provide new insights into the developmental and pathophysiological function of this important gene family.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC009405(United States)

The microRNA miR-7 regulates Tramtrack69 in a developmental switch in Drosophila follicle cells.

  • Huang YC
  • Development
  • 2013 Feb 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Development in multicellular organisms includes both small incremental changes and major switches of cell differentiation and proliferation status. During Drosophila oogenesis, the follicular epithelial cells undergo two major developmental switches that cause global changes in the cell-cycle program. One, the switch from the endoreplication cycle to a gene-amplification phase, during which special genomic regions undergo repeated site-specific replication, is attributed to Notch downregulation, ecdysone signaling activation and upregulation of the zinc-finger protein Tramtrack69 (Ttk69). Here, we report that the microRNA miR-7 exerts an additional layer of regulation in this developmental switch by regulating Ttk69 transcripts. miR-7 recognizes the 3' UTR of ttk69 transcripts and regulates Ttk69 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-7 effectively blocks the switch from the endocycle to gene amplification through its regulation of ttk69. miR-7 and Ttk69 also coordinate other cell differentiation events, such as vitelline membrane protein expression, that lead to the formation of the mature egg. Our studies reveal the important role miR-7 plays in developmental decision-making in association with signal-transduction pathways.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS21328(United States)

Fat facets deubiquitylation of Medea/Smad4 modulates interpretation of a Dpp morphogen gradient.

  • Stinchfield MJ
  • Development
  • 2012 Aug 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ability of secreted Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) proteins to act as morphogens dictates that their influence be strictly regulated. Here, we report that maternally contributed fat facets (faf; a homolog of USP9X/FAM) is essential for proper interpretation of the zygotic Decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen gradient that patterns the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis. The data suggest that the loss of faf reduces the activity of Medea (a homolog of Smad4) below the minimum necessary for adequate Dpp signaling and that this is likely due to excessive ubiquitylation on a specific lysine. This study supports the hypothesis that the control of cellular responsiveness to TGFβ signals at the level of Smad4 ubiquitylation is a conserved mechanism required for proper implementation of a morphogen gradient.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01EY021769(United States)

The transcriptional corepressor SMRTER influences both Notch and ecdysone signaling during Drosophila development.

  • Heck BW
  • Biol Open
  • 2012 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

SMRTER (SMRT-related and ecdysone receptor interacting factor) is the Drosophila homologue of the vertebrate proteins SMRT and N-CoR, and forms with them a well-conserved family of transcriptional corepressors. Molecular characterization of SMRT-family proteins in cultured cells has implicated them in a wide range of transcriptional regulatory pathways. However, little is currently known about how this conserved class of transcriptional corepressors regulates the development of particular tissues via specific pathways. In this study, through our characterization of multiple Smrter (Smr) mutant lines, mosaic analysis of a loss-of-function Smr allele, and studies of two independent Smr RNAi fly lines, we report that SMRTER is required for the development of both ovarian follicle cells and the wing. In these two tissues, SMRTER inhibits not only the ecdysone pathway, but also the Notch pathway. We differentiate SMRTER's influence on these two signaling pathways by showing that SMRTER inhibits the Notch pathway, but not the ecdysone pathway, in a spatiotemporally restricted manner. We further confirm the likely involvement of SMRTER in the Notch pathway by demonstrating a direct interaction between SMRTER and Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], a DNA-binding transcription factor pivotal in the Notch pathway, and the colocalization of both proteins at many chromosomal regions in salivary glands. Based on our results, we propose that SMRTER regulates the Notch pathway through its association with Su(H), and that overcoming a SMRTER-mediated transcriptional repression barrier may represent a key mechanism used by the Notch pathway to control the precise timing of events and the formation of sharp boundaries between cells in multiple tissues during development.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

