Literature context: ulin Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T5168, RRID:AB_477579 Alexa Fluor 488 Goat Anti-Rabbi
Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic assemblies of mRNPs stalled in translation initiation. They are induced by various stress conditions, including exposure to the environmental toxin and carcinogen arsenic. While perturbed SG turnover is linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanisms underlying SG formation and turnover are still poorly understood. Here, we show that ZFAND1 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of SG clearance. ZFAND1 interacts with two key factors of protein degradation, the 26S proteasome and the ubiquitin-selective segregase p97, and recruits them to arsenite-induced SGs. In the absence of ZFAND1, SGs lack the 26S proteasome and p97, accumulate defective ribosomal products, and persist after arsenite removal, indicating their transformation into aberrant, disease-linked SGs. Accordingly, ZFAND1 depletion is epistatic to the expression of pathogenic mutant p97 with respect to SG clearance, suggesting that ZFAND1 function is relevant to the multisystem degenerative disorder IBMPFD/ALS.
Literature context: gma-Aldrich; Cat# T5168; RRIDD: AB_477579; mouse; monoclonal. 50 kDa 1: 3
In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress. Therefore, these kinases may also contribute to the behavioural changes observed after the combination of both developmental insults. In this study, ethanol-dams voluntarily consumed a 0.066% saccharin-sweetened 10% ethanol (EtOH) solution for 10 days prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation while control-dams had ad libitumaccess to a 0.066% saccharin (sacc) solution. Whole litters were randomly assigned to undergo maternal separation (MS) for 3 h/day from P2 to P14 while the remaining litters were left undisturbed (nMS). This resulted in 4 experimental groups: control (sacc + nMS), MS (sacc + MS), EtOH (EtOH + nMS) and EtOH + MS. Throughout development, EtOH-rats weighed less than control rats. However, subsequent maternal separation stress caused EtOH + MS-rats to weigh more than EtOH-rats. In adulthood both MS- and EtOH-rats were hyperactive but the combination produced activity levels similar to that of control rats. All treated animals (MS-, EtOH- and EtOH + MS-rats) demonstrated a negative affective state shown by increased number and duration of 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations compared to control rats. Prenatal-ethanol exposure increased the P-GSK3β/GSK3β ratio in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and maternal separation decreased the P-GSK3β/GSK3β ratio in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of adult rats. However, maternal separation stress decreased the effect of prenatal-ethanol exposure on the P-ERK/ERK ratio in the PFC and DH and reduced prenatal-ethanol-induced hyperactivity. Therefore, indicating a significant interaction between prenatal-ethanol exposure and early-life stress on behaviour and the brain and may implicate P-ERK1/2 signalling in exploratory behaviour.
Literature context: RRIDD: AB_477579; mouse, monoclonal
In utero exposure to alcohol has been shown to cause a spectrum of cognitive and behavioral deficits. This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of early-ethanol exposure on proteins in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 12% ethanol (4 g/kg/day i.p.) or volume-controlled saline during the third human trimester equivalent (P4-P9). At P31, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) proteins were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Early-ethanol exposure increased the capacity for metabolism of NADH and oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by an upregulation of NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone, 1 alpha subcomplex 9) while simultaneously decreasing the capacity to protect against oxidative stress in the PFC. Early-ethanol exposure decreased the capacity for ATP synthesis (> 2-fold down regulation of ATP synthase) and increased glycogen synthesis in the DH (> 2-fold decrease in glycogen synthase kinase-3β). The effects of early-ethanol exposure on glucose metabolism and ATP production appeared to be region specific. In addition, early-ethanol exposure decreased structural proteins in both the PFC and DH. A greater number of proteins were altered in the DH than in the PFC, indicating that the DH may be more susceptible to the effects of early-ethanol exposure. These proteomic profiles provide valuable insight into the long-term molecular changes in the brain induced by early-ethanol exposure.
Literature context: anti-Tubulin Sigma Cat# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 anti-p-STAT3 (Y705) Cell Signal
How fully differentiated cells that experience carcinogenic insults become proliferative cancer progenitors that acquire multiple initiating mutations is not clear. This question is of particular relevance to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which arises from differentiated hepatocytes. Here we show that one solution to this problem is provided by CD44, a hyaluronic acid receptor whose expression is rapidly induced in carcinogen-exposed hepatocytes in a STAT3-dependent manner. Once expressed, CD44 potentiates AKT activation to induce the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Mdm2, which terminates the p53 genomic surveillance response. This allows DNA-damaged hepatocytes to escape p53-induced death and senescence and respond to proliferative signals that promote fixation of mutations and their transmission to daughter cells that go on to become HCC progenitors.
Literature context: a Cat# T5168 RRID:AB_477579). IRDye 680LT conjugated-donkey
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. Analysis of breast cancer genomic DNA indicates frequent loss-of-function mutations in components of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Since JNK signaling can promote cell proliferation by activating the AP1 transcription factor, this apparent association of reduced JNK signaling with tumor development was unexpected. We examined the effect of JNK deficiency in the murine breast epithelium. Loss of JNK signaling caused genomic instability and the development of breast cancer. Moreover, JNK deficiency caused widespread early neoplasia and rapid tumor formation in a murine model of breast cancer. This tumor suppressive function was not mediated by a role of JNK in the growth of established tumors, but by a requirement of JNK to prevent tumor initiation. Together, these data identify JNK pathway defects as 'driver' mutations that promote genome instability and tumor initiation.
Literature context: D: AB_477579 Anti-Atg1 Kim et al., 2013 RRID
Nutrient deprivation induces autophagy through inhibiting TORC1 activity. We describe a novel mechanism in Drosophila by which TORC1 regulates RNA processing of Atg transcripts and alters ATG protein levels and activities via the cleavage and polyadenylation (CPA) complex. We show that TORC1 signaling inhibits CDK8 and DOA kinases, which directly phosphorylate CPSF6, a component of the CPA complex. These phosphorylation events regulate CPSF6 localization, RNA binding, and starvation-induced alternative RNA processing of transcripts involved in autophagy, nutrient, and energy metabolism, thereby controlling autophagosome formation and metabolism. Similarly, we find that mammalian CDK8 and CLK2, a DOA ortholog, phosphorylate CPSF6 to regulate autophagy and metabolic changes upon starvation, revealing an evolutionarily conserved mechanism linking TORC1 signaling with RNA processing, autophagy, and metabolism.
Literature context: ich, catalog #T5168, RRID:AB_477579, 1:1000), Î²-actin (Sigma-Aldric
Schwann cells (SCs) are endowed with a remarkable plasticity. When peripheral nerves are injured, SCs dedifferentiate and acquire new functions to coordinate nerve repair as so-called repair SCs. Subsequently, SCs redifferentiate to remyelinate regenerated axons. Given the similarities between SC dedifferentiation/redifferentiation in injured nerves and in demyelinating neuropathies, elucidating the signals involved in SC plasticity after nerve injury has potentially wider implications. c-Jun has emerged as a key transcription factor regulating SC dedifferentiation and the acquisition of repair SC features. However, the upstream pathways that control c-Jun activity after nerve injury are largely unknown. We report that the mTORC1 pathway is transiently but robustly reactivated in dedifferentiating SCs. By inducible genetic deletion of the functionally crucial mTORC1-subunit Raptor in mouse SCs (including male and female animals), we found that mTORC1 reactivation is necessary for proper myelin clearance, SC dedifferentiation, and consequently remyelination, without major alterations in the inflammatory response. In the absence of mTORC1 signaling, c-Jun failed to be upregulated correctly. Accordingly, a c-Jun binding motif was found to be enriched in promoters of genes with reduced expression in injured mutants. Furthermore, using cultured SCs, we found that mTORC1 is involved in c-Jun regulation by promoting its translation, possibly via the eIF4F-subunit eIF4A. These results provide evidence that proper c-Jun elevation after nerve injury involves also mTORC1-dependent post-transcriptional regulation to ensure timely dedifferentiation of SCs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A crucial evolutionary acquisition of vertebrates is the envelopment of axons in myelin sheaths produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells (SCs) in the PNS. When myelin is damaged, conduction of action potentials along axons slows down or is blocked, leading to debilitating diseases. Unlike oligodendrocytes, SCs have a high regenerative potential, granted by their remarkable plasticity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying SC plasticity may uncover new therapeutic targets in nerve regeneration and demyelinating diseases. Our work reveals that reactivation of the mTORC1 pathway in SCs is essential for efficient SC dedifferentiation after nerve injury. Accordingly, modulating this signaling pathway might be of therapeutic relevance in peripheral nerve injury and other diseases.
Literature context: ulin Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Mouse monoclonal anti-b tubulin
Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation. Experimentally, Olig2 promotes Wnt7b expression, a finding that correlates in human glioma profiling. Targeted Wnt7a/7b deletion or pharmacologic Wnt inhibition blocks Olig2+ glioma single-cell vessel co-option and enhances responses to temozolomide. Finally, Olig2 and Wnt7 become upregulated after anti-VEGF treatment in preclinical models and patients. Thus, glial-encoded pathways regulate distinct glioma-vascular microenvironmental interactions.
Literature context: 168; RRID:AB_477579 NLRP3 R&D Systems Cat# MAB7578
Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and is linked to the development of numerous diseases. The activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by long-chain saturated fatty acids (lcSFAs) is an important process in understanding how obesity initiates inflammation. While experimental evidence supports an important role for TLR4 in obesity-induced inflammation in vivo, via a mechanism thought to involve direct binding to and activation of TLR4 by lcSFAs, several lines of evidence argue against lcSFAs being direct TLR4 agonists. Using multiple orthogonal approaches, we herein provide evidence that while loss-of-function models confirm that TLR4 does, indeed, regulate lcSFA-induced inflammation, TLR4 is not a receptor for lcSFAs. Rather, we show that TLR4-dependent priming alters cellular metabolism, gene expression, lipid metabolic pathways, and membrane lipid composition, changes that are necessary for lcSFA-induced inflammation. These results reconcile previous discordant observations and challenge the prevailing view of TLR4's role in initiating obesity-induced inflammation.
Literature context: (Sigma-Aldrich, Cat# T5168, RRID:AB_477579) were the antibodies used. Prot
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by a constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib and its derivatives represent a breakthrough for CML therapy, but the use of TKI alone is ineffective for many CML patients. CD69, an early activation marker of lymphocytes, participates in immune and inflammatory responses. Previous studies revealed that BCR-ABL upregulates CD69 expression; however, the role of CD69 in CML cells is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BCR-ABL induced CD69 promoter activity and mRNA and protein expression via the NF-κB pathway. CD69 knockdown partially increased apoptosis and expression of erythroid differentiation markers, α-globin, ζ-globin, and glycophorin A, and increased imatinib sensitivity in K562 and KU812 CML cells. Gene microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR verified that CD24, an oncogenic gene, downregulated in K562 cells upon CD69 knockdown. CD69 overexpression increased, whereas CD69 knockdown inhibited CD24 promoter activity and mRNA and protein levels. CD24 knockdown also partially increased apoptosis, erythroid differentiation, and imatinib sensitivity in K562 cells, whereas its overexpression inhibited the effects of CD69 knockdown on apoptosis, erythroid differentiation, and imatinib sensitivity in K562 cells. Imatinib-induced apoptosis and erythroid differentiation were also inhibited by CD69 or CD24 overexpression in BCR-ABL-expressing CML cell lines and CD34+ cells. Taken together, CD24 is a downstream effector of CD69. CD69 and CD24 partially inhibit apoptosis and erythroid differentiation in CML cells; thus, they may be potential targets to increase imatinib sensitivity.
