Metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) is conventionally considered to be solely dependent on local protein synthesis. Given the impact of epigenetics on memory, the intriguing question is whether epigenetic regulation influences mGluR-LTD as well. G9a/GLP histone lysine methyltransferase complex is crucial for brain development and goal-directed learning as well as for drug-addiction. In this study, we analyzed whether the epigenetic regulation by G9a/GLP complex affects mGluR-LTD in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 5-7 weeks old male Wistar rats. In hippocampal slices with intact CA1 dendritic regions, inhibition of G9a/GLP activity abolished mGluR-LTD. The inhibition of this complex upregulated the expression of plasticity proteins like PKMζ, which mediated the prevention of mGluR-LTD expression by regulating the NSF-GluA2-mediated trafficking of AMPA receptors towards the postsynaptic site. G9a/GLP inhibition during the induction of mGluR-LTD also downregulated the protein levels of phosphorylated-GluA2 and Arc. Interestingly, G9a/GLP inhibition could not impede the mGluR-LTD when the cell-body was severed. Our study highlights the role of G9a/GLP complex in intact neuronal network as a bidirectional switch; when turned on, it facilitates the expression of mGluR-LTD, and when turned off, it promotes the expression of long-term potentiation.
Literature context: DM1A) Sigma-Aldrich Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Atto fluor 647N conjugated phal
Tropomyosin proteins form stable coiled-coil dimers that polymerize along the α-helical groove of actin filaments . The actin cytoskeleton consists of both co-polymers of actin and tropomyosin and polymers of tropomyosin-free actin . The fundamental distinction between these two types of filaments is that tropomyosin determines the functional capability of actin filaments in an isoform-dependent manner [3-9]. However, it is unknown what portion of actin filaments are associated with tropomyosin. To address this deficit, we have measured the relative distribution between these two filament populations by quantifying tropomyosin and actin levels in a variety of human cell types, including bone (U2OS); breast epithelial (MCF-10A); transformed breast epithelial (MCF-7); and primary (BJpar), immortalized (BJeH), and Ras-transformed (BJeLR) BJ fibroblasts . Our measurements of tropomyosin and actin predict the saturation of the actin cytoskeleton, implying that tropomyosin binding must be inhibited in order to generate tropomyosin-free actin filaments. We find the majority of actin filaments to be associated with tropomyosin in four of the six cell lines tested and the portion of actin filaments associated with tropomyosin to decrease with transformation. We also discover that high-molecular-weight (HMW), unlike low-molecular-weight (LMW), tropomyosin isoforms are primarily co-polymerized with actin in untransformed cells. This differential partitioning of tropomyosins is not due to a lack of N-terminal acetylation of LMW tropomyosins, but it is, in part, explained by the susceptibility of soluble HMW tropomyosins to proteasomal degradation. We conclude that actin-tropomyosin co-polymers make up a major fraction of the human actin cytoskeleton.
Literature context: bulin Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Actin Abcam Cat# 49846; RRID: A
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Here we report a role for the protein kinase p38α in coordinating the DNA damage response and limiting chromosome instability during breast tumor progression, and identify the DNA repair regulator CtIP as a p38α substrate. Accordingly, decreased p38α signaling results in impaired ATR activation and homologous recombination repair, with concomitant increases in replication stress, DNA damage, and chromosome instability, leading to cancer cell death and tumor regression. Moreover, we show that pharmacological inhibition of p38α potentiates the effects of taxanes by boosting chromosome instability in murine models and patient-derived xenografts, suggesting the potential interest of combining p38α inhibitors with chemotherapeutic drugs that induce chromosome instability.
Literature context: (1:1,000; Sigma-Aldrich, T9026, RRID:AB_477593) antibodies were used, and all
α-Synuclein is the major component of neuronal cytoplasmic aggregates called Lewy bodies, the main pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease. Although neurons are the predominant cells expressing α-synuclein in the brain, recent studies have demonstrated that primary astrocytes in culture also express α-synuclein and regulate α-synuclein trafficking. Astrocytes have a neuroprotective role in several detrimental brain conditions; we therefore analyzed the effects of the overexpression of wild-type α-synuclein and its A30P and A53T mutants on autophagy and apoptosis. We observed that in immortalized astrocyte cell lines, overexpression of α-synuclein proteins promotes the decrease of LC3-II and the increase of p62 protein levels, suggesting the inhibition of autophagy. When these cells were treated with rotenone, there was a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in cells expressing mutant α-synuclein. The level of this decrease was related to the toxicity of the mutants because they show a more intense and sustained effect. The decrease in autophagy and the mitochondrial changes in conjunction with parkin expression levels may sensitize astrocytes to apoptosis.
Microtubules are essential for various cell processes  and are nucleated by multi-protein γ-tubulin ring complexes (γ-TuRCs) at various microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), including centrosomes [2-6]. Recruitment of γ-TuRCs to different MTOCs at different times influences microtubule array formation, but how this is regulated remains an open question. It also remains unclear whether all γ-TuRCs within the same organism have the same composition and how any potential heterogeneity might influence γ-TuRC recruitment. MOZART1 (Mzt1) was recently identified as a γ-TuRC component [7, 8] and is conserved in nearly all eukaryotes [6, 9]. Mzt1 has so far been studied in cultured human cells, yeast, and plants; its absence leads to failures in γ-TuRC recruitment and cell division, resulting in cell death [7, 9-15]. Mzt1 is small (∼8.5 kDa), binds directly to core γ-TuRC components [9, 10, 14, 15], and appears to mediate the interaction between γ-TuRCs and proteins that tether γ-TuRCs to MTOCs [9, 15]. Here, we use Drosophila to investigate the function of Mzt1 in a multicellular animal for the first time. Surprisingly, we find that Drosophila Mzt1 is expressed only in the testes and is present in γ-TuRCs recruited to basal bodies, but not to mitochondria, in developing sperm cells. mzt1 mutants are viable but have defects in basal body positioning and γ-TuRC recruitment to centriole adjuncts; sperm formation is affected and mutants display a rapid age-dependent decline in sperm motility and male fertility. Our results reveal that tissue-specific and MTOC-specific γ-TuRC heterogeneity exist in Drosophila and highlight the complexity of γ-TuRC recruitment in a multicellular animal.
Literature context: DM1A) Sigma-Aldrich Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Atg8 (Sh
The emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with neurological complications. Innate immunity is essential for the control of virus infection, but the innate immune mechanisms that impact viral infection of neurons remain poorly defined. Using the genetically tractable Drosophila system, we show that ZIKV infection of the adult fly brain leads to NF-kB-dependent inflammatory signaling, which serves to limit infection. ZIKV-dependent NF-kB activation induces the expression of Drosophila stimulator of interferon genes (dSTING) in the brain. dSTING protects against ZIKV by inducing autophagy in the brain. Loss of autophagy leads to increased ZIKV infection of the brain and death of the infected fly, while pharmacological activation of autophagy is protective. These data suggest an essential role for an inflammation-dependent STING pathway in the control of neuronal infection and a conserved role for STING in antimicrobial autophagy, which may represent an ancestral function for this essential innate immune sensor.
Expression of histone H3.3K27M mutant proteins in human diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) results in a global reduction of tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3), and paradoxically, H3K27me3 peaks remain at hundreds of genomic loci, a dichotomous change that lacks mechanistic insights. Here, we show that the PRC2 complex is sequestered at poised enhancers, but not at active promoters with high levels of H3.3K27M proteins, thereby contributing to the global reduction of H3K27me3. Moreover, the levels of H3.3K27M proteins are low at the retained H3K27me3 peaks and consequently having minimal effects on the PRC2 activity at these loci. H3K27me3-mediated silencing at specific tumor suppressor genes, including Wilms Tumor 1, promotes proliferation of DIPG cells. These results support a model in which the PRC2 complex is redistributed to poised enhancers in H3.3K27M mutant cells and contributes to tumorigenesis in part by locally enhancing H3K27me3, and hence silencing of tumor suppressor genes.
Literature context: :500) Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rat monoclonal anti-CD31 PE con
Asymmetrically dividing muscle stem cells in skeletal muscle give rise to committed cells, where the myogenic determination factor Myf5 is transcriptionally activated by Pax7. This activation is dependent on Carm1, which methylates Pax7 on multiple arginine residues, to recruit the ASH2L:MLL1/2:WDR5:RBBP5 histone methyltransferase complex to the proximal promoter of Myf5. Here, we found that Carm1 is a specific substrate of p38γ/MAPK12 and that phosphorylation of Carm1 prevents its nuclear translocation. Basal localization of the p38γ/p-Carm1 complex in muscle stem cells occurs via binding to the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) through β1-syntrophin. In dystrophin-deficient muscle stem cells undergoing asymmetric division, p38γ/β1-syntrophin interactions are abrogated, resulting in enhanced Carm1 phosphorylation. The resulting progenitors exhibit reduced Carm1 binding to Pax7, reduced H3K4-methylation of chromatin, and reduced transcription of Myf5 and other Pax7 target genes. Therefore, our experiments suggest that dysregulation of p38γ/Carm1 results in altered epigenetic gene regulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Literature context: ti-tubulin Sigma-Aldrich T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit anti-CLS-2 directed agai
Successive cell divisions during embryonic cleavage create increasingly smaller cells, so intracellular structures must adapt accordingly. Mitotic spindle size correlates with cell size, but the mechanisms for this scaling remain unclear. Using live cell imaging, we analyzed spindle scaling during embryo cleavage in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. We reveal a common scaling mechanism, where the growth rate of spindle microtubules scales with cell volume, which explains spindle shortening. Spindle assembly timing is, however, constant throughout successive divisions. Analyses in silico suggest that controlling the microtubule growth rate is sufficient to scale spindle length and maintain a constant assembly timing. We tested our in silico predictions to demonstrate that modulating cell volume or microtubule growth rate in vivo induces a proportional spindle size change. Our results suggest that scalability of the microtubule growth rate when cell size varies adapts spindle length to cell volume.
Literature context: ulin (Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T9026, RRID:AB_477593), p-Myosin LC2 Ser19 (Cell Sign
Animal cells undergo a dramatic series of shape changes as they divide, which depend on re-modeling of cell-substrate adhesions. Here, we show that while focal adhesion complexes are disassembled during mitotic rounding, integrins remain in place. These integrin-rich contacts connect mitotic cells to the underlying substrate throughout mitosis, guide polarized cell migration following mitotic exit, and are functionally important, since adherent cells undergo division failure when removed from the substrate. Further, the ability of cells to re-spread along pre-existing adhesive contacts is essential for division in cells compromised in their ability to construct a RhoGEF-dependent (Ect2) actomyosin ring. As a result, following Ect2 depletion, cells fail to divide on small adhesive islands but successfully divide on larger patterns, as the connection between daughter cells narrows and severs as they migrate away from one another. In this way, regulated re-modeling of cell-substrate adhesions during mitotic rounding aids division in animal cells.
Literature context: ma-Aldrich Sigma-Aldrich:T9026; RRID:AB_477593
The DUX4 transcription factor is encoded by a retrogene embedded in each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat. DUX4 is normally expressed in the cleavage-stage embryo, whereas chromatin repression prevents DUX4 expression in most somatic tissues. Failure of this repression causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) due to mis-expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 engineered chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) locus-specific proteomics to characterize D4Z4-associated proteins. These and other approaches identified the Nucleosome Remodeling Deacetylase (NuRD) and Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) complexes as necessary for DUX4 repression in human skeletal muscle cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, DUX4-induced expression of MBD3L proteins partly relieved this repression in FSHD muscle cells. Together, these findings identify NuRD and CAF-1 as mediators of DUX4 chromatin repression and suggest a mechanism for the amplification of DUX4 expression in FSHD muscle cells.
Literature context: Î±-tubulin RRID:AB_477593 Mouse anti-alpha-tubulin monocl
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels comprising tetrameric assemblies of GluN1 and GluN2 receptor subunits that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Of the four different GluN2 subunits, the GluN2D subunit-containing NMDARs have been suggested as a target for antiparkinsonian therapy because of their expression pattern in some of the basal ganglia nuclei that show abnormal firing patterns in the parkinsonian state, specifically the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In this study, we demonstrate that blockade of NMDARs altered spike firing in the STN in a male nonhuman primate that had been rendered parkinsonian by treatment with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. In accompanying experiments in male rodents, we found that GluN2D-NMDAR expression in the STN was reduced in acutely or chronically dopamine-depleted animals. Taken together, our data suggest that blockade of NMDARs in the STN may be a viable antiparkinsonian strategy, but that the ultimate success of this approach may be complicated by parkinsonism-associated changes in NMDAR expression in the STN.