CoREST acts as a positive regulator of Notch signaling in the follicle cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Domanitskaya E
  • J. Cell. Sci.
  • 2012 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in a variety of developmental events. The context-dependent activities of positive and negative modulators dramatically increase the diversity of cellular responses to Notch signaling. In a screen for mutations affecting the Drosophila melanogaster follicular epithelium, we isolated a mutation in CoREST that disrupts the Notch-dependent mitotic-to-endocycle switch of follicle cells at stage 6 of oogenesis. We show that Drosophila CoREST positively regulates Notch signaling, acting downstream of the proteolytic cleavage of Notch but upstream of Hindsight activity; the Hindsight gene is a Notch target that coordinates responses in the follicle cells. We show that CoREST genetically interacts with components of the Notch repressor complex, Hairless, C-terminal Binding Protein and Groucho. In addition, we demonstrate that levels of H3K27me3 and H4K16 acetylation are dramatically increased in CoREST mutant follicle cells. Our data indicate that CoREST acts as a positive modulator of the Notch pathway in the follicular epithelium as well as in wing tissue, and suggests a previously unidentified role for CoREST in the regulation of Notch signaling. Given its high degree of conservation among species, CoREST probably also functions as a regulator of Notch-dependent cellular events in other organisms.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS080889(United States)

Shaping BMP morphogen gradients through enzyme-substrate interactions.

  • Peluso CE
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2011 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate dorsal/ventral (D/V) patterning across the animal kingdom; however, the biochemical properties of certain pathway components can vary according to species-specific developmental requirements. For example, Tolloid (Tld)-like metalloproteases cleave vertebrate BMP-binding proteins called Chordins constitutively, while the Drosophila Chordin ortholog, Short gastrulation (Sog), is only cleaved efficiently when bound to BMPs. We identified Sog characteristics responsible for making its cleavage dependent on BMP binding. "Chordin-like" variants that are processed independently of BMPs changed the steep BMP gradient found in Drosophila embryos to a shallower profile, analogous to that observed in some vertebrate embryos. This change ultimately affected cell fate allocation and tissue size and resulted in increased variability of patterning. Thus, the acquisition of BMP-dependent Sog processing during evolution appears to facilitate long-range ligand diffusion and formation of a robust morphogen gradient, enabling the bistable BMP signaling outputs required for early Drosophila patterning.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC009405(United States)

Regulation of somatic myosin activity by protein phosphatase 1β controls Drosophila oocyte polarization.

  • Sun Y
  • Development
  • 2011 May 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Drosophila body axes are established in the oocyte during oogenesis. Oocyte polarization is initiated by Gurken, which signals from the germline through the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) to the posterior follicle cells (PFCs). In response the PFCs generate an unidentified polarizing signal that regulates oocyte polarity. We have identified a loss-of-function mutation of flapwing, which encodes the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1β (PP1β) that disrupts oocyte polarization. We show that PP1β, by regulating myosin activity, controls the generation of the polarizing signal. Excessive myosin activity in the PFCs causes oocyte mispolarization and defective Notch signaling and endocytosis in the PFCs. The integrated activation of JAK/STAT and Egfr signaling results in the sensitivity of PFCs to defective Notch. Interestingly, our results also demonstrate a role of PP1β in generating the polarizing signal independently of Notch, indicating a direct involvement of somatic myosin activity in axis formation.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - 266200400042C(United States)

Drosophila PI4KIIIalpha is required in follicle cells for oocyte polarization and Hippo signaling.

  • Yan Y
  • Development
  • 2011 May 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

In a genetic screen we isolated mutations in CG10260, which encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIIIalpha), and found that PI4KIIIalpha is required for Hippo signaling in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells. PI4KIIIalpha mutations in the posterior follicle cells lead to oocyte polarization defects similar to those caused by mutations in the Hippo signaling pathway. PI4KIIIalpha mutations also cause misexpression of well-established Hippo signaling targets. The Merlin-Expanded-Kibra complex is required at the apical membrane for Hippo activity. In PI4KIIIalpha mutant follicle cells, Merlin fails to localize to the apical domain. Our analysis of PI4KIIIalpha mutants provides a new link in Hippo signal transduction from the cell membrane to its core kinase cascade.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - JPA 1729(United Kingdom)

Embryonic multipotent progenitors remodel the Drosophila airways during metamorphosis.