Literature context: igma T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Rabbit anti-Lamin A Santa Cruz
Upon stress, cytoplasmic mRNA is sequestered to insoluble ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, such as the stress granule (SG). Partially due to the belief that translationally suppressed mRNAs are recruited to SGs in bulk, stress-induced dynamic redistribution of mRNA has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress targets only a small subset of translationally suppressed mRNAs into the insoluble RNP granule fraction (RG). This subset, characterized by extended length and adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich motifs, is highly enriched with genes critical for cell survival and proliferation. This pattern of RG targeting was conserved for two other stress types, heat shock and arsenite toxicity, which induce distinct responses in the total cytoplasmic transcriptome. Nevertheless, stress-specific RG-targeting motifs, such as guanylate-cytidylate (GC)-rich motifs in heat shock, were also identified. Previously underappreciated, transcriptome profiling in the RG may contribute to understanding human diseases associated with RNP dysfunction, such as cancer and neurodegeneration.
Literature context: ich catalog #T5168, RRID:AB_477579), Shank1 (#2100, Ha et al., 201
Shank2 is an excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein implicated in synaptic regulation and psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders. Conventional Shank2-mutant (Shank2-/-) mice display several autistic-like behaviors, including social deficits, repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, and anxiety-like behaviors. However, cell-type-specific contributions to these behaviors have remained largely unclear. Here, we deleted Shank2 in specific cell types and found that male mice lacking Shank2 in excitatory neurons (CaMKII-Cre;Shank2fl/fl) show social interaction deficits and mild social communication deficits, hyperactivity, and anxiety-like behaviors. In particular, male mice lacking Shank2 in GABAergic inhibitory neurons (Viaat-Cre;Shank2fl/fl) display social communication deficits, repetitive self-grooming, and mild hyperactivity. These behavioral changes were associated with distinct changes in hippocampal and striatal synaptic transmission in the two mouse lines. These results indicate that cell-type-specific deletions of Shank2 in mice lead to differential synaptic and behavioral abnormalities.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Shank2 is an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein implicated in the regulation of excitatory synapses and diverse psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders. Previous studies have reported in vivo functions of Shank2 mainly using global Shank2-null mice, but it remains largely unclear how individual cell types contribute to Shank2-dependent regulation of neuronal synapses and behaviors. Here, we have characterized conditional Shank2-mutant mice carrying the Shank2 deletion in excitatory and inhibitory neurons. These mouse lines display distinct alterations of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and striatum that are associated with differential behavioral abnormalities in social, repetitive, locomotor, and anxiety-like domains.
Literature context: Sigma-Aldrich T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Human Ap
Excess plasma triglycerides (TGs) are a key component of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome. We have shown that γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment improves glucose tolerance due to inhibition of hepatic Notch signaling but found additional Notch-independent reduction of plasma TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in GSI-treated, as well as hepatocyte-specific, γ-secretase knockout (L-Ncst) mice, which suggested a primary effect on hepatocyte TRL uptake. Indeed, we found increased VLDL and LDL particle uptake in L-Ncst hepatocytes and Ncst-deficient hepatoma cells, in part through reduced γ-secretase-mediated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) cleavage and degradation. To exploit this novel finding, we generated a liver-selective Nicastrin ASO, which recapitulated glucose and lipid improvements of L-Ncst mice, with increased levels of hepatocyte LDLR. Collectively, these results identify the role of hepatic γ-secretase to regulate LDLR and suggest that liver-specific GSIs may simultaneously improve multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome.
Literature context: 68; RRID:AB_477579 Myc Roche Diagnostics Cat#11667
Pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase) is a secreted enzyme critical for host defense. We discover an intrinsic RNase function, serving as a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The closely related bovine RNase A and human RNase 5 (angiogenin [ANG]) can trigger oncogenic transformation independently of their catalytic activities via direct association with EGFR. Notably, high plasma ANG level in PDAC patients is positively associated with response to EGFR inhibitor erlotinib treatment. These results identify a role of ANG as a serum biomarker that may be used to stratify patients for EGFR-targeted therapies, and offer insights into the ligand-receptor relationship between RNase and RTK families.
Literature context: ma-Aldrich Sigma-Aldrich:T5168; RRID:AB_477579 (1:400) for IF; (1:2000) for WB
Microtubules control different aspects of cell polarization. In cells with a radial microtubule system, a pivotal role in setting up asymmetry is attributed to the relative positioning of the centrosome and the nucleus. Here, we show that centrosome loss had no effect on the ability of endothelial cells to polarize and move in 2D and 3D environments. In contrast, non-centrosomal microtubules stabilized by the microtubule minus-end-binding protein CAMSAP2 were required for directional migration on 2D substrates and for the establishment of polarized cell morphology in soft 3D matrices. CAMSAP2 was also important for persistent endothelial cell sprouting during in vivo zebrafish vessel development. In the absence of CAMSAP2, cell polarization in 3D could be partly rescued by centrosome depletion, indicating that in these conditions the centrosome inhibited cell polarity. We propose that CAMSAP2-protected non-centrosomal microtubules are needed for establishing cell asymmetry by enabling microtubule enrichment in a single-cell protrusion.
Literature context: l anti-Î±-tubulinSigmaCat#T5168; RRID: AB_477579Anti-mouse IgG (H+L) horse radis
Antisense morpholino oligomers (MOs) have been indispensable tools for developmental biologists to transiently knock down (KD) genes rather than to knock them out (KO). Here we report on the implications of genetic KO versus MO-mediated KD of the mesoderm-specifying Brachyury paralogs in the frog Xenopus tropicalis. While both KO and KD embryos fail to activate the same core gene regulatory network, resulting in virtually identical morphological defects, embryos injected with control or target MOs also show a systemic GC content-dependent immune response and many off-target splicing defects. Optimization of MO dosage and increasing incubation temperatures can mitigate, but not eliminate, these MO side effects, which are consistent with the high affinity measured between MO and off-target sequence in vitro. We conclude that while MOs can be useful to profile loss-of-function phenotypes at a molecular level, careful attention must be paid to their immunogenic and off-target side effects.
Literature context: (Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T5168; RRID:AB_477579). IRDye 680LT conjugated-donkey
Involution returns the lactating mammary gland to a quiescent state after weaning. The mechanism of involution involves collapse of the mammary epithelial cell compartment. To test whether the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway contributes to involution, we established mice with JNK deficiency in the mammary epithelium. We found that JNK is required for efficient involution. JNK deficiency did not alter the STAT3/5 or SMAD2/3 signaling pathways that have been previously implicated in this process. Nevertheless, JNK promotes the expression of genes that drive involution, including matrix metalloproteases, cathepsins, and BH3-only proteins. These data demonstrate that JNK has a key role in mammary gland involution post lactation.
Literature context: ID: AB_477579 VCP Abcam ab11433; RRID: AB_298
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are critical DNA lesions that robustly activate the elaborate DNA damage response (DDR) network. We identified a critical player in DDR fine-tuning: the E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase UBE4A. UBE4A's recruitment to sites of DNA damage is dependent on primary E3 ligases in the DDR and promotes enhancement and sustainment of K48- and K63-linked ubiquitin chains at these sites. This step is required for timely recruitment of the RAP80 and BRCA1 proteins and proper organization of RAP80- and BRCA1-associated protein complexes at DSB sites. This pathway is essential for optimal end resection at DSBs, and its abrogation leads to upregulation of the highly mutagenic alternative end-joining repair at the expense of error-free homologous recombination repair. Our data uncover a critical regulatory level in the DSB response and underscore the importance of fine-tuning the complex DDR network for accurate and balanced execution of DSB repair.
Literature context: bulin Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T5168, RRID:AB_477579 Anti-MBP New England Biolabs Ca
Plant roots forage the soil for iron, the concentration of which can be dramatically lower than those needed for growth. Soil iron uptake uses the broad metal spectrum IRT1 transporter that also transports zinc, manganese, cobalt, and cadmium. Sophisticated iron-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the abundance of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of iron. Here, we uncover that IRT1 acts as a transporter and receptor (transceptor), directly sensing excess of its non-iron metal substrates in the cytoplasm, to regulate its own degradation. Direct metal binding to a histidine-rich stretch in IRT1 triggers its phosphorylation by the CIPK23 kinase and facilitates the subsequent recruitment of the IDF1 E3 ligase. CIPK23-driven phosphorylation and IDF1-mediated lysine-63 polyubiquitination are jointly required for efficient endosomal sorting and vacuolar degradation of IRT1. Thus, IRT1 directly senses elevated non-iron metal concentrations and integrates multiple substrate-dependent regulations to optimize iron uptake and protect plants from highly reactive metals.
Literature context: Î±-Tubulin Sigma Cat#T5168; RRID:AB_477579 horseradish peroxidase-conjugat
Oncogene-induced senescence, e.g., in melanocytic nevi, terminates the expansion of pre-malignant cells via transcriptional silencing of proliferation-related genes due to decoration of their promoters with repressive trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) marks. We show here that structurally distinct H3K9-active demethylases-the lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) and several Jumonji C domain-containing moieties (such as JMJD2C)-disable senescence and permit Ras/Braf-evoked transformation. In mouse and zebrafish models, enforced LSD1 or JMJD2C expression promoted Braf-V600E-driven melanomagenesis. A large subset of established melanoma cell lines and primary human melanoma samples presented with a collective upregulation of related and unrelated H3K9 demethylase activities, whose targeted inhibition restored senescence, even in Braf inhibitor-resistant melanomas, evoked secondary immune effects and controlled tumor growth in vivo.
Literature context: 5-1-2] Sigma-Aldrich Cat#T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Histone
Conventional RNA interference (RNAi) pathways suppress eukaryotic gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. At the core of RNAi are small RNAs (sRNAs) and effector Argonaute (AGO) proteins. Arabidopsis AGO1 is known to bind microRNAs (miRNAs) and post-transcriptionally repress target genes in the cytoplasm. Here, we report that AGO1 also binds to the chromatin of active genes and promotes their transcription. We show that sRNAs and SWI/SNF complexes associate with nuclear AGO1 and are required for AGO1 binding to chromatin. Moreover, we show that various stimuli, including plant hormones and stresses, specifically trigger AGO1 binding to stimulus-responsive genes. Finally, we show that AGO1 facilitates the induction of genes in jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways and the activation of JA responses. Our findings suggest that, by binding and facilitating the expression of stimuli-specific genes, AGO1 may regulate diverse signaling pathways and associated biological processes.