Literature context: 026; RRID:AB_477593 Vinculin Cell Signaling Technol
The access-repair-restore model for the role of chromatin in DNA repair infers that chromatin is a mere obstacle to DNA repair. However, here we show that blocking chromatin assembly, via knockdown of the histone chaperones ASF1 or CAF-1 or a mutation that prevents ASF1A binding to histones, hinders Rad51 loading onto ssDNA during homologous recombination. This is a consequence of reduced recruitment of the Rad51 loader MMS22L-TONSL to ssDNA, resulting in persistent RPA foci, extensive DNA end resection, persistent activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway, and cell cycle arrest. In agreement, histones occupy ssDNA during DNA repair in yeast. We also uncovered DNA-PKcs-dependent DNA damage-induced ASF1A phosphorylation, which enhances chromatin assembly, promoting MMS22L-TONSL recruitment and, hence, Rad51 loading. We propose that transient assembly of newly synthesized histones onto ssDNA serves to recruit MMS22L-TONSL to efficiently form the Rad51 nucleofilament for strand invasion, suggesting an active role of chromatin assembly in homologous recombination.
Literature context: ubulin Sigma Sigma: Clone DM1A; RRID:AB_477593 1:10000 for western blotting
Neuroligins are postsynaptic adhesion molecules that are essential for postsynaptic specialization and synaptic function. But the underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroligin functions remain unclear. We found that Drosophila Neuroligin 1 (DNlg1) regulates synaptic structure and function through WAVE regulatory complex (WRC)-mediated postsynaptic actin reorganization. The disruption of DNlg1, DNlg2, or their presynaptic partner neurexin (DNrx) led to a dramatic decrease in the amount of F-actin. Further study showed that DNlg1, but not DNlg2 or DNlg3, directly interacts with the WRC via its C-terminal interacting receptor sequence. That interaction is required to recruit WRC to the postsynaptic membrane to promote F-actin assembly. Furthermore, the interaction between DNlg1 and the WRC is essential for DNlg1 to rescue the morphological and electrophysiological defects in dnlg1 mutants. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which the DNrx-DNlg1 trans-synaptic interaction coordinates structural and functional properties at the neuromuscular junction.
Literature context: ne DM1A - catalog number T9026; RRID:AB_477593 dilution 1:5000 in I-Block
The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a+/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a+/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. BDNF regulates AMPAR expression during development. Accordingly, both proBDNF and BDNF levels were significantly higher in Tor1a+/Δgag mice. Consistently, antagonism of BDNF rescued synaptic plasticity deficits and AMPA currents. Our findings demonstrate that early loss of functional and structural synaptic homeostasis represents a unique endophenotypic trait during striatal maturation, promoting the appearance of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers.
Literature context: (RRID:AB_10693922), Î±-tubulin (RRID:AB_477593), HA (RRID:AB_10094468 RRID:AB_
BACKGROUND: Cell migration is essential for development and tissue repair, but it also contributes to disease. Rho GTPases regulate cell migration, but a comprehensive analysis of how each Rho signalling component affects migration has not been carried out. RESULTS: Through an RNA interference screen, and using a prostate cancer cell line, we find that approximately 25% of Rho network components alter migration. Some genes enhance migration while others decrease basal and/or hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration. Surprisingly, we identify RhoH as a screen hit. RhoH expression is normally restricted to haematopoietic cells, but we find it is expressed in multiple epithelial cancer cell lines. High RhoH expression in samples from prostate cancer patients correlates with earlier relapse. RhoH depletion reduces cell speed and persistence and decreases migratory polarity. Rac1 activity normally localizes to the front of migrating cells at areas of dynamic membrane movement, but in RhoH-depleted cells active Rac1 is localised around the whole cell periphery and associated with membrane regions that are not extending or retracting. RhoH interacts with Rac1 and with several p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are Rac effectors. Similar to RhoH depletion, PAK2 depletion increases cell spread area and reduces cell migration. In addition, RhoH depletion reduces lamellipodium extension induced by PAK2 overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a novel role for RhoH in prostate cancer cell migration. We propose that RhoH promotes cell migration by coupling Rac1 activity and PAK2 to membrane protrusion. Our results also suggest that RhoH expression levels correlate with prostate cancer progression.
Literature context: DM1A) Sigma-Aldrich Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit polyclonal anti-BMAL1 Th
Although interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT proteins) inhibit infection of many viruses by recognizing their RNA, the regulatory mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here we report a crystal structure of cap 0 (m7GpppN) RNA bound to human IFIT1 in complex with the C-terminal domain of human IFIT3. Structural, biochemical, and genetic studies suggest that IFIT3 binding to IFIT1 has dual regulatory functions: (1) extending the half-life of IFIT1 and thereby increasing its steady-state amounts in cells; and (2) allosterically regulating the IFIT1 RNA-binding channel, thereby enhancing the specificity of recognition for cap 0 but not cap 1 (m7GpppNm) or 5'-ppp RNA. Mouse Ifit3 lacks this key C-terminal domain and does not bind mouse Ifit1. The IFIT3 interaction with IFIT1 is important for restricting infection of viruses lacking 2'-O methylation in their RNA cap structures. Our experiments establish differences in the regulation of IFIT1 orthologs and define targets for modulation of human IFIT protein activity.
Literature context: -1A) Sigma-Aldrich Cat. #T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse monoclonal Î±-GLUL Abcam C
When mammalian cells are deprived of glutamine, exogenous asparagine rescues cell survival and growth. Here we report that this rescue results from use of asparagine in protein synthesis. All mammalian cell lines tested lacked cytosolic asparaginase activity and could not utilize asparagine to produce other amino acids or biosynthetic intermediates. Instead, most glutamine-deprived cell lines are capable of sufficient glutamine synthesis to maintain essential amino acid uptake and production of glutamine-dependent biosynthetic precursors, with the exception of asparagine. While experimental introduction of cytosolic asparaginase could enhance the synthesis of glutamine and increase tricarboxylic acid cycle anaplerosis and the synthesis of nucleotide precursors, cytosolic asparaginase suppressed the growth and survival of cells in glutamine-depleted medium in vitro and severely compromised the in vivo growth of tumor xenografts. These results suggest that the lack of asparaginase activity represents an evolutionary adaptation to allow mammalian cells to survive pathophysiologic variations in extracellular glutamine.
Literature context: DM1A) Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse monoclonal anti-VP5 (3B6)
The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation. VP22 interacts with AIM2 and prevents its oligomerization, an initial step in AIM2 inflammasome activation. A mutant virus lacking VP22 (HSV-1ΔVP22) activates AIM2 and induces IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, but these responses are lost in the absence of AIM2. Additionally, HSV-1ΔVP22 infection results in diminished viral yields in vivo, but HSV-1ΔVP22 replication is largely restored in AIM2-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings reveal a mechanism of HSV-1 evasion of the host immune response that enables efficient viral replication in vivo.
Literature context: DM1A Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse monoclonal to ubiquitin,
Mitochondrial quality control is essential to maintain cellular homeostasis and is achieved by removing damaged, ubiquitinated mitochondria via Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we demonstrate that MYO6 (myosin VI), a unique myosin that moves toward the minus end of actin filaments, forms a complex with Parkin and is selectively recruited to damaged mitochondria via its ubiquitin-binding domain. This myosin motor initiates the assembly of F-actin cages to encapsulate damaged mitochondria by forming a physical barrier that prevents refusion with neighboring populations. Loss of MYO6 results in an accumulation of mitophagosomes and an increase in mitochondrial mass. In addition, we observe downstream mitochondrial dysfunction manifesting as reduced respiratory capacity and decreased ability to rely on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. Our work uncovers a crucial step in mitochondrial quality control: the formation of MYO6-dependent actin cages that ensure isolation of damaged mitochondria from the network.
Literature context: ono. TUBA Sigma N/A 1:5000 RRID:AB_477593
Chromatin remodeling during spermatogenesis culminates in the exchange of nucleosomes for transition proteins and protamines as an important part of spermatid development to give rise to healthy sperm. Comparative immunofluorescence analyses of equine and murine testis histological sections were used to characterize nucleoprotein exchange in the stallion. Histone H4 hyperacetylation is considered a key event of histone removal during the nucleoprotein transition to a protamine-based sperm chromatin structure. In the stallion, but not the mouse, H4 was already highly acetylated in lysine residues K5, K8, and K12 in round spermatids almost immediately after meiotic division. Time courses of transition protein 1 (TP1), protamine 1, H2A histone family member Z (H2AFZ), and testis-specific histone H2B variant (TH2B) expression in stallion spermatogenesis were similar to the mouse where protamine 1 and TP1 were only expressed in elongating spermatids much later in spermatid development. The additional acetylation of H4 in K16 position (H4K16ac) was detected during a brief phase of spermatid elongation in both species, concomitant with the phosphorylation of the noncanonical histone variant H2AFX resulting from DNA strand break-mediated DNA relaxation. The results suggest that H4K16 acetylation, which is dependent on DNA damage signaling, may be more important for nucleosome replacement in spermiogenesis than indicated by data obtained in rodents and highlight the value of the stallion as an alternative animal model for investigating human spermatogenesis. A revised classification system of the equine spermatogenic cycle for simplified comparison with the mouse is proposed to this end.
Literature context: n DM1A Sigma-Aldrich Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit monoclonal thiophosphate
Intracellular protein gradients underlie essential cellular and developmental processes, but the mechanisms by which they are established are incompletely understood. During the asymmetric division of the C. elegans zygote, the RNA-binding protein MEX-5 forms an anterior-rich cytoplasmic gradient that causes the RNA-binding protein POS-1 to form an opposing, posterior-rich gradient. We demonstrate that the polo-like kinase PLK-1 mediates the repulsive coupling between MEX-5 and POS-1 by increasing the mobility of POS-1 in the anterior. PLK-1 is enriched in the anterior cytoplasm and phosphorylates POS-1, which is both necessary and sufficient to increase POS-1 mobility. Regulation of POS-1 mobility depends on both the interaction between PLK-1 and MEX-5 and between MEX-5 and RNA, suggesting that MEX-5 may recruit PLK-1 to RNA in the anterior. The low concentration of MEX-5/PLK-1 in the posterior cytoplasm provides a permissive environment for the retention of POS-1, which depends on POS-1 RNA binding. Our findings describe a novel reaction/diffusion mechanism in which the asymmetric distribution of cytoplasmic PLK-1 couples two RNA-binding protein gradients, thereby partitioning the cytoplasm.
Literature context: i-Î±-tubulin antibodies (#T9026, RRID:AB_477593, 1:1,000; Sigma-Aldrich) at 4Â°C
In the central nervous system, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules are mainly expressed in neurons, and neuronal MHCI have roles in synapse elimination and plasticity. However, the pathophysiological significance of astroglial MHCI remains unclear. We herein demonstrate that MHCI expression is up-regulated in astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following systemic immune activation by an intraperitoneal injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) or hydrodynamic interferon (IFN)-γ gene delivery in male C57/BL6J mice. In cultured astrocytes, MHCI/H-2D largely co-localized with exosomes. To investigate the role of astroglial MHCI, H-2D, or sH-2D was expressed in the mPFC of male C57/BL6J mice using an adeno-associated virus vector under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. The expression of astroglial MHCI in the mPFC impaired sociability and recognition memory in mice. Regarding neuropathological changes, MHCI expression in astrocytes significantly activated microglial cells, decreased parvalbumin-positive cell numbers, and reduced dendritic spine density in the mPFC. A treatment with GW4869 that impairs exosome synthesis ameliorated these behavioral and neuropathological changes. These results suggest that the overexpression of MHCI in astrocytes affects microglial proliferation as well as neuronal numbers and spine densities, thereby leading to social and cognitive deficits in mice, possibly via exosomes created by astrocytes.
Literature context: Tubulin Sigma Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 HRP linked Mouse IgG GE Life Sc
Inhibiting protein function selectively is a major goal of modern drug discovery. Here, we report a previously understudied benefit of small molecule proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) that recruit E3 ubiquitin ligases to target proteins for their ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Using promiscuous CRBN- and VHL-recruiting PROTACs that bind >50 kinases, we show that only a subset of bound targets is degraded. The basis of this selectivity relies on protein-protein interactions between the E3 ubiquitin ligase and the target protein, as illustrated by engaged proteins that are not degraded as a result of unstable ternary complexes with PROTAC-recruited E3 ligases. In contrast, weak PROTAC:target protein affinity can be stabilized by high-affinity target:PROTAC:ligase trimer interactions, leading to efficient degradation. This study highlights design guidelines for generating potent PROTACs as well as possibilities for degrading undruggable proteins immune to traditional small-molecule inhibitors.
Literature context: (clone DM1A) - IB Sigma T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Goat poly anti-Amylase (clone C
Mechanisms of selective autophagy of the ER, known as ER-phagy, require molecular delineation, particularly in vivo. It is unclear how these events control ER proteostasis and cellular health. Here, we identify cell-cycle progression gene 1 (CCPG1), an ER-resident protein with no known physiological role, as a non-canonical cargo receptor that directly binds to core autophagy proteins via an LIR motif to mammalian ATG8 proteins and, independently and via a discrete motif, to FIP200. These interactions facilitate ER-phagy. The CCPG1 gene is inducible by the unfolded protein response and thus directly links ER stress to ER-phagy. In vivo, CCPG1 protects against ER luminal protein aggregation and consequent unfolded protein response hyperactivation and tissue injury of the exocrine pancreas. Thus, via identification of this autophagy protein, we describe an unexpected molecular mechanism of ER-phagy and provide evidence that this may be physiologically relevant in ER luminal proteostasis.