  • Pitsouli C
  • Development
  • 2010 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult structures in holometabolous insects such as Drosophila are generated by groups of imaginal cells dedicated to the formation of different organs. Imaginal cells are specified in the embryo and remain quiescent until the larval stages, when they proliferate and differentiate to form organs. The Drosophila tracheal system is extensively remodeled during metamorphosis by a small number of airway progenitors. Among these, the spiracular branch tracheoblasts are responsible for the generation of the pupal and adult abdominal airways. To understand the coordination of proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis of tubular organs, we analyzed the remodeling of Drosophila airways during metamorphosis. We show that the embryonic spiracular branch tracheoblasts are multipotent cells that express the homeobox transcription factor Cut, which is necessary for their survival and normal development. They give rise to three distinct cell populations at the end of larval development, which generate the adult tracheal tubes, the spiracle and the epidermis surrounding the spiracle. Our study establishes the series of events that lead to the formation of an adult tubular structure in Drosophila.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01GM079429(United States)

Kibra is a regulator of the Salvador/Warts/Hippo signaling network.

  • Genevet A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2010 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Salvador (Sav)/Warts (Wts)/Hippo (Hpo) (SWH) network controls tissue growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. The core of the pathway consists of a MST and LATS family kinase cascade that ultimately phosphorylates and inactivates the YAP/Yorkie (Yki) transcription coactivator. The FERM domain proteins Merlin (Mer) and Expanded (Ex) represent one mode of upstream regulation controlling pathway activity. Here, we identify Kibra as a member of the SWH network. Kibra, which colocalizes and associates with Mer and Ex, also promotes the Mer/Ex association. Furthermore, the Kibra/Mer association is conserved in human cells. Finally, Kibra complexes with Wts and kibra depletion in tissue culture cells induces a marked reduction in Yki phosphorylation without affecting the Yki/Wts interaction. We suggest that Kibra is part of an apical scaffold that promotes SWH pathway activity.

Role of Scrib and Dlg in anterior-posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis.

  • Li Q
  • BMC Dev. Biol.
  • 2009 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Proper patterning of the follicle cell epithelium over the egg chamber is essential for the Drosophila egg development. Differentiation of the epithelium into several distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis requires coordinated activities of multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we reported that lethal(2)giant larvae (lgl), a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, is required in the follicle cells for the posterior follicle cell (PFC) fate induction at mid-oogenesis. Here we explore the role of another two tumor suppressor genes, scribble (scrib) and discs large (dlg), in the epithelial patterning. RESULTS: We found that removal of scrib or dlg function from the follicle cells at posterior terminal of the egg chamber causes a complete loss of the PFC fate. Aberrant specification and differentiation of the PFCs in the mosaic clones can be ascribed to defects in coordinated activation of the EGFR, JAK and Notch signaling pathways in the multilayered cells. Meanwhile, the clonal analysis revealed that loss-of-function mutations in scrib/dlg at the anterior domains result in a partially penetrant phenotype of defective induction of the stretched and centripetal cell fate, whereas specification of the border cell fate can still occur in the most anterior region of the mutant clones. Further, we showed that scrib genetically interacts with dlg in regulating posterior patterning of the epithelium. CONCLUSION: In this study we provide evidence that scrib and dlg function differentially in anterior and posterior patterning of the follicular epithelium at oogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicates that scrib and dlg act in a common pathway to regulate PFC fate induction. This study may open another window for elucidating role of scrib/dlg in controlling epithelial polarity and cell proliferation during development.

Genes encoding novel secreted and transmembrane proteins are temporally and spatially regulated during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis.