Literature context: B: 1:2000; Sigma-Aldrich T5168, RRID:AB_477579); and dynein intermediate chain
LIS1 mutations cause lissencephaly (LIS), a severe developmental brain malformation. Much less is known about its role in the mature nervous system. LIS1 regulates the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein), and as LIS1 and dynein are both expressed in the adult nervous system, Lis1 could potentially regulate dynein-dependent processes such as axonal transport. We therefore knocked out Lis1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-induced, Cre-ER-mediated recombination. When an actin promoter was used to drive Cre-ER expression (Act-Cre-ER), heterozygous Lis1 knockout (KO) caused no obvious change in viability or behavior, despite evidence of widespread recombination by a Cre reporter three weeks after tamoxifen exposure. In contrast, homozygous Lis1 KO caused the rapid onset of neurological symptoms in both male and female mice. One tamoxifen-dosing regimen caused prominent recombination in the midbrain/hindbrain, PNS, and cardiac/skeletal muscle within a week; these mice developed severe symptoms in that time frame and were killed. A different tamoxifen regimen resulted in delayed recombination in midbrain/hindbrain, but not in other tissues, and also delayed the onset of symptoms. This indicates that Lis1 loss in the midbrain/hindbrain causes the severe phenotype. In support of this, brainstem regions known to house cardiorespiratory centers showed signs of axonal dysfunction in KO animals. Transport defects, neurofilament (NF) alterations, and varicosities were observed in axons in cultured DRG neurons from KO animals. Because no symptoms were observed when a cardiac specific Cre-ER promoter was used, we propose a vital role for Lis1 in autonomic neurons and implicate defective axonal transport in the KO phenotype.
Literature context: arch Resource Identifier [RRID]:AB_477579) (1:1,000), and mouse anti-CSP
Malaria is a devastating illness that causes approximately 500,000 deaths annually. The malaria-causing parasite (Plasmodium genus) uses the process of translational repression to regulate its growth, development, and transmission. As poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP) have been identified as critical components of RNA metabolism and translational repression in model eukaryotes and in Plasmodium, we have identified and investigated two PABPs in Plasmodium yoelii, PyPABP1 and PyPABP2. In contrast to most single-celled eukaryotes, Plasmodium closely resembles metazoans and encodes both a nuclear PABP and a cytosolic PABP; here, we provide multiple lines of evidence in support of this observation. The conserved domain architectures of PyPABP1 and PyPABP2 resemble those of yeast and metazoans, while multiple independent binding assays demonstrated their ability to bind very strongly and specifically to poly(A) sequences. Interestingly, we also observed that purified PyPABP1 forms homopolymeric chains despite exhaustive RNase treatment in vitro. Finally, we show by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) that PyPABP1 and PyPABP2 are cytoplasm- and nucleus-associated PABPs during the blood stages of the life cycle. Surprisingly, however, PyPABP1 was instead observed to also be localized on the surface of transmitted salivary gland sporozoites and to be deposited in trails when parasites glide on a substrate. This is the third RNA-binding protein verified to be found on the sporozoite surface, and the data may point to an unappreciated RNA-centered interface between the host and parasite. IMPORTANCE Malaria remains one of the great global health problems. The parasite that causes malaria (Plasmodium genus) relies upon exquisite control of its transmission between vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes. One crucial way that it does so is by proactively producing mRNAs needed to establish the new infection but by silencing and storing them until they are needed. One key protein in this process of translational repression in model eukaryotes is poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Here we have shown that Plasmodium yoelii utilizes both a nuclear PABP and a cytosolic PABP, both of which bind specifically to polyadenylated RNA sequences. Moreover, we find that the cytosolic PABP forms chains in vitro, consistent with its appreciated role in coating the poly(A) tails of mRNA. Finally, we have also verified that, surprisingly, the cytosolic PABP is found on the surface of Plasmodium sporozoites. Taking the data together, we propose that Plasmodium utilizes a more metazoan-like strategy for RNA metabolism using specialized PABPs.
Literature context: RRID:AB_477579 (1:2000)
Eukaryotic cells internalize transmembrane receptors via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but it remains unclear how the machinery underpinning this process is regulated. We recently discovered that membrane-associated muniscin proteins such as FCHo and SGIP initiate endocytosis by converting the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex to an open, active conformation that is then phosphorylated (Hollopeter et al., 2014). Here we report that loss of ncap-1, the sole C. elegans gene encoding an adaptiN Ear-binding Coat-Associated Protein (NECAP), bypasses the requirement for FCHO-1. Biochemical analyses reveal AP2 accumulates in an open, phosphorylated state in ncap-1 mutant worms, suggesting NECAPs promote the closed, inactive conformation of AP2. Consistent with this model, NECAPs preferentially bind open and phosphorylated forms of AP2 in vitro and localize with constitutively open AP2 mutants in vivo. NECAPs do not associate with phosphorylation-defective AP2 mutants, implying that phosphorylation precedes NECAP recruitment. We propose NECAPs function late in endocytosis to inactivate AP2.
Literature context: Cat#T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Bacterial and Virus Strains
The balance between self-renewal and differentiation ensures long-term maintenance of stem cell (SC) pools in regenerating epithelial tissues. This balance is challenged during periods of high regenerative pressure and is often compromised in aged animals. Here, we show that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a key regulator of SC loss during repeated regenerative episodes. In response to regenerative stimuli, SCs in the intestinal epithelium of the fly and in the tracheal epithelium of mice exhibit transient activation of TOR signaling. Although this activation is required for SCs to rapidly proliferate in response to damage, repeated rounds of damage lead to SC loss. Consistently, age-related SC loss in the mouse trachea and in muscle can be prevented by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition, respectively, of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. These findings highlight an evolutionarily conserved role of TOR signaling in SC function and identify repeated rounds of mTORC1 activation as a driver of age-related SC decline.
Literature context: 1:10000) and Î±-tubulin (T5168; RRID:AB_477579, mouse clone B-5-1-2, ascites f
Background: Olanzapine is an orexigenic antipsychotic drug associated with serious metabolic adverse effects in humans. Development of valid rodent models for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects is hampered by the fact that such effects occur in females only. Estradiol is a predominant female hormone that regulates energy balance. We hypothesized that the female-specific hyperphagia and weight gain induced by olanzapine in the rat are dependent on the presence of estrogens. Methods: Female sham-operated or ovariectomized rats were treated with a single injection of olanzapine depot formulation. Food intake, body weight, plasma lipids, lipogenic gene expression, energy expenditure, and thermogenic markers including brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 protein levels were measured. Olanzapine was also administered to ovariectomized rats receiving estradiol replacement via the subcutaneous (peripheral) or intracerebroventricular route. Results: Orexigenic effects of olanzapine were lost in ovariectomized female rats. Ovariectomized rats treated with olanzapine had less pronounced weight gain than expected from their food intake. Accordingly, brown adipose tissue temperature and protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 were elevated. Replacement in ovariectomized rats with either peripherally or centrally administered estradiol reduced food intake and body weight. Cotreatment with olanzapine blocked the anorexigenic effect of peripheral, but not central estradiol. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in olanzapine-induced hyperphagia in female rats and pinpoint the complex effects of olanzapine on the balance between energy intake and thermogenesis.
Literature context: ; Sigma-Aldrich; catalog T5168, RRID:AB_477579) (63) antibodies were used as c
Netrin-1 is a secreted protein that was first identified 20 years ago as an axon guidance molecule that regulates midline crossing in the CNS. It plays critical roles in various tissues throughout development and is implicated in tumorigenesis and inflammation in adulthood. Despite extensive studies, no inherited human disease has been directly associated with mutations in NTN1, the gene coding for netrin-1. Here, we have identified 3 mutations in exon 7 of NTN1 in 2 unrelated families and 1 sporadic case with isolated congenital mirror movements (CMM), a disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one hand that mirror intentional movements of the opposite hand. Given the diverse roles of netrin-1, the absence of manifestations other than CMM in NTN1 mutation carriers was unexpected. Using multimodal approaches, we discovered that the anatomy of the corticospinal tract (CST) is abnormal in patients with NTN1-mutant CMM. When expressed in HEK293 or stable HeLa cells, the 3 mutated netrin-1 proteins were almost exclusively detected in the intracellular compartment, contrary to WT netrin-1, which is detected in both intracellular and extracellular compartments. Since netrin-1 is a diffusible extracellular cue, the pathophysiology likely involves its loss of function and subsequent disruption of axon guidance, resulting in abnormal decussation of the CST.
Literature context: at# T5168; RRID:AB_477579). Immune complexes were detecte
Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis). While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, JNK-promoted anoikis required pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of proteins. We show that JNK acts through a BAK/BAX-dependent apoptotic pathway by increasing BIM expression and phosphorylating BMF, leading to death of detached epithelial cells.
Literature context: Sigma Cat# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Rabbit monoclonal anti-Ki67 Abc
Gain-of-function mutations in histone 3 (H3) variants are found in a substantial proportion of pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), often in association with TP53 loss and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) amplification. Here, we describe a somatic mouse model wherein H3.3K27M and Trp53 loss alone are sufficient for neoplastic transformation if introduced in utero. H3.3K27M-driven lesions are clonal, H3K27me3 depleted, Olig2 positive, highly proliferative, and diffusely spreading, thus recapitulating hallmark molecular and histopathological features of pHGG. Addition of wild-type PDGFRA decreases latency and increases tumor invasion, while ATRX knockdown is associated with more circumscribed tumors. H3.3K27M-tumor cells serially engraft in recipient mice, and preliminary drug screening reveals mutation-specific vulnerabilities. Overall, we provide a faithful H3.3K27M-pHGG model which enables insights into oncohistone pathogenesis and investigation of future therapies.
Literature context: T-5168; RRID:AB_477579 Anti-Î²-catenin Clone 15B8 Sigma
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS), a rare autosomal disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in NOTCH2, is clinically characterized by acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. Recent studies identified that aberrant NOTCH2 signaling and consequent osteoclast hyperactivity are closely associated with the bone-related disorder pathogenesis, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that sustained osteoclast activity is largely due to accumulation of NOTCH2 carrying a truncated C terminus that escapes FBW7-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Mice with osteoclast-specific Fbw7 ablation revealed osteoporotic phenotypes reminiscent of HCS, due to elevated Notch2 signaling. Importantly, administration of Notch inhibitors in Fbw7 conditional knockout mice alleviated progressive bone resorption. These findings highlight the molecular basis of HCS pathogenesis and provide clinical insights into potential targeted therapeutic strategies for skeletal disorders associated with the aberrant FBW7/NOTCH2 pathway as observed in patients with HCS.
