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Anti-β-Actin Antibody

RRID:AB_476744

Antibody ID

AB_476744

Target Antigen

β-Actin human, bovine, sheep, pig, rabbit, cat, dog, mouse, rat, guinea pig, chicken, carp, leech

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# A5441, RRID:AB_476744)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

application(s): immunohistochemistry (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections), indirect ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence using cultured human or chicken fibroblasts, western blot using cultured human or chicken fibroblast cell extracts

Clone ID

AC-15

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

A5441

Publications that use this research resource

Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase as a Novel Treatment Target in Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

  • Chortis V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated a potential new treatment target for ACC, focusing on the mitochondrial reduced form of NAD phosphate (NADPH) generator nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). NNT has a central role within mitochondrial antioxidant pathways, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Inactivating human NNT mutations result in congenital adrenal insufficiency. We hypothesized that NNT silencing in ACC cells will induce toxic levels of oxidative stress. To explore this, we transiently knocked down NNT in NCI-H295R ACC cells. As predicted, this manipulation increased intracellular levels of oxidative stress; this resulted in a pronounced suppression of cell proliferation and higher apoptotic rates, as well as sensitization of cells to chemically induced oxidative stress. Steroidogenesis was paradoxically stimulated by NNT loss, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling. Next, we generated a stable NNT knockdown model in the same cell line to investigate the longer lasting effects of NNT silencing. After long-term culture, cells adapted metabolically to chronic NNT knockdown, restoring their redox balance and resilience to oxidative stress, although their proliferation remained suppressed. This was associated with higher rates of oxygen consumption. The molecular pathways underpinning these responses were explored in detail by RNA sequencing and nontargeted metabolome analysis, revealing major alterations in nucleotide synthesis, protein folding, and polyamine metabolism. This study provides preclinical evidence of the therapeutic merit of antioxidant targeting in ACC as well as illuminating the long-term adaptive response of cells to oxidative stress.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - R103963(United Kingdom)

Chromatin Binding of c-REL and p65 Is Not Limiting for Macrophage IL12B Transcription During Immediate Suppression by Ovarian Carcinoma Ascites.

  • Unger A
  • Front Immunol
  • 2018 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumors frequently exploit homeostatic mechanisms that suppress expression of IL-12, a central mediator of inflammatory and anti-tumor responses. The p40 subunit of the IL-12 heterodimer, encoded by IL12B, is limiting for these functions. Ovarian carcinoma patients frequently produce ascites which exerts immunosuppression by means of soluble factors. The NFκB pathway is necessary for transcription of IL12B, which is not expressed in macrophages freshly isolated from ascites. This raises the possibility that ascites prevents IL12B expression by perturbing NFκB binding to chromatin. Here, we show that ascites-mediated suppression of IL12B induction by LPS plus IFNγ in primary human macrophages is rapid, and that suppression can be reversible after ascites withdrawal. Nuclear translocation of the NFκB transcription factors c-REL and p65 was strongly reduced by ascites. Surprisingly, however, their binding to the IL12B locus and to CXCL10, a second NFκB target gene, was unaltered, and the induction of CXCL10 transcription was not suppressed by ascites. These findings indicate that, despite its reduced nuclear translocation, NFκB function is not generally impaired by ascites, suggesting that ascites-borne signals target additional pathways to suppress IL12B induction. Consistent with these data, IL-10, a clinically relevant constituent of ascites and negative regulator of NFκB translocation, only partially recapitulated IL12B suppression by ascites. Finally, restoration of a defective IL-12 response by appropriate culture conditions was observed only in macrophages from a subset of donors, which may have important implications for the understanding of patient-specific immune responses.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM71801(United States)

Simultaneous Ablation of Neuronal Neurofascin and Ankyrin G in Young and Adult Mice Reveals Age-Dependent Increase in Nodal Stability in Myelinated Axons and Differential Effects on the Lifespan.

  • Taylor AM
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nodes of Ranvier are unique regions where voltage-gated sodium channels are highly enriched to drive saltatory conduction. Genetic ablations in adult mice with loss of specific nodal proteins causes slow but progressive nodal deterioration associated with decreased nerve conduction and axonopathy. What has remained unaddressed is whether loss of nodal proteins at different time points in postnatal life follows similar timelines of nodal disorganization. Here we utilized simultaneous ablation of Neurofascin (NF186) and Ankyrin G (AnkG) in mice of both sexes at three specific time points. We report that concurrent ablation of these core nodal components at postnatal day 13 (P13) leads to accelerated nodal destabilization in comparison with P23, and this disorganization is even slower when ablated at P93. Ablation of NF186 with AnkG at P13 reduced the half-life of NF186 to 15 days compared to 1 month at P23, which increased to 2 months at P93, indicating increasing nodal stability. The half-life of AnkG at the nodes also increased with age but showed enhanced disappearance from the node in the absence of NF186, with a half-life of 3 days at P13 ablation. The nodal disorganization occurred in a sequential manner, with AnkG disappearing first from the nodal areas irrespective of the timing of ablation, and led to decreased nerve conduction and affected axonal health. Together, our studies reveal that nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons continue to become more stable with age and suggest that nodal disorganization in adult human demyelinating disorders occurs slowly until neurological symptoms become evident.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C4909/A5942(United Kingdom)

SAD-A Promotes Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion through Phosphorylation and Inhibition of GDIα in Male Islet β-cells.

  • Nie J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDIα) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part by locking Rho GTPases in an inactive GDP-bound form. The onset of GSIS causes phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174, a critical inhibitory site for GDIα, leading to the release of Rho GTPases and their subsequent activation. However, the kinase regulator(s) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of GDIα in islet β-cells remains elusive. We propose that SAD-A, a member of AMPK-related kinases that promotes GSIS as an effector kinase for incretin signaling, interact with and inhibit GDIα through phosphorylation of Ser174 during the onset GSIS from islet β-cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and phosphorylation analyses were carried out to identify the physical interaction and phosphorylation site of GDIα by SAD-A in the context of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 β-cells and primary islets. We identified GDIα directly binds to SAD-A kinase domain and phosphorylated by SAD-A on Ser174, leading to dissociation of Rho GTPases from GDIα complexes. Accordingly, overexpression of SAD-A significantly stimulated GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174 in response to GSIS, which is dramatically potentiated by GLP-1, an incretin hormone. Conversely, SAD-A deficiency, which is mediated by shRNA transfection in INS-1 cells, significantly attenuated endogenous GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174. Consequently, co-expression of SAD-A completely prevented the inhibitory effect of GDIα on insulin secretion in islets. In summary, glucose and incretin stimulate insulin secretion through the phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174 by SAD-A which leads to the activation of Rho GTPases, culminating in insulin exocytosis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI0417351(United States)

APOE4 Causes Widespread Molecular and Cellular Alterations Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC-Derived Brain Cell Types.

  • Lin YT
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) variant is the single greatest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). However, the cell-type-specific functions of APOE4 in relation to AD pathology remain understudied. Here, we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to examine APOE4 effects on human brain cell types. Transcriptional profiling identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes in each cell type, with the most affected involving synaptic function (neurons), lipid metabolism (astrocytes), and immune response (microglia-like cells). APOE4 neurons exhibited increased synapse number and elevated Aβ42 secretion relative to isogenic APOE3 cells while APOE4 astrocytes displayed impaired Aβ uptake and cholesterol accumulation. Notably, APOE4 microglia-like cells exhibited altered morphologies, which correlated with reduced Aβ phagocytosis. Consistently, converting APOE4 to APOE3 in brain cell types from sAD iPSCs was sufficient to attenuate multiple AD-related pathologies. Our study establishes a reference for human cell-type-specific changes associated with the APOE4 variant. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - RC1 AG036106()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048029()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048056()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK070136(United States)

High-Throughput Functional Analysis Distinguishes Pathogenic, Nonpathogenic, and Compensatory Transcriptional Changes in Neurodegeneration.

  • Al-Ramahi I
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Discriminating transcriptional changes that drive disease pathogenesis from nonpathogenic and compensatory responses is a daunting challenge. This is particularly true for neurodegenerative diseases, which affect the expression of thousands of genes in different brain regions at different disease stages. Here we integrate functional testing and network approaches to analyze previously reported transcriptional alterations in the brains of Huntington disease (HD) patients. We selected 312 genes whose expression is dysregulated both in HD patients and in HD mice and then replicated and/or antagonized each alteration in a Drosophila HD model. High-throughput behavioral testing in this model and controls revealed that transcriptional changes in synaptic biology and calcium signaling are compensatory, whereas alterations involving the actin cytoskeleton and inflammation drive disease. Knockdown of disease-driving genes in HD patient-derived cells lowered mutant Huntingtin levels and activated macroautophagy, suggesting a mechanism for mitigating pathogenesis. Our multilayered approach can thus untangle the wealth of information generated by transcriptomics and identify early therapeutic intervention points.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - S06 GM008136-310050(United States)

Spred1 Safeguards Hematopoietic Homeostasis against Diet-Induced Systemic Stress.

  • Tadokoro Y
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cell self-renewal is critical for tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation can lead to organ failure or tumorigenesis. While obesity can induce varied abnormalities in bone marrow components, it is unclear how diet might affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Here, we show that Spred1, a negative regulator of RAS-MAPK signaling, safeguards HSC homeostasis in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Under steady-state conditions, Spred1 negatively regulates HSC self-renewal and fitness, in part through Rho kinase activity. Spred1 deficiency mitigates HSC failure induced by infection mimetics and prolongs HSC lifespan, but it does not initiate leukemogenesis due to compensatory upregulation of Spred2. In contrast, HFD induces ERK hyperactivation and aberrant self-renewal in Spred1-deficient HSCs, resulting in functional HSC failure, severe anemia, and myeloproliferative neoplasm-like disease. HFD-induced hematopoietic abnormalities are mediated partly through alterations to the gut microbiota. Together, these findings reveal that diet-induced stress disrupts fine-tuning of Spred1-mediated signals to govern HSC homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Arthritis Research UK - 17522(United Kingdom)

Distinct roles of ATM and ATR in the regulation of ARP8 phosphorylation to prevent chromosome translocations.

  • Sun J
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromosomal translocations are hallmarks of various types of cancers and leukemias. However, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome translocations remain largely unknown. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, facilitates DNA repair to prevent chromosome abnormalities. Previously, we showed that ATM deficiency led to the 11q23 chromosome translocation, the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemia. Here, we show that ARP8, a subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, is phosphorylated after etoposide treatment. The etoposide-induced phosphorylation of ARP8 is regulated by ATM and ATR, and attenuates its interaction with INO80. The ATM-regulated phosphorylation of ARP8 reduces the excessive loading of INO80 and RAD51 onto the breakpoint cluster region. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of ARP8, regulated by ATM, plays an important role in maintaining the fidelity of DNA repair to prevent the etoposide-induced 11q23 abnormalities.

Funding information:
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP15H02821()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP16H01312()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26430114()
  • KWF Kankerbestrijding - The Oncode Institute()
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - Program of the Joint Usage/Research Center of Kyoto University()
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - the Program of the network-type joint Usage/Research Center for ()
  • Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - The gravitation program CancerGenomiCs.nl()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R37 AI042528(United States)

Tissue Damage Signaling Is a Prerequisite for Protective Neutrophil Recruitment to Microbial Infection in Zebrafish.

  • Huang C
  • Immunity
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tissue damage and infection are deemed likewise triggers of innate immune responses. But whereas neutrophil responses to microbes are generally protective, neutrophil recruitment into damaged tissues without infection is deleterious. Why neutrophils respond to tissue damage and not just to microbes is unknown. Is it a flaw of the innate immune system that persists because evolution did not select against it, or does it provide a selective advantage? Here we dissect the contribution of tissue damage signaling to antimicrobial immune responses in a live vertebrate. By intravital imaging of zebrafish larvae, a powerful model for innate immunity, we show that prevention of tissue damage signaling upon microbial ear infection abrogates leukocyte chemotaxis and reduces animal survival, at least in part, through suppression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPla2), which integrates tissue damage- and microbe-derived cues. Thus, microbial cues are insufficient, and damage signaling is essential for antimicrobial neutrophil responses in zebrafish.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - 2P42 ES04699(United States)

NPY Induces Stress Resilience via Downregulation of Ih in Principal Neurons of Rat Basolateral Amygdala.

  • Silveira Villarroel H
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression is tightly linked with the development of stress resilience in rodents and humans. Local NPY injections targeting the basolateral amygdala (BLA) produce long-term behavioral stress resilience in male rats via an unknown mechanism. Previously, we showed that activation of NPY Y1 receptors hyperpolarizes BLA principal neurons (PNs) through inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated, depolarizing H-current, Ih The present studies tested whether NPY treatment induces stress resilience by modulating Ih NPY (10 pmol) was delivered daily for 5 d bilaterally into the BLA to induce resilience; thereafter, the electrophysiological properties of PNs and the expression of Ih in the BLA were characterized. As reported previously, increases in social interaction (SI) times persisted weeks after completion of NPY administration. In vitro intracellular recordings showed that repeated intra-BLA NPY injections resulted in hyperpolarization of BLA PNs at 2 weeks (2W) and 4 weeks (4W) after NPY treatment. At 2W, spontaneous IPSC frequencies were increased, whereas at 4W, resting Ih was markedly reduced and accompanied by decreased levels of HCN1 mRNA and protein expression in BLA. Knock-down of HCN1 channels in the BLA with targeted delivery of lentivirus containing HCN1-shRNA increased SI beginning 2W after injection and induced stress resilience. NPY treatment induced sequential, complementary changes in the inputs to BLA PNs and their postsynaptic properties that reduce excitability, a mechanism that contributes to less anxious behavior. Furthermore, HCN1 knock-down mimicked the increases in SI and stress resilience observed with NPY, indicating the importance of Ih in stress-related behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Resilience improves mental health outcomes in response to adverse situations. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is associated with decreased stress responses and the expression of resilience in rodents and humans. Single or repeated injections of NPY into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) buffer negative behavioral effects of stress and induce resilience in rats, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that repeated administration of NPY into the BLA unfolds several cellular mechanisms that decrease the activity of pyramidal output neurons. One key mechanism is a reduction in levels of the excitatory ion channel HCN1. Moreover, shRNA knock-down of HCN1 expression in BLA recapitulates some of the actions of NPY and causes potent resilience to stress, indicating that this channel may be a possible target for therapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA112001-04(United States)

Arginine Methylation by PRMT2 Controls the Functions of the Actin Nucleator Cobl.

  • Hou W
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain. Consistently, PRMT2 phenocopied Cobl functions in both gain- and loss-of-function studies. Both PRMT2- and Cobl-promoted dendritogenesis relied on methylation. PRMT2 effects require both its catalytic domain and SH3 domain. Cobl-mediated dendritic arborization required PRMT2, complex formation with PRMT2, and PRMT2's catalytic activity. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cobl methylation is key for Cobl actin binding. Therefore, arginine methylation is a regulatory mechanism reaching beyond controlling nuclear processes. It also controls a major, cytosolic, cytoskeletal component shaping neuronal cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL24415(United States)

Sustained activation of ERK1/2 MAPK in Schwann cells causes corneal neurofibroma.

  • Bargagna-Mohan P
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have shown that constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in Schwann cells (SCs) increases myelin thickness in transgenic mice. In this secondary analysis, we report that these transgenic mice develop a postnatal corneal neurofibroma with the loss of corneal transparency by age six months. We show that expansion of non-myelinating SCs, under the control of activated ERK1/2, also drive myofibroblast differentiation that derives from both SC precursors and resident corneal keratocytes. Further, these mice also harbor activated mast cells in the central cornea, which contributes to pathological corneal neovascularization and fibrosis. This breach of corneal avascularity and immune status is associated with the growth of the tumor pannus, resulting in a corneal stroma that is nearly four times its normal size. In corneas with advanced disease, some axons became ectopically myelinated, and the disruption of Remak bundles is evident. To determine whether myofibroblast differentiation was linked to vimentin, we examined the levels and phosphorylation status of this fibrotic biomarker. Concomitant with the early upregulation of vimentin, a serine 38-phosphorylated isoform of vimentin (pSer38vim) increased in SCs, which was attributed primarily to the soluble fraction of protein-not the cytoskeletal portion. However, the overexpressed pSer38vim became predominantly cytoskeletal with the growth of the corneal tumor. Our findings demonstrate an unrecognized function of ERK1/2 in the maintenance of corneal homeostasis, wherein its over-activation in SCs promotes corneal neurofibromas. This study is also the first report of a genetically engineered mouse that spontaneously develops a corneal tumor.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY016782()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS038878()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS081948()

VEGF signaling regulates the fate of obstructed capillaries in mouse cortex.

  • Reeson P
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical capillaries are prone to obstruction, which over time, could have a major impact on brain angioarchitecture and function. The mechanisms that govern the removal of these obstructions and what long-term fate awaits obstructed capillaries, remains a mystery. We estimate that ~0.12% of mouse cortical capillaries are obstructed each day (lasting >20 min), preferentially in superficial layers and lower order branches. Tracking natural or microsphere-induced obstructions revealed that 75-80% of capillaries recanalized within 24 hr. Remarkably, 30% of all obstructed capillaries were pruned by 21 days, including some that had regained flow. Pruning involved regression of endothelial cells, which was not compensated for by sprouting. Using this information, we predicted capillary loss with aging that closely matched experimental estimates. Genetic knockdown or inhibition of VEGF-R2 signaling was a critical factor in promoting capillary recanalization and minimizing subsequent pruning. Our studies reveal the incidence, mechanism and long-term outcome of capillary obstructions which can also explain age-related capillary rarefaction.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DP2 DK083052(United States)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Functions as a Fast-Acting Antioxidant by Triggering Intracellular H2S and Sulfane Sulfur Production.

  • Ezeriņa D
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cysteine prodrug N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is widely used as a pharmacological antioxidant and cytoprotectant. It has been reported to lower endogenous oxidant levels and to protect cells against a wide range of pro-oxidative insults. As NAC itself is a poor scavenger of oxidants, the molecular mechanisms behind the antioxidative effects of NAC have remained uncertain. Here we show that NAC-derived cysteine is desulfurated to generate hydrogen sulfide, which in turn is oxidized to sulfane sulfur species, predominantly within mitochondria. We provide evidence suggesting the possibility that sulfane sulfur species produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase are the actual mediators of the immediate antioxidative and cytoprotective effects provided by NAC.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM056264-07(United States)

Dimerization of the Pragmin Pseudo-Kinase Regulates Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation.

  • Lecointre C
  • Structure
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pseudo-kinase and signaling protein Pragmin has been linked to cancer by regulating protein tyrosine phosphorylation via unknown mechanisms. Here we present the crystal structure of the Pragmin 906-1,368 amino acid C terminus, which encompasses its kinase domain. We show that Pragmin contains a classical protein-kinase fold devoid of catalytic activity, despite a conserved catalytic lysine (K997). By proteomics, we discovered that this pseudo-kinase uses the tyrosine kinase CSK to induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human cells. Interestingly, the protein-kinase domain is flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions forming an original dimerization domain that regulates Pragmin self-association and stimulates CSK activity. A1329E mutation in the C-terminal extension destabilizes Pragmin dimerization and reduces CSK activation. These results reveal a dimerization mechanism by which a pseudo-kinase can induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Further sequence-structure analysis identified an additional member (C19orf35) of the superfamily of dimeric Pragmin/SgK269/PEAK1 pseudo-kinases.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM089763(United States)

Crosstalk control and limits of physiological c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity for cell viability and neurite stability in differentiated PC12 cells.

  • Waetzig V
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are important mediators of cell viability and structural integrity in postmitotic neurons, which is required for maintaining synaptic connections and neural plasticity. In the present study, we chose differentiated PC12 cells as a well-characterised neuronal model system to selectively examine the regulation of basal JNK activity by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt. We detected a complex interaction between the kinases to prevent cell death and neurite loss. Especially the appropriate level of JNK activation determined cellular survival. Basal activity of ERK1/2 attenuated the potentiation of JNK phosphorylation and thereby the induction of apoptosis. Importantly, when JNK activity was too low, cell viability and the number of neurite-bearing cells also decreased, even though the activation of ERK1/2 was enhanced. In this case, the JNK-mediated survival signals via activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) were inhibited. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited the basal activity of Akt, which normally supported cell viability. Thus, controlling JNK activity is crucial to promote survival and neurite stability of differentiated neuronal cells.

Kir4.1-Dependent Astrocyte-Fast Motor Neuron Interactions Are Required for Peak Strength.

  • Kelley KW
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diversified neurons are essential for sensorimotor function, but whether astrocytes become specialized to optimize circuit performance remains unclear. Large fast α-motor neurons (FαMNs) of spinal cord innervate fast-twitch muscles that generate peak strength. We report that ventral horn astrocytes express the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 (a.k.a. Kcnj10) around MNs in a VGLUT1-dependent manner. Loss of astrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 selectively altered FαMN size and function and led to reduced peak strength. Overexpression of Kir4.1 in astrocytes was sufficient to increase MN size through activation of the PI3K/mTOR/pS6 pathway. Kir4.1 was downregulated cell autonomously in astrocytes derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with SOD1 mutation. However, astrocyte Kir4.1 was dispensable for FαMN survival even in the mutant SOD1 background. These findings show that astrocyte Kir4.1 is essential for maintenance of peak strength and suggest that Kir4.1 downregulation might uncouple symptoms of muscle weakness from MN cell death in diseases like ALS.

Funding information:
  • FIC NIH HHS - K01 TW000001(United States)

lncRNA Epigenetic Landscape Analysis Identifies EPIC1 as an Oncogenic lncRNA that Interacts with MYC and Promotes Cell-Cycle Progression in Cancer.