  • Zúñiga A
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2009 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization procedure to identify a group of developmentally regulated genes during early stages of D. melanogaster embryogenesis. We studied the spatiotemporal activity of these genes in five different intervals covering 12 stages of embryogenesis. RESULTS: Microarrays were constructed to confirm induction of expression and to determine the temporal profile of isolated subtracted cDNAs during embryo development. We identified a set of 118 genes whose expression levels increased significantly in at least one developmental interval compared with a reference interval. Of these genes, 53% had a phenotype and/or molecular function reported in the literature, whereas 47% were essentially uncharacterized. Clustering analysis revealed demarcated transcript groups with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental intervals. In situ hybridization assays were carried out on 23 uncharacterized genes, 15 of which proved to have spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns. Among these 15 uncharacterized genes, 13 were found to encode putative secreted and transmembrane proteins. For three of them we validated our protein sequence predictions by expressing their cDNAs in Drosophila S2R+ cells and analyzed the subcellular distribution of recombinant proteins. We then focused on the functional characterization of the gene CG6234. Inhibition of CG6234 by RNA interference resulted in morphological defects in embryos, suggesting the involvement of this gene in germ band retraction. CONCLUSION: Our data have yielded a list of developmentally regulated D. melanogaster genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis and provide new information on the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several uncharacterized genes. In particular, we recovered a substantial number of unknown genes encoding putative secreted and transmembrane proteins, suggesting new components of signaling pathways that might be incorporated within the existing regulatory networks controlling D. melanogaster embryogenesis. These genes are also good candidates for additional targeted functional analyses similar to those we conducted for CG6234.See related minireview by Vichas and Zallen: http://www.jbiol.com/content/8/8/76.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA034196(United States)

The Arp2/3 complex and WASp are required for apical trafficking of Delta into microvilli during cell fate specification of sensory organ precursors.

  • Rajan A
  • Nat. Cell Biol.
  • 2009 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell fate decisions mediated by the Notch signalling pathway require direct cell-cell contact between adjacent cells. In Drosophila melanogaster, an external sensory organ (ESO) develops from a single sensory organ precursor (SOP) and its fate specification is governed by differential Notch activation. Here we show that mutations in actin-related protein-3 (Arp3) compromise Notch signalling, leading to a fate transformation of the ESO. Our data reveal that during ESO fate specification, most endocytosed vesicles containing the ligand Delta traffic to a prominent apical actin-rich structure (ARS) formed in the SOP daughter cells. Using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses, we show that the ARS contains numerous microvilli on the apical surface of SOP progeny. In Arp2/3 and WASp mutants, the surface area of the ARS is substantially reduced and there are significantly fewer microvilli. More importantly, trafficking of Delta-positive vesicles from the basal area to the apical portion of the ARS is severely compromised. Our data indicate that WASp-dependent Arp2/3 actin polymerization is crucial for apical presentation of Delta, providing a mechanistic link between actin polymerization and Notch signalling.

Hindsight modulates Delta expression during Drosophila cone cell induction.

  • Pickup AT
  • Development
  • 2009 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The induction of cone cells in the Drosophila larval eye disc by the determined R1/R6 photoreceptor precursor cells requires integration of the Delta-Notch and EGF receptor signaling pathways with the activity of the Lozenge transcription factor. Here, we demonstrate that the zinc-finger transcription factor Hindsight (HNT) is required for normal cone-cell induction. R-cells in which hindsight levels are knocked down using RNAi show normal subtype specification, but these cells have lower levels of the Notch ligand Delta. We show that HNT functions in the determined R1/R6 precursor cells to allow Delta transcription to reach high enough levels at the right time to induce the cone-cell determinants Prospero and D-Pax2 in neighboring cells. The Delta signal emanating from the R1/R6 precursor cells is also required to specify the R7 precursor cell by repressing seven-up. As hindsight mutants have normal R7 cell-fate determination, we infer that there is a lower threshold of Delta required for R7 specification than for cone-cell induction.

Regulation of the endocycle/gene amplification switch by Notch and ecdysone signaling.

  • Sun J
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2008 Sep 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The developmental signals that regulate the switch from genome-wide DNA replication to site-specific amplification remain largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster epithelial follicle cells, which begin synchronized chorion gene amplification after three rounds of endocycle, provide an excellent model for study of the endocycle/gene amplification (E/A) switch. Here, we report that down-regulation of Notch signaling and activation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) are required for the E/A switch in these cells. Extended Notch activity suppresses EcR activation and prevents exit from the endocycle. Tramtrack (Ttk), a zinc-finger protein essential for the switch, is regulated negatively by Notch and positively by EcR. Ttk overexpression stops endoreplication prematurely and alleviates the endocycle exit defect caused by extended Notch activity or removal of EcR function. Our results reveal a developmental pathway that includes down-regulation of Notch, activation of the EcR, up-regulation of Ttk to execute the E/A switch, and, for the first time, the genetic interaction between Notch and ecdysone signaling in regulation of cell cycle programs and differentiation.