Literature context: og #T9026, Sigma-Aldrich; RRID:AB_477593), rabbit anti-MAO 1:1000 (catal
PARK2 is the most common gene mutated in monogenic recessive familial cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathogenic mutations cause a loss of function of the encoded protein Parkin. ParkinKO mice, however, poorly represent human PD symptoms as they only exhibit mild motor phenotypes, minor dopamine metabolism abnormalities, and no signs of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Parkin has been shown to participate in mitochondrial turnover, by targeting damaged mitochondria with low membrane potential to mitophagy. We studied the role of Parkin on mitochondrial quality control in vivo by knocking out Parkin in the PD-mito-PstI mouse (males), where the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) undergoes double-strand breaks only in dopaminergic neurons. The lack of Parkin promoted earlier onset of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor defects in the PD-mito-PstI mice, but it did not worsen the pathology. The lack of Parkin affected mitochondrial morphology in dopaminergic axons and was associated with an increase in mtDNA levels (mutant and wild type). Unexpectedly, it did not cause a parallel increase in mitochondrial mass or mitophagy. Our results suggest that Parkin affects mtDNA levels in a mitophagy-independent manner.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive motor symptoms due to the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Loss-of-function mutations of Parkin cause some monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease, possibly through its role in mitochondrial turnover and quality control. To study whether Parkin has a role in vivo in the context of mitochondrial damage, we knocked out Parkin in a mouse model in which the mitochondrial DNA is damaged in dopaminergic neurons. We found that the loss of Parkin did not exacerbate the parkinsonian pathology already present in the mice, but it was associated with an increase in mtDNA levels (mutant and wild-type) without altering mitochondrial mass. These results shed new light on the function of Parkin in vivo.
Literature context: bulin Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Bacterial and Virus Strains
The HIV-1-encoded accessory protein Vpu exerts several immunomodulatory functions, including counteraction of the host restriction factor tetherin, downmodulation of CD4, and inhibition of NF-κB activity to facilitate HIV-1 infection. However, the relative contribution of individual Vpu functions to HIV-1 infection in vivo remained unclear. Here, we used a humanized mouse model and HIV-1 strains with selective mutations in vpu to demonstrate that the anti-tetherin activity of Vpu is a prerequisite for efficient viral spread during the early phase of infection. Mathematical modeling and gain-of-function mutations in SIVcpz, the simian precursor of pandemic HIV-1, corroborate this finding. Blockage of interferon signaling combined with transcriptome analyses revealed that basal tetherin levels are sufficient to control viral replication. These results establish tetherin as a key effector of the intrinsic immune defense against HIV-1, and they demonstrate that Vpu-mediated tetherin antagonism is critical for efficient viral spread during the initial phase of HIV-1 replication.
Literature context: 026 Mouse; monoclonal 1:5000 RRID:AB_477593
Critical windows of development are often more sensitive to endocrine disruption. The murine pituitary gland has two critical windows of development: embryonic gland establishment and neonatal hormone cell expansion. During embryonic development, one environmentally ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to alter pituitary development by increasing proliferation and gonadotrope number in females but not males. However, the effects of exposure during the neonatal period have not been examined. Therefore, we dosed pups from postnatal day (PND)0 to PND7 with 0.05, 0.5, and 50 μg/kg/d BPA, environmentally relevant doses, or 50 μg/kg/d estradiol (E2). Mice were collected after dosing at PND7 and at 5 weeks. Dosing mice neonatally with BPA caused sex-specific gene expression changes distinct from those observed with embryonic exposure. At PND7, pituitary Pit1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was decreased with BPA 0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg/d in males only. Expression of Pomc mRNA was decreased at 0.5 μg/kg/d BPA in males and at 0.5 and 50 μg/kg/d BPA in females. Similarly, E2 decreased Pomc mRNA in both males and females. However, no noticeable corresponding changes were found in protein expression. Both E2 and BPA suppressed Pomc mRNA in pituitary organ cultures; this repression appeared to be mediated by estrogen receptor-α and estrogen receptor-β in females and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in males, as determined by estrogen receptor subtype-selective agonists. These data demonstrated that BPA exposure during neonatal pituitary development has unique sex-specific effects on gene expression and that Pomc repression in males and females can occur through different mechanisms.
Literature context: TUBA1A Mo Sigma T9026 RRID:AB_477593 1:500 1:5000
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (EIF4G) is an important scaffold protein in the translation initiation complex. In mice, mutation of the Eif4g3 gene causes male infertility, with arrest of meiosis at the end of meiotic prophase. This study documents features of the developmental expression and subcellular localization of EIF4G3 that might contribute to its highly specific role in meiosis and spermatogenesis. Quite unexpectedly, EIF4G3 is located in the nucleus of spermatocytes, where it is highly enriched in the XY body, the chromatin domain formed by the transcriptionally inactive sex chromosomes. Moreover, many other, but not all, translation-related proteins are also localized in the XY body. These unanticipated observations implicate roles for the XY body in controlling mRNA metabolism and/or "poising" protein translation complexes before the meiotic division phase in spermatocytes.
Literature context: 000, Sigma-Aldrich, Cat# T9026, RRID:AB_477593) and mouse monoclonal anti-GAPD
BACKGROUND: Previous studies provided evidence for an accumulation of IκB-kinase (IKK) α/β at the axon initial segment (AIS), a neuronal compartment defined by ankyrin-G expression. Here we explored whether the presence of the IKK-complex at the AIS was associated with the activation of IKK signaling at this site. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proximity-ligation assays (PLAs) using pan-IKKα/β, phospho-IKKα/β-specific as well as ankyrin-G specific antibodies validated their binding to proximal epitopes in the AIS, while antibodies to other phosphorylated signaling proteins showed no preference for the AIS. Small-hairpin mediated silencing of IKKβ significantly reduced anti-phospho-IKKα/β-immunoreactivities in the AIS. ank3 gene-deficient cerebellar Purkinje cells also exhibited no phosphorylated IKKα/β at the proximal region of their axons. Transient ankyrin-G overexpression in PC12 cells augmented NF-κB transactivation in an ankyrin-G death-domain dependent manner. Finally, small molecule inhibitors of IKK-activity, including Aspirin, inhibited the accumulation of activated IKK proteins in the AIS. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the existence of a constitutively-active IKK signaling complex in the AIS.
Literature context: Sigma T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Goat anti-rabbit HRP conjugate
Necroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that is linked to various human diseases. Distinct membrane-related, thus lipid-dependent, alterations take place during necroptosis. However, little is known about the roles of specific lipids in this process. We used an untargeted LC-MS-based approach to reveal that distinct lipid species are regulated at the molecular level during necroptosis. We found that ceramides and very long chain fatty acids accumulate during this process. Intrigued by the specificity of very long chain fatty acid accumulation, we focused on characterizing their involvement during necroptosis. Biochemical characterizations suggested that activated fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation could be responsible for these accumulations. We further showed that inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis and depletion of very long chain fatty acids prevented loss of plasma membrane integrity and cell death, strongly suggesting that very long chain fatty acids are functionally involved in necroptosis.
Literature context: ody Millipore Sigma Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit anti-mouse/human p27 (C1
Despite expression of oncogenic KRAS, premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (PanIN1) lesions rarely become fully malignant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The molecular mechanisms through which established risk factors, such as chronic pancreatitis, acinar cell damage, and/or defective autophagy increase the likelihood of PDAC development are poorly understood. We show that accumulation of the autophagy substrate p62/SQSTM1 in stressed KrasG12D acinar cells is associated with PDAC development and maintenance of malignancy in human cells and mice. p62 accumulation promotes neoplastic progression by controlling the NRF2-mediated induction of MDM2, which acts through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms to abrogate checkpoints that prevent conversion of differentiated acinar cells to proliferative ductal progenitors. MDM2 targeting may be useful for preventing PDAC development in high-risk individuals.
Literature context: ntibody clone DMIA Sigma T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Sheep anti-tubulin antibodies C
The augmin complex plays an essential role in microtubule (MT)-dependent MT nucleation by recruiting the γ-tubulin complex to MT walls to generate new MTs . The complex contains eight subunits (designated AUG) including AUG8, which is an MT-associated protein (MAP). When this complex is isolated from etiolated seedlings consisting of primarily interphase cells in Arabidopsis thaliana, AUG8 is an integral component . EDE1 (Endosperm DEfective 1) is homologous to AUG8 . Here, we demonstrate that EDE1, but not AUG8, is associated with acentrosomal spindle and phragmoplast MT arrays in patterns indistinguishable from those of the AUG1-7 subunits and the γ-tubulin complex proteins (GCPs) that exhibit biased localization toward MT minus ends. Consistent with this colocalization, EDE1 directly interacts with AUG6 in vivo. Moreover, a partial loss-of-function mutation, ede1-1, compromises the localization of augmin and γ-tubulin on the spindle and phragmoplast MT arrays and leads to serious distortions in spindle MT remodeling during mitosis. However, mitosis continues even when kinetochore fibers are not obviously discernable, and cytokinesis takes place following the formation of elongated bipolar phragmoplast MT arrays in the mutant. Hence, we conclude that the mitotic function of augmin is dependent on its MAP subunit EDE1, which cannot be replaced by AUG8, and that the cell-cycle-dependent function of augmin can be differentially regulated by employing distinct MAP subunits. Our results also illustrate that plant cells can respond flexibly to serious challenges of compromised MT-dependent MT nucleation to complete mitosis and cytokinesis.
Literature context: onal antibody Sigma Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 anti-Arr2 rabbit polyclonal ant
The timing of sleep is tightly governed by the circadian clock, which contains a negative transcriptional feedback loop and synchronizes the physiology and behavior of most animals to daily environmental oscillations. However, how the circadian clock determines the timing of sleep is largely unclear. In vertebrates and invertebrates, the status of sleep and wakefulness is modulated by the electrical activity of pacemaker neurons that are circadian regulated and suppressed by inhibitory GABAergic inputs. Here, we showed that Drosophila GABAA receptors undergo rhythmic degradation in arousal-promoting large ventral lateral neurons (lLNvs) and their expression level in lLNvs displays a daily oscillation. We also demonstrated that the E3 ligase Fbxl4 promotes GABAA receptor ubiquitination and degradation and revealed that the transcription of fbxl4 in lLNvs is CLOCK dependent. Finally, we demonstrated that Fbxl4 regulates the timing of sleep through rhythmically reducing GABA sensitivity to modulate the excitability of lLNvs. Our study uncovered a critical molecular linkage between the circadian clock and the electrical activity of pacemaker neurons and demonstrated that CLOCK-dependent Fbxl4 expression rhythmically downregulates GABAA receptor level to increase the activity of pacemaker neurons and promote wakefulness.
Literature context: ti-Î±-tubulin Sigma Cat # T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse anti-Arm DSHB Cat # AB_52
During epithelial cell proliferation, planar alignment of the mitotic spindle allows the daughter cells to stay within the epithelium. Previous work has identified cortical cues that regulate spindle orientation and the division axis [1, 2]. One such cue is cortical Pins (LGN in vertebrates) [3-6], which recruits the conserved Mud/NuMA protein and the dynein/dynactin complex to the cortex. The dynein/dynactin motor complex pulls astral microtubules to orient the spindle. Cortical Pins can therefore dictate the division axis. In addition to cortical cues, cell shape can also serve as a division orientation cue [7-9]. Here, we investigated the interplay between cortical cues and cell shape in a proliferating tissue. We analyzed division orientation in the first mitotic divisions of the early Drosophila embryo, where groups of epithelial cells synchronously divide. Using chemical inhibitors, knockdowns, and mutants with known deficits in motor activity, we showed that the myosin 2 motor is required to orient cell division in the plane of a columnar epithelium. Disrupting myosin activity caused the division axis to orient perpendicular to the epithelial plane. This effect was independent of Pins cortical localization, which became uncoupled from spindle orientation. Instead, myosin motor activity was required for the formation of the actomyosin cortex and for cell rounding upon mitotic entry. We propose that mitotic cell rounding in columnar epithelia allows cells to properly interpret cortical cues that orient the spindle. In the absence of mitotic rounding, geometric cues imposed by tight cell packing prevail and cells divide along their long apical-basal axis.