  • Wang Z
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

We characterized the epigenetic landscape of genes encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) across 6,475 tumors and 455 cancer cell lines. In stark contrast to the CpG island hypermethylation phenotype in cancer, we observed a recurrent hypomethylation of 1,006 lncRNA genes in cancer, including EPIC1 (epigenetically-induced lncRNA1). Overexpression of EPIC1 is associated with poor prognosis in luminal B breast cancer patients and enhances tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, EPIC1 promotes cell-cycle progression by interacting with MYC through EPIC1's 129-283 nt region. EPIC1 knockdown reduces the occupancy of MYC to its target genes (e.g., CDKN1A, CCNA2, CDC20, and CDC45). MYC depletion abolishes EPIC1's regulation of MYC target and luminal breast cancer tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 ES100485(United States)

A polymorphism in the tumor suppressor p53 affects aging and longevity in mouse models.

  • Zhao Y
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumor suppressor p53 prevents early death due to cancer development. However, the role of p53 in aging process and longevity has not been well-established. In humans, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with either arginine (R72) or proline (P72) at codon 72 influences p53 activity; the P72 allele has a weaker p53 activity and function in tumor suppression. Here, employing a mouse model with knock-in of human TP53 gene carrying codon 72 SNP, we found that despite increased cancer risk, P72 mice that escape tumor development display a longer lifespan than R72 mice. Further, P72 mice have a delayed development of aging-associated phenotypes compared with R72 mice. Mechanistically, P72 mice can better retain the self-renewal function of stem/progenitor cells compared with R72 mice during aging. This study provides direct genetic evidence demonstrating that p53 codon 72 SNP directly impacts aging and longevity, which supports a role of p53 in regulation of longevity.

Funding information:
  • Lawrence Ellison Foundation - New Investigate Award AG-NS-0781-11()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA160558()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA203965()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA227912()
  • National Institutes of Health - F99CA222734()
  • NCI NIH HHS - F99 CA222734()
  • New Jersey Commission on Cancer Research - Postdoctoral Fellowship Award()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R37HD033082(United States)
  • U.S. Department of Defense - W81XWH-16-1-0358()

Autophagy Inhibition Mediates Apoptosis Sensitization in Cancer Therapy by Relieving FOXO3a Turnover.

  • Fitzwalter BE
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Macroautophagy (autophagy) is intimately linked with cell death and allows cells to evade apoptosis. This has prompted clinical trials to combine autophagy inhibitors with other drugs with the aim of increasing the likelihood of cancer cells dying. However, the molecular basis for such effects is unknown. Here, we describe a transcriptional mechanism that connects autophagy to apoptosis. The autophagy-regulating transcription factor, FOXO3a, is itself turned over by basal autophagy creating a potential feedback loop. Increased FOXO3a upon autophagy inhibition stimulates transcription of the pro-apoptotic BBC3/PUMA gene to cause apoptosis sensitization. This mechanism explains how autophagy inhibition can sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy drugs and allows an autophagy inhibitor to change the action of an MDM2-targeted drug from growth inhibition to apoptosis, reducing tumor burden in vivo. Thus, a link between two processes mediated via a single transcription factor binding site in the genome can be leveraged to improve anti-cancer therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA046934()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA117907()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA150925()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA190170()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA190216()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG006998(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007635()

Rare Disease Mechanisms Identified by Genealogical Proteomics of Copper Homeostasis Mutant Pedigrees.

  • Zlatic SA
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rare neurological diseases shed light onto universal neurobiological processes. However, molecular mechanisms connecting genetic defects to their disease phenotypes are elusive. Here, we obtain mechanistic information by comparing proteomes of cells from individuals with rare disorders with proteomes from their disease-free consanguineous relatives. We use triple-SILAC mass spectrometry to quantify proteomes from human pedigrees affected by mutations in ATP7A, which cause Menkes disease, a rare neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorder stemming from systemic copper depletion. We identified 214 proteins whose expression was altered in ATP7A-/y fibroblasts. Bioinformatic analysis of ATP7A-mutant proteomes identified known phenotypes and processes affected in rare genetic diseases causing copper dyshomeostasis, including altered mitochondrial function. We found connections between copper dyshomeostasis and the UCHL1/PARK5 pathway of Parkinson disease, which we validated with mitochondrial respiration and Drosophila genetics assays. We propose that our genealogical "omics" strategy can be broadly applied to identify mechanisms linking a genomic locus to its phenotypes.

Early structural and functional plasticity alterations in a susceptibility period of DYT1 dystonia mouse striatum.

  • Maltese M
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a+/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a+/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. BDNF regulates AMPAR expression during development. Accordingly, both proBDNF and BDNF levels were significantly higher in Tor1a+/Δgag mice. Consistently, antagonism of BDNF rescued synaptic plasticity deficits and AMPA currents. Our findings demonstrate that early loss of functional and structural synaptic homeostasis represents a unique endophenotypic trait during striatal maturation, promoting the appearance of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers.

Funding information:
  • Dystonia Medical Research Foundation - 2017()
  • Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca - PRIN 2010-2011()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL084498-01A2(United States)

Effects of ischemic post-conditioning on neuronal VEGF regulation and microglial polarization in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

  • Esposito E
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ischemic postconditioning is increasingly being investigated as a therapeutic approach for cerebral ischemia. However, the majority of studies are focused on the acute protection of neurons per se. Whether and how postconditioning affects multiple cells in the recovering neurovascular unit remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we asked whether postconditioning may modulate help-me signaling between injured neurons and reactive microglia. Rats were subjected to 100 min of focal cerebral ischemia, then randomized into a control versus postconditioning group. After 3 days of reperfusion, infarct volumes were significantly reduced in animals treated with postconditioning, along with better neurologic outcomes. Immunostaining revealed that ischemic postconditioning increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neurons within peri-infarct regions. Correspondingly, we confirmed that VEGFR2 was expressed on Iba1-positive microglia/macrophages, and confocal microscopy showed that in postconditioned rats, these cells were polarized to a ramified morphology with higher expression of M2-like markers. Treating rats with a VEGF receptor 2 kinase inhibitor negated these effects of postconditioning on microglia/macrophage polarization. In vitro, postconditoning after oxygen-glucose deprivation up-regulated VEGF release in primary neuron cultures, and adding VEGF to microglial cultures partly shifted their M2-like markers. Altogether, our findings support the idea that after postconditioning, injured neurons may release VEGF as a 'help-me' signal that promotes microglia/macrophage polarization into potentially beneficial phenotypes.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA114209(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS093415()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R03 NS099739()

Evidence that increased Kcnj6 gene dose is necessary for deficits in behavior and dentate gyrus synaptic plasticity in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

  • Kleschevnikov AM
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2018 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is caused by increased dose of genes present on human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The gene-dose hypothesis argues that a change in the dose of individual genes or regulatory sequences on HSA21 is necessary for creating DS-related phenotypes, including cognitive impairment. We focused on a possible role for Kcnj6, the gene encoding Kir3.2 (Girk2) subunits of a G-protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. This gene resides on a segment of mouse Chromosome 16 that is present in one extra copy in the genome of the Ts65Dn mouse, a well-studied genetic model of DS. Kir3.2 subunit-containing potassium channels serve as effectors for a number of postsynaptic metabotropic receptors including GABAB receptors. Several studies raise the possibility that increased Kcnj6 dose contributes to synaptic and cognitive abnormalities in DS. To assess directly a role for Kcnj6 gene dose in cognitive deficits in DS, we produced Ts65Dn mice that harbor only 2 copies of Kcnj6 (Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mice). The reduction in Kcnj6 gene dose restored to normal the hippocampal level of Kir3.2. Long-term memory, examined in the novel object recognition test with the retention period of 24h, was improved to the level observed in the normosomic littermate control mice (2N:Kcnj6++). Significantly, both short-term and long-term potentiation (STP and LTP) was improved to control levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mouse. In view of the ability of fluoxetine to suppress Kir3.2 channels, we asked if fluoxetine-treated DG slices of Ts65Dn:Kcnj6+++ mice would rescue synaptic plasticity. Fluoxetine increased STP and LTP to control levels. These results are evidence that increased Kcnj6 gene dose is necessary for synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Strategies aimed at pharmacologically reducing channel function should be explored for enhancing cognition in DS.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS055371()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS066072()

The SS18-SSX Oncoprotein Hijacks KDM2B-PRC1.1 to Drive Synovial Sarcoma.

  • Banito A
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive cancer invariably associated with a chromosomal translocation involving genes encoding the SWI-SNF complex component SS18 and an SSX (SSX1 or SSX2) transcriptional repressor. Using functional genomics, we identify KDM2B, a histone demethylase and component of a non-canonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1.1), as selectively required for sustaining synovial sarcoma cell transformation. SS18-SSX1 physically interacts with PRC1.1 and co-associates with SWI/SNF and KDM2B complexes on unmethylated CpG islands. Via KDM2B, SS18-SSX1 binds and aberrantly activates expression of developmentally regulated genes otherwise targets of polycomb-mediated repression, which is restored upon KDM2B depletion, leading to irreversible mesenchymal differentiation. Thus, SS18-SSX1 deregulates developmental programs to drive transformation by hijacking a transcriptional repressive complex to aberrantly activate gene expression.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0900871(United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA013106()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD020122()

NMDA receptor blockade ameliorates abnormalities of spike firing of subthalamic nucleus neurons in a parkinsonian nonhuman primate.

  • Bhattacharya S
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels comprising tetrameric assemblies of GluN1 and GluN2 receptor subunits that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Of the four different GluN2 subunits, the GluN2D subunit-containing NMDARs have been suggested as a target for antiparkinsonian therapy because of their expression pattern in some of the basal ganglia nuclei that show abnormal firing patterns in the parkinsonian state, specifically the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In this study, we demonstrate that blockade of NMDARs altered spike firing in the STN in a male nonhuman primate that had been rendered parkinsonian by treatment with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. In accompanying experiments in male rodents, we found that GluN2D-NMDAR expression in the STN was reduced in acutely or chronically dopamine-depleted animals. Taken together, our data suggest that blockade of NMDARs in the STN may be a viable antiparkinsonian strategy, but that the ultimate success of this approach may be complicated by parkinsonism-associated changes in NMDAR expression in the STN.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - T32 DE014320(United States)

Identification of a Botulinum Neurotoxin-like Toxin in a Commensal Strain of Enterococcus faecium.

  • Zhang S
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by various Clostridium strains, are a family of potent bacterial toxins and potential bioterrorism agents. Here we report that an Enterococcus faecium strain isolated from cow feces carries a BoNT-like toxin, designated BoNT/En. It cleaves both VAMP2 and SNAP-25, proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, at sites distinct from known BoNT cleavage sites on these two proteins. Comparative genomic analysis determines that the E. faecium strain carrying BoNT/En is a commensal type and that the BoNT/En gene is located within a typical BoNT gene cluster on a 206 kb putatively conjugative plasmid. Although the host species targeted by BoNT/En remains to be determined, these findings establish an extended member of BoNTs and demonstrate the capability of E. faecium, a commensal organism ubiquitous in humans and animals and a leading cause of hospital-acquired multi-drug-resistant (MDR) infections, to horizontally acquire, and possibly disseminate, a unique BoNT gene cluster.

Nrf2 Deficiency Upregulates Intrarenal Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 and Angiotensin 1-7 Receptor Expression and Attenuates Hypertension and Nephropathy in Diabetic Mice.

  • Zhao S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We investigated the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) gene expression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) and in the development of systemic hypertension and kidney injury in diabetic Akita mice. We used adult male Akita Nrf2 knockout mice and Akita mice treated with trigonelline (an Nrf2 inhibitor) or oltipraz (an Nrf2 activator). We also examined rat immortalized RPTCs (IRPTCs) stably transfected with control plasmids or plasmids containing rat angiotensinogen (Agt), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (Ace2), or angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) receptor (MasR) gene promoters. Genetic deletion of Nrf2 or pharmacological inhibition of Nrf2 in Akita mice attenuated hypertension, renal injury, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Furthermore, loss of Nrf2 upregulated RPTC Ace2 and MasR expression, increased urinary Ang 1-7 levels, and downregulated expression of Agt, ACE, and profibrotic genes in Akita mice. In cultured IRPTCs, Nrf2 small interfering RNA transfection or trigonelline treatment prevented high glucose stimulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Agt, and ACE transcription with augmentation of Ace2 and MasR transcription, which was reversed by oltipraz. These data identify a mechanism, Nrf2-mediated stimulation of intrarenal RAS gene expression, by which chronic hyperglycemia induces hypertension and renal injury in diabetes.

Funding information:
  • CIHR - MOP-16088 ()
  • CIHR - MOP-494266()
  • CIHR - MOP-84363()
  • CIHR - MOP-86450 ()
  • CIHR - MOP-93650()
  • CIHR - MOP-97742 ()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-48455()
  • Wellcome Trust - 085475(United Kingdom)

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Suppresses Synapse Formation in the Hippocampus of Male Rats via Inhibition of CXCL5 Secretion by Glia.

  • Zhang Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is believed to play a critical role in stress-induced synaptic formation and modification. In the current study, we explored the mechanisms underlying CRH modulation of synaptic formation in the hippocampus by using various models in vitro. In cultured hippocampal slices, CRH treatment decreased synapsin I and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) levels via CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1). In isolated hippocampal neurons, however, it increased synapsin I-labeled presynaptic terminals and PSD95-labeled postsynaptic terminals via CRHR1. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of CRH on synapsin I-labeled and PSD95-labeled terminals occurred in the model of neuron-glia cocultures. These effects were prevented by CRHR1 antagonist. Moreover, treatment of the neurons with the media of CRH-treated glia led to a decrease in synaptic terminal formation. The media collected from CRH-treated glial cells with CRHR1 knockdown did not show an inhibitory effect on synaptic terminals in hippocampal neurons. Unbiased cytokine array coupled with confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that CRH suppressed C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) production in glia via CRHR1. Administration of CXCL5 reversed the inhibitory effects of CRH-treated glia culture media on synaptic formation. Our data suggest that CRH suppresses synapse formation through inhibition of CXCL5 secretion from glia in the hippocampus. Our study indicates that glia-neuron intercommunication is one of the mechanisms responsible for neuronal circuit remodeling during stress.

Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Coordinates a Pro-carcinogenic Inflammatory Cascade via Targeting of Colonic Epithelial Cells.

  • Chung L
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pro-carcinogenic bacteria have the potential to initiate and/or promote colon cancer, in part via immune mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Using ApcMin mice colonized with the human pathobiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) as a model of microbe-induced colon tumorigenesis, we show that the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) triggers a pro-carcinogenic, multi-step inflammatory cascade requiring IL-17R, NF-κB, and Stat3 signaling in colonic epithelial cells (CECs). Although necessary, Stat3 activation in CECs is not sufficient to trigger ETBF colon tumorigenesis. Notably, IL-17-dependent NF-κB activation in CECs induces a proximal to distal mucosal gradient of C-X-C chemokines, including CXCL1, that mediates the recruitment of CXCR2-expressing polymorphonuclear immature myeloid cells with parallel onset of ETBF-mediated distal colon tumorigenesis. Thus, BFT induces a pro-carcinogenic signaling relay from the CEC to a mucosal Th17 response that results in selective NF-κB activation in distal colon CECs, which collectively triggers myeloid-cell-dependent distal colon tumorigenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA006973()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA062924()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA151325()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK087856()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK089502()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK080817()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM033279(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM111682()

Modest enhancement of sensory axon regeneration in the sciatic nerve with conditional co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 in the dorsal root ganglia of adult mice.

  • Gallaher ZR
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axons within the peripheral nervous system are capable of regeneration, but full functional recovery is rare. Recent work has shown that conditional deletion of two key signaling inhibitors of the PI3K and Jak/Stat pathways-phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), respectively-promotes regeneration of normally non-regenerative central nervous system axons. Moreover, in studies of optic nerve regeneration, co-deletion of both PTEN and SOCS3 has an even greater effect. Here, we test the hypotheses (1) that PTEN deletion enhances axon regeneration following sciatic nerve crush and (2) that PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion further promotes regeneration. PTENfl/fl and PTEN/SOCS3fl/fl mice received direct injections of AAV-Cre into the fourth and fifth lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) two weeks prior to sciatic nerve crush. Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates from DRG using phospho-specific antibodies revealed that PTEN deletion did not enhance or prolong PI3K signaling following sciatic nerve crush. However, PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion activated PI3K for at least 7 days post-injury in contrast to controls, where activation peaked at 3 days. Quantification of SCG10-expressing regenerating sensory axons in the sciatic nerve after crush injury revealed longer distance regeneration at 3 days post-injury with both PTEN and PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion. Additionally, analysis of noxious thermosensation and mechanosensation with PTEN/SOCS3 co-deletion revealed enhanced sensation at 14 and 21 days after crush, respectively, after which all treatment groups reached the same functional plateau. These findings indicate that co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 results in modest but measureable enhancement of early regeneration of DRG axons following crush injury.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32-GM007315(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS047718()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073857()

Constituents of neutrophil extracellular traps induce in vitro collagen formation in mare endometrium.

  • Rebordão MR
  • Theriogenology
  • 2018 Feb 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA complexes carrying nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, such as elastase (ELA), cathepsin-G (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Mare endometrosis is a chronic degenerative process characterized by excessive collagen in endometrium. While NETs fight bacteria that cause endometritis, they may trigger endometrial fibrogenesis. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro effect of some NETs components on mare endometrial fibrogenesis and determine its relationship with histopathology or estrous cycle. Endometrial explants were incubated with NETs components (ELA, CAT, MPO or oxytocin). Collagen type I (COL1) protein and type I and III (COL3) gene transcription were evaluated in follicular and mid-luteal phases endometria (Kenney and Doig type I/IIA and IIB/III). Increased COL1 occurred with all NETs proteins, although endometrial response to each NETs protease depended on estrous cycle and/or endometrial category. Since ELA enhanced COL1 production, NETs persistence might be linked to endometrosis. Estrous cycle influenced COL1 protein concentration and COL3 transcripts, suggesting that follicular phase may favor endometrial collagen production. However, luteal phase endometria with moderate or severe lesions may be also susceptible to fibrotic effects of NETs constituents. These data propose that NETs involvement in chronic endometritis in mares may act as putative endometrial fibrogenic mediators.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01-DK073632(United States)

N6-Methyladenosine Guides mRNA Alternative Translation during Integrated Stress Response.

  • Zhou J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The integrated stress response (ISR) facilitates cellular adaptation to stress conditions via the common target eIF2α. During ISR, the selective translation of stress-related mRNAs often relies on alternative mechanisms, such as leaky scanning or reinitiation, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here we report that, in response to amino acid starvation, the reinitiation of ATF4 is not only governed by the eIF2α signaling pathway, but is also subjected to regulation by mRNA methylation in the form of N6-methyladenosine (m6A). While depleting m6A demethylases represses ATF4 reinitiation, knocking down m6A methyltransferases promotes ATF4 translation. We demonstrate that m6A in the 5' UTR controls ribosome scanning and subsequent start codon selection. Global profiling of initiating ribosomes reveals widespread alternative translation events influenced by dynamic mRNA methylation. Consistently, Fto transgenic mice manifest enhanced ATF4 expression, highlighting the critical role of m6A in translational regulation of ISR at cellular and organismal levels.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA065910(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG042400()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM122814()

The HDAC6 Inhibitor Tubacin Induces Release of CD133+ Extracellular Vesicles From Cancer Cells.

  • Chao OS
  • J. Cell. Biochem.
  • 2018 Jan 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as an important mode of intercellular communication, capable of transferring biologically active molecules that facilitate the malignant growth and metastatic process. CD133 (Prominin-1), a stem cell marker implicated in tumor initiation, differentiation and resistance to anti-cancer therapy, is reportedly associated with EVs in various types of cancer. However, little is known about the factors that regulate the release of these CD133+ EVs. Here, we report that the HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin promoted the extracellular release of CD133+ EVs from human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma and Caco-2 colorectal carcinoma cells, with a concomitant downregulation of intracellular CD133. This effect was specific for tubacin, as inhibition of HDAC6 deacetylase activity by another selective HDAC6 inhibitor, ACY-1215 or the pan-HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), and knockdown of HDAC6 did not enhance the release of CD133+ EVs. The tubacin-induced EV release was associated with changes in cellular lipid composition, loss of clonogenic capacity and decrease in the ability to form multicellular aggregates. These findings indicate a novel potential anti-tumor mechanism for tubacin in CD133-expressing malignancies. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4414-4424, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Phosphorylated CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Contributes to Rat HIV-Related Neuropathic Pain: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

  • Yi H
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the CNS. C/EBPβ, one of the C/EBPs, is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH). HIV gp120 induced overexpression of pC/EBPβ in the ipsilateral SCDH compared with contralateral SCDH. Inhibition of C/EBPβ using siRNA against C/EBPβ reduced mechanical allodynia. HIV gp120 also increased TNFα, TNFRI, mitochondrial superoxide (mtO2·-), and pCREB in the ipsilateral SCDH. ChIP-qPCR assay showed that pCREB enrichment on the C/EBPβ gene promoter regions in rats with gp120 was higher than that in sham rats. Intrathecal TNF soluble receptor I (functionally blocking TNFα bioactivity) or knockdown of TNFRI using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against TNFRI reduced mechanical allodynia, and decreased mtO2·-, pCREB and pC/EBPβ. Intrathecal Mito-tempol (a mitochondria-targeted O2·-scavenger) reduced mechanical allodynia and decreased pCREB and pC/EBPβ. Knockdown of CREB with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against CREB reduced mechanical allodynia and lowered pC/EBPβ. These results suggested that the pathway of TNFα/TNFRI-mtO2·--pCREB triggers pC/EBPβ in the HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain state. Furthermore, we confirmed the pathway using both cultured neurons treated with recombinant TNFα in vitro and repeated intrathecal injection of recombinant TNFα in naive rats. This finding provides new insights in the understanding of the HIV neuropathic pain mechanisms and treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy is a neurological complication of HIV infection. Phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) influences AIDS progression, but it is still not clear about the exact role of pC/EBPβ and the detailed upstream factors of pC/EBPβ in HIV-related pain. In a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV gp120 application onto the sciatic nerve, we found that pC/EBPβ was triggered by TNFα/TNFRI-mtO2·--pCREB signaling pathway. The pathway was confirmed by using cultured neurons treated with recombinant TNFα in vitro, and by repeated intrathecal injection of recombinant TNFα in naive rats. The present results revealed the functional significance of TNFα/TNFRI-mtO2·--pCREB-pC/EBPβ signaling in HIV neuropathic pain, and should help in the development of more specific treatments for neuropathic pain.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 79634(Canada)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA034749()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS066792()

Neuronal activity-dependent local activation of dendritic unfolded protein response promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cell soma.