Abi induces ectopic sensory organ formation by stimulating EGFR signaling.

  • Stephan R
  • Mech. Dev.
  • 2008 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

One of the central regulators coupling tyrosine phosphorylation with cytoskeletal dynamics is the Abelson interactor (Abi). Its activity regulates WASP-/WAVE mediated F-actin formation and in addition modulates the activity of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl). We have recently shown that the Drosophila Abi is capable of promoting bristle development in a wasp dependent fashion. Here, we report that Drosophila Abi induces sensory organ development by modulating EGFR signaling. Expression of a membrane-tethered activated Abi protein (Abi(Myr)) leads to an increase in MAPK activity. Additionally, suppression of EGFR activity inhibits the induction of extra-sensory organs by Abi(Myr), whereas co-expression of activated Abi(Myr) and EGFR dramatically enhances the neurogenic phenotype. In agreement with this observation Abi is able to associate with the EGFR in a common complex. Furthermore, Abi binds the Abl tyrosine kinase. A block of Abl kinase-activity reduces Abi protein stability and strongly abrogates ectopic sensory organ formation induced by Abi(Myr). Concomitantly, we noted changes in tyrosine phosphorylation supporting previous reports that Abi protein stability is linked to tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by Abl.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - GMX-191597(Canada)

Dpp signalling orchestrates dorsal closure by regulating cell shape changes both in the amnioserosa and in the epidermis.

  • Fernández BG
  • Mech. Dev.
  • 2007 Nov 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

During the final stages of embryogenesis, the Drosophila embryo exhibits a dorsal hole covered by a simple epithelium of large cells termed the amnioserosa (AS). Dorsal closure is the process whereby this hole is closed through the coordination of cellular activities within both the AS and the epidermis. Genetic analysis has shown that signalling through Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a Drosophila member of the BMP/TGF-beta family of secreted factors, controls these activities. JNK activates the expression of dpp in the dorsal-most epidermal cells, and subsequently Dpp acts as a secreted signal to control the elongation of lateral epidermis. Our analysis shows that Dpp function not only affects the epidermal cells, but also the AS. Embryos defective in Dpp signalling display defects in AS cell shape changes, specifically in the reduction of their apical surface areas, leading to defective AS contraction. Our data also demonstrate that Dpp regulates adhesion between epidermis and AS, and mediates expression of the transcription factor U-shaped in a gradient across both the AS and the epidermis. In summary, we show that Dpp plays a crucial role in coordinating the activity of the AS and its interactions with the LE cells during dorsal closure.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 1R01NS071956-01A1(United States)

Hindsight mediates the role of notch in suppressing hedgehog signaling and cell proliferation.

  • Sun J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2007 Mar 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Temporal and spatial regulation of proliferation and differentiation by signaling pathways is essential for animal development. Drosophila follicular epithelial cells provide an excellent model system for the study of temporal regulation of cell proliferation. In follicle cells, the Notch pathway stops proliferation and promotes a switch from the mitotic cycle to the endocycle. Here, we show that zinc-finger transcription factor Hindsight mediates the role of Notch in regulating cell differentiation and the switch of cell-cycle programs. Hindsight is required and sufficient to stop proliferation and induce the transition to the endocycle. To do so, it represses string, Cut, and Hedgehog signaling, which promote proliferation during early oogenesis. Hindsight, along with another zinc-finger protein, Tramtrack, downregulates Hedgehog signaling through transcriptional repression of cubitus interruptus. Our studies suggest that Hindsight bridges the two antagonistic pathways, Notch and Hedgehog, in the temporal regulation of follicle-cell proliferation and differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - DA14241(United States)

Genetic programs activated by proneural proteins in the developing Drosophila PNS.