Literature context: t# T5168; RRID:AB_477579; mouse; mo
This study investigates the effects of early exposure to ethanol on cognitive function and neural plasticity-related proteins in the rat brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 12% ethanol solution (4 g/kg/day i.p.) or saline from P4 to P9. Vinpocetine, a phosphodiesterase type 1 inhibitor, was tested to determine whether it could reverse any changes induced by early ethanol exposure. Hence, from P25 to P31, ethanol-exposed male rats were injected with vinpocetine (20 mg/kg/day i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO) prior to undergoing behavioral testing in the open field and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Ethanol exposure did not adversely affect spatial memory in the MWM. A key finding in this study was a significant ethanol-induced change in the function of the phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (P-ERK) signaling pathway in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) of rats that did not display overt behavioral deficits. The P-ERK/ERK ratio was decreased in the PFC and increased in the DH of ethanol-exposed rats compared with controls. Rats that received vinpocetine in addition to ethanol did not display any behavioral changes but did show alterations in neural plasticity-related proteins. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase was increased, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor was decreased, in the PFC of vinpocetine-treated ethanol-exposed rats, and phosphorylated-glycogen synthase kinase β and synaptophysin were increased in the DH of these rats. This study provides insight into the long-term effects of early ethanol exposure and its interaction with vinpocetine in the rat brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: l anti-tubulinSigma-Aldrichcat# T5168Rabbit polyclonal anti-Nup88 ant
During interphase, the nuclear envelope (NE) serves as a selective barrier between cytosol and nucleoplasm. When vertebrate cells enter mitosis, the NE is dismantled in the process of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). Disassembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is a key aspect of NEBD, required for NE permeabilization and formation of a cytoplasmic mitotic spindle. Here, we show that both CDK1 and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) support mitotic NPC disintegration by hyperphosphorylation of Nup98, the gatekeeper nucleoporin, and Nup53, a central nucleoporin linking the inner NPC scaffold to the pore membrane. Multisite phosphorylation of Nup53 critically contributes to its liberation from its partner nucleoporins, including the pore membrane protein NDC1. Initial steps of NPC disassembly in semi-permeabilized cells can be reconstituted by a cocktail of mitotic kinases including cyclinB-CDK1, NIMA, and PLK1, suggesting that the unzipping of nucleoporin interactions by protein phosphorylation is an important principle underlying mitotic NE permeabilization.
Literature context: Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T5168, RRID:AB_477579 rabbit polyclonal anti-human NL
Many infections and stress signals can rapidly activate the NLRP3 inflammasome to elicit robust inflammatory responses. This activation requires a priming step, which is thought to be mainly for upregulating NLRP3 transcription. However, recent studies report that the NLRP3 inflammasome can be activated independently of transcription, suggesting that the priming process has unknown essential regulatory steps. Here, we report that JNK1-mediated NLRP3 phosphorylation at S194 is a critical priming event and is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is disrupted in NLRP3-S194A knockin mice. JNK1-mediated NLRP3 S194 phosphorylation is critical for NLRP3 deubiquitination and facilitates its self-association and the subsequent inflammasome assembly. Importantly, we demonstrate that blocking S194 phosphorylation prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Thus, our study reveals a key priming molecular event that is a prerequisite for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Inhibiting NLRP3 phosphorylation could be an effective treatment for NLRP3-related diseases.
Literature context: ma-Aldrich Mouse (monoclonal) RRID:AB_477579 1:1000
Mammalian ovarian follicular development and maturation of an oocyte competent to be fertilized and develop into an embryo depends on tightly regulated, spatiotemporally orchestrated crosstalk among cell death, survival, and differentiation signals through extra- and intraovarian signals, as well as on a permissive ovarian follicular microenvironment. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like factor family that mediates its effects by binding to a member of the erythroblastoma (ErbB) family. Our experimental results suggest gonadotropins promote differential expression of NRG1 and erbB receptors in granulosa cells (GCs), and NRG1 in theca cells during follicular development, and promote NRG1 secretions in the follicular fluid (FF) of rat ovaries. During the estrous cycle of rat, NRG1 and erbB receptors are differentially expressed in GCs and correlate positively with serum gonadotropins and steroid hormones. Moreover, in vitro experimental studies suggest that the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (STS) causes the physical destruction of GCs by the activation of caspase-3. Exogenous NRG1 treatment of GCs delayed onset of STS-induced apoptosis and inhibited cleaved caspase-3 expressions. Moreover, exogenous NRG1 treatment of GCs alters STS-induced death by maintaining the expression of ErbB2, ErbB3, pAkt, Bcl2, and BclxL proteins. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that NRG1 is gonadotropin dependent, differentially regulated in GCs and theca cells, and secreted in ovarian FF as an intracellular survival factor that may govern follicular maturation.
Literature context: Sigma-Aldrich T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Mouse monoclonal anti-Î²-Tubulin
Genomic imprinting is an allelic gene expression phenomenon primarily controlled by allele-specific DNA methylation at the imprinting control region (ICR), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p) catalyzes N-α-acetylation of nascent proteins, and mutation of human Naa10p is linked to severe developmental delays. Here we report that Naa10-null mice display partial embryonic lethality, growth retardation, brain disorders, and maternal effect lethality, phenotypes commonly observed in defective genomic imprinting. Genome-wide analyses further revealed global DNA hypomethylation and enriched dysregulation of imprinted genes in Naa10p-knockout embryos and embryonic stem cells. Mechanistically, Naa10p facilitates binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) to DNA substrates, including the ICRs of the imprinted allele during S phase. Moreover, the lethal Ogden syndrome-associated mutation of human Naa10p disrupts its binding to the ICR of H19 and Dnmt1 recruitment. Our study thus links Naa10p mutation-associated Ogden syndrome to defective DNA methylation and genomic imprinting.
Literature context: r WB) Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Mouse anti-MAPK-YT (activated E
Little is known about the cellular events promoting metastasis. We show that knockout of phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which generates the signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA), inhibits lung metastases in the mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu transgenic mouse breast cancer model. PLD2 promotes local invasion through the regulation of the plasma membrane targeting of MT1-MMP and its associated invadopodia. A liposome pull-down screen identifies KIF5B, the heavy chain of the motor protein kinesin-1, as a new PA-binding protein. In vitro assays reveal that PA specifically and directly binds to the C terminus of KIF5B. The binding between PLD2-generated PA and KIF5B is required for the vesicular association of KIF5B, surface localization of MT1-MMP, invadopodia, and invasion in cancer cells. Taken together, these results identify a role of PLD2-generated PA in the regulation of kinesin-1 motor functions and breast cancer metastasis and suggest PLD2 as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer.
Literature context: h Cat# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Anti-GFP Antibodies-online Cat#
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secreted signaling protein that is implicated in cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorder, and cancer. Outside of its role in lipid metabolism, ANGPTL4 signaling remains poorly understood. Here, we identify ANGPTL4 as a Wnt signaling antagonist that binds to syndecans and forms a ternary complex with the Wnt co-receptor Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). This protein complex is internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and degraded in lysosomes, leading to attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Angptl4 is expressed in the Spemann organizer of Xenopus embryos and acts as a Wnt antagonist to promote notochord formation and prevent muscle differentiation. This unexpected function of ANGPTL4 invites re-interpretation of its diverse physiological effects in light of Wnt signaling and may open therapeutic avenues for human disease.
Literature context: ich, T5168 Mouse WB 1:10,000 RRID:AB_477579
We discovered that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)-null mice have endometrial hyperplasia, the precursor to human type I endometrial cancer (ECA), which is etiologically linked to unopposed estrogen (E2), suggesting that this potent antiangiogenic factor might contribute to dysregulated growth and the development of type I ECA. Treatment of both ECA cell lines and primary ECA cells with recombinant PEDF dose dependently decreased cellular proliferation via an autocrine mechanism by blocking cells in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Consistent with the known opposing effects of E2 and progesterone (Pg) on endometrial proliferation, Pg increases PEDF protein synthesis and release, whereas E2 has the converse effect. Using PEDF luciferase promoter constructs containing two Pg and one E2 response elements, E2 reduced and Pg increased promoter activity due to distal response elements. Furthermore, E2 decreases and Pg increases PEDF secretion into conditioned media (CM) by both normal endometrial stromal fibroblasts (ESFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), but only CM from ESFs mediated growth-inhibitory activity of primary endometrial epithelial cells (EECs). In addition, in cocultures with primary EECs, Pg-induced growth inhibition is mediated by ESFs, but not CAFs. This is consistent with reduced levels of Pg receptors on CAFs surrounding human malignant glands in vivo. Taken together, the data suggest that PEDF is a hormone-regulated negative autocrine mediator of endometrial proliferation, and that paracrine growth inhibition by soluble factors, possibly PEDF, released by ESFs in response to Pg, but not CAFs, exemplifies a tumor microenvironment that contributes to the pathogenesis of ECA.
Literature context: No. T5168, Bat. No. 072 M4809, RRID:AB_477579; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO,
BACKGROUND: Similar to other eukaryotes, splicing is emerging as an important process affecting development and stress tolerance in plants. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP), a splicing factor, is essential for circadian clock function and abiotic stress tolerance; however, the mechanisms whereby it regulates flowering time are unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we found that SKIP is required for the splicing of serrated leaves and early flowering (SEF) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA), which encodes a component of the ATP-dependent SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR1-C). Defects in the splicing of SEF pre-mRNA reduced H2A.Z enrichment at FLC, MAF4, and MAF5, suppressed the expression of these genes, and produced an early flowering phenotype in skip-1 plants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that SKIP regulates SWR1-C function via alternative splicing to control the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Literature context: rich Cat# T5168 RRID:AB_477579, 1:1,000), Î²-actin (Sigma-Aldri
Myelination is a biosynthetically demanding process in which mTORC1, the gatekeeper of anabolism, occupies a privileged regulatory position. We have shown previously that loss of mTORC1 function in Schwann cells (SCs) hampers myelination. Here, we genetically disrupted key inhibitory components upstream of mTORC1, TSC1 or PTEN, in mouse SC development, adult homeostasis, and nerve injury. Surprisingly, the resulting mTORC1 hyperactivity led to markedly delayed onset of both developmental myelination and remyelination after injury. However, if mTORC1 was hyperactivated after myelination onset, radial hypermyelination was observed. At early developmental stages, physiologically high PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling suppresses expression of Krox20 (Egr2), the master regulator of PNS myelination. This effect is mediated by S6K and contributes to control mechanisms that keep SCs in a not-fully differentiated state to ensure proper timing of myelination initiation. An ensuing decline in mTORC1 activity is crucial to allow myelination to start, while remaining mTORC1 activity drives myelin growth.
Literature context: T5168, RRID:AB_477579), HRP-conjugated secondary anti
Ubiquitylation (ubi) by the E3-ligases Mindbomb1 (Mib1) and Neuralized (Neur) is required for activation of the DSL ligands Delta (Dl) and Serrate (Ser) to activate Notch signalling. These ligases transfer ubiquitin to lysines of the ligands' intracellular domains (ICDs), which sends them into an Epsin-dependent endocytic pathway. Here, we have tested the requirement of ubi of Dl for signalling. We found that Dl requires ubi for its full function, but can also signal in two ubi-independent modes, one dependent and one independent of Neur. We identified two neural lateral specification processes where Dl signals in an ubi-independent manner. Neur, which is needed for these processes, was shown to be able to activate Dl in an ubi-independent manner. Our analysis suggests that one important role of DSL protein ubi by Mib1 is their release from cis-inhibitory interactions with Notch, enabling them to trans-activate Notch on adjacent cells.
