Literature context: 6313), pan-Nav channel (K58/35; RRID:AB_477552), myelin basic protein (MBP; Bi
Action potential conduction along myelinated axons depends on high densities of voltage-gated Na+ channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Flanking each node, paranodal junctions (paranodes) are formed between axons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Paranodal junctions contribute to both node assembly and maintenance. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms responsible for paranode assembly and maintenance remain poorly understood. βII spectrin is expressed in diverse cells and is an essential part of the submembranous cytoskeleton. Here, we show that Schwann cell βII spectrin is highly enriched at paranodes. To elucidate the roles of glial βII spectrin, we generated mutant mice lacking βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells by crossing mice with a floxed allele of Sptbn1 with Cnp-Cre mice, and analyzed both male and female mice. Juvenile (4 weeks) and middle-aged (60 weeks) mutant mice showed reduced grip strength and sciatic nerve conduction slowing, whereas no phenotype was observed between 8 and 24 weeks of age. Consistent with these findings, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed disorganized paranodes in the PNS and CNS of both postnatal day 13 and middle-aged mutant mice, but not in young adult mutant mice. Electron microscopy confirmed partial loss of transverse bands at the paranodal axoglial junction in the middle-aged mutant mice in both the PNS and CNS. These findings demonstrate that a spectrin-based cytoskeleton in myelinating glia contributes to formation and maintenance of paranodal junctions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelinating glia form paranodal axoglial junctions that flank both sides of the nodes of Ranvier. These junctions contribute to node formation and maintenance and are essential for proper nervous system function. We found that a submembranous spectrin cytoskeleton is highly enriched at paranodes in Schwann cells. Ablation of βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells disrupted the paranodal cell adhesion complex in both peripheral and CNSs, resulting in muscle weakness and sciatic nerve conduction slowing in juvenile and middle-aged mice. Our data show that a spectrin-based submembranous cytoskeleton in myelinating glia plays important roles in paranode formation and maintenance.
Literature context: el monoclonal antibody (K58/35; RRID:AB_477552) was generated against a peptid
βIV spectrin links ankyrinG (AnkG) and clustered ion channels at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier to the axonal cytoskeleton. Here, we report bi-allelic pathogenic SPTBN4 variants (three homozygous and two compound heterozygous) that cause a severe neurological syndrome that includes congenital hypotonia, intellectual disability, and motor axonal and auditory neuropathy. We introduced these variants into βIV spectrin, expressed these in neurons, and found that 5/7 were loss-of-function variants disrupting AIS localization or abolishing phosphoinositide binding. Nerve biopsies from an individual with a loss-of-function variant had reduced nodal Na+ channels and no nodal KCNQ2 K+ channels. Modeling the disease in mice revealed that although ankyrinR (AnkR) and βI spectrin can cluster Na+ channels and partially compensate for the loss of AnkG and βIV spectrin at nodes of Ranvier, AnkR and βI spectrin cannot cluster KCNQ2- and KCNQ3-subunit-containing K+ channels. Our findings define a class of spectrinopathies and reveal the molecular pathologies causing nervous-system dysfunction.
Literature context: ich; Clone K58/35; Cat# S8809, RRID:AB_477552), antiNav1.2 (1:200; Alomone la
Disturbances in the nodes of Ranvier are an early phenomenon in many CNS disorders, including the autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Using an animal model of optic neuritis, a common early symptom of MS, we have investigated nodal and paranodal compartments in the optic nerve during disease progression. Both nodes and paranodes, as identified by immunohistochemistry against sodium channels (Nav) and Caspr, respectively, were observed to increase in length during the late induction phase of the disease, prior to onset of the demyelination and immune cell infiltration characteristic of optic neuritis. These changes were correlated with both axonal stress and microglial/macrophage activation, and were most apparent in the vicinity of the retrobulbar optic nerve head, the unmyelinated region of the optic nerve where retinal ganglion cell axons exit the retina. Using intravitreal glutamate injection as a model of a primary retinal insult, we demonstrate that this can induce similar nodal and paranodal changes. This may suggest that onset of neurodegeneration in the absence of demyelination, as reported in several studies into the nonaffected eyes of MS patients, may give rise to subtle disturbances in the axo-glial junction.