  • Reeves N
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2005 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurogenesis depends on a family of proneural transcriptional activator proteins, but the "proneural" function of these factors is poorly understood, in part because the ensemble of genes they activate, directly or indirectly, has not been identified systematically. We have taken a direct approach to this problem in Drosophila. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to recover a purified population of the cells that comprise the "proneural clusters" from which sensory organ precursors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) arise. Whole-genome microarray analysis and in situ hybridization was then used to identify and verify a set of genes that are preferentially expressed in proneural cluster cells. Genes in this set encode proteins with a diverse array of implied functions, and loss-of-function analysis of two candidate genes shows that they are indeed required for normal PNS development. Bioinformatic and reporter gene studies further illuminate the cis-regulatory codes that direct expression in proneural clusters.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY12118(United States)

The T-box-encoding Dorsocross genes function in amnioserosa development and the patterning of the dorsolateral germ band downstream of Dpp.

  • Reim I
  • Development
  • 2003 Jul 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dpp signals are responsible for establishing a variety of cell identities in dorsal and lateral areas of the early Drosophila embryo, including the extra-embryonic amnioserosa as well as different ectodermal and mesodermal cell types. Although we have a reasonably clear picture of how Dpp signaling activity is modulated spatially and temporally during these processes, a better understanding of how these signals are executed requires the identification and characterization of a collection of downstream genes that uniquely respond to these signals. In the present study, we describe three novel genes, Dorsocross1, Dorsocross2 and Dorsocross3, which are expressed downstream of Dpp in the presumptive and definitive amnioserosa, dorsal ectoderm and dorsal mesoderm. We show that these genes are good candidates for being direct targets of the Dpp signaling cascade. Dorsocross expression in the dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm is metameric and requires a combination of Dpp and Wingless signals. In addition, a transverse stripe of expression in dorsoanterior areas of early embryos is independent of Dpp. The Dorsocross genes encode closely related proteins of the T-box domain family of transcription factors. All three genes are arranged in a gene cluster, are expressed in identical patterns in embryos, and appear to be genetically redundant. By generating mutants with a loss of all three Dorsocross genes, we demonstrate that Dorsocross gene activity is crucial for the completion of differentiation, cell proliferation arrest, and survival of amnioserosa cells. In addition, we show that the Dorsocross genes are required for normal patterning of the dorsolateral ectoderm and, in particular, the repression of wingless and the ladybird homeobox genes within this area of the germ band. These findings extend our knowledge of the regulatory pathways during amnioserosa development and the patterning of the dorsolateral embryonic germ band in response to Dpp signals.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104638(United States)

Control of photoreceptor cell morphology, planar polarity and epithelial integrity during Drosophila eye development.

  • Pickup AT
  • Development
  • 2002 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

We report that the hindsight (hnt) gene, which encodes a nuclear zinc-finger protein, regulates cell morphology, cell fate specification, planar cell polarity and epithelial integrity during Drosophila retinal development. In the third instar larval eye imaginal disc, HNT protein expression begins in the morphogenetic furrow and is refined to cells in the developing photoreceptor cell clusters just before their determination as neurons. In hnt mutant larval eye tissue, furrow markers persist abnormally posterior to the furrow, there is a delay in specification of preclusters as cells exit the furrow, there are morphological defects in the preclusters and recruitment of cells into specific R cell fates often does not occur. Additionally, genetically mosaic ommatidia with one or more hnt mutant outer photoreceptor cells, have planar polarity defects that include achirality, reversed chirality and misrotation. Mutants in the JNK pathway act as dominant suppressors of the hnt planar polarity phenotype, suggesting that HNT functions to downregulate JUN kinase (JNK) signaling during the establishment of ommatidial planar polarity. HNT expression continues in the photoreceptor cells of the pupal retina. When an ommatidium contains four or more hnt mutant photoreceptor cells, both genetically mutant and genetically wild-type photoreceptor cells fall out of the retinal epithelium, indicating a role for HNT in maintenance of epithelial integrity. In the late pupal stages, HNT regulates the morphogenesis of rhabdomeres within individual photoreceptor cells and the separation of the rhabdomeres of adjacent photoreceptor cells. Apical F-actin is depleted in hnt mutant photoreceptor cells before the observed defects in cellular morphogenesis and epithelial integrity. The analyses presented here, together with our previous studies in the embryonic amnioserosa and tracheal system, show that HNT has a general role in regulation of the F-actin-based cytoskeleton, JNK signaling, cell morphology and epithelial integrity during development.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH67121(United States)

Downregulation of Jun kinase signaling in the amnioserosa is essential for dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo.