Literature context: g: mouse anti-tubulin antibody (RRID:AB_477579, Sigma-Aldrich), rabbit anti-p3
Impact of stress on diseases including gastrointestinal failure is well-known, but molecular mechanism is not understood. Here we show underlying molecular mechanism using EAE mice. Under stress conditions, EAE caused severe gastrointestinal failure with high-mortality. Mechanistically, autoreactive-pathogenic CD4+ T cells accumulated at specific vessels of boundary area of third-ventricle, thalamus, and dentate-gyrus to establish brain micro-inflammation via stress-gateway reflex. Importantly, induction of brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels by cytokine injection was sufficient to establish fatal gastrointestinal failure. Resulting micro-inflammation activated new neural pathway including neurons in paraventricular-nucleus, dorsomedial-nucleus-of-hypothalamus, and also vagal neurons to cause fatal gastrointestinal failure. Suppression of the brain micro-inflammation or blockage of these neural pathways inhibited the gastrointestinal failure. These results demonstrate direct link between brain micro-inflammation and fatal gastrointestinal disease via establishment of a new neural pathway under stress. They further suggest that brain micro-inflammation around specific vessels could be switch to activate new neural pathway(s) to regulate organ homeostasis.
Literature context: rich Cat. #T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Anti-rabbit IgG antibody, goat,
Methylation and nitric oxide (NO)-based S-nitrosylation are highly conserved protein posttranslational modifications that regulate diverse biological processes. In higher eukaryotes, PRMT5 catalyzes Arg symmetric dimethylation, including key components of the spliceosome. The Arabidopsis prmt5 mutant shows severe developmental defects and impaired stress responses. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the PRMT5 activity. Here, we report that NO positively regulates the PRMT5 activity through S-nitrosylation at Cys-125 during stress responses. In prmt5-1 plants, a PRMT5C125S transgene, carrying a non-nitrosylatable mutation at Cys-125, fully rescues the developmental defects, but not the stress hypersensitive phenotype and the responsiveness to NO during stress responses. Moreover, the salt-induced Arg symmetric dimethylation is abolished in PRMT5C125S/prmt5-1 plants, correlated to aberrant splicing of pre-mRNA derived from a stress-related gene. These findings define a mechanism by which plants transduce stress-triggered NO signal to protein methylation machinery through S-nitrosylation of PRMT5 in response to environmental alterations.
Literature context: RRID:AB_477579), anti-Suv39h1 (8729: Cell Sign
SUV39H is the major histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9)-specific methyltransferase that targets pericentric regions and is crucial for assembling silent heterochromatin. SUV39H recognizes trimethylated H3K9 (H3K9me3) via its chromodomain (CD), and enriched H3K9me3 allows SUV39H to target specific chromosomal regions. However, the detailed targeting mechanisms, especially for naïve chromatin without preexisting H3K9me3, are poorly understood. Here we show that Suv39h1's CD (Suv39h1-CD) binds nucleic acids, and this binding is important for its function in heterochromatin assembly. Suv39h1-CD had higher binding affinity for RNA than DNA, and its ability to bind nucleic acids was independent of its H3K9me3 recognition. Suv39h1 bound major satellite RNAs in vivo, and knockdown of major satellite RNAs lowered Suv39h1 retention on pericentromere. Suv39h1 mutational studies indicated that both the nucleic acid-binding and H3K9me-binding activities of Suv39h1-CD were crucial for its pericentric heterochromatin assembly. These results suggest that chromatin-bound RNAs contribute to creating SUV39H's target specificity.
Literature context: ,000, T5168, Sigma-Aldrich, RRID:AB_477579]). Following a thorough washing
Optineurin (OPTN) is an autophagy receptor protein that has been implicated in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. OPTN-mediated autophagy is a complex process involving many autophagy-regulating proteins. Autophagy plays a critical role in removing damaged organelles, intracellular pathogens, and protein aggregates to maintain cellular homeostasis. We identified Ypt1 as a novel interaction partner of OPTN by performing a large-scale yeast-human two-hybrid assay. Coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that OPTN interacted with Rab1, the mammalian homolog of yeast Ypt1, in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cell line. We confirmed this interaction by confocal microscopy showing intracellular colocalization of the two proteins. We observed that a zinc finger domain of OPTN is important for Rab1a binding. Rab1a activity is also required for the binding with OPTN. The role of the OPTN-Rab1a complex in neuronal autophagy was determined by measuring the translocation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-EGFP to autophagosomes. In N2a cells, OPTN-induced autophagosome formation was inhibited by Rab1a knockdown, indicating the important role of OPTN-Rab1a interaction in neuronal autophagy processes. Similarly, in N2a cells overexpressing Rab1a, serum starvation-induced formation of autophagosome was enhanced, while OPTN knockdown reduced the Rab1a-induced autophagy. These results show that the OPTN-Rab1a complex modulates autophagosome formation in neuroblastoma cells.
Literature context: (Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T5168 Lot# RRID:AB_477579) used at 1:5000, and polyclonal
The use of constitutive promoters to drive exogenous protein expression is an important tool for the study of diverse biological processes. To create and characterise a stably integrated expression system for DT40 cells, we constructed integration cassettes for three commonly used promoter elements; CMV, CBA or CAG, and used these to stably integrate a TOPBP1 transgene at the OVA locus, a transcriptionally silent locus commonly used in DT40. We next performed a comparative analysis of protein expression levels and identified CAG as the most efficient of the promoter elements we have tested in DT40 cells. To assess whether the site of integration affected the levels of transgene expression, a second chromosomal locus, immediately adjacent to the endogenous TOPBP1 gene, was tested for CAG. No major differences in TopBP1 overexpression were observed. This confirms that use of the OVA locus for integrating transgenes is a rational choice for DT40. Finally, we demonstrate that our stably integrated overexpression system (SIOS) constructs can be efficiently excised by the induction of tamoxifen-regulated Cre expression. Taken together, SIOS is an easy-to-use and versatile system for constitutive, reversible exogenous protein production that provides a range of potential expression levels. This will be a useful experimental tool for future DT40 experiments.
Literature context: -Aldrich; RRID:AB_477579), Î²-actin
Exophilin-8 has been reported to play a role in anchoring secretory granules within the actin cortex, due to its direct binding activities to Rab27 on the granule membrane and to F-actin and its motor protein, myosin-Va. Here, we show that exophilin-8 accumulates granules in the cortical F-actin network not by direct interaction with myosin-Va, but by indirect interaction with a specific form of myosin-VIIa through its previously unknown binding partner, RIM-BP2. RIM-BP2 also associates with exocytic machinery, Cav1.3, RIM, and Munc13-1. Disruption of the exophilin-8-RIM-BP2-myosin-VIIa complex by ablation or knockdown of each component markedly decreases both the peripheral accumulation and exocytosis of granules. Furthermore, exophilin-8-null mouse pancreatic islets lose polarized granule localization at the β-cell periphery and exhibit impaired insulin secretion. This newly identified complex acts as a physical and functional scaffold and provides a mechanism supporting a releasable pool of granules within the F-actin network beneath the plasma membrane.
Literature context: ch T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Mouse mono
Thyroid hormones (THs) act in the brain to modulate energy balance. We show that central triiodothyronine (T3) regulates de novo lipogenesis in liver and lipid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), respectively. Central T3 promotes hepatic lipogenesis with parallel stimulation of the thermogenic program in BAT. The action of T3 depends on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced regulation of two signaling pathways in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH): decreased ceramide-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which promotes BAT thermogenesis, and increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which controls hepatic lipid metabolism. Of note, ablation of AMPKα1 in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons of the VMH fully recapitulated the effect of central T3, pointing to this population in mediating the effect of central THs on metabolism. Overall, these findings uncover the underlying pathways through which central T3 modulates peripheral metabolism.
Literature context: ouse monoclonal anti-Î±-tubulin (Sigma T5168, 1:100,000 WB); and Rabbit poly
Most cellular stresses induce protein translation inhibition and stress granule formation. Here, using Drosophila S2 cells, we investigate the role of G3BP/Rasputin in this process. In contrast to arsenite treatment, where dephosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin is recruited to stress granules, we find that, upon amino acid starvation, only the phosphorylated Ser142 form is recruited. Furthermore, we identify Sec16, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum exit site, as a Rasputin interactor and stabilizer. Sec16 depletion results in Rasputin degradation and inhibition of stress granule formation. However, in the absence of Sec16, pharmacological stabilization of Rasputin is not enough to rescue the assembly of stress granules. This is because Sec16 specifically interacts with phosphorylated Ser142 Rasputin, the form required for stress granule formation upon amino acid starvation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that stress granule formation is fine-tuned by specific signaling cues that are unique to each stress. These results also expand the role of Sec16 as a stress response protein.
Literature context: T# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Mouse anti
Injured skeletal muscle regenerates, but with age or in muscular dystrophies, muscle is replaced by fat. Upon injury, muscle-resident fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) proliferated and gave rise to adipocytes. These FAPs dynamically produced primary cilia, structures that transduce intercellular cues such as Hedgehog (Hh) signals. Genetically removing cilia from FAPs inhibited intramuscular adipogenesis, both after injury and in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Blocking FAP ciliation also enhanced myofiber regeneration after injury and reduced myofiber size decline in the muscular dystrophy model. Hh signaling through FAP cilia regulated the expression of TIMP3, a secreted metalloproteinase inhibitor, that inhibited MMP14 to block adipogenesis. A pharmacological mimetic of TIMP3 blocked the conversion of FAPs into adipocytes, pointing to a strategy to combat fatty degeneration of skeletal muscle. We conclude that ciliary Hh signaling by FAPs orchestrates the regenerative response to skeletal muscle injury.
p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that plays multiple biological roles, including the capacity to modulate metabolism at different levels. However, its metabolic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) remains largely unknown. Herein we sought to investigate the physiological role of endogenous p53 in BAT and its implication on BAT thermogenic activity and energy balance. To this end, we generated and characterized global p53-null mice and mice lacking p53 specifically in BAT. Additionally we performed gain-and-loss-of-function experiments in the BAT of adult mice using virogenetic and pharmacological approaches. BAT was collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, thermography, real-time PCR, and Western blot. p53-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure and BAT activity. However, the deletion of p53 in BAT using a Myf5-Cre driven p53 knockout did not show any changes in body weight or the expression of thermogenic markers. The acute inhibition of p53 in the BAT of adult mice slightly increased body weight and inhibited BAT thermogenesis, whereas its overexpression in the BAT of diet-induced obese mice reduced body weight and increased thermogenesis. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of p53 improves body weight gain due to increased BAT thermogenesis by sympathetic nervous system in obese adult wild-type mice but not in p53(-/-) animals. These results reveal that p53 regulates BAT metabolism by coordinating body weight and thermogenesis, but these metabolic actions are tissue specific and also dependent on the developmental stage.
The peripubertal period of development is a sensitive window, during which adverse experiences can increase the risk for presentation of cognitive and affective dysfunction throughout the lifespan, especially in women. However, such experiences in the context of a supportive social environment can actually ameliorate this risk, suggesting that resilience can be programmed in early life. Affective disorders and cognitive deficits commonly emerge during aging, with many women reporting increased difficulty with prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive functions. We have developed a mouse model to examine the interaction between peripubertal experience and age-related changes in cognition and stress regulation. Female mice were exposed to peripubertal chronic stress, during which they were either individually housed or housed with social interaction. One year after this stress experience, mice were examined in tasks to access their cognitive ability and flexibility in stress reactive measures. In a test of spatial memory acquisition and reversal learning where aged females normally display a decreased performance, the females that had experienced stress with social interaction a year earlier showed improved performance in reversal learning, a measure of cognitive flexibility. Because peripuberty is a time of major PFC maturation, we performed transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of the aged PFC, in which long-term changes in microRNA expression and in myelin proteins were found. These data suggest that stress in the context of social support experienced over the pubertal window can promote epigenetic reprogramming in the brain to increase the resilience to age-related cognitive decline in females.