Literature context: lin (Sigma-Aldrich, Cat# T9026, RRID:AB_477593), mouse monoclonal antibodies a
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of signalling pathways responsible for cell maturation and viability. Btk has previously been reported to be overexpressed in colon cancers. This kind of cancer is often accompanied by anaemia, which is treated with an erythropoietin supplement. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of combination therapy with erythropoietin β (Epo) and LFM-A13 (Btk inhibitor) on colon cancer in in vitro and in vivo models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: DLD-1 and HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were cultured with Epo and LFM-A13. Cell number and viability, and mRNA and protein levels of Epo receptors, Btk and Akt were assessed. Nude mice were inoculated with adenocarcinoma cells and treated with Epo and LFM-A13. KEY RESULTS: The combination of Epo and LFM-A13 mostly exerted a synergistic inhibitory effect on colon cancer cell growth. The therapeutic scheme used effectively killed the cancer cells and attenuated the Btk signalling pathways. Epo + LFM-A13 also prevented the normal process of microtubule assembly during mitosis by down-regulating the expression of Polo-like kinase 1. The combination of Epo and LFM-A13 significantly reduced the growth rate of tumour cells, while it showed high safety profile, inducing no nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or changes in the haematological parameters. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Epo significantly enhances the antitumour activity of LFM-A13, indicating that a combination of Epo and LFM-A13 has potential as an effective therapeutic approach for patients with colorectal cancer.
Literature context: , T9026, RRID:AB_477593), anti-Î²-actin (Sigma-Aldrich,
It is widely accepted that amyloid β (Aβ) generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) oligomerizes and fibrillizes to form neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little is known about the contribution of APP to intracellular signaling events preceding AD pathogenesis. The data presented here demonstrate that APP expression and neuronal exposure to oligomeric Aβ42 enhance Ras/ERK signaling cascade and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activation. We find that RNA interference (RNAi)-directed knockdown of APP in B103 rat neuroblastoma cells expressing APP inhibits Ras-ERK signaling and GSK-3 activation, indicating that APP acts upstream of these signal transduction events. Both ERK and GSK-3 are known to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau and APP at Thr668, and our findings suggest that aberrant signaling by APP facilitates these events. Supporting this notion, analysis of human AD brain samples showed increased expression of Ras, activation of GSK-3, and phosphorylation of APP and tau, which correlated with Aβ levels in the AD brains. Furthermore, treatment of primary rat neurons with Aβ recapitulated these events and showed enhanced Ras-ERK signaling, GSK-3 activation, upregulation of cyclin D1, and phosphorylation of APP and tau. The finding that Aβ induces Thr668 phosphorylation on APP, which enhances APP proteolysis and Aβ generation, denotes a vicious feedforward mechanism by which APP and Aβ promote tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration in AD. Based on these results, we hypothesize that aberrant proliferative signaling by APP plays a fundamental role in AD neurodegeneration and that inhibition of this would impede cell cycle deregulation and neurodegeneration observed in AD.
Literature context: n tubulin, Antibody Registry ID RRID:AB_477593 used at 1/1000, Sigma] were app
The shapes of homologous skeletal elements in the vertebrate forelimb and hindlimb are distinct, with each element exquisitely adapted to their divergent functions. Many of the signals and signalling pathways responsible for patterning the developing limb bud are common to both forelimb and hindlimb. How disparate morphologies are generated from common signalling inputs during limb development remains poorly understood. We show that, similar to what has been shown in the chick, characteristic differences in mouse forelimb and hindlimb cartilage morphology are maintained when chondrogenesis proceeds in vitro away from the endogenous limb bud environment. Chondrogenic nodules that form in high-density micromass cultures derived from forelimb and hindlimb buds are consistently different in size and shape. We described analytical tools we have developed to quantify these differences in nodule morphology and demonstrate that characteristic hindlimb nodule morphology is lost in the absence of the hindlimb-restricted limb modifier gene Pitx1. Furthermore, we show that ectopic expression of Pitx1 in the forelimb is sufficient to generate nodule patterns characteristic of the hindlimb. We also demonstrate that hindlimb cells are less adhesive to the tissue culture substrate and, within the limb environment, to the extracellular matrix and to each other. These results reveal autonomously programmed differences in forelimb and hindlimb cartilage precursors of the limb skeleton are controlled, at least in part, by Pitx1 and suggest this has an important role in generating distinct limb-type morphologies. Our results demonstrate that the micromass culture system is ideally suited to study cues governing morphogenesis of limb skeletal elements in a simple and experimentally tractable in vitro system that reflects in vivo potential.
Literature context: DM1A) Sigma-Aldrich Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
Chemical libraries paired with phenotypic screens can now readily identify compounds with therapeutic potential. A central limitation to exploiting these compounds, however, has been in identifying their relevant cellular targets. Here, we present a two-tiered CRISPR-mediated chemical-genetic strategy for target identification: combined genome-wide knockdown and overexpression screening as well as focused, comparative chemical-genetic profiling. Application of these strategies to rigosertib, a drug in phase 3 clinical trials for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome whose molecular target had remained controversial, pointed singularly to microtubules as rigosertib's target. We showed that rigosertib indeed directly binds to and destabilizes microtubules using cell biological, in vitro, and structural approaches. Finally, expression of tubulin with a structure-guided mutation in the rigosertib-binding pocket conferred resistance to rigosertib, establishing that rigosertib kills cancer cells by destabilizing microtubules. These results demonstrate the power of our chemical-genetic screening strategies for pinpointing the physiologically relevant targets of chemical agents.
Literature context: t# T9026, RRID:AB-477593), AQP3 (BA
Low O2 pressures present in the microenvironment of epidermis control keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal barrier function through hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) dependent gene expression. This study focuses on investigating relations of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) to HIF-1α in keratinocytes under hypoxic conditions. The expression level of RORα is significantly elevated under hypoxia in both human and murine keratinocytes. Gene silencing of RORA attenuates hypoxia-stimulated expression of genes related to late differentiation and epidermal barrier function, and leads to an enhanced apoptotic response. While the hypoxic induction of RORα is dependent on HIF-1α, RORα is in turn critical for nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α and activation of HIF transcriptional activity. These results collectively suggest that RORα functions as an important mediator of HIF-1α activities in regulating keratinocyte differentiation/survival and epidermal barrier function during the oxygen sensing stage.
Literature context: (Sigma DM1a, RRID:AB_477593). Stained cells were then washe
The temporal regulation of protein abundance and post-translational modifications is a key feature of cell division. Recently, we analysed gene expression and protein abundance changes during interphase under minimally perturbed conditions (Ly et al., 2014, 2015). Here, we show that by using specific intracellular immunolabelling protocols, FACS separation of interphase and mitotic cells, including mitotic subphases, can be combined with proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry. Using this PRIMMUS (PRoteomic analysis of Intracellular iMMUnolabelled cell Subsets) approach, we now compare protein abundance and phosphorylation changes in interphase and mitotic fractions from asynchronously growing human cells. We identify a set of 115 phosphorylation sites increased during G2, termed 'early risers'. This set includes phosphorylation of S738 on TPX2, which we show is important for TPX2 function and mitotic progression. Further, we use PRIMMUS to provide the first a proteome-wide analysis of protein abundance remodeling between prophase, prometaphase and anaphase.
Literature context: ha Tubulin Sigma-Aldrich T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse IgG - HRP conjugated Sigm
Germline specification underlies human reproduction and evolution, but it has proven difficult to study in humans since it occurs shortly after blastocyst implantation. This process can be modeled with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by differentiating them into primordial germ cell-like cells (hPGCLCs) through an incipient mesoderm-like cell (iMeLC) state. Here, we elucidate the key transcription factors and their interactions with important signaling pathways in driving hPGCLC differentiation from iPSCs. Germline competence of iMeLCs is dictated by the duration and dosage of WNT signaling, which induces expression of EOMES to activate SOX17, a key driver of hPGCLC specification. Upon hPGCLC induction, BMP signaling activates TFAP2C in a SOX17-independent manner. SOX17 and TFAP2C then cooperatively instate an hPGCLC transcriptional program, including BLIMP1 expression. This specification program diverges from its mouse counterpart regarding key transcription factors and their hierarchies, and it provides a foundation for further study of human germ cell development.
Literature context: Tubulin - DM1A Sigma Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Anti-Lamin A/C (Chaudhary and C
In animal cells, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) is required for proper chromosome segregation. Whereas mitotic kinases have been implicated in NEBD, how they coordinate their activity to trigger this event is unclear. Here, we show that both in human cells and Caenorhabditis elegans, the Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is recruited to the nuclear pore complexes, just prior to NEBD, through its Polo-box domain (PBD). We provide evidence that PLK-1 localization to the nuclear envelope (NE) is required for efficient NEBD. We identify the central channel nucleoporins NPP-1/Nup58, NPP-4/Nup54, and NPP-11/Nup62 as the critical factors anchoring PLK-1 to the NE in C. elegans. In particular, NPP-1, NPP-4, and NPP-11 primed at multiple Polo-docking sites by Cdk1 and PLK-1 itself physically interact with the PLK-1 PBD. We conclude that nucleoporins play an unanticipated regulatory role in NEBD, by recruiting PLK-1 to the NE thereby facilitating phosphorylation of critical downstream targets.
Literature context: at# T9026 RRID:AB_477593). Membrane
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the maintenance of the brain homeostasis, and its proper functions are warranted by the interplay between different cellular components (endothelial cells, astrocytes and pericytes). BBB dysfunctions in pathological conditions, and particularly in Alzheimer's disease, have been documented. Here, using an in vitroBBB model, the interaction between endothelial cells and astrocytes exposed to Aβ1-42 was investigated. Human endothelial cells, cultured in monolayer or co-cultured with astrocytes, were exposed to Aβ1-42 (2 μM for 18 h). Aβ induced dysfunction of endothelial barrier, as assessed by enhanced permeability to FITC-conjugated dextran and reduced expression of claudin-5; these modifications were observed in the co-culture model, but not in endothelial cells cultured in monolayer. Similarly, Aβ-induced damage at the barrier was observed when endothelial cells were challenged in the presence of conditioned medium generated by astrocytes previously exposed to Aβ (ACM Aβ). Endothelial barrier damages were associated with enhanced matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9) activity, known to mediate claudin-5 disruption. These events were not related to the direct effects played by Aβ on endothelial cells, but they were rather the consequence of Aβ-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in astrocytes. Indeed, when vascular endothelial growth factor expression was down-regulated in astrocytes, neither barrier properties or MMP9 expression in endothelial cells were affected after Aβ exposure both in the co-culture model or in the presence of ACM Aβ. These data point out the importance of astrocytes' mediation in inducing endothelial sensitivity to Aβ1-42.
Literature context: ma-Aldrich, T9026, RRID:AB_477593; 1:2000), mouse anti-H2Av which
A model has been proposed in which JIL-1 kinase-mediated H3S10 and H2Av phosphorylation is required for transcriptional elongation and heat shock-induced chromatin decondensation. However, here we show that although H3S10 phosphorylation is indeed compromised in the H2Av null mutant, chromatin decondensation at heat shock loci is unaffected in the absence of JIL-1 as well as of H2Av and that there is no discernable decrease in the elongating form of RNA polymerase II in either mutant. Furthermore, mRNA for the major heat shock protein Hsp70 is transcribed at robust levels in both H2Av and JIL-1 null mutants. Using a different chromatin remodeling paradigm that is JIL-1 dependent, we provide evidence that ectopic tethering of JIL-1 and subsequent H3S10 phosphorylation recruits PARP-1 to the remodeling site independently of H2Av phosphorylation. These data strongly suggest that H2Av or H3S10 phosphorylation by JIL-1 is not required for chromatin decondensation or transcriptional elongation in Drosophila.
Literature context: Cat# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit anti-RNA Polymerase II (
Proper regulation of the germline transcriptome is essential for fertility. In C. elegans, germline homeostasis hinges on a complex repertoire of both silencing and activating small RNA pathways, along with RNA processing. However, our understanding of how fundamental RNA processing steps intersect with small RNA machineries in the germline remains limited. Here, we link the conserved intron binding protein, EMB-4/AQR/IBP160, to the CSR-1 and HRDE-1 nuclear 22G-RNA pathways in the C. elegans germline. Loss of emb-4 leads to distinct alterations in CSR-1- versus HRDE-1-associated small RNA and mRNA transcriptomes. Our transcriptome-wide analysis shows that EMB-4 is enriched along pre-mRNAs of nearly 8,000 transcripts. While EMB-4 complexes are enriched for both intronic and exonic sequences of HRDE-1 targets, CSR-1 pathway targets are enriched for intronic, but not exonic, sequences. These data suggest that EMB-4 could contribute to a molecular signature that distinguishes the targets of these two germline small RNA pathways.