  • Saito A
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jan 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Unfolded protein response (UPR) has roles not only in resolving the accumulation of unfolded proteins owing to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but also in regulation of cellular physiological functions. ER stress transducers providing the branches of UPR signaling are known to localize in distal dendritic ER of neurons. These reports suggest that local activation of UPR branches may produce integrated outputs for distant communication, and allow regulation of local events in highly polarized neurons. Here, we demonstrated that synaptic activity- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent local activation of UPR signaling could be associated with dendritic functions through retrograde signal propagation by using murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2A and primary cultured hippocampal neurons derived from postnatal day 0 litter C57BL/6 mice. ER stress transducer, inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1), was activated at postsynapses in response to excitatory synaptic activation. Activated dendritic IRE1 accelerated accumulation of the downstream transcription factor, x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), in the nucleus. Interestingly, excitatory synaptic activation-dependent up-regulation of XBP1 directly facilitated transcriptional activation of BDNF. BDNF in turn drove its own expression via IRE1-XBP1 pathway in a protein kinase A-dependent manner. Exogenous treatment with BDNF promoted extension and branching of dendrites through the protein kinase A-IRE1-XBP1 cascade. Taken together, our findings indicate novel mechanisms for communication between soma and distal sites of polarized neurons that are coordinated by local activation of IRE1-XBP1 signaling. Synaptic activity- and BDNF-dependent distinct activation of dendritic IRE1-XBP1 cascade drives BDNF expression in cell soma and may be involved in dendritic extension. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.14159.

Replication Study: Transcriptional amplification in tumor cells with elevated c-Myc.

  • Lewis LM
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

As part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Blum et al., 2015), that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper 'Transcriptional amplification in tumor cells with elevated c-Myc' (Lin et al., 2012). Here we report the results. We found overexpression of c-Myc increased total levels of RNA in P493-6 Burkitt's lymphoma cells; however, while the effect was in the same direction as the original study (Figure 3E; Lin et al., 2012), statistical significance and the size of the effect varied between the original study and the two different lots of serum tested in this replication. Digital gene expression analysis for a set of genes was also performed on P493-6 cells before and after c-Myc overexpression. Transcripts from genes that were active before c-Myc induction increased in expression following c-Myc overexpression, similar to the original study (Figure 3F; Lin et al., 2012). Transcripts from genes that were silent before c-Myc induction also increased in expression following c-Myc overexpression, while the original study concluded elevated c-Myc had no effect on silent genes (Figure 3F; Lin et al., 2012). Treating the data as paired, we found a statistically significant increase in gene expression for both active and silent genes upon c-Myc induction, with the change in gene expression greater for active genes compared to silent genes. Finally, we report meta-analyses for each result.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U01HL098179(United States)

The Pore-Forming Protein Gasdermin D Regulates Interleukin-1 Secretion from Living Macrophages.

  • Evavold CL
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines are cytosolic proteins that exhibit inflammatory activity upon release into the extracellular space. These factors are released following various cell death processes, with pyroptosis being a common mechanism. Recently, it was recognized that phagocytes can achieve a state of hyperactivation, which is defined by their ability to secrete IL-1 while retaining viability, yet it is unclear how IL-1 can be secreted from living cells. Herein, we report that the pyroptosis regulator gasdermin D (GSDMD) was necessary for IL-1β secretion from living macrophages that have been exposed to inflammasome activators, such as bacteria and their products or host-derived oxidized lipids. Cell- and liposome-based assays demonstrated that GSDMD pores were required for IL-1β transport across an intact lipid bilayer. These findings identify a non-pyroptotic function for GSDMD, and raise the possibility that GSDMD pores represent conduits for the secretion of cytosolic cytokines under conditions of cell hyperactivation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - RC1CA1463(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI093589()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI116550()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI124491()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - DP1 HD087988()

Selenium Utilization by GPX4 Is Required to Prevent Hydroperoxide-Induced Ferroptosis.

  • Ingold I
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Selenoproteins are rare proteins among all kingdoms of life containing the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine resembles cysteine, differing only by the substitution of selenium for sulfur. Yet the actual advantage of selenolate- versus thiolate-based catalysis has remained enigmatic, as most of the known selenoproteins also exist as cysteine-containing homologs. Here, we demonstrate that selenolate-based catalysis of the essential mammalian selenoprotein GPX4 is unexpectedly dispensable for normal embryogenesis. Yet the survival of a specific type of interneurons emerges to exclusively depend on selenocysteine-containing GPX4, thereby preventing fatal epileptic seizures. Mechanistically, selenocysteine utilization by GPX4 confers exquisite resistance to irreversible overoxidation as cells expressing a cysteine variant are highly sensitive toward peroxide-induced ferroptosis. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of all selenoproteins in Gpx4cys/cys cells revealed that selenoproteins are dispensable for cell viability provided partial GPX4 activity is retained. Conclusively, 200 years after its discovery, a specific and indispensable role for selenium is provided.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM058888(United States)

The Oxidative Stress-Induced Increase in the Membrane Expression of the Water-Permeable Channel Aquaporin-4 in Astrocytes Is Regulated by Caveolin-1 Phosphorylation.

  • Bi C
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Jan 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue following a cerebral stroke causes oxidative stress, and leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Apart from inflicting oxidative damage, the latter may also trigger the upregulation of aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water-permeable channel expressed by astroglial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and contribute to edema formation, the severity of which is known to be the primary determinant of mortality and morbidity. The mechanism through which this occurs remains unknown. In the present study, we have attempted to address this question using primary astrocyte cultures treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a model system. First, we showed that H2O2 induces a significant increase in AQP4 protein levels and that this is inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Second, we demonstrated using cell surface biotinylation that H2O2 increases AQP4 cell-surface expression independently of it's increased synthesis. In parallel, we found that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is phosphorylated in response to H2O2 and that this is reversed by the Src kinase inhibitor 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2). PP2 also abrogated the H2O2-induced increase in AQP4 surface levels, suggesting that  the phosphorylation of tyrosine-14 of Cav1 regulates  this  process. We  further  showed  that dominant-negative Y14F and phosphomimetic Y14D mutants caused a decrease and increase in AQP4 membrane expression respectively, and that the knockdown of Cav1 inhibits the increase in AQP4 cell-surface, expression following H2O2 treatment. Together, these findings suggest that oxidative stress-induced Cav1 phosphorylation modulates AQP4 subcellular distribution and therefore may indirectly regulate AQP4-mediated water transport.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA095647(United States)

Intracerebroventricular administration of Cystatin C ameliorates disease in SOD1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

  • Watanabe S
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cystatin C (CysC) is a major protein component of Bunina bodies, which are a pathological hallmark observed in the remaining motor neurons of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dominant mutations in the SOD1 gene, encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), are causative for a subset of inherited ALS cases. Our previous study showed that CysC exerts a neuroprotective effect against mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity in vitro; however, in vivo evidence of the beneficial effects mediated by CysC remains obscure. Here we examined the therapeutic potential of recombinant human CysC in vivo using a mouse model of ALS in which the ALS-linked mutated SOD1 gene is expressed (SOD1G93A mice). Intracerebroventricular administration of CysC during the early symptomatic SOD1G93A mice extended their survival times. Administered CysC was predominantly distributed in ventral horn neurons including motor neurons, and induced autophagy through AMP-activated kinase activation to reduce the amount of insoluble mutant SOD1 species. Moreover, PGC-1α, a disease modifier of ALS, was restored by CysC through AMP-activated kinase activation. Finally, the administration of CysC also promoted aggregation of CysC in motor neurons, which is similar to Bunina bodies. Taken together, our findings suggest that CysC represents a promising therapeutic candidate for ALS.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01-AR050478(United States)

The ameliorative effect of fluoxetine on neuroinflammation induced by sleep deprivation.

  • Xia M
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is well known that sleep disorders are harmful to people's health and performance, and growing evidence suggests that sleep deprivation (SD) can trigger neuroinflammation in the brain. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is reported to be relevant to the neuroinflammation induced by SD, but the regulatory signaling that governs the NLRP3 inflammasome in SD is still unknown. Meanwhile, whether the regulatory action of antidepressants in astrocytes could affect the neuroinflammation induced by SD also remains obscure. In this study, we were the first to discover that the antidepressant fluoxetine, a type of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor widely used in clinical practice, could suppress the neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis induced by SD. The main findings from this study are as follows: (i) SD stimulated the expression of activated NLRP3 inflammasomes and the maturation of IL-1β/18 via suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 in astrocytes; (ii) SD decreased the activation of AKT and stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK-3β, which inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3; (iii) the NLRP3 inflammasome expression stimulated by SD was partly mediated by the P2X7 receptor; (iv) an agonist of STAT3 could significantly abolish the expression of NLRP3 inflammasomes induced by an agonist of the P2X7 receptor in primary cultured astrocytes; (v) the administration of fluoxetine could reverse the stimulation of NLRP3 inflammasome expression and function by SD through elevating the activation of STAT3. In conclusion, our present research suggests the promising possibility that fluoxetine could ameliorate the neuronal impairment induced by SD.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 201592(Canada)

Clearance of senescent decidual cells by uterine natural killer cells in cycling human endometrium.

  • Brighton PJ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

In cycling human endometrium, menstruation is followed by rapid estrogen-dependent growth. Upon ovulation, progesterone and rising cellular cAMP levels activate the transcription factor Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs), leading to cell cycle exit and differentiation into decidual cells that control embryo implantation. Here we show that FOXO1 also causes acute senescence of a subpopulation of decidualizing EnSCs in an IL-8 dependent manner. Selective depletion or enrichment of this subpopulation revealed that decidual senescence drives the transient inflammatory response associated with endometrial receptivity. Further, senescent cells prevent differentiation of endometrial mesenchymal stem cells in decidualizing cultures. As the cycle progresses, IL-15 activated uterine natural killer (uNK) cells selectively target and clear senescent decidual cells through granule exocytosis. Our findings reveal that acute decidual senescence governs endometrial rejuvenation and remodeling at embryo implantation, and suggest a critical role for uNK cells in maintaining homeostasis in cycling endometrium.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0700929(United Kingdom)

Deciphering caveolar functions by syndapin III KO-mediated impairment of caveolar invagination.

  • Seemann E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several human diseases are associated with a lack of caveolae. Yet, the functions of caveolae and the molecular mechanisms critical for shaping them still are debated. We show that muscle cells of syndapin III KO mice show severe reductions of caveolae reminiscent of human caveolinopathies. Yet, different from other mouse models, the levels of the plasma membrane-associated caveolar coat proteins caveolin3 and cavin1 were both not reduced upon syndapin III KO. This allowed for dissecting bona fide caveolar functions from those supported by mere caveolin presence and also demonstrated that neither caveolin3 nor caveolin3 and cavin1 are sufficient to form caveolae. The membrane-shaping protein syndapin III is crucial for caveolar invagination and KO rendered the cells sensitive to membrane tensions. Consistent with this physiological role of caveolae in counterpoising membrane tensions, syndapin III KO skeletal muscles showed pathological parameters upon physical exercise that are also found in CAVEOLIN3 mutation-associated muscle diseases.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL095590(United States)

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Attaches Tumor Suppressor PTEN to the Membrane and Promotes Anti Pseudomonas aeruginosa Immunity.

  • Riquelme SA
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The tumor suppressor PTEN controls cell proliferation by regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but the participation of PTEN in host defense against bacterial infection is less well understood. Anti-inflammatory PI3K-Akt signaling is suppressed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease characterized by hyper-inflammatory responses to airway infection. We found that Ptenl-/- mice, which lack the NH2-amino terminal splice variant of PTEN, were unable to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the airways and could not generate sufficient anti-inflammatory PI3K activity, similar to what is observed in CF. PTEN and the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) interacted directly and this interaction was necessary to position PTEN at the membrane. CF patients under corrector-potentiator therapy, which enhances CFTR transport to the membrane, have increased PTEN amounts. These findings suggest that improved CFTR trafficking could enhance P. aeruginosa clearance from the CF airway by activating PTEN-mediated anti-bacterial responses and might represent a therapeutic strategy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA184016()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR027050()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R35 HL135800()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK054890-11(United States)

LRP1 regulates peroxisome biogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis in oligodendrocytes and is required for proper CNS myelin development and repair.

  • Lin JP
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling molecule broadly expressed by neurons and glia. In adult mice, global inducible (Lrp1flox/flox;CAG-CreER) or oligodendrocyte (OL)-lineage specific ablation (Lrp1flox/flox;Pdgfra-CreER) of Lrp1 attenuates repair of damaged white matter. In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Lrp1 is required for cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation into mature OLs. Lrp1-deficient OPC/OLs show a strong increase in the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 yet are unable to maintain normal cholesterol levels, suggesting more global metabolic deficits. Mechanistic studies revealed a decrease in peroxisomal biogenesis factor-2 and fewer peroxisomes in OL processes. Treatment of Lrp1-/- OPCs with cholesterol or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ with pioglitazone alone is not sufficient to promote differentiation; however, when combined, cholesterol and pioglitazone enhance OPC differentiation into mature OLs. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel role for Lrp1 in peroxisome biogenesis, lipid homeostasis, and OPC differentiation during white matter development and repair.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA148761(United States)

mTORC1-Mediated Inhibition of 4EBP1 Is Essential for Hedgehog Signaling-Driven Translation and Medulloblastoma.

  • Wu CC
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) cooperates with Hedgehog (HH) signaling, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacologic evidence that MTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation is a prerequisite for HH signaling. The genetic loss of mTORC1 function inhibited HH signaling-driven growth of the cerebellum and medulloblastoma. Inhibiting translation or mTORC1 blocked HH signaling. Depleting 4EBP1, an mTORC1 target that inhibits translation, alleviated the dependence of HH signaling on mTORC1. Consistent with this, phosphorylated 4EBP1 levels were elevated in HH signaling-driven medulloblastomas in mice and humans. In mice, an mTORC1 inhibitor suppressed medulloblastoma driven by a mutant SMO that is inherently resistant to existing SMO inhibitors, prolonging the survival of the mice. Our study reveals that mTORC1-mediated translation is a key component of HH signaling and an important target for treating medulloblastoma and other cancers driven by HH signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765()

Enhanced AMPA Receptor Trafficking Mediates the Anorexigenic Effect of Endogenous Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in the Paraventricular Hypothalamus.

  • Liu J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)-expressing neurons in the hindbrain send robust projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we describe that stimulation of GLP-1 afferent fibers within the PVN is sufficient to suppress food intake independent of glutamate release. We also show that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation augments excitatory synaptic strength in PVN corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, with GLP-1R activation promoting a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of serine S845 on GluA1 AMPA receptors and their trafficking to the plasma membrane. Finally, we show that postnatal depletion of GLP-1R in the PVN increases food intake and causes obesity. This study provides a comprehensive multi-level (circuit, synaptic, and molecular) explanation of how food intake behavior and body weight are regulated by endogenous central GLP-1. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

m6A Facilitates eIF4F-Independent mRNA Translation.

  • Coots RA
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

In eukaryotic cells, protein synthesis typically begins with the binding of eIF4F to the 7-methylguanylate (m7G) cap found on the 5' end of the majority of mRNAs. Surprisingly, overall translational output remains robust under eIF4F inhibition. The broad spectrum of eIF4F-resistant translatomes is incompatible with cap-independent translation mediated by internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). Here, we report that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) facilitates mRNA translation that is resistant to eIF4F inactivation. Depletion of the methyltransferase METTL3 selectively inhibits translation of mRNAs bearing 5' UTR methylation, but not mRNAs with 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) elements. We identify ABCF1 as a critical mediator of m6A-promoted translation under both stress and physiological conditions. Supporting the role of ABCF1 in m6A-facilitated mRNA translation, ABCF1-sensitive transcripts largely overlap with METTL3-dependent mRNA targets. By illustrating the scope and mechanism of eIF4F-independent mRNA translation, these findings reshape our current perceptions of cellular translational pathways.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG042400()

Postinjury Induction of Activated ErbB2 Selectively Hyperactivates Denervated Schwann Cells and Promotes Robust Dorsal Root Axon Regeneration.

  • Han SB
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Following nerve injury, denervated Schwann cells (SCs) convert to repair SCs, which enable regeneration of peripheral axons. However, the repair capacity of SCs and the regenerative capacity of peripheral axons are limited. In the present studies we examined a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the repair capacity of SCs, and tested its efficacy in enhancing regeneration of dorsal root (DR) axons, whose regenerative capacity is particularly weak. We used male and female mice of a doxycycline-inducible transgenic line to induce expression of constitutively active ErbB2 (caErbB2) selectively in SCs after DR crush or transection. Two weeks after injury, injured DRs of induced animals contained far more SCs and SC processes. These SCs had not redifferentiated and continued to proliferate. Injured DRs of induced animals also contained far more axons that regrew along SC processes past the transection or crush site. Remarkably, SCs and axons in uninjured DRs remained quiescent, indicating that caErbB2 enhanced regeneration of injured DRs, without aberrantly activating SCs and axons in intact nerves. We also found that intraspinally expressed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but not the removal of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, greatly enhanced the intraspinal migration of caErbB2-expressing SCs, enabling robust penetration of DR axons into the spinal cord. These findings indicate that SC-selective, post-injury activation of ErbB2 provides a novel strategy to powerfully enhance the repair capacity of SCs and axon regeneration, without substantial off-target damage. They also highlight that promoting directed migration of caErbB2-expressing SCs by GDNF might be useful to enable axon regrowth in a non-permissive environment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Repair of injured peripheral nerves remains a critical clinical problem. We currently lack a therapy that potently enhances axon regeneration in patients with traumatic nerve injury. It is extremely challenging to substantially increase the regenerative capacity of damaged nerves without deleterious off-target effects. It was therefore of great interest to discover that caErbB2 markedly enhances regeneration of damaged dorsal roots, while evoking little change in intact roots. To our knowledge, these findings are the first demonstration that repair capacity of denervated SCs can be efficaciously enhanced without altering innervated SCs. Our study also demonstrates that oncogenic ErbB2 signaling can be activated in SCs but not impede transdifferentiation of denervated SCs to regeneration-promoting repair SCs.

Bladder-cancer-associated mutations in RXRA activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors to drive urothelial proliferation.

  • Halstead AM
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

RXRA regulates transcription as part of a heterodimer with 14 other nuclear receptors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Analysis from TCGA raised the possibility that hyperactive PPAR signaling, either due to PPAR gamma gene amplification or RXRA hot-spot mutation (S427F/Y) drives 20-25% of human bladder cancers. Here, we characterize mutant RXRA, demonstrating it induces enhancer/promoter activity in the context of RXRA/PPAR heterodimers in human bladder cancer cells. Structure-function studies indicate that the RXRA substitution allosterically regulates the PPAR AF2 domain via an aromatic interaction with the terminal tyrosine found in PPARs. In mouse urothelial organoids, PPAR agonism is sufficient to drive growth-factor-independent growth in the context of concurrent tumor suppressor loss. Similarly, mutant RXRA stimulates growth-factor-independent growth of Trp53/Kdm6a null bladder organoids. Mutant RXRA-driven growth of urothelium is reversible by PPAR inhibition, supporting PPARs as targetable drivers of bladder cancer.

Epigenetic Therapy Ties MYC Depletion to Reversing Immune Evasion and Treating Lung Cancer.

  • Topper MJ
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Combining DNA-demethylating agents (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors [DNMTis]) with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) holds promise for enhancing cancer immune therapy. Herein, pharmacologic and isoform specificity of HDACis are investigated to guide their addition to a DNMTi, thus devising a new, low-dose, sequential regimen that imparts a robust anti-tumor effect for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using in-vitro-treated NSCLC cell lines, we elucidate an interferon α/β-based transcriptional program with accompanying upregulation of antigen presentation machinery, mediated in part through double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction. This is accompanied by suppression of MYC signaling and an increase in the T cell chemoattractant CCL5. Use of this combination treatment schema in mouse models of NSCLC reverses tumor immune evasion and modulates T cell exhaustion state towards memory and effector T cell phenotypes. Key correlative science metrics emerge for an upcoming clinical trial, testing enhancement of immune checkpoint therapy for NSCLC.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA006973()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA121113()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA166348()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA007427(United States)

Long-lasting masculinizing effects of postnatal androgens on myelin governed by the brain androgen receptor.

  • Abi Ghanem C
  • PLoS Genet.
  • 2017 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood. A key role of the brain AR in establishing the sexual phenotype of myelin was demonstrated by its conditional deletion. Our results uncover a new persistent effect of postnatal AR signaling, with implications for neurodevelopmental disorders and sex differences in multiple sclerosis.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH095995(United States)

A Sustained Activation of Pancreatic NMDARs Is a Novel Factor of β-Cell Apoptosis and Dysfunction.

  • Huang XT
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes, which features β-cell failure, is caused by the decrease of β-cell mass and insulin secretory function. Current treatments fail to halt the decrease of functional β-cell mass. Strategies to prevent β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction are highly desirable. Recently, our group and others have reported that blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the islets has been proposed to prevent the progress of type 2 diabetes through improving β-cell function. It suggests that a sustained activation of the NMDARs may exhibit deleterious effect on β-cells. However, the exact functional impact and mechanism of the sustained NMDAR stimulation on islet β-cells remains unclear. Here, we identify a sustained activation of pancreatic NMDARs as a novel factor of apoptotic β-cell death and function. The sustained treatment with NMDA results in an increase of intracellular [Ca2+] and reactive oxygen species, subsequently induces mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and a decrease of oxidative phosphorylation expression, and then impairs the mitochondrial function of β-cells. NMDA specifically induces the mitochondrial-dependent pathway of apoptosis in β-cells through upregulation of the proapoptotic Bim and Bax, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2. Furthermore, a sustained stimulation of NMDARs impairs β-cell insulin secretion through decrease of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx-1) and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. The activation of nuclear factor-κB partly contributes to the reduction of Pdx-1 expression induced by overstimulation of NMDARs. In conclusion, we show that the sustained stimulation of NMDARs is a novel mediator of apoptotic signaling and β-cell dysfunction, providing a mechanistic insight into the pathological role of NMDARs activation in diabetes.