The first mutation in a gene associated with a neuronal migration disorder was identified in patients with Kallmann Syndrome, characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. This pathophysiological association results from a defect in the development of the GnRH and the olfactory system. A recent genetic screening of Kallmann Syndrome patients revealed a novel mutation in CCDC141. Little is known about CCDC141, which encodes a coiled-coil domain containing protein. Here, we show that Ccdc141 is expressed in GnRH neurons and olfactory fibers and that knockdown of Ccdc141 reduces GnRH neuronal migration. Our findings in human patients and mouse models predict that CCDC141 takes part in embryonic migration of GnRH neurons enabling them to form a hypothalamic neuronal network to initiate pulsatile GnRH secretion and reproductive function.
Literature context: t# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Mouse mono
RFWD3 is a recently identified Fanconi anemia protein FANCW whose E3 ligase activity toward RPA is essential in homologous recombination (HR) repair. However, how RPA ubiquitination promotes HR remained unknown. Here, we identified RAD51, the central HR protein, as another target of RFWD3. We show that RFWD3 polyubiquitinates both RPA and RAD51 in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation by ATR and ATM kinases is required for this activity in vivo. RFWD3 inhibits persistent mitomycin C (MMC)-induced RAD51 and RPA foci by promoting VCP/p97-mediated protein dynamics and subsequent degradation. Furthermore, MMC-induced chromatin loading of MCM8 and RAD54 is defective in cells with inactivated RFWD3 or expressing a ubiquitination-deficient mutant RAD51. Collectively, our data reveal a mechanism that facilitates timely removal of RPA and RAD51 from DNA damage sites, which is crucial for progression to the late-phase HR and suppression of the FA phenotype.
Literature context: t# T5168, RRID:AB_477579); 1:10,000
In 2016, as part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Fiehn et al., 2016), that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper "The common feature of leukemia-associated IDH1 and IDH2 mutations is a neomorphic enzyme activity converting alpha-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate" (Ward et al., 2010). Here, we report the results of those experiments. We found that cells expressing R172K mutant IDH2 did not display isocitrate-dependent NADPH production above vector control levels, in contrast to the increased production observed with wild-type IDH2. Conversely, expression of R172K mutant IDH2 resulted in increased alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent consumption of NADPH compared to wild-type IDH2 or vector control. These results are similar to those reported in the original study (Figure 2; Ward et al., 2010). Further, expression of R172K mutant IDH2 resulted in increased 2HG levels within cells compared to the background levels observed in wild-type IDH2 and vector control, similar to the original study (Figure 3D; Ward et al., 2010). In primary human AML samples, the 2HG levels observed in samples with mutant IDH1 or IDH2 status were higher than those observed in samples without an IDH mutation, similar to what was observed in the original study (Figure 5C; Ward et al., 2010). Finally, we report meta-analyses for each result.
Literature context: t# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Rat monocl
Myriad experiences produce transient memory, yet, contingent on the internal state of the organism and the saliency of the experience, only some memories persist over time. How experience and internal state influence the duration of memory at the molecular level remains unknown. A self-assembled aggregated state of Drosophila Orb2A protein is required specifically for long-lasting memory. We report that in the adult fly brain the mRNA encoding Orb2A protein exists in an unspliced non-protein-coding form. The convergence of experience and internal drive transiently increases the spliced protein-coding Orb2A mRNA. A screen identified pasilla, the fly ortholog of mammalian Nova-1/2, as a mediator of Orb2A mRNA processing. A single-nucleotide substitution in the intronic region that reduces Pasilla binding and intron removal selectively impairs long-term memory. We posit that pasilla-mediated processing of unspliced Orb2A mRNA integrates experience and internal state to control Orb2A protein abundance and long-term memory formation.
Literature context: h T-5168, RRID:AB_477579 rabbit ant
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles. As neurons mature, MAP6 is translocated to the proximal axon, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. Further, we demonstrate that dynamic palmitoylation, mediated by the family of α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C) depalmitoylating enzymes, controls shuttling of MAP6 between membranes and microtubules and is required for MAP6 retention in axons. We propose a model in which MAP6's palmitoylation mediates microtubule stabilization, allows efficient organelle trafficking, and controls axon maturation in vitro and in situ.
Literature context: t# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Mouse mono
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and immunosuppression-related lymphomas. These B cell malignancies arise by distinct transformation pathways and have divergent viral and host expression programs. To identify host dependency factors resulting from these EBV+, B cell-transformed cell states, we performed parallel genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 loss-of-function screens in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These highlighted 57 BL and 87 LCL genes uniquely important for their growth and survival. LCL hits were enriched for EBV-induced genes, including viral super-enhancer targets. Our systematic approach uncovered key mechanisms by which EBV oncoproteins activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and evade tumor suppressor responses. LMP1-induced cFLIP was found to be critical for LCL defense against TNFα-mediated programmed cell death, whereas EBV-induced BATF/IRF4 were critical for BIM suppression and MYC induction in LCLs. Finally, EBV super-enhancer-targeted IRF2 protected LCLs against Blimp1-mediated tumor suppression. Our results identify viral transformation-driven synthetic lethal targets for therapeutic intervention.
Literature context: t# T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Chemicals,
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a constant homeostatic brain environment that is essential for proper neural function. An unusually low rate of vesicular transport (transcytosis) has been identified as one of the two unique properties of CNS endothelial cells, relative to peripheral endothelial cells, that maintain the restrictive quality of the BBB. However, it is not known how this low rate of transcytosis is achieved. Here we provide a mechanism whereby the regulation of CNS endothelial cell lipid composition specifically inhibits the caveolae-mediated transcytotic route readily used in the periphery. An unbiased lipidomic analysis reveals significant differences in endothelial cell lipid signatures from the CNS and periphery, which underlie a suppression of caveolae vesicle formation and trafficking in brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, lipids transported by Mfsd2a establish a unique lipid environment that inhibits caveolae vesicle formation in CNS endothelial cells to suppress transcytosis and ensure BBB integrity.
Literature context: o. T5168, RRID:AB_477579), horse an
The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces phosphorylation of the adaptor protein CrkII by activating the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abl to promote its uptake into host cells. So far, specific factors of P. aeruginosa, which induce Abl/CrkII signalling, are entirely unknown. In this research, we employed human lung epithelial cells H1299, Chinese hamster ovary cells and P. aeruginosa wild type strain PAO1 to study the invasion process of P. aeruginosa into host cells by using microbiological, biochemical and cell biological approaches such as Western Blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Here, we demonstrate that the host glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide, also termed Gb3, represents a signalling receptor for the P. aeruginosa lectin LecA to induce CrkII phosphorylation at tyrosine 221. Alterations in Gb3 expression and LecA function correlate with CrkII phosphorylation. Interestingly, phosphorylation of CrkIIY221 occurs independently of Abl kinase. We further show that Src family kinases transduce the signal induced by LecA binding to Gb3, leading to CrkY221 phosphorylation. In summary, we identified LecA as a bacterial factor, which utilizes a so far unrecognized mechanism for phospho-CrkIIY221 induction by binding to the host glycosphingolipid receptor Gb3. The LecA/Gb3 interaction highlights the potential of glycolipids to mediate signalling processes across the plasma membrane and should be further elucidated to gain deeper insights into this non-canonical mechanism of activating host cell processes.
Literature context: at#T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Donkey ant
The accumulation of irreparable cellular damage restricts healthspan after acute stress or natural aging. Senescent cells are thought to impair tissue function, and their genetic clearance can delay features of aging. Identifying how senescent cells avoid apoptosis allows for the prospective design of anti-senescence compounds to address whether homeostasis can also be restored. Here, we identify FOXO4 as a pivot in senescent cell viability. We designed a FOXO4 peptide that perturbs the FOXO4 interaction with p53. In senescent cells, this selectively causes p53 nuclear exclusion and cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Under conditions where it was well tolerated in vivo, this FOXO4 peptide neutralized doxorubicin-induced chemotoxicity. Moreover, it restored fitness, fur density, and renal function in both fast aging XpdTTD/TTD and naturally aged mice. Thus, therapeutic targeting of senescent cells is feasible under conditions where loss of health has already occurred, and in doing so tissue homeostasis can effectively be restored.
Literature context: (Ïƒ T5168; RRID:AB_477579). The prim
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch within the Huntingtin (Htt) protein. Pathogenic Htt disrupts multiple neuronal processes, including gene expression, axonal trafficking, proteasome and mitochondrial activity, and intracellular vesicle trafficking. However, the primary pathogenic mechanism and subcellular site of action for mutant Htt are still unclear. Using a Drosophila HD model, we found that pathogenic Htt expression leads to a profound overgrowth of synaptic connections that correlates directly with the levels of Htt at nerve terminals. Branches of the same nerve containing different levels of Htt show distinct phenotypes, indicating that Htt acts locally to disrupt synaptic growth. The effects of pathogenic Htt on synaptic growth arise from defective synaptic endosomal trafficking, leading to expansion of a recycling endosomal signaling compartment containing Sorting Nexin 16 and a reduction in late endosomes containing Rab11. The disruption of endosomal compartments leads to elevated BMP signaling within nerve terminals, driving excessive synaptic growth. Blocking aberrant signaling from endosomes or reducing BMP activity ameliorates the severity of HD pathology and improves viability. Pathogenic Htt is present largely in a nonaggregated form at synapses, indicating that cytosolic forms of the protein are likely to be the toxic species that disrupt endosomal signaling. Our data indicate that pathogenic Htt acts locally at nerve terminals to alter trafficking between endosomal compartments, leading to defects in synaptic structure that correlate with pathogenesis and lethality in the Drosophila HD model.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Huntington's disease (HD) is the most commonly inherited polyglutamine expansion disorder, but how mutant Huntingtin (Htt) disrupts neuronal function is unclear. In particular, it is unknown within what subcellular compartment pathogenic Htt acts and whether the pathogenesis is associated with aggregated or more soluble forms of the protein. Using a Drosophila HD model, we find that nonaggregated pathogenic Htt acts locally at synaptic terminals to disrupt endosomal compartments, leading to aberrant wiring defects. Genetic manipulations to increase endosomal trafficking of synaptic growth receptors from signaling endosomes or to reduce BMP signaling reduce pathology in this HD model. These data indicate that pathogenic Htt can act locally within nerve terminals to disrupt synaptic endosomal signaling and induce neuropathology.