Literature context: tubulin SIGMA DM1A; cat#: 9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Histone
Small RNAs play a crucial role in genome defense against transposable elements and guide Argonaute proteins to nascent RNA transcripts to induce co-transcriptional gene silencing. However, the molecular basis of this process remains unknown. Here, we identify the conserved RNA helicase Aquarius/EMB-4 as a direct and essential link between small RNA pathways and the transcriptional machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans. Aquarius physically interacts with the germline Argonaute HRDE-1. Aquarius is required to initiate small-RNA-induced heritable gene silencing. HRDE-1 and Aquarius silence overlapping sets of genes and transposable elements. Surprisingly, removal of introns from a target gene abolishes the requirement for Aquarius, but not HRDE-1, for small RNA-dependent gene silencing. We conclude that Aquarius allows small RNA pathways to compete for access to nascent transcripts undergoing co-transcriptional splicing in order to detect and silence transposable elements. Thus, Aquarius and HRDE-1 act as gatekeepers coordinating gene expression and genome defense.
Literature context: , mouse monoclonal, cat# T9026, RRID:AB_477593 0.1 ng/Î¼L 3% non-fat milk-TBS 0
Previous studies in rats have demonstrated that chronic restraint stress triggers anhedonia, depressive-like behaviors, anxiety and a reduction in dendritic spine density in hippocampal neurons. In this study, we compared the effect of repeated stress on the expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in dorsal and ventral hippocampus (VH). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and stressed groups, and were daily restrained in their motion (2.5 h/day) during 14 days. We found that chronic stress promotes an increase in c-Fos mRNA levels in both hippocampal areas, although it was observed a reduction in the immunoreactivity at pyramidal cell layer. Furthermore, Arc mRNAs levels were increased in both dorsal and VH, accompanied by an increase in Arc immunoreactivity in dendritic hippocampal layers. Furthermore, stress triggered a reduction in PSD-95 and NR1 protein levels in whole extract of dorsal and VH. Moreover, a reduction in NR2A/NR2B ratio was observed only in dorsal pole. In synaptosomal fractions, we detected a rise in NR1 in dorsal hippocampus (DH). By indirect immunofluorescence we found that NR1 subunits rise, especially in neuropil areas of dorsal, but not VH. In relation to AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits, chronic stress did not trigger any change, either in dorsal or ventral hippocampal areas. These data suggest that DH is more sensitive than VH to chronic stress exposure, mainly altering the expression of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits, and probably favors changes in the configuration of this receptor that may influence the function of this area.
Literature context: ch T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Ms-anti-Me
During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local translation.
Literature context: (DM1A) Sigma-Aldrich Cat#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse monoclonal anti-GAPDH (6C
Conflicts between transcription and replication are a potent source of DNA damage. Co-transcriptional R-loops could aggravate such conflicts by creating an additional barrier to replication fork progression. Here, we use a defined episomal system to investigate how conflict orientation and R-loop formation influence genome stability in human cells. R-loops, but not normal transcription complexes, induce DNA breaks and orientation-specific DNA damage responses during conflicts with replication forks. Unexpectedly, the replisome acts as an orientation-dependent regulator of R-loop levels, reducing R-loops in the co-directional (CD) orientation but promoting their formation in the head-on (HO) orientation. Replication stress and deregulated origin firing increase the number of HO collisions leading to genome-destabilizing R-loops. Our findings connect DNA replication to R-loop homeostasis and suggest a mechanistic basis for genome instability resulting from deregulated DNA replication, observed in cancer and other disease states.
Literature context: (T9026); RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit Anti-pLLGL1/2(S650/S654)
The conserved polarity effector proteins PAR-3, PAR-6, CDC-42, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) form a core unit of the PAR protein network, which plays a central role in polarizing a broad range of animal cell types. To functionally polarize cells, these proteins must activate aPKC within a spatially defined membrane domain on one side of the cell in response to symmetry-breaking cues. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote as a model, we find that the localization and activation of aPKC involve distinct, specialized aPKC-containing assemblies: a PAR-3-dependent assembly that responds to polarity cues and promotes efficient segregation of aPKC toward the anterior but holds aPKC in an inactive state, and a CDC-42-dependent assembly in which aPKC is active but poorly segregated. Cycling of aPKC between these distinct functional assemblies, which appears to depend on aPKC activity, effectively links cue-sensing and effector roles within the PAR network to ensure robust establishment of polarity.
Literature context: at#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Anti-GFAP
Glioblastomas exhibit a hierarchical cellular organization, suggesting that they are driven by neoplastic stem cells that retain partial yet abnormal differentiation potential. Here, we show that a large subset of patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) express high levels of Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1), a proneural transcription factor involved in normal neurogenesis. ASCL1hi GSCs exhibit a latent capacity for terminal neuronal differentiation in response to inhibition of Notch signaling, whereas ASCL1lo GSCs do not. Increasing ASCL1 levels in ASCL1lo GSCs restores neuronal lineage potential, promotes terminal differentiation, and attenuates tumorigenicity. ASCL1 mediates these effects by functioning as a pioneer factor at closed chromatin, opening new sites to activate a neurogenic gene expression program. Directing GSCs toward terminal differentiation may provide therapeutic applications for a subset of GBM patients and strongly supports efforts to restore differentiation potential in GBM and other cancers.
Literature context: T9026Â Mouse, monoclonalÂ 1:5000Â AB_477593Â Anti-mouse IgGÂ NAÂ Peroxidase Aff
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators. Based on RNA sequencing and protein-protein interaction analyses of human islets exposed to proinflammatory cytokines, we identified complement C3 as a hub for some of the effects of cytokines. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β plus interferon-γ increase C3 expression in rodent and human pancreatic β-cells, and C3 is detected by histology in and around the islets of diabetic patients. Surprisingly, C3 silencing exacerbates apoptosis under both basal condition and following exposure to cytokines, and it increases chemokine expression upon cytokine treatment. C3 exerts its prosurvival effects via AKT activation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Exogenously added C3 also protects against cytokine-induced β-cell death and partially rescues the deleterious effects of inhibition of endogenous C3. These data suggest that locally produced C3 is an important prosurvival mechanism in pancreatic β-cells under a proinflammatory assault.
Literature context: iesMouse anti-FLAGSigmaCat#F1804Mouse anti-TubulinSigmaCat#T9026Rabbit anti-GFPAbc
Axon degeneration is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease and neural injury. Axotomy activates an intrinsic pro-degenerative axon death signaling cascade involving loss of the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme Nmnat/Nmnat2 in axons, activation of dSarm/Sarm1, and subsequent Sarm-dependent depletion of NAD+. Here we identify Axundead (Axed) as a mediator of axon death. axed mutants suppress axon death in several types of axons for the lifespan of the fly and block the pro-degenerative effects of activated dSarm in vivo. Neurodegeneration induced by loss of the sole fly Nmnat ortholog is also fully blocked by axed, but not dsarm, mutants. Thus, pro-degenerative pathways activated by dSarm signaling or Nmnat elimination ultimately converge on Axed. Remarkably, severed axons morphologically preserved by axon death pathway mutations remain integrated in circuits and able to elicit complex behaviors after stimulation, indicating that blockade of axon death signaling results in long-term functional preservation of axons.
Literature context: at#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 CD14 Micro
Hypoxia augments inflammatory responses and osteoclastogenesis by incompletely understood mechanisms. We identified COMMD1 as a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis that is suppressed by hypoxia. In human macrophages, COMMD1 restrained induction of NF-κB signaling and a transcription factor E2F1-dependent metabolic pathway by the cytokine RANKL. Downregulation of COMMD1 protein expression by hypoxia augmented RANKL-induced expression of inflammatory and E2F1 target genes and downstream osteoclastogenesis. E2F1 targets included glycolysis and metabolic genes including CKB that enabled cells to meet metabolic demands in challenging environments, as well as inflammatory cytokine-driven target genes. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis linked increased COMMD1 expression with decreased bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis. Myeloid deletion of Commd1 resulted in increased osteoclastogenesis in arthritis and inflammatory osteolysis models. These results identify COMMD1 and an E2F-metabolic pathway as key regulators of osteoclastogenic responses under pathological inflammatory conditions and provide a mechanism by which hypoxia augments inflammation and bone destruction.
Literature context: at#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 FITC conju
Non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) direct microtubule (MT) organization to exert diverse cell-type-specific functions. In Drosophila spermatids, the giant mitochondria provide structural platforms for MT reorganization to support elongation of the extremely long sperm. However, the molecular basis for this mitochondrial MTOC and other non-centrosomal MTOCs has not been discerned. Here we report that Drosophila centrosomin (cnn) expresses two major protein variants: the centrosomal form (CnnC) and a non-centrosomal form in testes (CnnT). CnnC is established as essential for functional centrosomes, the major MTOCs in animal cells. We show that CnnT is expressed exclusively in testes by alternative splicing and localizes to giant mitochondria in spermatids. In cell culture, CnnT targets to the mitochondrial surface, recruits the MT nucleator γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC), and is sufficient to convert mitochondria to MTOCs independent of core pericentriolar proteins that regulate MT assembly at centrosomes. We mapped two separate domains in CnnT: one that is necessary and sufficient to target it to mitochondria and another that is necessary and sufficient to recruit γ-TuRCs and nucleate MTs. In elongating spermatids, CnnT forms speckles on the giant mitochondria that are required to recruit γ-TuRCs to organize MTs and support spermiogenesis. This molecular characterization of the mitochondrial MTOC defines a minimal molecular requirement for MTOC generation and implicates the potent role of Cnn (or its related) proteins in the direct regulation of MT assembly and organization of non-centrosomal MTOCs.
Literature context: ma T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Anti-MYOD
UPF1 is an RNA helicase that orchestrates nonsense-mediated decay and other RNA surveillance pathways. While UPF1 is best known for its basal cytoprotective role in degrading aberrant RNAs, UPF1 also degrades specific, normally occurring mRNAs to regulate diverse cellular processes. Here we describe a role for UPF1 in regulated protein decay, wherein UPF1 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to repress human skeletal muscle differentiation. Suppressing UPF1 accelerates myogenesis, while ectopically increasing UPF1 levels slows myogenesis. UPF1 promotes the decay of MYOD protein, a transcription factor that is a master regulator of myogenesis, while leaving MYOD mRNA stability unaffected. UPF1 acts as an E3 ligase via its RING domain to promote MYOD protein ubiquitination and degradation. Our data characterize a regulatory role for UPF1 in myogenesis, and they demonstrate that UPF1 provides a mechanistic link between the RNA and protein decay machineries in human cells.
Literature context: t# T9026, RRID:AB_477593 5 mouse mo
Glycogenin is considered essential for glycogen synthesis, as it acts as a primer for the initiation of the polysaccharide chain. Against expectations, glycogenin-deficient mice (Gyg KO) accumulate high amounts of glycogen in striated muscle. Furthermore, this glycogen contains no covalently bound protein, thereby demonstrating that a protein primer is not strictly necessary for the synthesis of the polysaccharide in vivo. Strikingly, in spite of the higher glycogen content, Gyg KO mice showed lower resting energy expenditure and less resistance than control animals when subjected to endurance exercise. These observations can be attributed to a switch of oxidative myofibers toward glycolytic metabolism. Mice overexpressing glycogen synthase in the muscle showed similar alterations, thus indicating that this switch is caused by the excess of glycogen. These results may explain the muscular defects of GSD XV patients, who lack glycogenin-1 and show high glycogen accumulation in muscle.
Literature context: t# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 chicken an
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). After NEB, the conserved polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) sequentially enriches Rok and Protein Kinase N (Pkn) on the apical neuroblast cortex. Our data suggest that apical Rok first increases phospho-Myosin, followed by Pkn-mediated Myosin downregulation, possibly through Rok inhibition. We propose that polarity-induced spatiotemporal control of Rok and Pkn is important for unequal cortical expansion, ensuring correct cleavage furrow positioning and the establishment of physical asymmetry.
Literature context: g #T9026, RRID:AB_477593), ERK1/2 (
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntington protein (htt). The neuropathological hallmark of HD is the loss of neurons in the striatum and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex. Foxp1 is a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors expressed selectively in the striatum and the cortex. In the brain, three major Foxp1 isoforms are expressed: isoform-A (∼90 kDa), isoform-D (∼70 kDa), and isoform-C (∼50 kDa). We find that expression of Foxp1 isoform-A and -D is selectively reduced in the striatum and cortex of R6/2 HD mice as well as in the striatum of HD patients. Furthermore, expression of mutant htt in neurons results in the downregulation of Foxp1 Elevating expression of isoform-A or -D protects cortical neurons from death caused by the expression of mutant htt On the other hand, knockdown of Foxp1 promotes death in otherwise healthy neurons. Neuroprotection by Foxp1 is likely to be mediated by the transcriptional stimulation of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p21Waf1/Cip1 Consistently, Foxp1 activates transcription of the p21Waf1/Cip1 gene promoter, and overexpression of Foxp1 in neurons results in the elevation of p21 expression. Moreover, knocking down of p21Waf1/Cip1 blocks the ability of Foxp1 to protect neurons from mut-Htt-induced neurotoxicity. We propose that the selective vulnerability of neurons of the striatum and cortex in HD is related to the loss of expression of Foxp1, a protein that is highly expressed in these neurons and required for their survival.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the mutant huntingtin gene is expressed widely, neurons of the striatum and cortex are selectively affected in Huntington's disease (HD). Our results suggest that this selectivity is attributable to the reduced expression of Foxp1, a protein expressed selectively in striatal and cortical neurons that plays a neuroprotective role in these cells. We show that protection by Foxp1 involves stimulation of the p21Waf1/Cip1 (Cdkn1a) gene. Although three major Foxp1 isoforms (A, C, and D) are expressed in the brain, only isoform-A has been studied in the nervous system. We show that isoform-D is also expressed selectively, neuroprotective and downregulated in HD mice and patients. Our results suggest that Foxp1 might be an attractive therapeutic target for HD.