A novel de novo activating mutation in STAT3 identified in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

  • Russell MA
  • Clin. Immunol.
  • 2017 Nov 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterised by repeated infection associated with primary acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. CVID frequently has a complex aetiology but, in certain cases, it has a monogenic cause. Recently, variants within the gene encoding the transcription factor STAT3 were implicated in monogenic CVID. Here, we describe a patient presenting with symptoms synonymous with CVID, who displayed reduced levels of IgG and IgA, repeated viral infections and multiple additional co-morbidities. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo novel missense mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 (c.870A>T; p.K290N). Accordingly, the K290N variant of STAT3 was generated, and a STAT3 responsive dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the variant strongly enhances STAT3 transcriptional activity both under basal and stimulated (with IL-6) conditions. Overall, these data complement earlier studies in which CVID-associated STAT3 mutations are predicted to enhance transcriptional activity, suggesting that such patients may respond favourably to IL-6 receptor antagonists (e.g. tocilizumab).

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI170251(United States)

The effects of prenatal H1N1 infection at E16 on FMRP, glutamate, GABA, and reelin signaling systems in developing murine cerebellum.

  • Fatemi SH
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prenatal viral infection has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, dysfunction in gamma-aminobutyric acid, Reelin, and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling systems has also been demonstrated in these two disorders. In the current report, we have characterized the developmental profiles of selected markers for these systems in cerebella of mice born to pregnant mice infected with human influenza (H1N1) virus on embryonic day 16 or sham-infected controls using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques and evaluated the presence of abnormalities in the above-mentioned markers during brain development. The cerebellum was selected in light of emerging evidence that it plays roles in learning, memory, and emotional processing-all of which are disrupted in autism and schizophrenia. We identified unique patterns of gene and protein expression at birth (postnatal day 0 [P0]), childhood (P14), adolescence (P35), and young adulthood (P56) in both exposed and control mouse progeny. We also identified significant differences in protein expression for FMRP, very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 kDa proteins at specific postnatal time points in cerebella of the offspring of exposed mice. Our results provide evidence of disrupted FMRP, glutamatergic, and Reelin signaling in the exposed mouse offspring that explains the multiple brain abnormalities observed in this animal model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A Coincidence Detection Mechanism Controls PX-BAR Domain-Mediated Endocytic Membrane Remodeling via an Allosteric Structural Switch.

  • Lo WT
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis occurs by bending and remodeling of the membrane underneath the coat. Bin-amphiphysin-rvs (BAR) domain proteins are crucial for endocytic membrane remodeling, but how their activity is spatiotemporally controlled is largely unknown. We demonstrate that the membrane remodeling activity of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), a late-acting endocytic PX-BAR domain protein required for constriction of U-shaped endocytic intermediates, is controlled by an allosteric structural switch involving coincident detection of the clathrin adaptor AP2 and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) at endocytic sites. Structural, biochemical, and cell biological data show that SNX9 is autoinhibited in solution. Binding to PI(3,4)P2 via its PX-BAR domain, and concomitant association with AP2 via sequences in the linker region, releases SNX9 autoinhibitory contacts to enable membrane constriction. Our results reveal a mechanism for restricting the latent membrane remodeling activity of BAR domain proteins to allow spatiotemporal coupling of membrane constriction to the progression of the endocytic pathway.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS031718(United States)

Dense Intra-adipose Sympathetic Arborizations Are Essential for Cold-Induced Beiging of Mouse White Adipose Tissue.

  • Jiang H
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Oct 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes. We demonstrate that these sympathetic fibers originate from the celiac ganglia, which are activated by cold challenge. Sympathetic-specific deletion of TrkA receptor or pharmacologic ablation by 6-hydroxydopamine abolishes these intra-adipose arborizations and, as a result, cold-induced beiging of inguinal WAT. Furthermore, we find that local sympathetic arborizations function through beta-adrenergic receptors in this beiging process. These findings uncover an essential link connecting efferent neural signals with metabolism of individual adipocytes.

Inhibition of histone deacetylase 1 or 2 reduces induced cytokine expression in microglia through a protein synthesis independent mechanism.

  • Durham BS
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors prevent neural cell death in in vivo models of cerebral ischaemia, brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. One mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors may do this is by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response of chronically activated microglia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory effect and the specific HDAC responsible are not fully understood. Recent data from in vivo rodent studies have shown that inhibition of class I HDACs suppresses neuroinflammation and is neuroprotective. In our study, we have identified that selective HDAC inhibition with inhibitors apicidin, MS-275 or MI-192, or specific knockdown of HDAC1 or 2 using siRNA, suppresses the expression of cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in BV-2 murine microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that in the absence of HDAC1, HDAC2 is up-regulated and these increased levels are compensatory, suggesting that these two HDACs have redundancy in regulating the inflammatory response of microglia. Investigating the possible underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms suggests an increase in protein expression is not important. Taken together, this study supports the idea that inhibitors selective towards HDAC1 or HDAC2, may be therapeutically useful for targeting neuroinflammation in brain injuries and neurodegenerative disease.

Rac1 Dosage Is Crucial for Normal Endochondral Bone Growth.

  • Suzuki D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rac1, a member of the small Rho GTPase family, plays multiple cellular roles. Studies of mice conditionally lacking Rac1 have revealed essential roles for Rac1 in various tissues, including cartilage and limb mesenchyme, where Rac1 loss produces dwarfism and long bone shortening. To gain further insight into the role of Rac1 in skeletal development, we have used transgenic mouse lines to express a constitutively active (ca) Rac1 mutant protein in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Overexpression of caRac1 in limb bud mesenchyme or chondrocytes leads to reduced body weight and shorter bones compared with control mice. Histological analysis of growth plates showed that caRac1;Col2-Cre mice displayed ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferative zone and enlarged hypertrophic zones. These mice also displayed a reduced proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the proliferative zone and nuclear β-catenin localization in the ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of caRac1 partially rescued the phenotypes of Rac1fl/fl;Col2-Cre and Rac1fl/fl;Prx1-Cre conditional knockout mice, including body weight, bone length, and growth plate disorganization. These results suggest that tight regulation of Rac1 activity is necessary for normal cartilage development.

By Capturing Inflammatory Lipids Released from Dying Cells, the Receptor CD14 Induces Inflammasome-Dependent Phagocyte Hyperactivation.

  • Zanoni I
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Oct 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

A heterogeneous mixture of lipids called oxPAPC, derived from dying cells, can hyperactivate dendritic cells (DCs) but not macrophages. Hyperactive DCs are defined by their ability to release interleukin-1 (IL-1) while maintaining cell viability, endowing these cells with potent aptitude to stimulate adaptive immunity. Herein, we found that the bacterial lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 captured extracellular oxPAPC and delivered these lipids into the cell to promote inflammasome-dependent DC hyperactivation. Notably, we identified two specific components within the oxPAPC mixture that hyperactivated macrophages, allowing these cells to release IL-1 for several days, by a CD14-dependent process. In murine models of sepsis, conditions that promoted cell hyperactivation resulted in inflammation but not lethality. Thus, multiple phagocytes are capable of hyperactivation in response to oxPAPC, with CD14 acting as the earliest regulator in this process, serving to capture and transport these lipids to promote inflammatory cell fate decisions.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R15 HL121770()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI093589()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI116550()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI121066()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD066297(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK034854()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK115217()

Cell-Cycle Position of Single MYC-Driven Cancer Cells Dictates Their Susceptibility to a Chemotherapeutic Drug.

  • Ryl T
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

While many tumors initially respond to chemotherapy, regrowth of surviving cells compromises treatment efficacy in the long term. The cell-biological basis of this regrowth is not understood. Here, we characterize the response of individual, patient-derived neuroblastoma cells driven by the prominent oncogene MYC to the first-line chemotherapy, doxorubicin. Combining live-cell imaging, cell-cycle-resolved transcriptomics, and mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that a cell's treatment response is dictated by its expression level of MYC and its cell-cycle position prior to treatment. All low-MYC cells enter therapy-induced senescence. High-MYC cells, by contrast, disable their cell-cycle checkpoints, forcing renewed proliferation despite treatment-induced DNA damage. After treatment, the viability of high-MYC cells depends on their cell-cycle position during treatment: newborn cells promptly halt in G1 phase, repair DNA damage, and form re-growing clones; all other cells show protracted DNA repair and ultimately die. These findings demonstrate that fast-proliferating tumor cells may resist cytotoxic treatment non-genetically, by arresting within a favorable window of the cell cycle.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 087377(United Kingdom)

Chronic Cigarette Smoke-Induced Epigenomic Changes Precede Sensitization of Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Single-Step Transformation by KRAS Mutations.

  • Vaz M
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

We define how chronic cigarette smoke-induced time-dependent epigenetic alterations can sensitize human bronchial epithelial cells for transformation by a single oncogene. The smoke-induced chromatin changes include initial repressive polycomb marking of genes, later manifesting abnormal DNA methylation by 10 months. At this time, cells exhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal changes, anchorage-independent growth, and upregulated RAS/MAPK signaling with silencing of hypermethylated genes, which normally inhibit these pathways and are associated with smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer. These cells, in the absence of any driver gene mutations, now transform by introducing a single KRAS mutation and form adenosquamous lung carcinomas in mice. Thus, epigenetic abnormalities may prime for changing oncogene senescence to addiction for a single key oncogene involved in lung cancer initiation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA006973()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA043318()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA121113()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA170550()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA185357()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U10 CA180950()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES011858()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES023183()

Light reintroduction after dark exposure reactivates plasticity in adults via perisynaptic activation of MMP-9.

  • Murase S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The sensitivity of ocular dominance to regulation by monocular deprivation is the canonical model of plasticity confined to a critical period. However, we have previously shown that visual deprivation through dark exposure (DE) reactivates critical period plasticity in adults. Previous work assumed that the elimination of visual input was sufficient to enhance plasticity in the adult mouse visual cortex. In contrast, here we show that light reintroduction (LRx) after DE is responsible for the reactivation of plasticity. LRx triggers degradation of the ECM, which is blocked by pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). LRx induces an increase in MMP-9 activity that is perisynaptic and enriched at thalamo-cortical synapses. The reactivation of plasticity by LRx is absent in Mmp9-/- mice, and is rescued by hyaluronidase, an enzyme that degrades core ECM components. Thus, the LRx-induced increase in MMP-9 removes constraints on structural and functional plasticity in the mature cortex.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

The DREAM complex through its subunit Lin37 cooperates with Rb to initiate quiescence.

  • Mages CF
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The retinoblastoma Rb protein is an important factor controlling the cell cycle. Yet, mammalian cells carrying Rb deletions are still able to arrest under growth-limiting conditions. The Rb-related proteins p107 and p130, which are components of the DREAM complex, had been suggested to be responsible for a continued ability to arrest by inhibiting E2f activity and by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes. Here, we show that p130 and p107 are not sufficient for DREAM-dependent repression. We identify the MuvB protein Lin37 as an essential factor for DREAM function. Cells not expressing Lin37 proliferate normally, but DREAM completely loses its ability to repress genes in G0/G1 while all remaining subunits, including p130/p107, still bind to target gene promoters. Furthermore, cells lacking both Rb and Lin37 are incapable of exiting the cell cycle. Thus, Lin37 is an essential component of DREAM that cooperates with Rb to induce quiescence.

Hormonal and Growth Regulation of Epithelial and Stromal Cells From the Normal and Malignant Endometrium by Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor.

  • Daubriac J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We discovered that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)-null mice have endometrial hyperplasia, the precursor to human type I endometrial cancer (ECA), which is etiologically linked to unopposed estrogen (E2), suggesting that this potent antiangiogenic factor might contribute to dysregulated growth and the development of type I ECA. Treatment of both ECA cell lines and primary ECA cells with recombinant PEDF dose dependently decreased cellular proliferation via an autocrine mechanism by blocking cells in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Consistent with the known opposing effects of E2 and progesterone (Pg) on endometrial proliferation, Pg increases PEDF protein synthesis and release, whereas E2 has the converse effect. Using PEDF luciferase promoter constructs containing two Pg and one E2 response elements, E2 reduced and Pg increased promoter activity due to distal response elements. Furthermore, E2 decreases and Pg increases PEDF secretion into conditioned media (CM) by both normal endometrial stromal fibroblasts (ESFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), but only CM from ESFs mediated growth-inhibitory activity of primary endometrial epithelial cells (EECs). In addition, in cocultures with primary EECs, Pg-induced growth inhibition is mediated by ESFs, but not CAFs. This is consistent with reduced levels of Pg receptors on CAFs surrounding human malignant glands in vivo. Taken together, the data suggest that PEDF is a hormone-regulated negative autocrine mediator of endometrial proliferation, and that paracrine growth inhibition by soluble factors, possibly PEDF, released by ESFs in response to Pg, but not CAFs, exemplifies a tumor microenvironment that contributes to the pathogenesis of ECA.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS073768(United States)

Neurodegenerative effects of azithromycin in differentiated PC12 cells.

  • Waetzig V
  • Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide antibiotic with sustained and high tissue penetration and intracellular accumulation. While short-term exposure to low-dose azithromycin is usually well tolerated, prolonged treatment can lead to unwanted neurological effects like paresthesia and hearing loss. However, the mechanism causing neurodegeneration is still unknown. Here, we show that even low therapeutically relevant azithromycin concentrations like 1µg/ml decreased cell viability by 15% and induced neurite loss of 47% after 96h in differentiated PC12 cells, which are a well-established model system for neuronal cells. When higher concentrations were used, the drug-induced effects occurred earlier and were more pronounced. Thereby, azithromycin altered tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) signaling and attenuated protein kinase B (Akt) activity, which subsequently induced autophagy. Simultaneously, the antibiotic impaired lysosomal functions by blocking the autophagic flux, and this concurrence reduced cell viability. In good agreement with reversible effects observed in patients, PC12 cells could completely recover if azithromycin was removed after 24h. In addition, the detrimental effects of azithromycin were limited to differentiated cells, as confirmed in the human neuronal model cell line SH-SY5Y. Thus, azithromycin alters cell surface receptor signaling and autophagy in neuronal cells, but does not automatically induce irreversible damage when used in low concentrations and for a short time.

Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

  • Ay M
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits.

Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Inhibition Reduces Hepatic Steatosis but Elevates Plasma Triglycerides in Mice and Humans: A Bedside to Bench Investigation.

  • Kim CW
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibiting lipogenesis prevents hepatic steatosis in rodents with insulin resistance. To determine if reducing lipogenesis functions similarly in humans, we developed MK-4074, a liver-specific inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1) and (ACC2), enzymes that produce malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis. MK-4074 administered to subjects with hepatic steatosis for 1 month lowered lipogenesis, increased ketones, and reduced liver triglycerides by 36%. Unexpectedly, MK-4074 increased plasma triglycerides by 200%. To further investigate, mice that lack ACC1 and ACC2 in hepatocytes (ACC dLKO) were generated. Deletion of ACCs decreased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations in liver due to reduced malonyl-CoA, which is required for elongation of essential fatty acids. PUFA deficiency induced SREBP-1c, which increased GPAT1 expression and VLDL secretion. PUFA supplementation or siRNA-mediated knockdown of GPAT1 normalized plasma triglycerides. Thus, inhibiting lipogenesis in humans reduced hepatic steatosis, but inhibiting ACC resulted in hypertriglyceridemia due to activation of SREBP-1c and increased VLDL secretion.

Biallelic Mutations in LIPT2 Cause a Mitochondrial Lipoylation Defect Associated with Severe Neonatal Encephalopathy.

  • Habarou F
  • Am. J. Hum. Genet.
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lipoate serves as a cofactor for the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases functioning in energy metabolism (α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [α-KGDHc] and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDHc]), or amino acid metabolism (branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase). Mitochondrial lipoate synthesis involves three enzymatic steps catalyzed sequentially by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (LIPT2), lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1). Mutations in LIAS have been associated with nonketotic hyperglycinemia-like early-onset convulsions and encephalopathy combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. LIPT1 deficiency spares GCS deficiency and has been associated with a biochemical signature of combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency leading to early death or Leigh-like encephalopathy. We report on the identification of biallelic LIPT2 mutations in three affected individuals from two families with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Brain MRI showed major cortical atrophy with white matter abnormalities and cysts. Plasma glycine was mildly increased. Affected individuals' fibroblasts showed reduced oxygen consumption rates, PDHc, α-KGDHc activities, leucine catabolic flux, and decreased protein lipoylation. A normalization of lipoylation was observed after expression of wild-type LIPT2, arguing for LIPT2 requirement in intramitochondrial lipoate synthesis. Lipoic acid supplementation did not improve clinical condition nor activities of PDHc, α-KGDHc, or leucine metabolism in fibroblasts and was ineffective in yeast deleted for the orthologous LIP2.

Focal Adhesion- and IGF1R-Dependent Survival and Migratory Pathways Mediate Tumor Resistance to mTORC1/2 Inhibition.

  • Yoon SO
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aberrant signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) contributes to the devastating features of cancer cells. Thus, mTOR is a critical therapeutic target and catalytic inhibitors are being investigated as anti-cancer drugs. Although mTOR inhibitors initially block cell proliferation, cell viability and migration in some cancer cells are quickly restored. Despite sustained inhibition of mTORC1/2 signaling, Akt, a kinase regulating cell survival and migration, regains phosphorylation at its regulatory sites. Mechanistically, mTORC1/2 inhibition promotes reorganization of integrin/focal adhesion kinase-mediated adhesomes, induction of IGFR/IR-dependent PI3K activation, and Akt phosphorylation via an integrin/FAK/IGFR-dependent process. This resistance mechanism contributes to xenograft tumor cell growth, which is prevented with mTOR plus IGFR inhibitors, supporting this combination as a therapeutic approach for cancers.

RTN1 and RTN3 protein are differentially associated with senile plaques in Alzheimer's brains.

  • Shi Q
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reticulon proteins (RTNs), consisting of RTN1 to RTN4, were previously shown to interact with BACE1 by negatively modulating its secretase activity. In RTN3-null mice, RTN1 expression was slightly elevated. To understand the in vivo role of RTN1, we generated RTN1-null mice and compared the effects of RTN1 and RTN3 on BACE1 modulation. We show that RTN1 is mostly expressed by neurons and not by glial cells under normal conditions, similar to the expression of RTN3. However, RTN1 is more localized in dendrites and is an excellent marker for dendrites of Purkinje cells, while RTN3 expression is less evident in dendrites. This differential localization also correlates with their associations with amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's brains: RTN3, but not RTN1, is abundantly enriched in dystrophic neurites. RTN3 deficiency causes elevation of BACE1 protein levels, while RTN1 deficiency shows no obvious effects on BACE1 activity due to compensation by RTN3, as RTN1 deficiency causes elevation of RTN3 expression. Hence, expression of RTN1 and RTN3 is tightly regulated in mouse brains. Together, our data show that RTN1 and RTN3 have differential effects on the formation of senile plaques in Alzheimer's brains and that RTN3 has a more prominent role in Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG025493()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046929()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS074256()

MLKL, the Protein that Mediates Necroptosis, Also Regulates Endosomal Trafficking and Extracellular Vesicle Generation.

  • Yoon S
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Jul 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activation of the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) upon its phosphorylation by the protein kinase RIPK3 triggers necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death in which rupture of cellular membranes yields release of intracellular components. We report that MLKL also associated with endosomes and controlled the transport of endocytosed proteins, thereby enhancing degradation of receptors and ligands, modulating their induced signaling and facilitating the generation of extracellular vesicles. This role was exerted on two quantitative grades: a constitutive one independent of RIPK3, and an enhanced one, triggered by RIPK3, where the association of MLKL with the endosomes was enhanced, and it was found to bind endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins and the flotillins and to be excluded, together with them, from cells within vesicles. We suggest that release of phosphorylated MLKL within extracellular vesicles serves as a mechanism for self-restricting the necroptotic activity of this protein.

Genome Organization Drives Chromosome Fragility.

  • Canela A
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jul 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

In this study, we show that evolutionarily conserved chromosome loop anchors bound by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin are vulnerable to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) mediated by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B). Polymorphisms in the genome that redistribute CTCF/cohesin occupancy rewire DNA cleavage sites to novel loop anchors. While transcription- and replication-coupled genomic rearrangements have been well documented, we demonstrate that DSBs formed at loop anchors are largely transcription-, replication-, and cell-type-independent. DSBs are continuously formed throughout interphase, are enriched on both sides of strong topological domain borders, and frequently occur at breakpoint clusters commonly translocated in cancer. Thus, loop anchors serve as fragile sites that generate DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Different Forms of AMPA Receptor Mediated LTP and Their Correlation to the Spatial Working Memory Formation.

  • Shimshek DR
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spatial working memory (SWM) and the classical, tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3/CA1 synapses are dependent on L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA1 subunits as demonstrated by knockout mice lacking GluA1. In GluA1 knockout mice LTP and SWM deficits could be partially recovered by transgenic re-installation of full-length GluA1 in principle forebrain neurons. Here we partially restored hippocampal LTP in GluA1-deficient mice by forebrain-specific depletion of the GluA2 gene, by the activation of a hypomorphic GluA2(Q) allele and by transgenic expression of PDZ-site truncated GFP-GluA1(TG). In none of these three mouse lines, the partial LTP recovery improved the SWM performance of GluA1-deficient mice suggesting a specific function of intact GluA1/2 receptors and the GluA1 intracellular carboxyl-terminus in SWM and its associated behavior.

Impact on Experimental Colitis of Vitamin D Receptor Deletion in Intestinal Epithelial or Myeloid Cells.