Literature context: MA T5168, RRID:AB_477579 OCT4 antib
The chromatin landscape and cellular metabolism both contribute to cell fate determination, but their interplay remains poorly understood. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, we have identified prohibitin (PHB) as an essential factor in self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Mechanistically, PHB forms protein complexes with HIRA, a histone H3.3 chaperone, and stabilizes the protein levels of HIRA complex components. Like PHB, HIRA is required for hESC self-renewal. PHB and HIRA act together to control global deposition of histone H3.3 and gene expression in hESCs. Of particular note, PHB and HIRA regulate the chromatin architecture at the promoters of isocitrate dehydrogenase genes to promote transcription and, thus, production of α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite in the regulation of ESC fate. Our study shows that PHB has an unexpected nuclear role in hESCs that is required for self-renewal and that it acts with HIRA in chromatin organization to link epigenetic organization to a metabolic circuit.
Literature context: at# T5168 RRID:AB_477579); secondar
BACKGROUND: A widespread modulation of gene expression occurs in the aging brain, but little is known as to the upstream drivers of these changes. MicroRNAs emerged as fine regulators of gene expression in many biological contexts and they are modulated by age. MicroRNAs may therefore be part of the upstream drivers of the global gene expression modulation correlated with aging and aging-related phenotypes. RESULTS: Here, we show that microRNA-29 (miR-29) is induced during aging in short-lived turquoise killifish brain and genetic antagonism of its function induces a gene-expression signature typical of aging. Mechanicistically, we identified Ireb2 (a master gene for intracellular iron delivery that encodes for IRP2 protein), as a novel miR-29 target. MiR-29 is induced by iron loading and, in turn, it reduces IRP2 expression in vivo, therefore limiting intracellular iron delivery in neurons. Genetically modified fish with neuro-specific miR-29 deficiency exhibit increased levels of IRP2 and transferrin receptor, increased iron content, and oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that age-dependent miR-29 upregulation is an adaptive mechanism that counteracts the expression of some aging-related phenotypes and its anti-aging activity is primarily exerted by regulating intracellular iron homeostasis limiting excessive iron-exposure in neurons.
Literature context: Â Î±-TubulinÂ 1 Î¼g/mLÂ Sigma, T5168Â AB_477579Â Total OXPHOS cocktailÂ Total OXP
Fatty liver, or hepatic steatosis, is an alarmingly common pathology in western societies, in large part because if left unheeded, it can lead to life-threatening forms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, it is essential that we attain a greater understanding of the pathways that control energy partitioning in the liver and ultimately how they are impacted by environmental factors. Here, we define the essential requirement for a member of the Ras-related protein in the brain (RAB)-like (RABL) clade of small GTPases, RABL2, in fatty acid metabolism including in microtubule-associated mitochondrial movement within the liver. RABL2 dysfunction, even in mice fed a low-fat chow diet, leads to retarded hepatic mitochondria movement associated with and a cascading phenotype of interrelated metabolic defects reminiscent of a type 2 diabetic state: hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and adult onset obesity. RABL2 dysfunction does not, however, alter mitochondrial content, or the inherent respiratory capacity of individual mitochondria per se. Rather, it is associated with a decreased capacity for fatty oxidation in the context of the intact cell, suggesting a complex, and important, role for mitochondrial movement in metabolic health. Our data highlight the importance of RABL2 and mitochondrial dynamics in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and in the achievement of metabolic balance.
Literature context: g #T5168; RRID:AB_477579), p-Mlc2/S
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) is an RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. To understand the physiological function of CPEB2, we generated CPEB2 knock-out (KO) mice and found that most died within 3 d after birth. CPEB2 is highly expressed in the brainstem, which controls vital functions, such as breathing. Whole-body plethysmography revealed that KO neonates had aberrant respiration with frequent apnea. Nevertheless, the morphology and function of the respiratory rhythm generator and diaphragm neuromuscular junctions appeared normal. We found that upregulated translation of choline acetyltransferase in the CPEB2 KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus resulted in hyperactivation of parasympathetic signaling-induced bronchoconstriction, as evidenced by increased pulmonary acetylcholine and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 in bronchial smooth muscles. Specific deletion of CPEB2 in cholinergic neurons sufficiently caused increased apnea in neonatal pups and airway hyper-reactivity in adult mice. Moreover, inhalation of an anticholinergic bronchodilator reduced apnea episodes in global and cholinergic CPEB2-KO mice. Together, the elevated airway constriction induced by cholinergic transmission in KO neonates may account for the respiratory defect and mortality. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study first generated and characterized cpeb2 gene-deficient mice. CPEB2-knock-out (KO) mice are born alive but most die within 3 d after birth showing no overt defects in anatomy. We found that the KO neonates showed severe apnea and altered respiratory pattern. Such respiratory defects could be recapitulated in mice with pan-neuron-specific or cholinergic neuron-specific ablation of the cpeb2 gene. Further investigation revealed that cholinergic transmission in the KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus was overactivated because KO mice lack CPEB2-suppressed translation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of acetylcholine (i.e., choline acetyltransferase). Consequently, increased parasympathetic signaling leads to hyperactivated bronchoconstriction and abnormal respiration in the KO neonates.
Literature context: 5168 Lot# RRID:AB_477579), rabbit a
Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue. Our evidence supports dual roles for Dlish. Dlish tethers Dachs to the subapical cell cortex, an effect partly mediated by the palmitoyltransferase Approximated under the control of Fat. Conversely, Dlish promotes the Fat-mediated degradation of Dachs.
Literature context: t# T5168, RRID:AB_477579) antibodie
Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence suggests that altered microtubule dynamics may also underlie or contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegeneration. We report that biallelic mutations in TBCD, encoding one of the five co-chaperones required for assembly and disassembly of the αβ-tubulin heterodimer, the structural unit of microtubules, cause a disease with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features characterized by early-onset cortical atrophy, secondary hypomyelination, microcephaly, thin corpus callosum, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, optic atrophy, and spastic quadriplegia. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted long-range and/or local structural perturbations associated with the disease-causing mutations. Biochemical analyses documented variably reduced levels of TBCD, indicating relative instability of mutant proteins, and defective β-tubulin binding in a subset of the tested mutants. Reduced or defective TBCD function resulted in decreased soluble α/β-tubulin levels and accelerated microtubule polymerization in fibroblasts from affected subjects, demonstrating an overall shift toward a more rapidly growing and stable microtubule population. These cells displayed an aberrant mitotic spindle with disorganized, tangle-shaped microtubules and reduced aster formation, which however did not alter appreciably the rate of cell proliferation. Our findings establish that defective TBCD function underlies a recognizable encephalopathy and drives accelerated microtubule polymerization and enhanced microtubule stability, underscoring an additional cause of altered microtubule dynamics with impact on neuronal function and survival in the developing brain.
Literature context: t# T5168, RRID:AB_477579; 1:2,000)
BACKGROUND: TPA Induced Sequence 7 acts as a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in differentiation of various cell types, including skeletal myoblasts. We and others have shown that TIS7 regulates adult myogenesis through MyoD, one of the essential myogenic regulatory factors. RESULTS: Here, we present data identifying ICln as the specific, novel protein downstream of TIS7 controlling myogenesis. We show that TIS7/ICln epigenetically regulate myoD expression controlling protein methyl transferase activity. In particular, ICln regulates MyoD expression via its interaction with PRMT5 by an epigenetic modification that utilizes symmetrical di-methylation of histone H3 on arginine 8. We provide multiple evidences that TIS7 directly binds DNA, which is a functional feature necessary for its role in transcriptional regulation. CONCLUSION: We present here a molecular insight into TIS7-specific control of MyoD gene expression and thereby skeletal muscle differentiation.
Literature context: home-made), Mouse anti-Tubulin (Sigma T5168), Mouse anti-GFP (Roche, #11814
Many membrane proteins fold inefficiently and require the help of enzymes and chaperones. Here we reveal a novel folding assistance system that operates on membrane proteins from the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that folding of the Wnt signaling coreceptor LRP6 is promoted by ubiquitination of a specific lysine, retaining it in the ER while avoiding degradation. Subsequent ER exit requires removal of ubiquitin from this lysine by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP19. This ubiquitination-deubiquitination is conceptually reminiscent of the glucosylation-deglucosylation occurring in the ER lumen during the calnexin/calreticulin folding cycle. To avoid infinite futile cycles, folded LRP6 molecules undergo palmitoylation and ER export, while unsuccessfully folded proteins are, with time, polyubiquitinated on other lysines and targeted to degradation. This ubiquitin-dependent folding system also controls the proteostasis of other membrane proteins as CFTR and anthrax toxin receptor 2, two poor folders involved in severe human diseases.
Literature context: at#T5168; RRID:AB_477579 Goat-anti-
Two complementary approaches were used in search of the intracellular targets of the toxic PR poly-dipeptide encoded by the repeat sequences expanded in the C9orf72 form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The top categories of PRn-bound proteins include constituents of non-membrane invested cellular organelles and intermediate filaments. PRn targets are enriched for the inclusion of low complexity (LC) sequences. Evidence is presented indicating that LC sequences represent the direct target of PRn binding and that interaction between the PRn poly-dipeptide and LC domains is polymer-dependent. These studies indicate that PRn-mediated toxicity may result from broad impediments to the dynamics of cell structure and information flow from gene to message to protein.
Literature context: t# T5168, RRID:AB_477579), rat anti
Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease.
Literature context: n clone B-5-1-2 (Sigma-Aldrich; AB_477579) and rabbit polyclonal anti-GST
RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis.
Literature context: use Î± ppERK1/2AntibodySigmaM8159Mouse Î± tubulinAntibodySigmaT5168HPR-conjugated
The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF" by Heidorn and colleagues, published in Cell in 2010 (Heidorn et al., 2010). The experiments to be replicated are those reported in Figures 1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, and 4D. Heidorn and colleagues report that paradoxical activation of the RAF-RAS-MEK-ERK pathway by BRAF inhibitors when applied to BRAF(WT) cells is a result of BRAF/CRAF heterodimer formation upon inactivation of BRAF kinase activity, and occurs only in the context of active RAS. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.
Heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (HP1BP3) is a recently described histone H1-related protein with roles in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. To explore the potential physiological role of HP1BP3, we have previously described an Hp1bp3(-/-) mouse model with reduced postnatal viability and growth. We now find that these mice are proportionate dwarfs, with reduction in body weight, body length, and organ weight. In addition to their small size, microcomputed tomography analysis showed that Hp1bp3(-/-) mice present a dramatic impairment of their bone development and structure. By 3 weeks of age, mice of both sexes have severely impaired cortical and trabecular bone, and these defects persist into adulthood and beyond. Primary cultures of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts from Hp1bp3(-/-) bone marrow and splenocytes, respectively, showed normal differentiation and function, strongly suggesting that the impaired bone accrual is due to noncell autonomous systemic cues in vivo. One major endocrine pathway regulating both body growth and bone acquisition is the IGF regulatory system, composed of IGF-1, the IGF receptors, and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). At 3 weeks of age, Hp1bp3(-/-) mice exhibited a 60% reduction in circulating IGF-1 and a 4-fold increase in the levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. These alterations were reflected in similar changes in the hepatic transcripts of the Igf1, Igfbp1, and Igfbp2 genes. Collectively, these results suggest that HP1BP3 plays a key role in normal growth and bone development by regulating transcription of endocrine IGF-1 components.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in a wide variety of cellular physiological processes. In thyroid cells, NO-synthase III-endogenously produced NO reduces TSH-stimulated thyroid-specific gene expression, suggesting a potential autocrine role of NO in modulating thyroid function. Further studies indicate that NO induces thyroid dedifferentiation, because NO donors repress TSH-stimulated iodide (I(-)) uptake. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the NO-inhibited Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated I(-) uptake in thyroid cells. We showed that NO donors reduce I(-) uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, which correlates with decreased NIS protein expression. NO-reduced I(-) uptake results from transcriptional repression of NIS gene rather than posttranslational modifications reducing functional NIS expression at the plasma membrane. We observed that NO donors repress TSH-induced NIS gene expression by reducing the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB subunit p65. NO-promoted p65 S-nitrosylation reduces p65-mediated transactivation of the NIS promoter in response to TSH stimulation. Overall, our data are consistent with the notion that NO plays a role as an inhibitory signal to counterbalance TSH-stimulated nuclear factor-κB activation, thus modulating thyroid hormone biosynthesis.