Literature context: h Cat# S8809 RRID:AB_477552), ZO-1 (1A12, Thermo Fisher Sci
Nodes of Ranvier and associated paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains along myelinated axons are essential for normal function of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Disruption of these domains as well as increases in the reactive carbonyl species methylglyoxal are implicated as a pathophysiology common to a wide variety of neurological diseases. Here, using an ex vivo nerve exposure model, we show that increasing methylglyoxal produces paranodal disruption, evidenced by disorganized immunostaining of axoglial cell-adhesion proteins, in both sciatic and optic nerves from wild-type mice. Consistent with previous studies showing that increase of methylglyoxal can alter intracellular calcium homeostasis, we found upregulated activity of the calcium-activated protease calpain in sciatic nerves after methylglyoxal exposure. Methylglyoxal exposure altered clusters of proteins that are known as calpain substrates: ezrin in Schwann cell microvilli at the perinodal area and zonula occludens 1 in Schwann cell autotypic junctions at paranodes. Finally, treatment with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin ameliorated methylglyoxal-evoked ezrin loss and paranodal disruption in both sciatic and optic nerves. Our findings strongly suggest that elevated methylglyoxal levels and subsequent calpain activation contribute to the disruption of specialized axoglial domains along myelinated nerve fibers in neurological diseases.
Literature context: clone K58/35 Sigma Cat#S8809; RRID:AB_477552 Chicken anti-myelin basic prote
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential generation and a locus of activity-dependent homeostatic plasticity. A multimeric complex of sodium channels, linked via a cytoskeletal scaffold of ankyrin G and beta IV spectrin to submembranous actin rings, mediates these functions. The mechanisms that specify the AIS complex to the proximal axon and underlie its plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we show phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC), an activator of contractile myosin II, is highly enriched in the assembling and mature AIS, where it associates with actin rings. MLC phosphorylation and myosin II contractile activity are required for AIS assembly, and they regulate the distribution of AIS components along the axon. pMLC is rapidly lost during depolarization, destabilizing actin and thereby providing a mechanism for activity-dependent structural plasticity of the AIS. Together, these results identify pMLC/myosin II activity as a common link between AIS assembly and plasticity.
Literature context: 00; Sigma-Aldrich, Cat # S8809, RRID:AB_477552), guinea pig anti-Caspr (Caspr;
The roles of myelin in maintaining axonal integrity and action potential (AP) propagation are well established, but its role in synapse maintenance and neurotransmission remains largely understudied. Here, we investigated how Purkinje axon myelination regulates synaptic transmission in the Purkinje to deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) synapses using the Long Evans Shaker (LES) rat, which lacks compact myelin and thus displays severe locomotion deficits. DCN neurons fired spontaneous action potentials (APs), whose frequencies were dependent on the extent of myelin. In the LES cerebellum with severe myelin deficiency, DCN neurons were hyper-excitable, exhibiting spontaneous AP firing at a much higher frequency compared to those from wild type (LE) and heterozygote (LEHet) rats. The hyper-excitability in LES DCN neurons resulted from reduced inhibitory GABAergic inputs from Purkinje cells to DCN neurons. Corresponding with functional alterations including failures of AP propagation, electron microscopic analysis revealed anatomically fewer active zones at the presynaptic terminals of Purkinje cells in both LEHet and LES rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that proper axonal myelination critically regulates presynaptic terminal structure and function and directly impacts synaptic transmission in the Purkinje cell-DCN cell synapse in the cerebellum.