  • Leyssens C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inflammatory bowel diseases are gastrointestinal diseases that include Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. The chronic inflammation is thought to result from an excessive inflammatory response to environmental factors such as luminal bacteria in genetically predisposed individuals. Studies have revealed that mice with impaired vitamin D signaling are more susceptible to experimental colitis. To better understand the contribution of vitamin D signaling in different cells of the gut to this disease, we investigated the effects of intestinal-specific or myeloid vitamin D receptor deletion. Our study addressed the importance of vitamin D receptor expression in intestinal epithelial cells using intestine-specific vitamin D receptor null mice and the contribution of vitamin D receptor expression in macrophages and granulocytes using myeloid-specific vitamin D receptor null mice in a dextran sodium sulfate model for experimental colitis. Loss of intestinal vitamin D receptor expression had no substantial effect on the clinical parameters of colitis and did not manifestly change mucosal cytokine expression. Inactivation of the vitamin D receptor in macrophages and granulocytes marginally affected colitis-associated symptoms but resulted in increased proinflammatory cytokine and increased β-defensin-1 expression in the colon descendens of mice with colitis. Intestinal deletion of the vitamin D receptor did not aggravate symptoms of chemically induced colitis. Loss of the vitamin D receptor in macrophages and granulocytes mildly affected colitis-associated symptoms but greatly increased proinflammatory cytokine expression in the inflamed colon, suggesting a prominent role for innate immune cell vitamin D signaling in controlling gut inflammation.

Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.

  • Jossin Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA131047()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA179914()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007183()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080194()

Comprehensive Cell Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Specific Markers of Human Naive and Primed Pluripotent States.

  • Collier AJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) exist in naive and primed states and provide important models to investigate the earliest stages of human development. Naive cells can be obtained through primed-to-naive resetting, but there are no reliable methods to prospectively isolate unmodified naive cells during this process. Here we report comprehensive profiling of cell surface proteins by flow cytometry in naive and primed human PSCs. Several naive-specific, but not primed-specific, proteins were also expressed by pluripotent cells in the human preimplantation embryo. The upregulation of naive-specific cell surface proteins during primed-to-naive resetting enabled the isolation and characterization of live naive cells and intermediate cell populations. This analysis revealed distinct transcriptional and X chromosome inactivation changes associated with the early and late stages of naive cell formation. Thus, identification of state-specific proteins provides a robust set of molecular markers to define the human PSC state and allows new insights into the molecular events leading to naive cell resetting.

A Class of Environmental and Endogenous Toxins Induces BRCA2 Haploinsufficiency and Genome Instability.

  • Tan SLW
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations truncating a single copy of the tumor suppressor, BRCA2, cause cancer susceptibility. In cells bearing such heterozygous mutations, we find that a cellular metabolite and ubiquitous environmental toxin, formaldehyde, stalls and destabilizes DNA replication forks, engendering structural chromosomal aberrations. Formaldehyde selectively depletes BRCA2 via proteasomal degradation, a mechanism of toxicity that affects very few additional cellular proteins. Heterozygous BRCA2 truncations, by lowering pre-existing BRCA2 expression, sensitize to BRCA2 haploinsufficiency induced by transient exposure to natural concentrations of formaldehyde. Acetaldehyde, an alcohol catabolite detoxified by ALDH2, precipitates similar effects. Ribonuclease H1 ameliorates replication fork instability and chromosomal aberrations provoked by aldehyde-induced BRCA2 haploinsufficiency, suggesting that BRCA2 inactivation triggers spontaneous mutagenesis during DNA replication via aberrant RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops). These findings suggest a model wherein carcinogenesis in BRCA2 mutation carriers can be incited by compounds found pervasively in the environment and generated endogenously in certain tissues with implications for public health.

ACK1/TNK2 Regulates Histone H4 Tyr88-phosphorylation and AR Gene Expression in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

  • Mahajan K
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The androgen receptor (AR) is critical for the progression of prostate cancer to a castration-resistant (CRPC) state. AR antagonists are ineffective due to their inability to repress the expression of AR or its splice variant, AR-V7. Here, we report that the tyrosine kinase ACK1 (TNK2) phosphorylates histone H4 at tyrosine 88 upstream of the AR transcription start site. The WDR5/MLL2 complex reads the H4-Y88-phosphorylation marks and deposits the transcriptionally activating H3K4-trimethyl marks promoting AR transcription. Reversal of the pY88-H4 epigenetic marks by the ACK1 inhibitor (R)-9bMS-sensitized naive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells and reduced AR and AR-V7 levels to mitigate CRPC tumor growth. Thus, a feedforward ACK1/pY88-H4/WDR5/MLL2/AR epigenetic circuit drives CRPC and is necessary for maintenance of the malignant state.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA076292()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA135328()

JMJD3 Is Crucial for the Female AVPV RIP-Cre Neuron-Controlled Kisspeptin-Estrogen Feedback Loop and Reproductive Function.

  • Song A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls development, reproduction, and metabolism. Although most studies have focused on the hierarchy from the brain to the gonad, many questions remain unresolved concerning the feedback from the gonad to the central nervous system, especially regarding the potential epigenetic modifications in hypothalamic neurons. In the present report, we generated genetically modified mice lacking histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (JMJD3) in hypothalamic rat-insulin-promoter-expressing neurons (RIP-Cre neurons). The female mutant mice displayed late-onset obesity owing to reduced locomotor activity and decreased energy expenditure. JMJD3 deficiency in RIP-Cre neurons also results in delayed pubertal onset, an irregular estrous cycle, impaired fertility, and accelerated ovarian failure in female mice owing to the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-ovarian axis. We found that JMJD3 directly regulates Kiss1 gene expression by binding to the Kiss1 promoter and triggering H3K27me3 demethylation in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Further study confirmed that the aberrations arose from impaired kisspeptin signaling in the hypothalamic AVPV nucleus and subsequent estrogen deficiency. Estrogen replacement therapy can reverse obesity in mutant mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that Jmjd3 is an estrogen target gene in the hypothalamus. These results provide direct genetic and molecular evidence that JMJD3 is a key mediator for the kisspeptin-estrogen feedback loop.

The Highly Dynamic Nature of ERdj5 Is Key to Efficient Elimination of Aberrant Protein Oligomers through ER-Associated Degradation.

  • Maegawa KI
  • Structure
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

ERdj5, composed of an N-terminal J domain followed by six thioredoxin-like domains, is the largest protein disulfide isomerase family member and functions as an ER-localized disulfide reductase that enhances ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Our previous studies indicated that ERdj5 comprises two regions, the N- and C-terminal clusters, separated by a linker loop and with distinct functional roles in ERAD. We here present a new crystal structure of ERdj5 with a largely different cluster arrangement relative to that in the original crystal structure. Single-molecule observation by high-speed atomic force microscopy visualized rapid cluster movement around the flexible linker loop, indicating the highly dynamic nature of ERdj5 in solution. ERdj5 mutants with a fixed-cluster orientation compromised the ERAD enhancement activity, likely because of less-efficient reduction of aberrantly formed disulfide bonds and prevented substrate transfer in the ERdj5-mediated ERAD pathway. We propose a significant role of ERdj5 conformational dynamics in ERAD of disulfide-linked oligomers.

Metabolic Adaptation Establishes Disease Tolerance to Sepsis.

  • Weis S
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sepsis is an often lethal syndrome resulting from maladaptive immune and metabolic responses to infection, compromising host homeostasis. Disease tolerance is a defense strategy against infection that preserves host homeostasis without exerting a direct negative impact on pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the iron-sequestering ferritin H chain (FTH) in response to polymicrobial infections is critical to establish disease tolerance to sepsis. The protective effect of FTH is exerted via a mechanism that counters iron-driven oxidative inhibition of the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and in doing so, sustains endogenous glucose production via liver gluconeogenesis. This is required to prevent the development of hypoglycemia that otherwise compromises disease tolerance to sepsis. FTH overexpression or ferritin administration establish disease tolerance therapeutically. In conclusion, disease tolerance to sepsis relies on a crosstalk between adaptive responses controlling iron and glucose metabolism, required to maintain blood glucose within a physiologic range compatible with host survival.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 294709()

Mutational phospho-mimicry reveals a regulatory role for the XRCC4 and XLF C-terminal tails in modulating DNA bridging during classical non-homologous end joining.

  • Normanno D
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

XRCC4 and DNA Ligase 4 (LIG4) form a tight complex that provides DNA ligase activity for classical non-homologous end joining (the predominant DNA double-strand break repair pathway in higher eukaryotes) and is stimulated by XLF. Independently of LIG4, XLF also associates with XRCC4 to form filaments that bridge DNA. These XRCC4/XLF complexes rapidly load and connect broken DNA, thereby stimulating intermolecular ligation. XRCC4 and XLF both include disordered C-terminal tails that are functionally dispensable in isolation but are phosphorylated in response to DNA damage by DNA-PK and/or ATM. Here we concomitantly modify the tails of XRCC4 and XLF by substituting fourteen previously identified phosphorylation sites with either alanine or aspartate residues. These phospho-blocking and -mimicking mutations impact both the stability and DNA bridging capacity of XRCC4/XLF complexes, but without affecting their ability to stimulate LIG4 activity. Implicit in this finding is that phosphorylation may regulate DNA bridging by XRCC4/XLF filaments.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI048758()

Inhibition of Drp1 Ameliorates Synaptic Depression, Aβ Deposition, and Cognitive Impairment in an Alzheimer's Disease Model.

  • Baek SH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excessive mitochondrial fission is a prominent early event and contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic failure, and neuronal cell death in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains to be determined whether inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission is beneficial in mammal models of AD. To determine whether dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key regulator of mitochondrial fragmentation, can be a disease-modifying therapeutic target for AD, we examined the effects of Drp1 inhibitor on mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunctions induced by oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) in neurons and neuropathology and cognitive functions in Aβ precursor protein/presenilin 1 double-transgenic AD mice. Inhibition of Drp1 alleviates mitochondrial fragmentation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, ATP reduction, and synaptic depression in Aβ-treated neurons. Furthermore, Drp1 inhibition significantly improves learning and memory and prevents mitochondrial fragmentation, lipid peroxidation, BACE1 expression, and Aβ deposition in the brain in the AD model. These results provide evidence that Drp1 plays an important role in Aβ-mediated and AD-related neuropathology and in cognitive decline in an AD animal model. Therefore, inhibiting excessive Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission may be an efficient therapeutic avenue for AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondrial fission relies on the evolutionary conserved dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Drp1 activity and mitochondria fragmentation are significantly elevated in the brains of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. In the present study, we first demonstrated that the inhibition of Drp1 restored amyloid-β (Aβ)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunctions and synaptic depression in neurons and significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, BACE1 expression, and Aβ deposition in the brain of AD mice. As a result, memory deficits in AD mice were rescued by Drp1 inhibition. These results suggest that neuropathology and combined cognitive decline can be attributed to hyperactivation of Drp1 in the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, inhibitors of excessive mitochondrial fission, such as Drp1 inhibitors, may be a new strategy for AD.

PPARβ Is Essential for Maintaining Normal Levels of PGC-1α and Mitochondria and for the Increase in Muscle Mitochondria Induced by Exercise.

  • Koh JH
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the specific mechanism(s) by which PPARβ regulates mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle. We discovered that PPARβ increases PGC-1α by protecting it from degradation by binding to PGC-1α and limiting ubiquitination. PPARβ also induces an increase in nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) expression, resulting in increases in mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins and MEF2A, for which NRF-1 is a transcription factor. There was also an increase in AMP kinase phosphorylation mediated by an NRF-1-induced increase in CAM kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ). Knockdown of PPARβ resulted in large decreases in the levels of PGC-1α and mitochondrial proteins and a marked attenuation of the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, PPARβ induces an increase in PGC-1α protein, and PPARβ is a transcription factor for NRF-1. Thus, PPARβ plays essential roles in the maintenance and adaptive increase in mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle by exercise.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5K01NS085071-03(United States)

An Essential Role for SHARPIN in the Regulation of Caspase 1 Activity in Sepsis.

  • Nastase MV
  • Am. J. Pathol.
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sepsis is burdened by high mortality due to uncontrolled inflammatory response to pathogens. Increased caspase 1 activation causing maturation of IL1β/18 remains a therapeutic challenge in sepsis. SHARPIN (shank-associated regulator of G-protein signaling homology domain-interacting protein), a component of the LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain-assembly complex), regulates inflammation, with unknown effects on caspase 1 activation. Mice lacking Casp1, Casp11, or both in a Sharpin-deficient background were generated, exposed to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, and injected with caspase 1 inhibitor. We monitored survival, Il1β/18, and caspase 1/11 levels in plasma and organs and deciphered mechanisms of SHARPIN-dependent caspase 1 inhibition. A correlation between LUBAC and active caspase 1 was found in blood mononuclear cells from septic patients. SHARPIN bound caspase 1 and disrupted p20/p10 dimer formation, the last step of caspase 1 processing, thereby inhibiting enzyme activation and maturation of IL1β/18 in a LUBAC-independent manner. In septic patients, LUBAC-independent decline in SHARPIN correlated with enhancement of active caspase 1 in circulating mononuclear cells. Septic Sharpin-deficient mice displayed enrichment in mature Il1β/18 and active caspase 1, and shortened survival. Inhibition of caspase 1 reduced levels of Il1β/18 and splenic cell death, and prolonged survival in septic Sharpin-deficient mice. Our findings identify SHARPIN as a potent in vivo caspase 1 inhibitor and propose the caspase 1-SHARPIN interaction as a target in sepsis.

TCF7L1 promotes skin tumorigenesis independently of β-catenin through induction of LCN2.

  • Ku AT
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factor TCF7L1 is an embryonic stem cell signature gene that is upregulated in multiple aggressive cancer types, but its role in skin tumorigenesis has not yet been defined. Here we document TCF7L1 upregulation in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and demonstrate that TCF7L1 overexpression increases tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and malignant progression in the chemically induced mouse model of skin SCC. Additionally, we show that downregulation of TCF7L1 and its paralogue TCF7L2 reduces tumor growth in a xenograft model of human skin SCC. Using separation-of-function mutants, we show that TCF7L1 promotes tumor growth, enhances cell migration, and overrides oncogenic RAS-induced senescence independently of its interaction with β-catenin. Through transcriptome profiling and combined gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identified LCN2 as a major downstream effector of TCF7L1 that drives tumor growth. Our findings establish a tumor-promoting role for TCF7L1 in skin and elucidate the mechanisms underlying its tumorigenic capacity.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA125123()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA194062()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA194617()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR024574()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL092332()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI036211()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC00189.(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM088129()

Diurnal Oscillations in Liver Mass and Cell Size Accompany Ribosome Assembly Cycles.

  • Sinturel F
  • Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The liver plays a pivotal role in metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification, processes that must be particularly efficient when animals are active and feed. A major question is how the liver adapts to these diurnal changes in physiology. Here, we show that, in mice, liver mass, hepatocyte size, and protein levels follow a daily rhythm, whose amplitude depends on both feeding-fasting and light-dark cycles. Correlative evidence suggests that the daily oscillation in global protein accumulation depends on a similar fluctuation in ribosome number. Whereas rRNA genes are transcribed at similar rates throughout the day, some newly synthesized rRNAs are polyadenylated and degraded in the nucleus in a robustly diurnal fashion with a phase opposite to that of ribosomal protein synthesis. Based on studies with cultured fibroblasts, we propose that rRNAs not packaged into complete ribosomal subunits are polyadenylated by the poly(A) polymerase PAPD5 and degraded by the nuclear exosome.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 260988()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG045795()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM111387()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM112991()

Insulin Inhibits Nrf2 Gene Expression via Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F/K in Diabetic Mice.

  • Ghosh A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxidative stress induces endogenous antioxidants via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), potentially preventing tissue injury. We investigated whether insulin affects renal Nrf2 expression in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and studied its underlying mechanism. Insulin normalized hyperglycemia, hypertension, oxidative stress, and renal injury; inhibited renal Nrf2 and angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression; and upregulated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F and K (hnRNP F and hnRNP K) expression in Akita mice with T1D. In immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells, insulin suppressed Nrf2 and Agt but stimulated hnRNP F and hnRNP K gene transcription in high glucose via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Transfection with small interfering RNAs of p44/42 MAPK, hnRNP F, or hnRNP K blocked insulin inhibition of Nrf2 gene transcription. Insulin curbed Nrf2 promoter activity via a specific DNA-responsive element that binds hnRNP F/K, and hnRNP F/K overexpression curtailed Nrf2 promoter activity. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic mice, renal Nrf2 and Agt expression was downregulated, whereas hnRNP F/K expression was upregulated. Thus, the beneficial actions of insulin in diabetic nephropathy appear to be mediated, in part, by suppressing renal Nrf2 and Agt gene transcription and preventing Nrf2 stimulation of Agt expression via hnRNP F/K. These findings identify hnRNP F/K and Nrf2 as potential therapeutic targets in diabetes.

Nociceptive DRG neurons express muscle lim protein upon axonal injury.

  • Levin E
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Muscle lim protein (MLP) has long been regarded as a cytosolic and nuclear muscular protein. Here, we show that MLP is also expressed in a subpopulation of adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in response to axonal injury, while the protein was not detectable in naïve cells. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis of L4/L5 DRG revealed ~3% of MLP-positive neurons 2 days after complete sciatic nerve crush and maximum ~10% after 4-14 days. Similarly, in mixed cultures from cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral DRG ~6% of neurons were MLP-positive after 2 days and maximal 17% after 3 days. In both, histological sections and cell cultures, the protein was detected in the cytosol and axons of small diameter cells, while the nucleus remained devoid. Moreover, the vast majority could not be assigned to any of the well characterized canonical DRG subpopulations at 7 days after nerve injury. However, further analysis in cell culture revealed that the largest population of MLP expressing cells originated from non-peptidergic IB4-positive nociceptive neurons, which lose their ability to bind the lectin upon axotomy. Thus, MLP is mostly expressed in a subset of axotomized nociceptive neurons and can be used as a novel marker for this population of cells.

Cell-Cycle-Targeting MicroRNAs as Therapeutic Tools against Refractory Cancers.

  • Hydbring P
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are hyperactivated in numerous human tumors. To identify means of interfering with cyclins/CDKs, we performed nine genome-wide screens for human microRNAs (miRNAs) directly regulating cell-cycle proteins. We uncovered a distinct class of miRNAs that target nearly all cyclins/CDKs, which are very effective in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. By profiling the response of over 120 human cancer cell lines, we derived an expression-based algorithm that can predict the response of tumors to cell-cycle-targeting miRNAs. Using systemic administration of nanoparticle-formulated miRNAs, we inhibited tumor progression in seven mouse xenograft models, including three treatment-refractory patient-derived tumors, without affecting normal tissues. Our results highlight the utility of using cell-cycle-targeting miRNAs for treatment of refractory cancer types.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA080111()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA083688()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA132740()

RNA Helicase DDX5 Inhibits Reprogramming to Pluripotency by miRNA-Based Repression of RYBP and its PRC1-Dependent and -Independent Functions.

  • Li H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), in addition to their functions in cellular homeostasis, play important roles in lineage specification and maintaining cellular identity. Despite their diverse and essential functions, which touch on nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, the roles of RBPs in somatic cell reprogramming are poorly understood. Here we show that the DEAD-box RBP DDX5 inhibits reprogramming by repressing the expression and function of the non-canonical polycomb complex 1 (PRC1) subunit RYBP. Disrupting Ddx5 expression improves the efficiency of iPSC generation and impedes processing of miR-125b, leading to Rybp upregulation and suppression of lineage-specific genes via RYBP-dependent ubiquitination of H2AK119. Furthermore, RYBP is required for PRC1-independent recruitment of OCT4 to the promoter of Kdm2b, a histone demethylase gene that promotes reprogramming by reactivating endogenous pluripotency genes. Together, these results reveal important functions of DDX5 in regulating reprogramming and highlight the importance of a Ddx5-miR125b-Rybp axis in controlling cell fate.

An Interaction Landscape of Ubiquitin Signaling.

  • Zhang X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intracellular signaling via the covalent attachment of different ubiquitin linkages to protein substrates is fundamental to many cellular processes. Although linkage-selective ubiquitin interactors have been studied on a case-by-case basis, proteome-wide analyses have not been conducted yet. Here, we present ubiquitin interactor affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry (UbIA-MS), a quantitative interaction proteomics method that makes use of chemically synthesized diubiquitin to enrich and identify ubiquitin linkage interactors from crude cell lysates. UbIA-MS reveals linkage-selective diubiquitin interactions in multiple cell types. For example, we identify TAB2 and TAB3 as novel K6 diubiquitin interactors and characterize UCHL3 as a K27-linkage selective interactor that regulates K27 polyubiquitin chain formation in cells. Additionally, we show a class of monoubiquitin and K6 diubiquitin interactors whose binding is induced by DNA damage. We expect that our proteome-wide diubiquitin interaction landscape and established workflows will have broad applications in the ongoing efforts to decipher the complex language of ubiquitin signaling.

Constitutive scaffolding of multiple Wnt enhanceosome components by Legless/BCL9.

  • van Tienen LM
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnt/β-catenin signaling elicits context-dependent transcription switches that determine normal development and oncogenesis. These are mediated by the Wnt enhanceosome, a multiprotein complex binding to the Pygo chromatin reader and acting through TCF/LEF-responsive enhancers. Pygo renders this complex Wnt-responsive, by capturing β-catenin via the Legless/BCL9 adaptor. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering of Drosophila legless (lgs) and human BCL9 and B9L to show that the C-terminus downstream of their adaptor elements is crucial for Wnt responses. BioID proximity labeling revealed that BCL9 and B9L, like PYGO2, are constitutive components of the Wnt enhanceosome. Wnt-dependent docking of β-catenin to the enhanceosome apparently causes a rearrangement that apposes the BCL9/B9L C-terminus to TCF. This C-terminus binds to the Groucho/TLE co-repressor, and also to the Chip/LDB1-SSDP enhanceosome core complex via an evolutionary conserved element. An unexpected link between BCL9/B9L, PYGO2 and nuclear co-receptor complexes suggests that these β-catenin co-factors may coordinate Wnt and nuclear hormone responses.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U105184273()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U105192713()

Flow-Dependent Endothelial YAP Regulation Contributes to Vessel Maintenance.