Literature context: y (Sigma, RRID:AB_477593) were used
The maintenance of a constant ATP level ('set-point') is a vital homeostatic function shared by eukaryotic cells. In particular, mammalian myocardium exquisitely safeguards its ATP set-point despite 10-fold fluctuations in cardiac workload. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this regulation of ATP homeostasis remain elusive. Here we show mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes), recently discovered dynamic activity of mitochondria, play an essential role for the auto-regulation of ATP set-point in the heart. Specifically, mitoflashes negatively regulate ATP production in isolated respiring mitochondria and, their activity waxes and wanes to counteract the ATP supply-demand imbalance caused by superfluous substrate and altered workload in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, manipulating mitoflash activity is sufficient to inversely shift the otherwise stable ATP set-point. Mechanistically, the Bcl-xL-regulated proton leakage through F1Fo-ATP synthase appears to mediate the coupling between mitoflash production and ATP set-point regulation. These findings indicate mitoflashes appear to constitute a digital auto-regulator for ATP homeostasis in the heart.
Literature context: igma Cat. No. T9026; RRID:AB_477593 AlexaFluor-conjugated secondarie
Vertebrate centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the three-protein Mis18 complex (Mis18α, Mis18β, and M18BP1) that recruits the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres, but how the Mis18 complex recognizes centromeric chromatin is unknown. Using Xenopus egg extract, we show that direct, cell-cycle-regulated binding of M18BP1 to CENP-A nucleosomes recruits the Mis18 complex to interphase centromeres to promote new CENP-A nucleosome assembly. We demonstrate that Xenopus M18BP1 binds CENP-A nucleosomes using a motif that is widely conserved except in mammals. The M18BP1 motif resembles a CENP-A nucleosome binding motif in CENP-C, and we show that CENP-C competes with M18BP1 for CENP-A nucleosome binding at centromeres. We show that both CENP-C and M18BP1 recruit HJURP to centromeres for new CENP-A assembly. This study defines cellular mechanisms for recruiting CENP-A assembly factors to existing CENP-A nucleosomes for the epigenetic inheritance of centromeres.
Literature context: at#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit pol
Highly conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein complexes direct both the assembly of primary cilia and the trafficking of signaling molecules. IFT complexes initially accumulate at the base of the cilium and periodically enter the cilium, suggesting an as-yet-unidentified mechanism that triggers ciliary entry of IFT complexes. Using affinity-purification and mass spectrometry of interactors of the centrosomal and ciliopathy protein, CEP19, we identify CEP350, FOP, and the RABL2B GTPase as proteins organizing the first known mechanism directing ciliary entry of IFT complexes. We discover that CEP19 is recruited to the ciliary base by the centriolar CEP350/FOP complex and then specifically captures GTP-bound RABL2B, which is activated via its intrinsic nucleotide exchange. Activated RABL2B then captures and releases its single effector, the intraflagellar transport B holocomplex, from the large pool of pre-docked IFT-B complexes, and thus initiates ciliary entry of IFT.
Literature context: t# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Streptavid
Association of aberrant glycosylation with melanoma progression is based mainly on analyses of cell lines. Here we present a systems-based study of glycomic changes and corresponding enzymes associated with melanoma metastasis in patient samples. Upregulation of core fucosylation (FUT8) and downregulation of α-1,2 fucosylation (FUT1, FUT2) were identified as features of metastatic melanoma. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate FUT8 is a driver of melanoma metastasis which, when silenced, suppresses invasion and tumor dissemination. Glycoprotein targets of FUT8 were enriched in cell migration proteins including the adhesion molecule L1CAM. Core fucosylation impacted L1CAM cleavage and the ability of L1CAM to support melanoma invasion. FUT8 and its targets represent therapeutic targets in melanoma metastasis.
Literature context: t# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Anti-Î²-amy
The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model. ERAD activity in the brain decreased with aging, and upregulation of EDEMs suppressed age-dependent behavioral decline and extended the lifespan without affecting the UPR gene expression network. Intriguingly, EDEM mannosidase activity was dispensable for these protective effects. Therefore, upregulation of EDEM function in the ERAD protects against ER proteinopathy in vivo and thus represents a potential therapeutic target for chronic diseases.
Literature context: #T9026Â Mouse; monoclonalÂ 1/5000Â AB_477593Â CHOPÂ GADD 153 antibody (B-3)Â Sa
Deficient as well as excessive/prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling can lead to pancreatic β cell failure and the development of diabetes. Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) such as palmitate induce lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic β cells. One of the main ER stress response pathways is under the control of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), leading to phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). The antihypertensive drug guanabenz has been shown to inhibit eIF2α dephosphorylation and protect cells from ER stress. Here we examined whether guanabenz protects pancreatic β cells from lipotoxicity. Guanabenz induced β cell dysfunction in vitro and in vivo in rodents and led to impaired glucose tolerance. The drug significantly potentiated FFA-induced cell death in clonal rat β cells and in rat and human islets. Guanabenz enhanced FFA-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and expression of the downstream proapoptotic gene C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which mediated the sensitization to lipotoxicity. Thus, guanabenz does not protect β cells from ER stress; instead, it potentiates lipotoxic ER stress through PERK/eIF2α/CHOP signaling. These data demonstrate the crucial importance of the tight regulation of eIF2α phosphorylation for the normal function and survival of pancreatic β cells.
Literature context: ch T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse mono
Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer.
Literature context: at# T9026 RRID:AB_477593) and anti-
Mitotic chromosome assembly remains a big mystery in biology. Condensin complexes are pivotal for chromosome architecture yet how they shape mitotic chromatin remains unknown. Using acute inactivation approaches and live-cell imaging in Drosophila embryos, we dissect the role of condensin I in the maintenance of mitotic chromosome structure with unprecedented temporal resolution. Removal of condensin I from pre-established chromosomes results in rapid disassembly of centromeric regions while most chromatin mass undergoes hyper-compaction. This is accompanied by drastic changes in the degree of sister chromatid intertwines. While wild-type metaphase chromosomes display residual levels of catenations, upon timely removal of condensin I, chromosomes present high levels of de novo Topoisomerase II (TopoII)-dependent re-entanglements, and complete failure in chromosome segregation. TopoII is thus capable of re-intertwining previously separated DNA molecules and condensin I continuously required to counteract this erroneous activity. We propose that maintenance of chromosome resolution is a highly dynamic bidirectional process.
Literature context: CTURNINPrepared by C.B. GreenN/AMouse Monoclonal Anti-Î±-TubulinSigma-AldrichCat# T9026Î’-cateninBD BiosciencesCat#61015
The liver plays a pivotal role in metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification, processes that must be particularly efficient when animals are active and feed. A major question is how the liver adapts to these diurnal changes in physiology. Here, we show that, in mice, liver mass, hepatocyte size, and protein levels follow a daily rhythm, whose amplitude depends on both feeding-fasting and light-dark cycles. Correlative evidence suggests that the daily oscillation in global protein accumulation depends on a similar fluctuation in ribosome number. Whereas rRNA genes are transcribed at similar rates throughout the day, some newly synthesized rRNAs are polyadenylated and degraded in the nucleus in a robustly diurnal fashion with a phase opposite to that of ribosomal protein synthesis. Based on studies with cultured fibroblasts, we propose that rRNAs not packaged into complete ribosomal subunits are polyadenylated by the poly(A) polymerase PAPD5 and degraded by the nuclear exosome.
Literature context: at# T9026 RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit Ant
Aberrant WNT signaling drives colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we identify TIAM1 as a critical antagonist of CRC progression through inhibiting TAZ and YAP, effectors of WNT signaling. We demonstrate that TIAM1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus antagonizing TAZ/YAP by distinct mechanisms in the two compartments. In the cytoplasm, TIAM1 localizes to the destruction complex and promotes TAZ degradation by enhancing its interaction with βTrCP. Nuclear TIAM1 suppresses TAZ/YAP interaction with TEADs, inhibiting expression of TAZ/YAP target genes implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion, and consequently suppresses CRC cell migration and invasion. Importantly, high nuclear TIAM1 in clinical specimens associates with increased CRC patient survival. Together, our findings suggest that in CRC TIAM1 suppresses tumor progression by regulating YAP/TAZ activity.
Literature context: -Aldrich, RRID:AB_477593) used at 1
Faithfull genome partitioning during cell division relies on the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC), a conserved signaling pathway that delays anaphase onset until all chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules. Mps1 kinase is an upstream SAC regulator that promotes the assembly of an anaphase inhibitor through a sequential multi-target phosphorylation cascade. Thus, the SAC is highly responsive to Mps1, whose activity peaks in early mitosis as a result of its T-loop autophosphorylation. However, the mechanism controlling Mps1 inactivation once kinetochores attach to microtubules and the SAC is satisfied remains unknown. Here we show in vitro and in Drosophila that Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) inactivates Mps1 by dephosphorylating its T-loop. PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of Mps1 occurs at kinetochores and in the cytosol, and inactivation of both pools of Mps1 during metaphase is essential to ensure prompt and efficient SAC silencing. Overall, our findings uncover a mechanism of SAC inactivation required for timely mitotic exit.
Literature context: ma T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Anti-Actin
The spindle and kinetochore-associated (Ska) protein complex is required for accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis [1-6] and consists of two copies each of Ska1, Ska2, and Ska3 proteins [4, 7]. The Ska complex contains multiple microtubule-binding elements and promotes kinetochore-microtubule attachment [8-11]. The Ska1 C-terminal domain (CTD) recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to kinetochores to promote timely anaphase onset . The Ska complex regulates, and is regulated by, Aurora B . Aurora B phosphorylates both Ska1 and Ska3 to inhibit the kinetochore localization of the Ska complex . Despite its multitude of functions at kinetochores, how the Ska complex itself is recruited to kinetochores is unclear. It is unknown whether any mitotic kinases positively regulate the localization of the Ska complex to kinetochores. Here, we show that Cdk1 phosphorylates Ska3 to promote its direct binding to the Ndc80 complex (Ndc80C), a core outer kinetochore component. We also show that this phosphorylation occurs specifically during mitosis and is required for the kinetochore localization of the Ska complex. Ska3 mutants deficient in Cdk1 phosphorylation are defective in kinetochore localization but retain microtubule localization. These mutants support chromosome alignment but delay anaphase onset. We propose that Ska3 phosphorylated by Cdk1 in mitosis binds to Ndc80C and recruits the Ska complex to kinetochores where Ska1 can bind both PP1 and microtubules to promote anaphase onset.
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is thought to regulate behavioral responses under emotionally arousing conditions. Reward-associated cues activate PVT neurons; however, the specific PVT efferents regulating reward seeking remain elusive. Using a cued sucrose-seeking task, we manipulated PVT activity under two emotionally distinct conditions: (1) when reward was available during the cue as expected or (2) when reward was unexpectedly omitted during the cue. Pharmacological inactivation of the anterior PVT (aPVT), but not the posterior PVT, increased sucrose seeking only when reward was omitted. Consistent with this, photoactivation of aPVT neurons abolished sucrose seeking, and the firing of aPVT neurons differentiated reward availability. Photoinhibition of aPVT projections to the nucleus accumbens or to the amygdala increased or decreased, respectively, sucrose seeking only when reward was omitted. Our findings suggest that PVT bidirectionally modulates sucrose seeking under the negative (frustrative) conditions of reward omission.
Literature context: t# T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Mouse Mono
Aging is attended by a progressive decline in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), aggravating the risk for protein aggregation diseases. To understand the coordination between proteome imbalance and longevity, we addressed the mechanistic role of the quality-control ubiquitin ligase CHIP, which is a key regulator of proteostasis. We observed that CHIP deficiency leads to increased levels of the insulin receptor (INSR) and reduced lifespan of worms and flies. The membrane-bound INSR regulates the insulin and IGF1 signaling (IIS) pathway and thereby defines metabolism and aging. INSR is a direct target of CHIP, which triggers receptor monoubiquitylation and endocytic-lysosomal turnover to promote longevity. However, upon proteotoxic stress conditions and during aging, CHIP is recruited toward disposal of misfolded proteins, reducing its capacity to degrade the INSR. Our study indicates a competitive relationship between proteostasis and longevity regulation through CHIP-assisted proteolysis, providing a mechanistic concept for understanding the impact of proteome imbalance on aging.