Literature context: el monoclonal antibody (K58/35; RRID:AB_477552) was generated against a peptid
Axons must withstand mechanical forces, including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, because spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. The axons of these neurons are very long and exposed to the mechanical forces associated with limb movement; most lack an AIS, and some are unmyelinated and have no nodes. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that, in myelinated axons, αII spectrin forms a periodic cytoskeleton with βIV and βII spectrin at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, but that loss of αII spectrin disrupts this organization. Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have reduced numbers of nodes, disrupted paranodal junctions, and mislocalized Kv1 K+ channels. We show that the density of nodal βIV spectrin is constant among axons, but the density of nodal αII spectrin increases with axon diameter. Remarkably, Avil-cre;Sptan1f/f mice have intact nociception and small-diameter axons, but severe ataxia due to preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. Our results suggest that nodal αII spectrin helps resist the mechanical forces experienced by large-diameter axons, and that αII spectrin-dependent cytoskeletons are also required for assembly of nodes of Ranvier.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g., compression, torsion, and stretch). However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in maintenance of axon integrity. We demonstrate the role of the periodic spectrin-dependent cytoskeleton in axons and show that loss of αII spectrin from PNS axons causes preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. We show that nodal αII spectrin is found at greater densities in large-diameter myelinated axons, suggesting that nodes are particularly vulnerable domains requiring a specialized cytoskeleton to protect against axon degeneration.
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles. As neurons mature, MAP6 is translocated to the proximal axon, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. Further, we demonstrate that dynamic palmitoylation, mediated by the family of α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C) depalmitoylating enzymes, controls shuttling of MAP6 between membranes and microtubules and is required for MAP6 retention in axons. We propose a model in which MAP6's palmitoylation mediates microtubule stabilization, allows efficient organelle trafficking, and controls axon maturation in vitro and in situ.
Literature context: 2572306; AB_477552; RRID: AB_
The node of Ranvier is a functionally important site on the myelinated axon where sodium channels are clustered and regeneration of action potentials occurs, allowing fast saltatory conduction of action potentials. Early ultrastructural studies have revealed the presence of "glia" or "astrocytes" at the nodes. NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells or polydendrocytes, which are a resident glial cell population in the mature mammalian central nervous system that is distinct from astrocytes, have also been shown to extend processes that contact the nodes. However, the prevalence of the two types of glia at the node has remained unknown. We have used specific cell surface markers to examine the association of NG2 cells and astrocytes with the nodes of Ranvier in the optic nerve, corpus callosum, and spinal cord of young adult mice or rats. We show that more than 95% of the nodes in all three regions contained astrocyte processes, while 33-49% of nodes contained NG2 cell processes. NG2 cell processes were associated more frequently with larger nodes. A few nodes were devoid of glial apposition. Electron microscopy and stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of dual glial insertion at some nodes and further revealed that NG2 cell processes contacted the nodal membrane at discrete points, while astrocytes had broader processes that surrounded the nodes. The study provides the first systematic quantitative analysis of glial cell insertions at central nodes of Ranvier. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:535-552, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: -Aldrich; RRID:AB_477552). After wa
KCNQ2 potassium channels are critical for normal brain function, as both loss-of-function and gain-of-function KCNQ2 variants can lead to various forms of neonatal epilepsy. Despite recent progress, the full spectrum of consequences as a result of KCNQ2 dysfunction in neocortical pyramidal neurons is still unknown. Here, we report that conditional ablation of Kcnq2 from mouse neocortex leads to hyperexcitability of layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons, exhibiting an increased input resistance and action potential frequency, as well as a reduced medium afterhyperpolarization (mAHP), a conductance partly mediated by KCNQ2 channels. Importantly, we show that introducing the KCNQ2 loss-of-function variant KCNQ2I205V into L2/3 pyramidal neurons using in utero electroporation also results in a hyperexcitable phenotype similar to the conditional knock-out. KCNQ2I205V has a right-shifted conductance-to-voltage relationship, suggesting loss of KCNQ2 channel activity at subthreshold membrane potentials is sufficient to drive large changes in L2/3 pyramidal neuronal excitability even in the presence of an intact mAHP. We also found that the changes in excitability following Kcnq2 ablation are accompanied by alterations at action potential properties, including action potential amplitude in Kcnq2-null neurons. Importantly, partial inhibition of Nav1.6 channels was sufficient to counteract the hyperexcitability of Kcnq2-null neurons. Therefore, our work shows that loss of KCNQ2 channels alters the intrinsic neuronal excitability and action potential properties of L2/3 pyramidal neurons, and identifies Nav1.6 as a new potential molecular target to reduce excitability in patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: KCNQ2 channels are critical for the development of normal brain function, as KCNQ2 variants could lead to epileptic encephalopathy. However, the role of KCNQ2 channels in regulating the properties of neocortical neurons is largely unexplored. Here, we find that Kcnq2 ablation or loss-of-function at subthreshold membrane potentials leads to increased neuronal excitability of neocortical layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons. We also demonstrate that Kcnq2 ablation unexpectedly leads to a larger action potential amplitude. Importantly, we propose the Nav1.6 channel as a new molecular target for patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, as partial inhibition of these channels counteracts the increased L2/3 pyramidal neuron hyperexcitability of Kcnq2-null neurons.