  • Nakajima H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inside of blood vessels and respond to mechanical cues generated by blood flow. Mechanical stimuli regulate the localization of YAP by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. Here we demonstrate blood-flow-mediated regulation of endothelial YAP in vivo. We indirectly monitored transcriptional activity of Yap1 (zebrafish YAP) and its spatiotemporal localization in living zebrafish and found that Yap1 entered the nucleus and promoted transcription in response to blood flow. In cultured human ECs, laminar shear stress induced nuclear import of YAP and its transcriptional activity in a manner independent of Hippo signaling. We uncovered a molecular mechanism by which flow induced the nuclear translocation of YAP through the regulation of filamentous actin and angiomotin. Yap1 mutant zebrafish showed a defect in vascular stability, indicating an essential role for Yap1 in blood vessels. Our data imply that endothelial Yap1 functions in response to flow to maintain blood vessels.

Foxh1 Occupies cis-Regulatory Modules Prior to Dynamic Transcription Factor Interactions Controlling the Mesendoderm Gene Program.

  • Charney RM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The interplay between transcription factors and chromatin dictates gene regulatory network activity. Germ layer specification is tightly coupled with zygotic gene activation and, in most metazoans, is dependent upon maternal factors. We explore the dynamic genome-wide interactions of Foxh1, a maternal transcription factor that mediates Nodal/TGF-β signaling, with cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) during mesendodermal specification. Foxh1 marks CRMs during cleavage stages and recruits the co-repressor Tle/Groucho in the early blastula. We highlight a population of CRMs that are continuously occupied by Foxh1 and show that they are marked by H3K4me1, Ep300, and Fox/Sox/Smad motifs, suggesting interplay between these factors in gene regulation. We also propose a molecular "hand-off" between maternal Foxh1 and zygotic Foxa at these CRMs to maintain enhancer activation. Our findings suggest that Foxh1 functions at the top of a hierarchy of interactions by marking developmental genes for activation, beginning with the onset of zygotic gene expression.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA062203()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025496()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD073179()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD010794()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD021718()

Chlamydia trachomatis-containing vacuole serves as deubiquitination platform to stabilize Mcl-1 and to interfere with host defense.

  • Fischer A
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obligate intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis replicate in a membrane-bound vacuole called inclusion, which serves as a signaling interface with the host cell. Here, we show that the chlamydial deubiquitinating enzyme (Cdu) 1 localizes in the inclusion membrane and faces the cytosol with the active deubiquitinating enzyme domain. The structure of this domain revealed high similarity to mammalian deubiquitinases with a unique α-helix close to the substrate-binding pocket. We identified the apoptosis regulator Mcl-1 as a target that interacts with Cdu1 and is stabilized by deubiquitination at the chlamydial inclusion. A chlamydial transposon insertion mutant in the Cdu1-encoding gene exhibited increased Mcl-1 and inclusion ubiquitination and reduced Mcl-1 stabilization. Additionally, inactivation of Cdu1 led to increased sensitivity of C. trachomatis for IFNγ and impaired infection in mice. Thus, the chlamydial inclusion serves as an enriched site for a deubiquitinating activity exerting a function in selective stabilization of host proteins and protection from host defense.

Activation-Dependent Rapid Postsynaptic Clustering of Glycine Receptors in Mature Spinal Cord Neurons.

  • Nakahata Y
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitory synapses are established during development but continue to be generated and modulated in strength in the mature nervous system. In the spinal cord and brainstem, presynaptically released inhibitory neurotransmitter dominantly switches from GABA to glycine during normal development in vivo. While presynaptic mechanisms of the shift of inhibitory neurotransmission are well investigated, the contribution of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors to this shift is not fully elucidated. Synaptic clustering of glycine receptors (GlyRs) is regulated by activation-dependent depolarization in early development. However, GlyR activation induces hyperpolarization after the first postnatal week, and little is known whether and how presynaptically released glycine regulates postsynaptic receptors in a depolarization-independent manner in mature developmental stage. Here we developed spinal cord neuronal culture of rodents using chronic strychnine application to investigate whether initial activation of GlyRs in mature stage could change postsynaptic localization of GlyRs. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate that chronic blockade of GlyR activation until mature developmental stage resulted in smaller clusters of postsynaptic GlyRs that could be enlarged upon receptor activation for 1 h in the mature stage. Furthermore, live cell-imaging techniques show that GlyR activation decreases its lateral diffusion at synapses, and this phenomenon is dependent on PKC, but neither Ca2+ nor CaMKII activity. These results suggest that the GlyR activation can regulate receptor diffusion and cluster size at inhibitory synapses in mature stage, providing not only new insights into the postsynaptic mechanism of shifting inhibitory neurotransmission but also the inhibitory synaptic plasticity in mature nervous system.

Low level of PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1) predicts poor clinical outcome in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  • Zheng J
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2017 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal neoplasm of the urologic system. Clinical therapeutic effect varies greatly between individual ccRCC patients, so there is an urgent need to develop prognostic molecular biomarkers to help clinicians identify patients in need of early aggressive management. In this study, samples from primary ccRCC tumor and their corresponding nontumor adjacent tissues (n=18) were analyzed by quantitative proteomic assay. Proteins downregulated in tumors were studied by GO and KEGG pathways enrichment analyses. Six proteins were found both downregulated and annotated with cell proliferation in ccRCC patients. Of these proteins, PDZK1 and FABP1 were also involved in the lipid metabolism pathway. The downregulation of PDZK1 was further validated in TCGA_KIRC dataset (n=532) and independent set (n=202). PDZK1 could discriminate recurrence, metastasis and prognosis between ccRCC patients. Low level of PDZK1 in both mRNA and protein was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in two independent sets. In univariate and multivariate analyses, PDZK1 was defined as an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS. These findings indicated that low level of PDZK1 could predict poor clinical outcome in patients with ccRCC.

Long Noncoding RNA Malat1 Regulates Cerebrovascular Pathologies in Ischemic Stroke.

  • Zhang X
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The study was designed to determine the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1), in ischemic stroke outcome. Primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were cultured and treated with Malat1 GapmeR before 16 h oxygen and glucose depravation (OGD). Cell death was assayed by LDH and MTT methods. Malat1 knock-out and wild-type mice were subjected to 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 24-72 h of reperfusion. To explore the underlying mechanism, apoptotic and inflammatory factors were measured by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The physical interaction between Malat1 and apoptotic or inflammatory factors was measured by RNA immunoprecipitation. Increased Malat1 levels were found in cultured mouse BMECs after OGD as well as in isolated cerebral microvessels in mice after MCAO. Silencing of Malat1 by Malat1 GapmeR significantly increased OGD-induced cell death and Caspase 3 activity in BMECs. Silencing of Malat1 also significantly aggravated OGD-induced expression of the proapoptotic factor Bim and proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1, IL-6, and E-selectin. Moreover, Malat1 KO mice presented larger brain infarct size, worsened neurological scores, and reduced sensorimotor functions. Consistent with in vitro findings, significantly increased expression of proapoptotic and proinflammatory factors was also found in the cerebral cortex of Malat1 KO mice after ischemic stroke compared with WT controls. Finally, we demonstrated that Malat1 binds to Bim and E-selectin both in vitro and in vivo Our study suggests that Malat1 plays critical protective roles in ischemic stroke.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Accumulative studies have demonstrated the important regulatory roles of microRNAs in vascular and neural damage after ischemic stroke. However, the functional significance and mechanisms of other classes of noncoding RNAs in cerebrovascular pathophysiology after stroke are less studied. Here we demonstrate a novel role of Malat1, a long noncoding RNA that has been originally identified as a prognostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer, in cerebrovascular pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Our experiments have provided the first evidence that Malat1 plays anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory roles in brain microvasculature to reduce ischemic cerebral vascular and parenchymal damages. Our studies also suggest that lncRNAs can be therapeutically targeted to minimize poststroke brain damage.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS086820()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091175()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS094930()

Phosphorylation-Dependent Feedback Inhibition of RIG-I by DAPK1 Identified by Kinome-wide siRNA Screening.

  • Willemsen J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell-autonomous induction of type I interferon must be stringently regulated. Rapid induction is key to control virus infection, whereas proper limitation of signaling is essential to prevent immunopathology and autoimmune disease. Using unbiased kinome-wide RNAi screening followed by thorough validation, we identified 22 factors that regulate RIG-I/IRF3 signaling activity. We describe a negative-feedback mechanism targeting RIG-I activity, which is mediated by death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1). RIG-I signaling triggers DAPK1 kinase activation, and active DAPK1 potently inhibits RIG-I stimulated IRF3 activity and interferon-beta production. DAPK1 phosphorylates RIG-I in vitro at previously reported as well as other sites that limit 5'ppp-dsRNA sensing and virtually abrogate RIG-I activation.

Soluble cpg15 from Astrocytes Ameliorates Neurite Outgrowth Recovery of Hippocampal Neurons after Mouse Cerebral Ischemia.

  • Zhao JJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study focuses on the function of cpg15, a neurotrophic factor, in ischemic neuronal recovery using transient global cerebral ischemic (TGI) mouse model and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated primary cultured cells. The results showed that expression of cpg15 proteins in astrocytes, predominantly the soluble form, was significantly increased in mouse hippocampus after TGI and in the cultured astrocytes after OGD. Addition of the medium from the cpg15-overexpressed astrocytic culture into the OGD-treated hippocampal neuronal cultures reduces the neuronal injury, whereas the recovery of neurite outgrowths of OGD-injured neurons was prevented when cpg15 in the OGD-treated astrocytes was knocked down, or the OGD-treated-astrocytic medium was immunoadsorbed by cpg15 antibody. Furthermore, lentivirus-delivered knockdown of cpg15 expression in mouse hippocampal astrocytes diminishes the dendritic branches and exacerbates injury of neurons in CA1 region after TGI. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of MEK1/2, PI3K, and TrkA decreases, whereas overexpression of p-CREB, but not dp-CREB, increases the expression of cpg15 in U118 or primary cultured astrocytes. Also, it is observed that the Flag-tagged soluble cpg15 from the astrocytes transfected with Flag-tagged cpg15-expressing plasmids adheres to the surface of neuronal bodies and the neurites. In conclusion, our results suggest that the soluble cpg15 from astrocytes induced by ischemia could ameliorate the recovery of the ischemic-injured hippocampal neurons via adhering to the surface of neurons. The upregulated expression of cpg15 in astrocytes may be activated via MAPK and PI3K signal pathways, and regulation of CREB phosphorylation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuronal plasticity plays a crucial role in the amelioration of neurological recovery of ischemic injured brain, which remains a challenge for clinic treatment of cerebral ischemia. cpg15 as a synaptic plasticity-related factor may participate in promoting the recovery process; however, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. The objective of this study is to reveal the function and mechanism of neuronal-specific cpg15 expressed in astrocytes after ischemia induction, in promoting the recovery of injured neurons. Our findings provided new mechanistic insight into the neurological recovery, which might help develop novel therapeutic options for cerebral ischemia via astrocytic-targeting interference of gene expression.

De-repression of the RAC activator ELMO1 in cancer stem cells drives progression of TGFβ-deficient squamous cell carcinoma from transition zones.

  • McCauley HA
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Squamous cell carcinomas occurring at transition zones are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis. The identity of the cell population and the signaling pathways involved in the progression of transition zone squamous cell carcinoma are poorly understood, hence representing limited options for targeted therapies. Here, we identify a highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell population in a mouse model of transitional epithelial carcinoma and uncover a novel mechanism by which loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) mediates invasion and metastasis through de-repression of ELMO1, a RAC-activating guanine exchange factor, specifically in cancer stem cells of transition zone tumors. We identify ELMO1 as a novel target of TGFβ signaling and show that restoration of Tgfbr2 results in a complete block of ELMO1 in vivo. Knocking down Elmo1 impairs metastasis of carcinoma cells to the lung, thereby providing insights into the mechanisms of progression of Tgfbr2-deficient invasive transition zone squamous cell carcinoma.

Endosulfine-alpha inhibits membrane-induced α-synuclein aggregation and protects against α-synuclein neurotoxicity.

  • Ysselstein D
  • Acta Neuropathol Commun
  • 2017 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropathological and genetic findings suggest that the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (aSyn) is involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathy disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy. Evidence suggests that the self-assembly of aSyn conformers bound to phospholipid membranes in an aggregation-prone state plays a key role in aSyn neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that protein binding partners of lipid-associated aSyn could inhibit the formation of toxic aSyn oligomers at membrane surfaces. To address this hypothesis, we characterized the protein endosulfine-alpha (ENSA), previously shown to interact selectively with membrane-bound aSyn, in terms of its effects on the membrane-induced aggregation and neurotoxicity of two familial aSyn mutants, A30P and G51D. We found that wild-type ENSA, but not the non-aSyn-binding S109E variant, interfered with membrane-induced aSyn self-assembly, aSyn-mediated vesicle disruption and aSyn neurotoxicity. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that ENSA was down-regulated in the brains of synucleinopathy patients versus non-diseased individuals. Collectively, these results suggest that ENSA can alleviate neurotoxic effects of membrane-bound aSyn via an apparent chaperone-like activity at the membrane surface, and a decrease in ENSA expression may contribute to aSyn neuropathology in synucleinopathy disorders. More generally, our findings suggest that promoting interactions between lipid-bound, amyloidogenic proteins and their binding partners is a viable strategy to alleviate cytotoxicity in a range of protein misfolding disorders.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005134()

Deficiency of CPEB2-Confined Choline Acetyltransferase Expression in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of Vagus Causes Hyperactivated Parasympathetic Signaling-Associated Bronchoconstriction.

  • Lai YT
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) is an RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. To understand the physiological function of CPEB2, we generated CPEB2 knock-out (KO) mice and found that most died within 3 d after birth. CPEB2 is highly expressed in the brainstem, which controls vital functions, such as breathing. Whole-body plethysmography revealed that KO neonates had aberrant respiration with frequent apnea. Nevertheless, the morphology and function of the respiratory rhythm generator and diaphragm neuromuscular junctions appeared normal. We found that upregulated translation of choline acetyltransferase in the CPEB2 KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus resulted in hyperactivation of parasympathetic signaling-induced bronchoconstriction, as evidenced by increased pulmonary acetylcholine and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 in bronchial smooth muscles. Specific deletion of CPEB2 in cholinergic neurons sufficiently caused increased apnea in neonatal pups and airway hyper-reactivity in adult mice. Moreover, inhalation of an anticholinergic bronchodilator reduced apnea episodes in global and cholinergic CPEB2-KO mice. Together, the elevated airway constriction induced by cholinergic transmission in KO neonates may account for the respiratory defect and mortality. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study first generated and characterized cpeb2 gene-deficient mice. CPEB2-knock-out (KO) mice are born alive but most die within 3 d after birth showing no overt defects in anatomy. We found that the KO neonates showed severe apnea and altered respiratory pattern. Such respiratory defects could be recapitulated in mice with pan-neuron-specific or cholinergic neuron-specific ablation of the cpeb2 gene. Further investigation revealed that cholinergic transmission in the KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus was overactivated because KO mice lack CPEB2-suppressed translation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of acetylcholine (i.e., choline acetyltransferase). Consequently, increased parasympathetic signaling leads to hyperactivated bronchoconstriction and abnormal respiration in the KO neonates.

Sam68/KHDRBS1-dependent NF-κB activation confers radioprotection to the colon epithelium in γ-irradiated mice.

  • Fu K
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previously we reported that Src-associated-substrate-during-mitosis-of-68kDa (Sam68/KHDRBS1) is pivotal for DNA damage-stimulated NF-κB transactivation of anti-apoptotic genes (Fu et al., 2016). Here we show that Sam68 is critical for genotoxic stress-induced NF-κB activation in the γ-irradiated colon and animal and that Sam68-dependent NF-κB activation provides radioprotection to colon epithelium in vivo. Sam68 deletion diminishes γ-irradiation-triggered PAR synthesis and NF-κB activation in colon epithelial cells (CECs), thus hampering the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules in situ and facilitating CECs to undergo apoptosis in mice post whole-body γ-irradiation (WBIR). Sam68 knockout mice suffer more severe damage in the colon and succumb more rapidly from acute radiotoxicity than the control mice following WBIR. Our results underscore the critical role of Sam68 in orchestrating genotoxic stress-initiated NF-κB activation signaling in the colon tissue and whole animal and reveal the pathophysiological relevance of Sam68-dependent NF-κB activation in colonic cell survival and recovery from extrinsic DNA damage.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009110()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM111682()

IRBIT controls apoptosis by interacting with the Bcl-2 homolog, Bcl2l10, and by promoting ER-mitochondria contact.

  • Bonneau B
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

IRBIT is a molecule that interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-binding pocket of the IP3 receptor (IP3R), whereas the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl2l10, binds to another part of the IP3-binding domain. Here we show that Bcl2l10 and IRBIT interact and exert an additive inhibition of IP3R in the physiological state. Moreover, we found that these proteins associate in a complex in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and that their interplay is involved in apoptosis regulation. MAMs are a hotspot for Ca2+ transfer between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and massive Ca2+ release through IP3R in mitochondria induces cell death. We found that upon apoptotic stress, IRBIT is dephosphorylated, becoming an inhibitor of Bcl2l10. Moreover, IRBIT promotes ER mitochondria contact. Our results suggest that by inhibiting Bcl2l10 activity and promoting contact between ER and mitochondria, IRBIT facilitates massive Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria and promotes apoptosis. This work then describes IRBIT as a new regulator of cell death.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS036715(United States)
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001105(United States)

RING finger E3 ligase PPP1R11 regulates TLR2 signaling and innate immunity.

  • McKelvey AC
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes many types of PAMPs that originate from gram-positive bacteria. Here we describe a novel mechanism regulating TLR2 protein expression and subsequent cytokine release through the ubiquitination and degradation of the receptor in response to ligand stimulation. We show a new mechanism in which an uncharacterized RING finger E3 ligase, PPP1R11, directly ubiquitinates TLR2 both in vitro and in vivo, which leads to TLR2 degradation and disruption of the signaling cascade. Lentiviral gene transfer or knockdown of PPP1R11 in mouse lungs significantly affects lung inflammation and the clearance of Staphylococcus aureus. There is a negative correlation between PPP1R11 and TLR2 levels in white blood cell samples isolated from patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections. These results suggest that PPP1R11 plays an important role in regulating innate immunity and gram-positive bacterial clearance by functioning, in part, through the ubiquitination and degradation of TLR2.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R56MH104593(United States)

Chronic social isolation reduces 5-HT neuronal activity via upregulated SK3 calcium-activated potassium channels.

  • Sargin D
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The activity of serotonin (5-HT) neurons is critical for mood regulation. In a mouse model of chronic social isolation, a known risk factor for depressive illness, we show that 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are less responsive to stimulation. Probing the responsible cellular mechanisms pinpoints a disturbance in the expression and function of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels and reveals an important role for both SK2 and SK3 channels in normal regulation of 5-HT neuronal excitability. Chronic social isolation renders 5-HT neurons insensitive to SK2 blockade, however inhibition of the upregulated SK3 channels restores normal excitability. In vivo, we demonstrate that inhibiting SK channels normalizes chronic social isolation-induced anxiety/depressive-like behaviors. Our experiments reveal a causal link for the first time between SK channel dysregulation and 5-HT neuron activity in a lifelong stress paradigm, suggesting these channels as targets for the development of novel therapies for mood disorders.

Kinetic Analysis of Protein Stability Reveals Age-Dependent Degradation.

  • McShane E
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Do young and old protein molecules have the same probability to be degraded? We addressed this question using metabolic pulse-chase labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry to obtain degradation profiles for thousands of proteins. We find that >10% of proteins are degraded non-exponentially. Specifically, proteins are less stable in the first few hours of their life and stabilize with age. Degradation profiles are conserved and similar in two cell types. Many non-exponentially degraded (NED) proteins are subunits of complexes that are produced in super-stoichiometric amounts relative to their exponentially degraded (ED) counterparts. Within complexes, NED proteins have larger interaction interfaces and assemble earlier than ED subunits. Amplifying genes encoding NED proteins increases their initial degradation. Consistently, decay profiles can predict protein level attenuation in aneuploid cells. Together, our data show that non-exponential degradation is common, conserved, and has important consequences for complex formation and regulation of protein abundance.

Endocrine Response Phenotypes Are Altered by Charcoal-Stripped Serum Variability.

  • Sikora MJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Oct 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Charcoal-stripped bovine serum (CSS) is a critical reagent in the study of steroid hormones. However, CSS has high lot-to-lot variability, including residual growth factor and steroid hormone content. Assessing and reporting this variability is challenging but may affect experimental outcomes and data reproducibility. We hypothesized that CSS lot variability would affect endocrine response phenotypes in breast cancer cells, and we tested the effects of five individual CSS lots on endocrine response in MCF-7 and MDA MB 134VI (MM134) cells. Based on the effects of antiestrogens on MCF-7 cell proliferation, we defined CSS lots as having complete vs partial hormone deprivation. In partial deprivation CSS, the absolute effects of residual estrogens on cell proliferation were modest, but these effects masked the partial agonist activity of 4-hydroxytamoxifen in MM134 cells. Importantly, this effectively reversed the interpretation of tamoxifen-resistance in MM134 cells. Variable effects of CSS lots on endocrine resistance phenotypes were also observed in MCF-7 cells. In this context, we observed that partial vs complete deprivation CSS allowed for the development of unique early endocrine resistance phenotypes that correlated with the presence or absence of residual estrogenic hormones. We evaluated the methods of CSS preparation and identified factors contributing to the extent of hormone deprivation. Our observations suggest that CSS lot-to-lot variability has substantial effects on endocrine response phenotypes and that this ubiquitous factor in study methodology may confound reproducibility. Renewed vigilance in testing and reporting CSS phenotypes will greatly aid in interpreting and reproducing endocrine response and resistance data by the community.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA129825(United States)

Conditional Deletion of the L-Type Calcium Channel Cav1.2 in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Affects Postnatal Myelination in Mice.