  • Reed BH
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2001 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: During Drosophila embryogenesis, Jun kinase (JNK) signaling has been shown to play a key role in regulating the morphogenetic process of dorsal closure, which also serves as a model for epithelial sheet fusion during wound repair. During dorsal closure the JNK signaling cascade in the dorsal-most (leading edge) cells of the epidermis activates the AP-1 transcription factor comprised of DJUN and DFOS that, in turn, upregulates the expression of the dpp gene. DPP is a secreted morphogen that signals lateral epidermal cells to elongate along the dorsoventral axis. The leading edge cells contact the peripheral cells of a monolayer extraembryonic epithelium, the amnioserosa, which lies on the dorsal side of the embryo. Focal complexes are present at the dorsal-most membrane of the leading edge cells, where they contact the amnioserosa. RESULTS: We show that the JNK signaling cascade is initially active in both the amnioserosa and the leading edge of the epidermis. JNK signaling is downregulated in the amnioserosa, but not in the leading edge, prior to dorsal closure. The subcellular localization of DFOS and DJUN is responsive to JNK signaling in the amnioserosa: JNK activation results in nuclear localization of DFOS and DJUN; the downregulation of JNK signaling results in the relocalization of DFOS and DJUN to the cytoplasm. The HINDSIGHT (HNT) Zn-finger protein and the PUCKERED (PUC) JNK phosphatase are essential for downregulation of the JNK cascade in the amnioserosa. Persistent JNK activity in the amnioserosa leads to defective focal complexes in the adjacent leading edge cells and to the failure of dorsal closure. CONCLUSIONS: Focal complexes are assembled at the boundary between high and low JNK activity. In the absence of focal complexes, miscommunication between the amnioserosa and the leading edge may lead to a premature "stop" signal that halts dorsalward migration of the leading edge. Spatial and temporal regulation of the JNK signaling cascade may be a general mechanism that controls tissue remodeling during morphogenesis and wound healing.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA121852(United States)

Notch signaling targets the Wingless responsiveness of a Ubx visceral mesoderm enhancer in Drosophila.

  • Lawrence N
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2001 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Members of the Notch family of receptors mediate a process known as lateral inhibition that plays a prominent role in the suppression of cell fates during development. This function is triggered by a ligand, Delta, and is implemented by the release of the intracellular domain of Notch from the membrane and by its interaction with the protein Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] in the nucleus. There is evidence that Notch can also signal independently of Su(H). In particular, in Drosophila, there is evidence that a Su(H)-independent activity of Notch is associated with Wingless signaling. RESULTS: We report that Ubx(VM)B, a visceral mesoderm-specific enhancer of the Ubx gene of Drosophila, is sensitive to Notch signaling. In the absence of Notch, but not of Su(H), the enhancer becomes activated earlier and over a wider domain than in the wild type. Furthermore, the removal of Notch reduces the requirement for Disheveled-mediated Wingless signaling to activate this enhancer. This response to Notch is likely to be mediated by the dTcf binding sites in the Ubx(VM)B enhancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that, in Drosophila, an activity of Notch that is likely to be independent of Su(H) inhibits Wingless signaling on Ubx(VM)B. A possible target of this activity is dTcf. As dTcf has been shown to be capable of repressing Wingless targets, our results suggest that this repressive activity may be regulated by Notch. Finally, we suggest that Wingless signaling is composed of two steps, a down-regulation of a Su(H)-independent Notch activity that modulates the activity of dTcf and a canonical Wingless signaling event that regulates the activity of Armadillo and its interaction with dTcf.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG036468(United States)

Cross-regulatory interactions among tracheal genes support a co-operative model for the induction of tracheal fates in the Drosophila embryo.