Literature context: l., 1999; RRID:AB_477552), anti-ank
A high density of Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na+ channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na+ channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na+ channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na+channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.
Literature context: 770690","term_text":"AB477552"}}
Perturbations in fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are hypothesized to be a major component of various neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the mechanisms regulating PV interneurons remain mostly unknown. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to function as a major regulator of synaptic plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of Cdk5 in PV interneurons in mouse brain leads to an increase in GABAergic neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity. PVCre;fCdk5 mice display a range of behavioral abnormalities, including decreased anxiety and memory impairment. Our results reveal a central role of Cdk5 expressed in PV interneurons in gating inhibitory neurotransmission and underscore the importance of such regulation during behavioral tasks. Our findings suggest that Cdk5 can be considered a promising therapeutic target in a variety of conditions attributed to inhibitory interneuronal dysfunction, such as epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.
Literature context: t# S8809, RRID:AB_477552) targets m
The Kv7 (KCNQ) family of voltage-gated K(+) channels regulates cellular excitability. The functional role of Kv7.2 has been hampered by the lack of a viable Kcnq2-null animal model. In this study, we generated homozygous Kcnq2-null sensory neurons using the Cre-Lox system; in these mice, Kv7.2 expression is absent in the peripheral sensory neurons, whereas the expression of other molecular components of nodes (including Kv7.3), paranodes, and juxtaparanodes is not altered. The conditional Kcnq2-null animals exhibit normal motor performance but have increased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Whole-cell patch recording technique demonstrates that Kcnq2-null sensory neurons have increased excitability and reduced spike frequency adaptation. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of Kv7.2 activity increases the excitability of primary sensory neurons.
The consequences of dysmyelination are poorly understood and vary widely in severity. The shaking mouse, a quaking allele, is characterized by severe central nervous system (CNS) dysmyelination and demyelination, a conspicuous action tremor, and seizures in approximately 25% of animals, but with normal muscle strength and a normal lifespan. In this study we compare this mutant with other dysmyelinated mutants including the ceramide sulfotransferase deficient (CST-/-) mouse, which are more severely affected behaviorally, to determine what might underlie the differences between them with respect to behavior and longevity. Examination of the paranodal junctional region of CNS myelinated fibers shows that "transverse bands," a component of the junction, are present in nearly all shaking paranodes but in only a minority of CST-/- paranodes. The number of terminal loops that have transverse bands within a paranode and the number of transverse bands per unit length are only moderately reduced in the shaking mutant, compared with controls, but markedly reduced in CST-/- mice. Immunofluorescence studies also show that although the nodes of the shaking mutant are somewhat longer than normal, Na(+) and K(+) channels remain separated, distinguishing this mutant from CST-/- mice and others that lack transverse bands. We conclude that the essential difference between the shaking mutant and others more severely affected is the presence of transverse bands, which serve to stabilize paranodal structure over time as well as the organization of the axolemmal domains, and that differences in the prevalence of transverse bands underlie the marked differences in progressive neurological impairment and longevity among dysmyelinated mouse mutants.