  • Cheli VT
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2KO) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1.2KO animals showed an important decrease in the percentage of myelinated axons and a substantial increase in the mean g-ratio of myelinated axons. The reduced myelination was accompanied by an important decline in the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and in the rate of OPC proliferation. Furthermore, using a triple transgenic mouse in which all of the Cav1.2KO OPCs were tracked by a Cre reporter, we found that Cav1.2KO OPCs produce less mature oligodendrocytes than control cells. Finally, live-cell imaging in early postnatal brain slices revealed that the migration and proliferation of subventricular zone OPCs is decreased in the Cav1.2KO mice. These results indicate that the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 modulates oligodendrocyte development and suggest that Ca2+ influx mediated by L-VOCCs in OPCs is necessary for normal myelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Overall, it is clear that cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage exhibit remarkable plasticity with regard to the expression of Ca2+ channels and that perturbation of Ca2+ homeostasis likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis underlying demyelinating diseases. To determine whether voltage-gated Ca2+ entry is involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, we used a conditional knock-out mouse for voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our results indicate that voltage-operated Ca2+ channels can modulate oligodendrocyte development in the postnatal brain and suggest that voltage-gated Ca2+ influx in oligodendroglial cells is critical for normal myelination. These findings could lead to novel approaches to intervene in neurodegenerative diseases in which myelin is lost or damaged.

Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult.

  • Lim JL
  • Antioxidants (Basel)
  • 2016 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here, we investigated the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN), monomethyl fumarate (MMF) and Protandim to induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme expression, and protect oligodendrocytes against ROS-induced cell death and ROS-and TNF-mediated inhibition of OPC differentiation. OLN-93 cells and primary rat oligodendrocytes were treated with SFN, MMF or Protandim resulting in significant induction of Nrf2-driven (antioxidant) proteins heme oygenase-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH): quinone oxidoreductase-1 and p62/SQSTM1, as analysed by Western blotting. After incubation with the compounds, oligodendrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Protandim most potently promoted oligodendrocyte cell survival as measured by live/death viability assay. Moreover, OPCs were treated with Protandim or vehicle control prior to exposing them to TNF or hydrogen peroxide for five days, which inhibited OPC differentiation. Protandim significantly promoted OPC differentiation under influence of ROS, but not TNF. Protandim, a combination of five herbal ingredients, potently induces antioxidants in oligodendrocytes and is able to protect oligodendrocytes against oxidative stress by preventing ROS-induced cell death and promoting OPC differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016229(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085387(United States)

Vimentin Intermediate Filaments Template Microtubule Networks to Enhance Persistence in Cell Polarity and Directed Migration.

  • Gan Z
  • Cell Syst
  • 2016 Sep 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Increased expression of vimentin intermediate filaments (VIFs) enhances directed cell migration, but the mechanism behind VIFs' effect on motility is not understood. VIFs interact with microtubules, whose organization contributes to polarity maintenance in migrating cells. Here, we characterize the dynamic coordination of VIF and microtubule networks in wounded monolayers of retinal pigment epithelial cells. By genome editing, we fluorescently labeled endogenous vimentin and α-tubulin, and we developed computational image analysis to delineate architecture and interactions of the two networks. Our results show that VIFs assemble an ultrastructural copy of the previously polarized microtubule network. Because the VIF network is long-lived compared to the microtubule network, VIFs template future microtubule growth along previous microtubule tracks, thus providing a feedback mechanism that maintains cell polarity. VIF knockdown prevents cells from polarizing and migrating properly during wound healing. We suggest that VIFs' templating function establishes a memory in microtubule organization that enhances persistence in cell polarization in general and migration in particular.

BCL11A Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome and Dysregulates Transcription.

  • Dias C
  • Am. J. Hum. Genet.
  • 2016 Aug 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intellectual disability (ID) is a common condition with considerable genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing of large cohorts has identified an increasing number of genes implicated in ID, but their roles in neurodevelopment remain largely unexplored. Here we report an ID syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations in BCL11A, encoding a transcription factor that is a putative member of the BAF swi/snf chromatin-remodeling complex. Using a comprehensive integrated approach to ID disease modeling, involving human cellular analyses coupled to mouse behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular phenotyping, we provide multiple lines of functional evidence for phenotypic effects. The etiological missense variants cluster in the amino-terminal region of human BCL11A, and we demonstrate that they all disrupt its localization, dimerization, and transcriptional regulatory activity, consistent with a loss of function. We show that Bcl11a haploinsufficiency in mice causes impaired cognition, abnormal social behavior, and microcephaly in accordance with the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify shared aberrant transcriptional profiles in the cortex and hippocampus of these mouse models. Thus, our work implicates BCL11A haploinsufficiency in neurodevelopmental disorders and defines additional targets regulated by this gene, with broad relevance for our understanding of ID and related syndromes.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - (International)

Acrylamide Retards the Slow Axonal Transport of Neurofilaments in Rat Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons and the Corresponding Mechanisms.

  • An L
  • Neurochem. Res.
  • 2016 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic acrylamide (ACR) exposure induces peripheral-central axonopathy in occupational workers and laboratory animals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we first investigated the effects of ACR on slow axonal transport of neurofilaments in cultured rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons through live-cell imaging approach. Then for the underlying mechanisms exploration, the protein level of neurofilament subunits, motor proteins kinesin and dynein, and dynamitin subunit of dynactin in DRG neurons were assessed by western blotting and the concentrations of ATP was detected using ATP Assay Kit. The results showed that ACR treatment results in a dose-dependent decrease of slow axonal transport of neurofilaments. Furthermore, ACR intoxication significantly increases the protein levels of the three neurofilament subunits (NF-L, NF-M, NF-H), kinesin, dynein, and dynamitin subunit of dynactin in DRG neurons. In addition, ATP level decreased significantly in ACR-treated DRG neurons. Our findings indicate that ACR exposure retards slow axonal transport of NF-M, and suggest that the increase of neurofilament cargoes, motor proteins, dynamitin of dynactin, and the inadequate ATP supply contribute to the ACR-induced retardation of slow axonal transport.

PROX1 Promotes Secretory Granule Formation in Medullary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

  • Ishii J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanisms of endocrine secretory granule (SG) formation in thyroid C cells and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cells have not been fully elucidated. Here we directly demonstrated that PROX1, a developmental homeobox gene, is transcriptionally involved in SG formation in MTC, which is derived from C cells. Analyses using gene expression databases on web sites revealed that, among thyroid cancer cells, MTC cells specifically and highly express PROX1 as well as several SG-forming molecule genes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that in vivo MTC and C cells expressed PROX1, although follicular thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer cells, normal follicular cells did not. Knockdown of PROX1 in an MTC cells reduced SGs detected by electron microscopy, and decreased expression of SG-related genes (chromogranin A, chromogranin B, secretogranin II, secretogranin III, synaptophysin, and carboxypeptidase E). Conversely, the introduction of a PROX1 transgene into a papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells induced the expression of SG-related genes. Reporter assays using the promoter sequence of chromogranin A showed that PROX1 activates the chromogranin A gene in addition to the known regulatory mechanisms, which are mediated via the cAMP response element binding protein and the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays demonstrated that PROX1 binds to the transcriptional regulatory element of the chromogranin A gene. In conclusion, PROX1 is an important regulator of endocrine SG formation in MTC cells.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001414(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH096889(United States)

Methamphetamine induces the release of endothelin.

  • Seo JW
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Methamphetamine is a potent psychostimulant drug of abuse that increases release and blocks reuptake of dopamine, producing intense euphoria, factors that may contribute to its widespread abuse. It also produces severe neurotoxicity resulting from oxidative stress, DNA damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, microgliosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke have been reported after intravenous and oral abuse of methamphetamine. Several studies have shown that methamphetamine causes vasoconstriction of vessels. This study investigates the effect of methamphetamine on endothelin-1 (ET-1) release in mouse brain endothelial cells by ELISA. ET-1 transcription as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and transcription were measured following methamphetamine treatment. We also examine the effect of methamphetamine on isolated cerebral arteriolar vessels from C57BL/6 mice. Penetrating middle cerebral arterioles were cannulated at both ends with a micropipette system. Methamphetamine was applied extraluminally, and the vascular response was investigated. Methamphetamine treatment of mouse brain endothelial cells resulted in ET-1 release and a transient increase in ET-1 message. The activity and transcription of eNOS were only slightly enhanced after 24 hr of treatment with methamphetamine. In addition, methamphetamine caused significant vasoconstriction of isolated mouse intracerebral arterioles. The vasoconstrictive effect of methamphetamine was attenuated by coapplication of the endothelin receptor antagonist PD145065. These findings suggest that vasoconstriction induced by methamphetamine is mediated through the endothelin receptor and may involve an endothelin-dependent pathway.

Nodal Promotes Functional Luteolysis via Down-Regulation of Progesterone and Prostaglandins E2 and Promotion of PGF2α Synthetic Pathways in Mare Corpus Luteum.

  • Galvão A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the present work, we investigated the role of Nodal, an embryonic morphogen from the TGFβ superfamily in corpus luteum (CL) secretory activity using cells isolated from equine CL as a model. Expression pattern of Nodal and its receptors activin receptor A type IIB (ACVR2B), activin receptor-like kinase (Alk)-7, and Alk4, as well as the Nodal physiological role, demonstrate the involvement of this pathway in functional luteolysis. Nodal and its receptors were immune localized in small and large luteal cells and endothelial cells, except ACVR2B, which was not detected in the endothelium. Nodal mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed its transcription in steroidogenic and endothelial cells. Expression analysis of the aforementioned factors evidenced that Nodal and Alk7 proteins peaked at the mid-CL (P < .01), the time of luteolysis initiation, whereas Alk4 and ACVR2B proteins increased from mid- to late CL (P < .05). The Nodal treatment of luteal cells decreased progesterone and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in culture media (P < .05) as well as mRNA and protein of secretory enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytosolic PGE2 synthase, and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (P < .05). Conversely, PGF2α secretion and gene expression of PG-endoperoxidase synthase 2 and PGF2α synthase were increased after Nodal treatment (P < .05). Mid-CL cells cultured with PGF2α had increased Nodal protein expression (P < .05) and phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic-3 phosphorylation (P < .05). Finally, the supportive interaction between Nodal and PGF2α on luteolysis was shown to its greatest extent because both factors together more significantly inhibited progesterone (P < .05) and promoted PGF2α (P < .05) synthesis than Nodal or PGF2α alone. Our results neatly pinpoint the sites of action of the Nodal signaling pathway toward functional luteolysis in the mare.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 074549(United Kingdom)

Conditional Deletion of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain-Containing Protein 2 (Phd2) Gene Reveals Its Essential Role in Chondrocyte Function and Endochondral Bone Formation.

  • Cheng S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The hypoxic growth plate cartilage requires hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated pathways to maintain chondrocyte survival and differentiation. HIF proteins are tightly regulated by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (Phd2)-mediated proteosomal degradation. We conditionally disrupted the Phd2 gene in chondrocytes by crossing Phd2 floxed mice with type 2 collagen-α1-Cre transgenic mice and found massive increases (>50%) in the trabecular bone mass of long bones and lumbar vertebra of the Phd2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice caused by significant increases in trabecular number and thickness and reductions in trabecular separation. Cortical thickness and tissue mineral density at the femoral middiaphysis of the cKO mice were also significantly increased. Dynamic histomorphometric analyses revealed increased longitudinal length and osteoid surface per bone surface in the primary spongiosa of the cKO mice, suggesting elevated conversion rate from hypertrophic chondrocytes to mineralized bone matrix as well as increased bone formation in the primary spongiosa. In the secondary spongiosa, bone formation measured by mineralizing surface per bone surface and mineral apposition rate were not changed, but resorption was slightly reduced. Increases in the mRNA levels of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9, osterix (Osx), type 2 collagen, aggrecan, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, and glycolytic enzymes in the growth plate of cKO mice were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increased HIF-1α protein level in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of cKO mice. Infection of chondrocytes isolated from Phd2 floxed mice with adenoviral Cre resulted in similar gene expression patterns as observed in the cKO growth plate chondrocytes. Our findings indicate that Phd2 suppresses endochondral bone formation, in part, via HIF-dependent mechanisms in mice.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT098418MA(United Kingdom)

Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 improves behavior and neural properties in Ts65Dn mice, a model of down syndrome.

  • Lysenko LV
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2015 Dec 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Genetic alterations or pharmacological treatments affecting endocannabinoid signaling have profound effects on synaptic and neuronal properties and, under certain conditions, may improve higher brain functions. Down syndrome (DS), a developmental disorder caused by triplication of chromosome 21, is characterized by deficient cognition and inevitable development of the Alzheimer disease (AD) type pathology during aging. Here we used JZL184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), to examine the effects of chronic MAGL inhibition on the behavioral, biochemical, and synaptic properties of aged Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. In both Ts65Dn mice and their normosomic (2N) controls, JZL184-treatment increased brain levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and decreased levels of its metabolites such as arachidonic acid, prostaglandins PGD2, PGE2, PGFα, and PGJ2. Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity of Ts65Dn mice was reduced by the JZL184-treatement to the levels observed in 2N animals. Deficient long-term memory was also improved, while short-term and working types of memory were unaffected. Furthermore, reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was increased in the JZL184-treated Ts65Dn mice to the levels observed in 2N mice. Interestingly, changes in synaptic plasticity and behavior were not observed in the JZL184-treated 2N mice suggesting that the treatment specifically attenuated the defects in the trisomic animals. The JZL184-treatment also reduced the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42, but had no effect on the levels of full length APP and BACE1 in both Ts65Dn and 2N mice. These data show that chronic MAGL inhibition improves the behavior and brain functions in a DS model suggesting that pharmacological targeting of MAGL may be considered as a perspective new approach for improving cognition in DS.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - 5P50MH086383-04(United States)

Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

  • Barone E
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Nov 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels.

Deficiency of FcϵR1 Increases Body Weight Gain but Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

  • Lee YJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prior studies demonstrated increased plasma IgE in diabetic patients, but the direct participation of IgE in diabetes or obesity remains unknown. This study found that plasma IgE levels correlated inversely with body weight, body mass index, and body fat mass among a population of randomly selected obese women. IgE receptor FcϵR1-deficient (Fcer1a(-/-)) mice and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice demonstrated that FcϵR1 deficiency in DIO mice increased food intake, reduced energy expenditure, and increased body weight gain but improved glucose tolerance and glucose-induced insulin secretion. White adipose tissue from Fcer1a(-/-) mice showed an increased expression of phospho-AKT, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, glucose transporter-4 (Glut4), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) but reduced uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression, tissue macrophage accumulation, and apoptosis, suggesting that IgE reduces adipogenesis and glucose uptake but induces energy expenditure, adipocyte apoptosis, and white adipose tissue inflammation. In 3T3-L1 cells, IgE inhibited the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and preadipocyte adipogenesis and induced adipocyte apoptosis. IgE reduced the 3T3-L1 cell expression of Glut4, phospho-AKT, and glucose uptake, which concurred with improved glucose tolerance in Fcer1a(-/-) mice. This study established two novel pathways of IgE in reducing body weight gain in DIO mice by suppressing adipogenesis and inducing adipocyte apoptosis while worsening glucose tolerance by reducing Glut4 expression, glucose uptake, and insulin secretion.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL096571(United States)

Commensal bacteria direct selective cargo sorting to promote symbiosis.

  • Zhang Q
  • Nat. Immunol.
  • 2015 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mucosal immunity protects a host from intestinal inflammation and infection and is profoundly influenced by symbiotic bacteria. Here we report that in mice symbiotic bacteria directed selective cargo sorting in Paneth cells to promote symbiosis through Nod2, a cytosolic bacterial sensor, and the multifunctional protein kinase LRRK2, both encoded by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes. Commensals recruited Nod2 onto lysozyme-containing dense core vesicles (DCVs), which was required for DCV localization of LRRK2 and a small GTPase, Rab2a. Deficiency of Nod2, LRRK2 or Rab2a or depletion of commensals resulted in lysosomal degradation of lysozyme. Thus, commensal bacteria and host factors orchestrate the lysozyme-sorting process to protect the host from enteric infection, implicating Paneth cell dysfunction in IBD pathogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Acute administration of ucf-101 ameliorates the locomotor impairments induced by a traumatic spinal cord injury.

  • Reigada D
  • Neuroscience
  • 2015 Aug 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Secondary death of neural cells plays a key role in the physiopathology and the functional consequences of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Pharmacological manipulation of cell death pathways leading to the preservation of neural cells is acknowledged as a main therapeutic goal in SCI. In the present work, we hypothesize that administration of the neuroprotective cell-permeable compound ucf-101 will reduce neural cell death during the secondary damage of SCI, increasing tissue preservation and reducing the functional deficits. To test this hypothesis, we treated mice with ucf-101 during the first week after a moderate contusive SCI. Our results reveal that ucf-101 administration protects neural cells from the deleterious secondary mechanisms triggered by the trauma, reducing the extension of tissue damage and improving motor function recovery. Our studies also suggest that the effects of ucf-101 may be mediated through the inhibition of HtrA2/OMI and the concomitant increase of inhibitor of apoptosis protein XIAP, as well as the induction of ERK1/2 activation and/or expression. In vitro assays confirm the effects of ucf-101 on both pathways as well as on the reduction of caspase cascade activation and apoptotic cell death in a neuroblastoma cell line. These results suggest that ucf-101 can be a promising therapeutic tool for SCI that deserves more detailed analyses.

Differential coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song system.

  • Mendoza E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Heterozygous disruptions of the Forkhead transcription factor FoxP2 impair acquisition of speech and language. Experimental downregulation in brain region Area X of the avian ortholog FoxP2 disrupts song learning in juvenile male zebra finches. In vitro, transcriptional activity of FoxP2 requires dimerization with itself or with paralogs FoxP1 and FoxP4. Whether this is the case in vivo is unknown. To provide the means for future functional studies we cloned FoxP4 from zebra finches and compared regional and cellular coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 mRNA and protein in brains of juvenile and adult male zebra finches. In the telencephalic song nuclei HVC, RA, and Area X, the three investigated FoxPs were either expressed alone or occurred in specific combinations with each other, as shown by double in situ hybridization and triple immunohistochemistry. FoxP1 and FoxP4 but not FoxP2 were expressed in RA and in the HVCRA and HVCX projection neurons. In Area X and the surrounding striatum the density of neurons expressing all three FoxPs together or FoxP1 and FoxP4 together was significantly higher than the density of neurons expressing other combinations. Interestingly, the proportions of Area X neurons expressing particular combinations of FoxPs remained constant at all ages. In addition, FoxP-expressing neurons in adult Area X express dopamine receptors 1A, 1B, and 2. Together, these data provide the first evidence that Area X neurons can coexpress all avian FoxP subfamily members, thus allowing for a variety of regulatory possibilities via heterodimerization that could impact song behavior in zebra finches.

GnRH Regulates Gonadotropin Gene Expression Through NADPH/Dual Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species.

  • Kim T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The appropriate control of synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropin hormones LH and FSH by pituitary gonadotropes is essential for the regulation of reproduction. The hypothalamic neuropeptide GnRH is the central regulator of both processes, coordinating secretion with transcription and translation of the gonadotropin hormone subunit genes. The MAPK family of second messengers is strongly induced in gonadotropes upon GnRH stimulation, and multiple pathways activate these kinases. Intracellular reactive oxygen species participate in signaling cascades that target MAPKs, but also participate in signaling events indicative of cell stress. The NADPH oxidase (NOX)/dual oxidase (DUOX) family is a major enzymatic source of intracellular reactive oxygen, and we show that GnRH stimulation of mouse primary pituitary cells and the LβT2 gonadotrope cell line elevates intracellular reactive oxygen via NOX/DUOX activity. Mouse pituitary and LβT2 cells abundantly express NOX/DUOX and cofactor mRNAs. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX/DUOX activity diminishes GnRH-stimulated activation of MAPKs, immediate-early gene expression, and gonadotropin subunit gene expression. Inhibitor studies implicate the calcium-activated DUOX family as a major, but not exclusive, participant in GnRH signaling. Knockdown of DUOX2 in LβT2 cells reduces GnRH-induced Fshb, but not Lhb mRNA levels, suggesting differential sensitivity to DUOX activity. Finally, GnRH pulse-stimulated FSH and LH secretion are suppressed by inhibition of NOX/DUOX activity. These results indicate that reactive oxygen is a potent signaling intermediate produced in response to GnRH stimulation and further suggest that reactive oxygen derived from other sources may influence the gonadotrope response to GnRH stimulation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007616(United States)

Role of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase in adrenal aldosterone production.

  • Nanba K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

There is considerable evidence supporting the role of calcium signaling in adrenal regulation of both aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and aldosterone production. However, there have been no studies that investigated the role played by the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) in adrenal cells. In this study we investigated the role of CaMKK in adrenal cell aldosterone production. To determine the role of CaMKK, we used a selective CaMKK inhibitor (STO-609) in the HAC15 human adrenal cell line. Cells were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II) or K+ and evaluated for the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11B2 (mRNA/protein) as well as aldosterone production. We also transduced HAC15 cells with lentiviral short hairpin RNAs of CaMKK1 and CaMKK2 to determine which CaMKK plays a more important role in adrenal cell regulation of the calcium signaling cascade. The CaMKK inhibitor, STO-609, decreased aldosterone production in cells treated with Ang II or K+ in a dose-dependent manner. STO-609 (20 μM) also inhibited steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11B2 mRNA/protein induction. CaMKK2 knockdown cells showed significant reduction of CYP11B2 mRNA induction and aldosterone production in cells treated with Ang II, although there was no obvious effect in CaMKK1 knockdown cells. In immunohistochemical analysis, CaMKK2 protein was highly expressed in human adrenal zona glomerulosa with lower expression in the zona fasciculata. In conclusion, the present study suggests that CaMKK2 plays a pivotal role in the calcium signaling cascade regulating adrenal aldosterone production.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014105(United States)

Prevention and reversal of lipotoxicity-induced hepatic insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in mice by an antioxidant carotenoid, β-cryptoxanthin.