Testosterone is essential for spermatogenesis and the development of male sexual characteristics. However, steroidogenesis produces a significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can disrupt testosterone production. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is an important regulator of organogenesis and cell differentiation in various tissues. In the testis, MEF2 is present in Sertoli and Leydig cells throughout fetal and adult life. MEF2-deficient MA-10 Leydig cells exhibit a significant decrease in steroidogenesis concomitant with a reduction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and in the expression of the 4 Gsta members (GST) that encode ROS inactivating enzymes. Here, we report a novel role for MEF2 in ROS detoxification by directly regulating Gsta expression in Leydig cells. Endogenous Gsta1-4 mRNA levels were decreased in MEF2-deficient MA-10 Leydig cells. Conversely, overexpression of MEF2 increased endogenous Gsta1 levels. MEF2 recruitment to the proximal Gsta1 promoter and direct binding on the -506-bp MEF2 element were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA precipitation assays. In MA-10 Leydig cells, MEF2 activates the Gsta1 promoter and cooperates with Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases I to further enhance Gsta1 promoter activity. These effects were lost when the -506-bp MEF2 element was mutated or when a MEF2-Engrailed dominant negative protein was used. Similar results were obtained on the Gsta2, Gsta3, and Gsta4 promoters, suggesting a global role for MEF2 factors in the regulation of all 4 Gsta genes. Altogether, our results identify a novel role for MEF2 in the expression of genes involved in ROS detoxification, a process essential for adequate testosterone production in Leydig cells.
In Leydig cells, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) participates in cholesterol shuttling from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and steroidogenic gene expression are regulated by LH, which activates various signaling pathways and transcription factors, including cAMP/Ca(2+)/CAMK (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase)-myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). The 4 MEF2 transcription factors are essential regulators of cell differentiation and organogenesis in numerous tissues. Recently, MEF2 was identified in Sertoli and Leydig cells of the testis. Here, we report that MEF2 regulates steroidogenesis in mouse MA-10 Leydig cells by acting on the Star gene. In MA-10 cells depleted of MEF2 using siRNAs (small interfering RNAs), STAR protein levels, Star mRNA levels, and promoter activity were significantly decreased. On its own, MEF2 did not activate the mouse Star promoter but was found to cooperate with forskolin/cAMP. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA precipitation assays, we confirmed MEF2 binding to a consensus element located at -232 bp of the Star promoter. Mutation or deletion of the MEF2 element reduced but did not abrogate the MEF2/cAMP cooperation, indicating that MEF2 cooperates with other DNA-bound transcription factor(s). We identified GATA4 (GATA binding protein 4) as a partner for MEF2 in Leydig cells, because mutation of the GATA element abrogated the MEF2/cAMP cooperation on a reporter lacking a MEF2 element. MEF2 and GATA4 interact as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation, and MEF2 and GATA4 transcriptionally cooperate on the Star promoter. Altogether, our results define MEF2 as a novel regulator of steroidogenesis and Star transcription in Leydig cells and identify GATA4 as a key partner for MEF2-mediated action.
During gestation, hyperphagia is necessary to cope with the metabolic demands of embryonic development. There were three main aims of this study: Firstly, to investigate the effect of pregnancy on hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism, a key pathway for the regulation of energy balance; secondly, to study whether pregnancy induces resistance to the anorectic effect of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibition and accumulation of malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) in the hypothalamus; and, thirdly, to study whether changes in hypothalamic AMPK signaling are associated with brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis during pregnancy. Our data suggest that in pregnant rats, the hypothalamic fatty acid pathway shows an overall state that should lead to anorexia and elevated BAT thermogenesis: decreased activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), FAS, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, coupled with increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase function with subsequent elevation of malonyl-CoA levels. This profile seems dependent of estradiol levels but not prolactin or progesterone. Despite the apparent anorexic and thermogenic signaling in the hypothalamus, pregnant rats remain hyperphagic and display reduced temperature and BAT function. Actually, pregnant rats develop resistance to the anorectic effects of central FAS inhibition, which is associated with a reduction of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and its transcription factors phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and phospho-forkhead box O1. This evidence demonstrates that pregnancy induces a state of resistance to the anorectic and thermogenic actions of hypothalamic cellular signals of energy surplus, which, in parallel to the already known refractoriness to leptin effects, likely contributes to gestational hyperphagia and adiposity.
Literature context: g #T5168, RRID:AB_477579), Î±-FLAG M
Local regulation of protein synthesis allows a neuron to rapidly alter the proteome in response to synaptic signals, an essential mechanism in synaptic plasticity that is altered in many neurological diseases. Synthesis of many synaptic proteins is under local control and much of this regulation occurs through structures termed RNA granules. KIS is a protein kinase that associates with stathmin, a modulator of the tubulin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, KIS is found in RNA granules and stimulates translation driven by the β-actin 3'UTR in neurites. Here we explore the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the action of KIS on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice. KIS downregulation compromises spine development, alters actin dynamics, and reduces postsynaptic responsiveness. The absence of KIS results in a significant decrease of protein levels of PSD-95, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2 in a CPEB3-dependent manner. Underlying its role in spine maturation, KIS is able to suppress the spine developmental defects caused by CPEB3 overexpression. Moreover, either by direct or indirect mechanisms, KIS counteracts the inhibitory activity of CPEB3 on the GluR2 3'UTR at both mRNA translation and polyadenylation levels. Our study provides insights into the mechanisms that mediate dendritic spine morphogenesis and functional synaptic maturation, and suggests KIS as a link regulating spine cytoskeleton and postsynaptic activity in memory formation.
Previously, we showed that progesterone (P4) inhibits proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). The P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMCs resulted from suppression of the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) activity mediated by cSrc activation. We also observed that P4 increased the formation of p27-RhoA complex in RASMCs. The aim of this study was to further study the involvement of p27 in P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMCs. Treatment with P4 (50 nM) increased the level of p27 protein in RASMCs. Knockdown of p27 abolished the P4-induced increases of the levels of p27 protein and decreases of cell migration in RASMCs. We conducted Western blot analyses and applied pharmacologic inhibitors to delineate the signaling pathway involved in the P4-induced p27 up-regulation and migration inhibition in RASMCs. Our data suggest that P4 increased the levels of p27 in RASMCs through activating the cSrc/AKT/ERK 2/p38 pathway mediated by nongenomic progesterone receptor. The findings of the present study highlight the molecular mechanisms underlying P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMCs.
Phthalates are plasticizers with widespread industrial, domestic, and medical applications. Epidemiological data indicating increased incidence of testicular dysgenesis in boys exposed to phthalates in utero are reinforced by studies demonstrating that phthalates impair fetal rodent testis development. Because humans are exposed to phthalates continuously from gestation through adulthood, it is imperative to understand what threat phthalates pose at other life stages. To determine the impact during prepuberty, we assessed the consequences of oral administration of 1 to 500 mg di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)/kg/d in corn oil to wild-type (C57BL/6J) male mice from 4 to 14 days of age. Dose-dependent effects on testis growth correlated with reduced Sertoli cell proliferation. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses identified delayed spermatogenesis and impaired Sertoli cell maturation after exposure to 10 to 500 mg DBP/kg/d. Interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis was indicated in mice fed 500 mg DBP/kg/d, which had elevated circulating inhibin but no change in serum FSH. Increased immunohistochemical staining for inhibin-α was apparent at doses of 10 to 500 mg DBP/kg/d. Serum testosterone and testicular androgen activity were lower in the 500 mg DBP/kg/d group; however, reduced anogenital distance in all DBP-treated mice suggested impaired androgen action at earlier time points. Long-term effects were evident, with smaller anogenital distance and indications of disrupted spermatogenesis in adult mice exposed prepubertally to doses from 1 mg DBP/kg/d. These data demonstrate the acute sensitivity of the prepubertal mouse testis to DBP at doses 50- to 500-fold lower than those used in rat and identify the upregulation of inhibin as a potential mechanism of DBP action.
Literature context: 105265, Sigma), anti-Î±-tubulin (T5168, Sigma), anti-Î²-actin (ab6276,
The innate immune system senses viral DNA that enters mammalian cells, or in aberrant situations self-DNA, and triggers type I interferon production. Here we present an integrative approach that combines quantitative proteomics, genomics and small molecule perturbations to identify genes involved in this pathway. We silenced 809 candidate genes, measured the response to dsDNA and connected resulting hits with the known signaling network. We identified ABCF1 as a critical protein that associates with dsDNA and the DNA-sensing components HMGB2 and IFI204. We also found that CDC37 regulates the stability of the signaling molecule TBK1 and that chemical inhibition of the CDC37-HSP90 interaction and several other pathway regulators potently modulates the innate immune response to DNA and retroviral infection.
DNA methyltransferases--DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b--produce methylation patterns that dynamically regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression. The vertebrate retina provides an ideal model to elucidate molecular control of neurogenesis as all neuronal cell types and Müller glia are generated in a conserved order from common pools of progenitor cells. As a prelude to exploring epigenetic regulation of mammalian retinal development, we investigated the expression of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b in the mouse retina from embryonic day (E) 10.5 to 10 months of age. High levels of transcripts for all three Dnmt genes were observed in early stages of retinal differentiation, with significantly reduced expression after birth. Although DNMT1 protein is abundant in retinal progenitors at E10.5, it becomes restricted to postmitotic cells by E15.5. Most cells in the postnatal retina show nuclear immunostaining of DNMT1; however, the photoreceptors exhibit distinctive patterns. In rods, weak expression of DNMT1 is detected in perinuclear region and in the nucleus, whereas a strong nuclear labeling is evident in cones. DNMT3a and DNMT3b show a discrete pattern in developing retina with high expression at E11.5, little or no immunostaining by E15.5, and then postnatal expression overlapping with DNMT1 in early born neurons (ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cells, and cones). Robust nuclear localization of DNMTs in cones compared to rods suggests a potential role of DNA methylation in differential remodeling of chromatin in these two specialized neurons. Our studies indicate that DNA methyltransferases contribute to the establishment and maturation of cell fates during retinal development.