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons of mouse and rat retinas are of the interplexiform subtype (DA-IPC), i.e., they send processes distally toward the outer retina, exhibiting numerous varicosities along their course. The primary question we addressed was whether distally located DA-IPC varicosities, identified by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, had the characteristic presynaptic proteins associated with calcium-dependent vesicular release of neurotransmitter. We found that TH immunoreactive varicosities in the outer retina possessed vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and vesicular GABA transporter, but they lacked immunostaining for any of nine subtypes of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Immunoreactivity for other channels that may permit calcium influx such as certain ionotropic glutamate receptors and canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) was similarly absent, although DA-IPC varicosities did show ryanodine receptor immunoreactivity, indicating the presence of intracellular calcium stores. The synaptic vesicle proteins sv2a and sv2b and certain other proteins associated with the presynaptic membrane were absent from DA-IPC varicosities, but the vesicular SNARE protein, vamp2, was present in a fraction of those varicosities. We identified a presumed second class of IPC that is GABAergic but not dopaminergic. Outer retinal varicosities of this putative GABAergic IPC did colocalize synaptic vesicle protein 2a, suggesting they possessed a conventional vesicular release mechanism.
Voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels accumulate at the axon initial segment (IS), where their high density supports spike initiation. Maintenance of this high density of Na(v) channels involves a macromolecular complex that includes the cytoskeletal linker protein ankyrin-G, the only protein known to bind Na(v) channels and localize them at the IS. We found previously that Na(v)1.6 is the predominant Na(v) channel isoform at IS of adult rodent retinal ganglion cells. However, here we report that Na(v)1.6 immunostaining is consistently reduced or absent in short regions of the IS proximal to the soma, although both ankyrin-G and pan-Na(v) antibodies stain this region. We show that this proximal IS subregion is a unique axonal microdomain, containing an accumulation of Na(v)1.1 channels that are spatially segregated from the Na(v)1.6 channels of the distal IS. Additionally, we find that axonal K(v)1.2 potassium channels are present within the distal IS, but are also excluded from the Na(v)1.1-enriched proximal IS microdomain. Because ankyrin-G was prominent in both proximal and distal subcompartments of the IS, where it colocalized with either Na(v)1.1 or Na(v)1.6, respectively, mechanisms other than association with ankyrin-G must mediate differential targeting of Na(v) channel subtypes to achieve the spatial precision observed within the IS. This precise arrangement of ion channels within the axon initial segment is likely an important determinant of the firing properties of ganglion cells and other mammalian neurons.
Mutations in the major peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin protein, myelin protein zero (MPZ), cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease type 1B (CMT1B), typically thought of as a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Certain MPZ mutations, however, cause adult onset neuropathy with minimal demyelination but pronounced axonal degeneration. Mechanism(s) for this phenotype are unknown. We performed an autopsy of a 73-year-old woman with a late-onset neuropathy caused by an H10P MPZ mutation whose nerve conduction studies suggested severe axonal loss but no demyelination. The autopsy demonstrated axonal loss and reorganization of the molecular architecture of the axolemma. Segmental demyelination was negligible. In addition, we identified focal nerve enlargements containing MPZ and ubiquitin either in the inner myelin intralaminar and/or periaxonal space that separates axons from myelinating Schwann cells. Taken together, these data confirmed that a mutation in MPZ can cause axonal neuropathy, in the absence of segmental demyelination, thus uncoupling the two pathological processes. More important, it also provided potential molecular mechanisms as to how the axonal degeneration occurred: either by disruption of glial-axon interaction by protein aggregates or by alterations in the molecular architecture of internodes and paranodes. This report represents the first study in which the molecular basis of axonal degeneration in the late-onset CMT1B has been explored in human tissue.