Literature context: -Aldrich, RRID:AB_477593), respecti
Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain. However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive. Here, we use a Tph2fl°x conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line to assess the impact of serotonin depletion during adulthood on serotonergic system organization. Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion. Strikingly, these defects are rescued following reestablishment of brain 5-HT signaling via administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). Finally, 3D reconstruction of serotonergic fibers reveals that changes in serotonin homeostasis affect axonal branching complexity. These data demonstrate that maintaining proper serotonin homeostasis in the adult brain is crucial to preserve the correct serotonergic axonal wiring.
Telomeres employ TRF2 to protect chromosome ends from activating the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), thereby repressing ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. How TRF2 prevents MRN activation at dysfunctional telomeres is unclear. Here, we show that the phosphorylation status of NBS1 determines the repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres. The crystal structure of the TRF2-NBS1 complex at 3.0 Å resolution shows that the NBS1 429YQLSP433 motif interacts specifically with the TRF2TRFH domain. Phosphorylation of NBS1 serine 432 by CDK2 in S/G2 dissociates NBS1 from TRF2, promoting TRF2-Apollo/SNM1B complex formation and the protection of leading-strand telomeres. Classical-NHEJ-mediated repair of telomeres lacking TRF2 requires phosphorylated NBS1S432 to activate ATM, while interaction of de-phosphorylated NBS1S432 with TRF2 promotes alternative-NHEJ repair of telomeres lacking POT1-TPP1. Our work advances understanding of how the TRF2TRFH domain orchestrates telomere end protection and reveals how the phosphorylation status of the NBS1S432 dictates repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres.
Literature context: 092M4792, RRID:AB_477593, 1:400,000
Synaptic activity drives changes in gene expression to promote long lasting adaptations of neuronal structure and function. One example of such an adaptive response is the buildup of acquired neuroprotection, a synaptic activity- and gene transcription-mediated increase in the resistance of neurons against harmful conditions. A hallmark of acquired neuroprotection is the stabilization of mitochondrial structure and function. We therefore re-examined previously identified sets of synaptic activity-regulated genes to identify genes that are directly linked to mitochondrial function. In mouse and rat primary hippocampal cultures, synaptic activity caused an up-regulation of glycolytic genes and a concomitant down-regulation of genes required for oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintenance. Changes in metabolic gene expression were induced by action potential bursting, but not by glutamate bath application activating extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. The specific and coordinate pattern of gene expression changes suggested that synaptic activity promotes a shift of neuronal energy metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation toward aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. The ability of neurons to up-regulate glycolysis has, however, been debated. We therefore used FACS sorting to show that, in mixed neuron glia co-cultures, activity-dependent regulation of metabolic gene expression occurred in neurons. Changes in gene expression were accompanied by changes in the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the key metabolic enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase. Finally, increased synaptic activity caused an increase in the ratio of l-lactate production to oxygen consumption in primary hippocampal cultures. Based on these data we suggest the existence of a synaptic activity-mediated neuronal Warburg effect that may promote mitochondrial homeostasis and neuroprotection.
Literature context: -Aldrich; RRID:AB_477593), IRDye 68
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in rodent models of Parkinson's disease and restores DA circuitry when delivered after these neurons have begun to degenerate. These DA neurons have been suggested to transport striatal CDNF retrogradely to the substantia nigra (SN). However, in cultured cells the binding and internalization of extracellular CDNF has not been reported. The first aim of this study was to examine the cellular localization and pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant human CDNF (rhCDNF) protein after its infusion into rat brain parenchyma. Second, we aimed to study whether the transport of rhCDNF from the striatum to the SN results from its retrograde transport via DA neurons or from its anterograde transport via striatal GABAergic projection neurons. We show that after intrastriatal infusion, rhCDNF diffuses rapidly and broadly, and is cleared with a half-life of 5.5 h. Confocal microscopy analysis of brain sections at 2 and 6 h after infusion of rhCDNF revealed its widespread unspecific internalization by cortical and striatal neurons, exhibiting different patterns of subcellular rhCDNF distribution. Electron microscopy analysis showed that rhCDNF is present inside the endosomes and multivesicular bodies. In addition, we present data that after intrastriatal infusion the rhCDNF found in the SN is almost exclusively localized to the DA neurons, thus showing that it is retrogradely transported.
Literature context: t# T9026, RRID:AB_477593 Mouse mono
Loss of ER Ca2+ homeostasis triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives ER-PM contact sites formation in order to refill ER-luminal Ca2+. Recent studies suggest that the ER stress sensor and mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) PERK regulates intracellular Ca2+ fluxes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID), we identified the actin-binding protein Filamin A (FLNA) as a key PERK interactor. Cells lacking PERK accumulate F-actin at the cell edges and display reduced ER-PM contacts. Following ER-Ca2+ store depletion, the PERK-FLNA interaction drives the expansion of ER-PM juxtapositions by regulating F-actin-assisted relocation of the ER-associated tethering proteins Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) and Extended Synaptotagmin-1 (E-Syt1) to the PM. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation elicits rapid and UPR-independent PERK dimerization, which enforces PERK-FLNA-mediated ER-PM juxtapositions. Collectively, our data unravel an unprecedented role of PERK in the regulation of ER-PM appositions through the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
Literature context: #: T9026, RRID:AB_477593 Mouse mono
Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission by functioning as ligand-gated ion channels. Fast inhibitory transmission in the brain is mediated mostly by ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), but their essential components for synaptic localization remain unknown. Here, we identify putative auxiliary subunits of GABAARs, which we term GARLHs, consisting of LH4 and LH3 proteins. LH4 forms a stable tripartite complex with GABAARs and neuroligin-2 in the brain. Moreover, LH4 is required for the synaptic localization of GABAARs and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Our findings propose GARLHs as the first identified auxiliary subunits for anion channels. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of inhibitory transmission and the molecular constituents of native anion channels in vivo.
Literature context: 026-.5ML; RRID:AB_477593 Centrin2 C
Defining the genes that are essential for cellular proliferation is critical for understanding organismal development and identifying high-value targets for disease therapies. However, the requirements for cell-cycle progression in human cells remain incompletely understood. To elucidate the consequences of acute and chronic elimination of cell-cycle proteins, we generated and characterized inducible CRISPR/Cas9 knockout human cell lines targeting 209 genes involved in diverse cell-cycle processes. We performed single-cell microscopic analyses to systematically establish the effects of the knockouts on subcellular architecture. To define variations in cell-cycle requirements between cultured cell lines, we generated knockouts across cell lines of diverse origins. We demonstrate that p53 modulates the phenotype of specific cell-cycle defects through distinct mechanisms, depending on the defect. This work provides a resource to broadly facilitate robust and long-term depletion of cell-cycle proteins and reveals insights into the requirements for cell-cycle progression.
Literature context: , 1/5000, RRID:AB_477593), GAPDH (S
Squamous cell carcinomas occurring at transition zones are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis. The identity of the cell population and the signaling pathways involved in the progression of transition zone squamous cell carcinoma are poorly understood, hence representing limited options for targeted therapies. Here, we identify a highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell population in a mouse model of transitional epithelial carcinoma and uncover a novel mechanism by which loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) mediates invasion and metastasis through de-repression of ELMO1, a RAC-activating guanine exchange factor, specifically in cancer stem cells of transition zone tumors. We identify ELMO1 as a novel target of TGFβ signaling and show that restoration of Tgfbr2 results in a complete block of ELMO1 in vivo. Knocking down Elmo1 impairs metastasis of carcinoma cells to the lung, thereby providing insights into the mechanisms of progression of Tgfbr2-deficient invasive transition zone squamous cell carcinoma.
Literature context: lonal antibody (clone DM1A)SigmaCat#T9026mouse anti-BrdU monoclonal antib
Mutations in mtDNA lead to muscular and neurological diseases and are linked to aging. The most frequent aberrancy is the "common deletion" that involves a 4,977-bp region flanked by 13-bp repeats. To investigate the basis of this deletion, we developed a single-molecule mtDNA combing method. The analysis of replicating mtDNA molecules provided in vivo evidence in support of the asymmetric mode of replication. Furthermore, we observed frequent fork stalling at the junction of the common deletion, suggesting that impaired replication triggers the formation of this toxic lesion. In parallel experiments, we employed mito-TALENs to induce breaks in distinct loci of the mitochondrial genome and found that breaks adjacent to the 5' repeat trigger the common deletion. Interestingly, this process was mediated by the mitochondrial replisome independent of canonical DSB repair. Altogether, our data underscore a unique replication-dependent repair pathway that leads to the mitochondrial common deletion.
Literature context: at#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit pol
The life cycle of a primary cilium begins in quiescence and ends prior to mitosis. In quiescent cells, the primary cilium insulates itself from contiguous dynamic membrane processes on the cell surface to function as a stable signaling apparatus. Here, we demonstrate that basal restriction of ciliary structure dynamics is established by the cilia-enriched phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase, Inpp5e. Growth induction displaces ciliary Inpp5e and accumulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in distal cilia. This change triggers otherwise-forbidden actin polymerization in primary cilia, which excises cilia tips in a process we call cilia decapitation. While cilia disassembly is traditionally thought to occur solely through resorption, we show that an acute loss of IFT-B through cilia decapitation precedes resorption. Finally, we propose that cilia decapitation induces mitogenic signaling and constitutes a molecular link between the cilia life cycle and cell-division cycle. This newly defined ciliary mechanism may find significance in cell proliferation control during normal development and cancer.
Literature context: t# T9026, RRID:AB_477593) overnight
In 2015, as part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Chroscinski et al., 2014) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper "Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations" (Berger et al., 2012). Here we report the results of those experiments. We regenerated cells stably expressing ectopic wild-type and mutant phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2 (PREX2) using the same immortalized human NRASG12D melanocytes as the original study. Evaluation of PREX2 expression in these newly generated stable cells revealed varying levels of expression among the PREX2 isoforms, which was also observed in the stable cells made in the original study (Figure S6A; Berger et al., 2012). Additionally, ectopically expressed PREX2 was found to be at least 5 times above endogenous PREX2 expression. The monitoring of tumor formation of these stable cells in vivo resulted in no statistically significant difference in tumor-free survival driven by PREX2 variants, whereas the original study reported that these PREX2 mutations increased the rate of tumor incidence compared to controls (Figure 3B and S6B; Berger et al., 2012). Surprisingly, the median tumor-free survival was 1 week in this replication attempt, while 70% of the control mice were reported to be tumor-free after 9 weeks in the original study. The rapid tumor onset observed in this replication attempt, compared to the original study, makes the detection of accelerated tumor growth in PREX2 expressing NRASG12D melanocytes extremely difficult. Finally, we report meta-analyses for each result.
Literature context: h, T9026, RRID:AB_477593), rabbit a
In this study we provide evidence that the spindle matrix protein Skeletor in Drosophila interacts with the human ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) ortholog, Digitor/dASCIZ. This interaction was first detected in a yeast two-hybrid screen and subsequently confirmed by pull-down assays. We also confirm a previously documented function of Digitor/dASCIZ as a regulator of Dynein light chain/Cut up expression. Using transgenic expression of a mCitrine-labeled Digitor construct, we show that Digitor/dASCIZ is a nuclear protein that is localized to interband and developmental puff chromosomal regions during interphase but redistributes to the spindle region during mitosis. Its mitotic localization and physical interaction with Skeletor suggest the possibility that Digitor/dASCIZ plays a direct role in mitotic progression as a member of the spindle matrix complex. Furthermore, we have characterized a P-element insertion that is likely to be a true null Digitor/dASCIZ allele resulting in complete pupal lethality when homozygous, indicating that Digitor/dASCIZ is an essential gene. Phenotypic analysis of the mutant provided evidence that Digitor/dASCIZ plays critical roles in regulation of metamorphosis and organogenesis as well as in the DNA damage response. In the Digitor/dASCIZ null mutant larvae there was greatly elevated levels of γH2Av, indicating accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks. Furthermore, reduced levels of Digitor/dASCIZ decreased the resistance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress resulting in increased mortality in a stress test paradigm. We show that an early developmental consequence of the absence of Digitor/dASCIZ is reduced third instar larval brain size although overall larval development appeared otherwise normal at this stage. While Digitor/dASCIZ mutant larvae initiate pupation, all mutant pupae failed to eclose and exhibited various defects in metamorphosis such as impaired differentiation, incomplete disc eversion, and faulty apoptosis. Altogether we provide evidence that Digitor/dASCIZ is a nuclear protein that performs multiple roles in Drosophila larval and pupal development.
Literature context: -Aldrich, RRID:AB_477593). For immn
Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods. Our results show that designed inhibitors can be generated for each member of a closely-knit protein family to probe the importance of specific protein-protein interactions in complex biological processes.