  • Boube M
  • Mech. Dev.
  • 2000 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Drosophila tracheal system arises from clusters of ectodermal cells that invaginate and migrate to originate a network of epithelial tubes. Genetic analyses have identified several genes that are specifically expressed in the tracheal cells and are required for tracheal development. Among them, trachealess (trh) is able to induce ectopic tracheal pits and therefore it has been suggested that it would act as an inducer of tracheal cell fates; however, this capacity appears to be spatially restricted. Here we analyze the expression of the tracheal specific genes in the early steps of tracheal development and their cross-interactions. We find that there is a set of primary genes including trh and ventral veinless (vvl) whose expression does not depend on any other tracheal gene and a set of downstream genes whose expression requires different combinations of the primary genes. We also find that the combined expression of primary genes is sufficient to induce some downstream genes but not others. These results indicate that there is not a single master gene responsible for the appropriate expression of the tracheal genes and support a model where tracheal cell fates are induced by the co-operation of several factors rather than by the activity of a single tracheal inducer.

Migration of the Drosophila primordial midgut cells requires coordination of diverse PS integrin functions.

  • Martin-Bermudo MD
  • Development
  • 1999 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell migration during embryogenesis involves two populations of cells: the migrating cells and the underlying cells that provide the substratum for migration. The formation of the Drosophila larval midgut involves the migration of the primordial midgut cells along a visceral mesoderm substratum. We show that integrin adhesion receptors are required in both populations of cells for normal rates of migration. In the absence of the PS integrins, the visceral mesoderm is disorganised, the primordial midgut cells do not display their normal motile appearance and their migration is delayed by 2 hours. Removing PS integrin function from the visceral mesoderm alone results in visceral mesoderm disorganization, but only causes a modest delay in migration and does not affect the appearance of the migrating cells. Removing PS integrin function from the migrating cells causes as severe a delay in migration as the complete loss of PS integrin function. The functions of PS1 and PS2 are specific in the two tissues, endoderm and mesoderm, since they cannot substitute for each other. In addition there is a partial redundancy in the function of the two PS integrins expressed in the endoderm, PS1 (alphaPS1betaPS) and PS3 (alphaPS3betaPS), since loss of just one alpha subunit in the midgut results in either a modest delay (alphaPS1) or no effect (alphaPS3). We have also examined the roles of small GTPases in promoting migration of the primordial midgut cells. We find that dominant negative (N17) versions of Rac and Cdc42 cause a very similar defect in migration as loss of integrins, while those of Rho and Ras have no effect. Thus integrins are involved in mediating migration by creating an optimal substratum for adhesion, adhering to that substratum and possibly by activating Rac and Cdc42.

Control of germ-band retraction in Drosophila by the zinc-finger protein HINDSIGHT.

  • Yip ML
  • Development
  • 1997 Jun 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Drosophila embryos lacking hindsight gene function have a normal body plan and undergo normal germ-band extension. However, they fail to retract their germ bands. hindsight encodes a large nuclear protein of 1920 amino acids that contains fourteen C2H2-type zinc fingers, and glutamine-rich and proline-rich domains, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor. Initial embryonic expression of hindsight RNA and protein occurs in the endoderm (midgut) and extraembryonic membrane (amnioserosa) prior to germ-band extension and continues in these tissues beyond the completion of germ-band retraction. Expression also occurs in the developing tracheal system, central and peripheral nervous systems, and the ureter of the Malpighian tubules. Strikingly, hindsight is not expressed in the epidermal ectoderm which is the tissue that undergoes the cell shape changes and movements during germ-band retraction. The embryonic midgut can be eliminated without affecting germ-band retraction. However, elimination of the amnioserosa results in the failure of germ-band retraction, implicating amnioserosal expression of hindsight as crucial for this process. Ubiquitous expression of hindsight in the early embryo rescues germ-band retraction without producing dominant gain-of-function defects, suggesting that hindsight's role in germ-band retraction is permissive rather than instructive. Previous analyses have shown that hindsight is required for maintenance of the differentiated amnioserosa (Frank, L. C. and Rushlow, C. (1996) Development 122, 1343-1352). Two classes of models are consistent with the present data. First, hindsight's function in germ-band retraction may be limited to maintenance of the amnioserosa which then plays a physical role in the retraction process through contact with cells of the epidermal ectoderm. Second, hindsight might function both to maintain the amnioserosa and to regulate chemical signaling from the amnioserosa to the epidermal ectoderm, thus coordinating the cell shape changes and movements that drive germ-band retraction.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)