Literature context: t# T9026, RRID:AB_477593).
Via whole-exome sequencing, we identified rare autosomal-recessive variants in UBA5 in five children from four unrelated families affected with a similar pattern of severe intellectual deficiency, microcephaly, movement disorders, and/or early-onset intractable epilepsy. UBA5 encodes the E1-activating enzyme of ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1), a recently identified ubiquitin-like protein. Biochemical studies of mutant UBA5 proteins and studies in fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed that UBA5 mutations impair the process of ufmylation, resulting in an abnormal endoplasmic reticulum structure. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockout of uba-5 and of human orthologous genes in the UFM1 cascade alter cholinergic, but not glutamatergic, neurotransmission. In addition, uba5 silencing in zebrafish decreased motility while inducing abnormal movements suggestive of seizures. These clinical, biochemical, and experimental findings support our finding of UBA5 mutations as a pathophysiological cause for early-onset encephalopathies due to abnormal protein ufmylation.
Literature context: at#T9026; RRID:AB_477593 Rabbit pol
Hundreds of human cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) modify thousands of proteins with ubiquitin (UB) to achieve vast regulation. Current dogma posits that CRLs first catalyze UB transfer from an E2 to their client substrates and subsequent polyubiquitylation from various linkage-specific E2s. We report an alternative E3-E3 tagging cascade: many cellular NEDD8-modified CRLs associate with a mechanistically distinct thioester-forming RBR-type E3, ARIH1, and rely on ARIH1 to directly add the first UB and, in some cases, multiple additional individual monoubiquitin modifications onto CRL client substrates. Our data define ARIH1 as a component of the human CRL system, demonstrate that ARIH1 can efficiently and specifically mediate monoubiquitylation of several CRL substrates, and establish principles for how two distinctive E3s can reciprocally control each other for simultaneous and joint regulation of substrate ubiquitylation. These studies have broad implications for CRL-dependent proteostasis and mechanisms of E3-mediated UB ligation.
Literature context: se antiâ€human Î±â€tubulin (Sigma #T9026) were used in this study. Guine
Amino acids regulate TOR complex 1 (TORC1) via two counteracting mechanisms, one activating and one inactivating. The presence of amino acids causes TORC1 recruitment to lysosomes where TORC1 is activated by binding Rheb. How the absence of amino acids inactivates TORC1 is less well understood. Amino acid starvation recruits the TSC1/TSC2 complex to the vicinity of TORC1 to inhibit Rheb; however, the upstream mechanisms regulating TSC2 are not known. We identify here the eIF4A-containing eIF4F translation initiation complex as an upstream regulator of TSC2 in response to amino acid withdrawal in Drosophila We find that TORC1 and translation preinitiation complexes bind each other. Cells lacking eIF4F components retain elevated TORC1 activity upon amino acid removal. This effect is specific for eIF4F and not a general consequence of blocked translation. This study identifies specific components of the translation machinery as important mediators of TORC1 inactivation upon amino acid removal.
Literature context: No. T9026 RRID:AB_477593; 1/1,000 i
Carbocyanines are fluorescent lipophilic cationic dyes used since the early 1980s as neuronal tracers. Several applications of these compounds have been developed thanks to their low cell toxicity, lateral diffusion within the cellular membranes, and good photostability. 1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate (DiD) is an interesting component of this family because, in addition to the classic carbocyanine properties, it has a longer wavelength compared with its analogues. That makes DiD an excellent carbocyanine for labeling cells and tissues with significant intrinsic fluorescence. Drug encapsulation, drug delivery, and cellular transplantation are also fields using DiD-based systems where having detailed knowledge about its behavior as a single entity is important. Recently, promising studies concerned neural stem cells from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the brain (their natural niche) and their potential therapeutic use. Here, we show that DiD is able to label these stem cells in vitro and present basilar information concerning its pharmacokinetics, concentrations, and microscope protocols. Moreover, when DiD is injected in vivo in the cerebrospinal fluid present in the lateral ventricle of rat, it also labels stem cells as well as myelinated structures of the caudoputamen. This analysis provides a database to consult when planning experiments concerning DiD and neural stem cells from the subventricular zone.
Literature context: ne: DM1A) RRID:AB_477593 1:200
The siphon of Aplysia californica has several functions, including involvement in respiration, excretion, and defensive inking. It also provides sensory input for defensive withdrawals that have been studied extensively to examine mechanisms that underlie learning. To better understand the neuronal bases of these functions, we used immunohistochemistry to catalogue peripheral cell types and innervation of the siphon in stage 12 juveniles (chosen to allow observation of tissues in whole-mounts). We found that the siphon nerve splits into three major branches, leading ultimately to a two-part FMRFamide-immunoreactive plexus and an apparently separate tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive plexus. Putative sensory neurons included four distinct types of tubulin-immunoreactive bipolar cells (one likely also tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive) that bore ciliated dendrites penetrating the epithelium. A fifth bipolar neuron type (tubulin- and FMRFamide-immunoreactive) occurred deeper in the tissue, associated with part of the FMRFamide-immunoreactive plexus. Our observations emphasize the structural complexity of the peripheral nervous system of the siphon, and the importance of direct tests of the various components to better understand the functioning of the entire organ, including its role in defensive withdrawal responses.
Literature context: t# T9026, RRID:AB_477593).
Horizontal cells in the mouse retina are of the axon-bearing B-type and contribute to the gain control of photoreceptors and to the center-surround organization of bipolar cells by providing feedback and feedforward signals to photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively. Horizontal cells form two independent networks, coupled by dendro-dendritic and axo-axonal gap junctions composed of connexin57 (Cx57). In Cx57-deficient mice, occasionally the residual tracer coupling of horizontal cell somata was observed. Also, negative feedback from horizontal cells to photoreceptors, potentially mediated by connexin hemichannels, appeared unaffected. These results point to the expression of a second connexin in mouse horizontal cells. We investigated the expression of Cx50, which was recently identified in axonless A-type horizontal cells of the rabbit retina. In the mouse retina, Cx50-immunoreactive puncta were predominantly localized on large axon terminals of horizontal cells. Electron microscopy did not reveal any Cx50-immunolabeling at the membrane of horizontal cell tips invaginating photoreceptor terminals, ruling out the involvement of Cx50 in negative feedback. Moreover, Cx50 colocalized only rarely with Cx57 on horizontal cell processes, indicating that both connexins form homotypic rather than heterotypic or heteromeric gap junctions. To check whether the expression of Cx50 is changed when Cx57 is lacking, we compared the Cx50 expression in wildtype and Cx57-deficient mice. However, Cx50 expression was unaffected in Cx57-deficient mice. In summary, our results indicate that horizontal cell axon terminals form two independent sets of homotypic gap junctions, a feature which might be important for light adaptation in the retina.
Literature context: i-V5 tagAntibodyInvitrogen451098Mouse anti-Î±-tubulin, clone DM1AAntibodySigma-AldrichT9026Mouse
The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Melanoma genome sequencing reveals frequent PREX2 mutations" by Berger and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Berger et al., 2012). The key experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figure 3B and Supplementary Figure S6. In these experiments, Berger and colleagues show that somatic PREX2 mutations identified through whole-genome sequencing of human melanoma can contribute to enhanced lethality of tumor xenografts in nude mice (Figure 3B, S6B, and S6C; Berger et al., 2012). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.
Literature context: [Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T9026 RRID:AB_477593] or rabbit polyclonal anti-GÎ² [
BACKGROUND: Assembly and disassembly of microtubules (MTs) is critical for neurite outgrowth and differentiation. Evidence suggests that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells by activating the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkA. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as heterotrimeric G proteins are also involved in regulating neurite outgrowth. However, the possible connection between these pathways and how they might ultimately converge to regulate the assembly and organization of MTs during neurite outgrowth is not well understood. RESULTS: Here, we report that Gβγ, an important component of the GPCR pathway, is critical for NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. We have found that NGF promoted the interaction of Gβγ with MTs and stimulated MT assembly. While Gβγ-sequestering peptide GRK2i inhibited neurite formation, disrupted MTs, and induced neurite damage, the Gβγ activator mSIRK stimulated neurite outgrowth, which indicates the involvement of Gβγ in this process. Because we have shown earlier that prenylation and subsequent methylation/demethylation of γ subunits are required for the Gβγ-MTs interaction in vitro, small-molecule inhibitors (L-28 and L-23) targeting prenylated methylated protein methyl esterase (PMPMEase) were tested in the current study. We found that these inhibitors disrupted Gβγ and ΜΤ organization and affected cellular morphology and neurite outgrowth. In further support of a role of Gβγ-MT interaction in neuronal differentiation, it was observed that overexpression of Gβγ in PC12 cells induced neurite outgrowth in the absence of added NGF. Moreover, overexpressed Gβγ exhibited a pattern of association with MTs similar to that observed in NGF-differentiated cells. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results demonstrate that βγ subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins play a critical role in neurite outgrowth and differentiation by interacting with MTs and modulating MT rearrangement.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis holds that alterations to homeostasis during critical periods of development can predispose individuals to adult-onset chronic diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It remains controversial whether preimplantation embryo manipulation, clinically used to treat patients with infertility, disturbs homeostasis and affects long-term growth and metabolism. To address this controversy, we have assessed the effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on postnatal physiology in mice. We demonstrate that IVF and embryo culture, even under conditions considered optimal for mouse embryo culture, alter postnatal growth trajectory, fat accumulation, and glucose metabolism in adult mice. Unbiased metabolic profiling in serum and microarray analysis of pancreatic islets and insulin sensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue) revealed broad changes in metabolic homeostasis, characterized by systemic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Adopting a candidate approach, we identify thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a key molecule involved in integrating cellular nutritional and oxidative states with metabolic response, as a marker for preimplantation stress and demonstrate tissue-specific epigenetic and transcriptional TXNIP misregulation in selected adult tissues. Importantly, dysregulation of TXNIP expression is associated with enrichment for H4 acetylation at the Txnip promoter that persists from the blastocyst stage through adulthood in adipose tissue. Our data support the vulnerability of preimplantation embryos to environmental disturbance and demonstrate that conception by IVF can reprogram metabolic homeostasis through metabolic, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms with lasting effects for adult growth and fitness. This study has wide clinical relevance and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of IVF-conceived offspring.
The role of cellular phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PtdIns5P), as a signalling molecule or as a substrate for the production of small, compartmentalized pools of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)], may be dependent on cell type and subcellular localization. PtdIns5P levels are primarily regulated by the PtdIns5P 4-kinases (type II PIP kinases or PIP4Ks), and we have investigated the expression and localization in the brain of the least-studied PIP4K isoform, PIP4Kgamma. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, using antisense oligonucleotide probes and a PIP4Kgamma-specific antibody, revealed that this isoform has a restricted CNS expression profile. The use of antibodies to different cell markers showed that this expression is limited to neurons, particularly the cerebellar Purkinje cells, pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, large neuronal cell types in the cerebral cortex including pyramidal cells, and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb and is not expressed in cerebellar, hippocampal formation, or olfactory bulb granule cells. In neurons expressing this enzyme, PIP4Kgamma has a vesicular distribution and shows partial colocalization with markers of cellular compartments of the endomembrane trafficking pathway. The PIP4Kgamma isoform expression is established after day 7 of postnatal development. Overall, our data suggest that PIP4Kgamma may have a role in neuron function, specifically in the regulation of vesicular transport, in specific regions of the developed brain.
Regenerative failure of spinal axons is commonly ascribed to signaling of F-actin depolymerization and growth cone collapse by molecules such as the myelin-associated growth inhibitors. cAMP is thought to promote regeneration at least in part by neutralizing this effect, either by direct action in the growth cone or indirectly by transcriptional mechanisms. In vivo evidence for this is based mainly on partial lesion studies in which it is sometimes difficult to distinguish regeneration of injured axons from collateral sprouting by uninjured axons. Moreover, previous observations on fixed lamprey central nervous system (CNS) suggested that regeneration may not involve growth cones. To distinguish actively growing axons from static or retracting ones, fluorescently labeled large reticulospinal axons were imaged in the living, transected lamprey cord with and without application of cAMP analogs and then studied by 2-photon microscopy. Axon tip movements over 2-48-hour intervals indicated: 1) regeneration was intermittent; 2) cAMP decreased initial axon retraction and increased subsequent regeneration up to 11-fold; 3) the increase in regeneration was due to an increase in velocity of axon growth, but not in the time spent in forward movement; 4) tips of actively regenerating axons were more sharply contoured than static tips but no filopodia or lamellipodia were observed, even in db-cAMP; and 5) during active growth, axon tips contained vesicle-like inclusions and were highly immunoreactive for neurofilaments. Staining for F-actin and microtubules was variable and F-actin was not concentrated at the leading edge. Thus, cAMP accelerates regeneration of lamprey spinal axons without inducing formation of growth cones.