  • Ni Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excessive hepatic lipid accumulation promotes macrophages/Kupffer cells activation, resulting in exacerbation of insulin resistance and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, few promising treatment modalities target lipotoxicity-mediated hepatic activation/polarization of macrophages for NASH. Recent epidemiological surveys showed that serum β-cryptoxanthin, an antioxidant carotenoid, was inversely associated with the risks of insulin resistance and liver dysfunction. In the present study, we first showed that β-cryptoxanthin administration ameliorated hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Next, we investigated the preventative and therapeutic effects of β-cryptoxanthin using a lipotoxic model of NASH: mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat (CL) diet. After 12 weeks of CL diet feeding, β-cryptoxanthin administration attenuated insulin resistance and excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and peroxidation, with increases in M1-type macrophages/Kupffer cells and activated stellate cells, and fibrosis in CL diet-induced NASH. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that β-cryptoxanthin down-regulated macrophage activation signal-related genes significantly without affecting most lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis revealed that, on a CL diet, β-cryptoxanthin caused a predominance of M2 over M1 macrophage populations, in addition to reducing total hepatic macrophage and T-cell contents. In parallel, β-cryptoxanthin decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 marker mRNA expression in peritoneal macrophages, whereas it augmented IL-4-induced M2 marker mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, β-cryptoxanthin reversed steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis progression in preexisting NASH in mice. In conclusion, β-cryptoxanthin prevents and reverses insulin resistance and steatohepatitis, at least in part, through an M2-dominant shift in macrophages/Kupffer cells in a lipotoxic model of NASH.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA027827(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK095359(United States)

Registered report: transcriptional amplification in tumor cells with elevated c-Myc.

  • Blum D
  • Elife
  • 2015 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Lin et al. (2012), published in Cell in 2012. The experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figures 3E and 3F. In these experiments, elevated levels of c-Myc in the P493-6 cell model of Burkitt's lymphoma results in an increase of the total level of RNA using UV/VIS spectrophotometry (Figure 3E; Lin et al., 2012) and on the mRNA levels/cell for a large set of genes using digital gene expression technology (Figure 3F; Lin et al., 2012). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the eLife.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH063394(United States)

Anti-inflammatory effects of Edaravone and Scutellarin in activated microglia in experimentally induced ischemia injury in rats and in BV-2 microglia.

  • Yuan Y
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2014 Nov 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: In response to cerebral ischemia, activated microglia release excessive inflammatory mediators which contribute to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglial over-activation could be a therapeutic strategy to alleviate various microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellarin and Edaravone given either singly, or in combination in activated microglia in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglia. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. RESULTS: In vivo, both Edaravone and Scutellarin markedly reduced the infarct cerebral tissue area with the latter drug being more effective with the dosage used; furthermore, when used in combination the reduction was more substantial. Remarkably, a greater diminution in distribution of activated microglia was observed with the combined drug treatment which also attenuated the immunoexpression of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS to a greater extent as compared to the drugs given separately. In vitro, both drugs suppressed upregulated expression of inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, NO and ROS in LPS-induced BV-2 cells. Furthermore, Edaravone and Scutellarin in combination cumulatively diminished the expression levels of the inflammatory mediators being most pronounced for TNF-α as evidenced by Western blot. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that Edaravone and Scutellarin effectively suppressed the inflammatory responses in activated microglia, with Scutellarin being more efficacious within the dosage range used. Moreover, when both drugs were used in combination, the infarct tissue area was reduced more extensively; also, microglia-mediated inflammatory mediators notably TNF-α expression was decreased cumulatively.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM082949(United States)

Impact of RTN3 deficiency on expression of BACE1 and amyloid deposition.

  • Shi Q
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reticulon 3 (RTN3) has previously been shown to interact with BACE1 and negatively regulate BACE1 activity. To what extent RTN3 deficiency affects BACE1 activity is an intriguing question. In this study, we aimed to address this by generating RTN3-null mice. Mice with complete deficiency of RTN3 grow normally and have no obviously discernible phenotypes. Morphological analyses of RTN3-null mice showed no significant alterations in cellular structure, although RTN3 is recognized as a protein contributing to the shaping of tubular endoplasmic reticulum. Biochemical analysis revealed that RTN3 deficiency increased protein levels of BACE1. This elevation of BACE1 levels correlated with enhanced processing of amyloid precursor protein at the β-secretase site. We also demonstrated that RTN3 deficiency in Alzheimer's mouse models facilitates amyloid deposition, further supporting an in vivo role of RTN3 in the regulation of BACE1 activity. Since it has been shown that RTN3 monomer is reduced in brains of Alzheimer's patients, our results suggest that long-lasting reduction of RTN3 levels has adverse effects on BACE1 activity and may contribute to Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

Large litter rearing improves leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic appetite markers in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

  • Sun B
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR015301-05S10100(United States)

Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 mediates fasting-induced hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 expression.

  • Min AK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The fasting-induced hepatic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is a potential candidate for the treatment of metabolic syndromes. Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α is known to play a major role in the induction of hepatic FGF21 expression, other fasting-induced transcription factors that induce FGF21 expression have not yet been fully studied. In the present study, we investigated whether the fasting-induced activation of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 increases hepatic FGF21 expression. We found that fasting induced hepatic Nur77 and FGF21 expression. Glucagon and forskolin increased Nur77 and FGF21 expression in vivo and in vitro, respectively, and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nur77 (Ad-Nur77) increased FGF21 expression in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous Nur77 expression by siRNA-Nur77 abolished the effect of forskolin on FGF21 expression. The results of ChIP assays, EMSA, and mutagenesis analysis showed that Nur77 bound to the putative NBRE of the FGF21 promoter in cultured hepatocytes and fasting induced Nur77 binding to the FGF21 promoter in vivo. Knockdown of PPARα partially inhibited forskolin-induced FGF21 expression, suggesting PPARα involvement in glucagon-stimulated FGF21 expression. In addition, double knockdown of PPARα and Nur77 further diminished FGF21 expression in cultured hepatocytes. In conclusion, this study shows that Nur77 mediates fasting-induced hepatic FGF21 expression, and suggests an alternative mechanism via which hepatic FGF21 transcription is mediated under fasting conditions.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020572(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 100140(United Kingdom)

Exercise modulates chloride homeostasis after spinal cord injury.

  • Côté MP
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jul 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-based therapies are routinely integrated in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation programs because they result in a reduction of hyperreflexia and spasticity. However, the mechanisms by which exercise regulates activity in spinal pathways to reduce spasticity and improve functional recovery are poorly understood. Persisting alterations in the action of GABA on postsynaptic targets is a signature of CNS injuries, including SCI. The action of GABA depends on the intracellular chloride concentration, which is determined largely by the expression of two cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), KCC2 and NKCC1, which serve as chloride exporters and importers, respectively. We hypothesized that the reduction in hyperreflexia with exercise after SCI relies on a return to chloride homeostasis. Sprague Dawley rats received a spinal cord transection at T12 and were assigned to SCI-7d, SCI-14d, SCI-14d+exercise, SCI-28d, SCI-28d+exercise, or SCI-56d groups. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus muscles after stimulation of the tibial nerve and the low-frequency-dependent depression (FDD) was assessed. We provide evidence that exercise returns spinal excitability and levels of KCC2 and NKCC1 toward normal levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Acutely altering chloride extrusion using the KCC2 blocker DIOA masked the effect of exercise on FDD, whereas blocking NKCC1 with bumetanide returned FDD toward intact levels after SCI. Our results indicate that exercise contributes to reflex recovery and restoration of endogenous inhibition through a return to chloride homeostasis after SCI. This lends support for CCCs as part of a pathway that could be manipulated to improve functional recovery when combined with rehabilitation programs.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS087632(United States)

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates noncanonical SMAD2/3 signaling via the BMP type 1A receptor in gonadotrope-like cells: implications for FSH synthesis.

  • Wang Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

FSH is an essential regulator of mammalian reproduction. Its synthesis by pituitary gonadotrope cells is regulated by multiple endocrine and paracrine factors, including TGFβ superfamily ligands, such as the activins and inhibins. Activins stimulate FSH synthesis via transcriptional regulation of its β-subunit gene (Fshb). More recently, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were shown to stimulate murine Fshb transcription alone and in synergy with activins. BMP2 signals via its canonical type I receptor, BMPR1A (or activin receptor-like kinase 3 [ALK3]), and SMAD1 and SMAD5 to stimulate transcription of inhibitor of DNA binding proteins. Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins then potentiate the actions of activin-stimulated SMAD3 to regulate the Fshb gene in the gonadotrope-like LβT2 cell line. Here, we report the unexpected observation that BMP2 also stimulates the SMAD2/3 pathway in these cells and that it does so directly via ALK3. Indeed, this novel, noncanonical ALK3 activity is completely independent of ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7, the type I receptors most often associated with SMAD2/3 pathway activation. Induction of the SMAD2/3 pathway by ALK3 is dependent upon its own previous activation by associated type II receptors, which phosphorylate conserved serine and threonine residues in the ALK3 juxtamembrane glycine-serine-rich domain. ALK3 signaling via SMAD3 is necessary for the receptor to stimulate Fshb transcription, whereas its activation of the SMAD1/5/8 pathway alone is insufficient. These data challenge current dogma that ALK3 and other BMP type I receptors signal via SMAD1, SMAD5, and SMAD8 and not SMAD2 or SMAD3. Moreover, they suggest that BMPs and activins may use similar intracellular signaling mechanisms to activate the murine Fshb promoter in immortalized gonadotrope-like cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R21-HL122443(United States)

Maternal diabetes leads to unphysiological high lipid accumulation in rabbit preimplantation embryos.

  • Schindler M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

According to the "developmental origin of health and disease" hypothesis, the metabolic set points of glucose and lipid metabolism are determined prenatally. In the case of a diabetic pregnancy, the embryo is exposed to higher glucose and lipid concentrations as early as during preimplantation development. We used the rabbit to study the effect of maternal diabetes type 1 on lipid accumulation and expression of lipogenic markers in preimplantation blastocysts. Accompanied by elevated triglyceride and glucose levels in the maternal blood, embryos from diabetic rabbits showed a massive intracellular lipid accumulation and increased expression of fatty acid transporter 4, fatty acid-binding protein 4, perilipin/adipophilin, and maturation of sterol-regulated element binding protein. However, expression of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, was not altered in vivo. During a short time in vitro culture of rabbit blastocysts, the accumulation of lipid droplets and expression of lipogenic markers were directly correlated with increasing glucose concentration, indicating that hyperglycemia leads to increased lipogenesis in the preimplantation embryo. Our study shows the decisive effect of glucose as the determining factor for fatty acid metabolism and intracellular lipid accumulation in preimplantation embryos.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK078749(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)

Palmitoylethanolamide prevents metabolic alterations and restores leptin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats.

  • Mattace Raso G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been suggested a role of fatty acid ethanolamides in control of feeding behavior. Among these, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has not been directly implicated in appetite regulation and weight gain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PEA on food intake and body weight and the interaction between PEA and hypothalamic leptin signaling in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy produced hyperphagia and increased weight gain, making it an useful model of mild obesity. Ovariectomized rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg sc) for 5 weeks. Then, blood was collected, and hypothalamus and adipose tissue were removed for histological, cellular, and molecular measurements. We showed that PEA caused a reduction of food intake, body weight, and fat mass. The mechanisms underlying PEA effects involved an improvement in hypothalamic leptin signaling, through a raise in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation. We also reported that PEA reduced AMP-activated protein kinase-α phosphorylation and modulated transcription of anorectic and orexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. Moreover, PEA increased AMP-activated protein kinase-α phosphorylation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 transcription in adipose tissue, suggesting an increase in ATP-producing catabolic pathway. PEA also polarized adipose tissue macrophages to M2 lean phenotype, associated to a reduction of inflammatory cytokines/adipokines. To demonstrate the direct effect of PEA on leptin sensitivity without interference of adiposity loss, we obtained consistent data in PEA-treated sham-operated animals and in vitro in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Therefore, our data provide a rationale for the therapeutic use of PEA in obese postmenopausal woman.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014101(United States)

Liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α to regulate metabolic hormone FGF21.

  • Kim H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lipid metabolism is tightly regulated by nuclear receptors, transcription factors, and cellular enzymes. In this study, we demonstrated that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH (cAMP-responsive element binding protein, hepatocyte specific) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) function as binary transcriptional activators to regulate lipid metabolism by activating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hepatic hormone that regulates whole-body energy homeostasis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies indicated that CREBH regulates triglyceride and fatty acid metabolism in animals under fasting or on an atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet. CREBH and PPARα act as interactive trans-activators that regulate each other for their expression. Activated CREBH protein interacts with PPARα to form a functional complex upon fasting or the AHF diet, and both factors are required for induction of the metabolic hormone FGF21. The CREBH-PPARα complex was found to bind to integrated CRE-PPAR-responsive element-binding motifs in the FGF21 gene promoter. Whereas CREBH and PPARα function in synergy to activate FGF21 gene expression, PPARα relies on CREBH to exert its trans-activation effect on FGF21. Supporting the key role of CREBH in regulating FGF21, infusion of recombinant FGF21 protein can reverse hypertriglyceridemia and hypoketonemia and partially rescue nonalcoholic steatohepatitis developed in the CREBH-null mice after the AHF diet. Our study demonstrated a transcriptional regulatory axis of CREBH-PPARα-FGF21 in maintaining lipid homeostasis under metabolic stress. The functional relationship between CREBH and PPARα in regulating FGF21 may represent an important transcriptional coactivation mechanism that orchestrates the processes of energy supply upon metabolic alteration.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN271200577531C(United States)

17β-estradiol replacement reverses age-related lung disease in estrogen-deficient C57BL/6J mice.

  • Glassberg MK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The role that estrogens play in the aging lung is poorly understood. Remodeling of the aging lung with thickening of the alveolar walls and reduction in the number of peripheral airways is well recognized. The present study was designed to address whether estrogen deficiency would affect age-associated changes in the lungs of female C57BL/6J mice. Lungs isolated from old mice (24 months old, estrogen-deficient) demonstrated decreased lung volume and decreased alveolar surface area. There was no difference in alveolar number in the lungs of old and young mice (6 months old, estrogen-replete). Estrogen replacement restored lung volume, alveolar surface area, and alveolar wall thickness to that of a young mouse. Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) protein expression increased without a change in ERβ protein expression in the lung tissue isolated from old mice. In the lungs of old mice, the number of apoptotic cells was increased as well as the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and ERK. Young mice had the highest serum 17β-estradiol levels that decreased with age. Our data suggest that in the aging female mouse lung, estrogen deficiency and an increase of ERα expression lead to the development of an emphysematous phenotype. Estrogen replacement partially prevents these age-associated changes in the lung architecture by restoration of interalveolar septa. Understanding the role of estrogens in the remodeling of the lung during aging may facilitate interventions and therapies for aging-related lung disease in women.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS16333(United States)

Reduced expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in preeclamptic placentas is associated with decreased PPARγ but increased PPARα expression.

  • He P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) is reduced in pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia (PE). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors β/δ (PPARβ/δ) have been shown to suppress 11β-HSD2 expression in human placental cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether the reduced 11β-HSD2 expression is associated with the changes in PPARs in PE placentas, and whether PPARα and PPARγ affect 11β-HSD2 expression in placental cells. PPARα and PPARβ/δ mRNA and protein expression was increased, whereas PPARγ mRNA and protein expression was decreased in PE placentas. 11β-HSD2 protein expression was inversely correlated with PPARβ/δ in normal placentas but correlated positively with PPARγ and inversely to PPARα in PE placentas. In cultured placental cells, PPARα agonist inhibited, whereas PPARγ agonist stimulated, 11β-HSD2 mRNA and protein expression and activity in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of retinoid X nuclear receptor α (RXRα) resulted in a loss of PPARγ effect but not PPARα effect on11β-HSD2. The PPARα effect remained, but the PPARγ effect was lost in the presence of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. PPARγ agonist dose-dependently stimulated specificity protein 1 (Sp-1) protein expression. Inhibition or knockdown of Sp-1 resulted in a loss of the effects of PPARα and PPARγ. The Sp-1 protein level was not correlated with 11β-HSD2 and PPARs in normal placentas, whereas Sp-1 expression was correlated with 11β-HSD2, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ in PE placentas. Our data indicate that 11β-HSD2 expression can be modulated by PPARα and PPARγ in placental trophoblasts through Sp-1. Decreased 11β-HSD2 expression in PE placenta might be associated with decreased PPARγ but increased PPARα expression.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - P50 AA017072(United States)

Is vitamin D a key factor in muscle health?

  • Kottler ML
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA164462(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD086984(United States)

GSK-3β function in bone regulates skeletal development, whole-body metabolism, and male life span.

  • Gillespie JR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) is an essential negative regulator or "brake" on many anabolic-signaling pathways including Wnt and insulin. Global deletion of GSK-3β results in perinatal lethality and various skeletal defects. The goal of our research was to determine GSK-3β cell-autonomous effects and postnatal roles in the skeleton. We used the 3.6-kb Col1a1 promoter to inactivate the Gsk3b gene (Col1a1-Gsk3b knockout) in skeletal cells. Mutant mice exhibit decreased body fat and postnatal bone growth, as well as delayed development of several skeletal elements. Surprisingly, the mutant mice display decreased circulating glucose and insulin levels despite normal expression of GSK-3β in metabolic tissues. We showed that these effects are due to an increase in global insulin sensitivity. Most of the male mutant mice died after weaning. Prior to death, blood glucose changed from low to high, suggesting a possible switch from insulin sensitivity to resistance. These male mice die with extremely large bladders that are preceded by damage to the urogenital tract, defects that are also seen type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that skeletal-specific deletion of GSK-3β affects global metabolism and sensitizes male mice to developing type 2 diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R03 NS087359(United States)

FTO deficiency induces UCP-1 expression and mitochondrial uncoupling in adipocytes.

  • Tews D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity and body fat mass in genome-wide association studies. However, the mechanism by which FTO predisposes individuals to obesity is not clear so far. First mechanistic evidence was shown in Fto-negative mice. These mice are resistant to obesity due to enhanced energy expenditure, whereas the mass of brown adipose tissue remains unchanged. We hypothesize that FTO is involved in the induction of white adipose tissue browning, which leads to mitochondrial uncoupling and increases energy expenditure. Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1) was significantly higher expressed in both gonadal and inguinal adipose depots of Fto(-/-) compared with Fto(+/+) littermates accompanied by the appearance of multivacuolar, Ucp-1-positive adipocytes in these tissues. By using lentiviral short hairpin RNA constructs, we established FTO-deficient human preadipocytes and adipocytes and analyzed key metabolic processes. FTO-deficient adipocytes showed an adipogenic differentiation rate comparable with control cells but exhibited a reduced de novo lipogenesis despite unchanged glucose uptake. In agreement with the mouse data, FTO-deficient adipocytes exhibited 4-fold higher expression of UCP-1 in mitochondria compared with control cells. The up-regulation of UCP-1 in FTO-deficient adipocytes resulted in enhanced mitochondrial uncoupling. We conclude that FTO deficiency leads to the induction of a brown adipocyte phenotype, thereby enhancing energy expenditure. Further understanding of the signaling pathway connecting FTO with UCP-1 expression might lead to new options for obesity and overweight treatment.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS050792(United States)

Growth hormone potentiates 17β-estradiol-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation independently of IGF-I receptor signaling.

  • Felice DL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Estrogen action in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression is tightly linked to the GH/IGF-I axis. Although many of the effects of GH on mammary gland growth and development require IGF-I, the extent to which GH action in breast cancer depends on IGF-I is not known. We examined GH action in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines and found that T47D cells express significant levels of GH receptor and that GH significantly enhances 17β-estradiol (E2)-stimulated proliferation in these cells. GH action in the T47D cells was independent of changes in IGF-I and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression and IGF-IR signaling, suggesting that GH can exert direct effects on breast cancer cells. Although E2-dependent proliferation required IGF-IR signaling, the combination of GH+E2 overcame inhibition of IGF-IR activity to restore proliferation. In contrast, GH required both Janus kinase 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling for subsequent ERK activation and potentiation of E2-dependent proliferation. Downstream of these pathways, we identified a number of immediate early-response genes associated with proliferation that are rapidly and robustly up-regulated by GH. These findings demonstrate that GH can have important effects in breast cancer cells that are distinct from IGF-IR activity, suggesting that novel drugs or improved combination therapies targeting estrogen receptor and the GH/IGF axis may be beneficial for breast cancer patients.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH096678(United States)

A role for phosphodiesterase 3B in acquisition of brown fat characteristics by white adipose tissue in male mice.

  • Guirguis E
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity is linked to various diseases, including insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. The idea of inducing white adipose tissue (WAT) to assume characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT), and thus gearing it to fat burning instead of storage, is receiving serious consideration as potential treatment for obesity and related disorders. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) links insulin- and cAMP-signaling networks in tissues associated with energy metabolism, including WAT. We used C57BL/6 PDE3B knockout (KO) mice to elucidate mechanisms involved in the formation of BAT in epididymal WAT (EWAT) depots. Examination of gene expression profiles in PDE3B KO EWAT revealed increased expression of several genes that block white and promote brown adipogenesis, such as C-terminal binding protein, bone morphogenetic protein 7, and PR domain containing 16, but a clear BAT-like phenotype was not completely induced. However, acute treatment of PDE3B KO mice with the β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243, markedly increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyzes prostaglandin synthesis and is thought to be important in the formation of BAT in WAT and the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 3, which is linked to BAT recruitment upon cold exposure, causing a clear shift toward fat burning and the induction of BAT in KO EWAT. These data provide insight into the mechanisms of BAT formation in mouse EWAT, suggesting that, in a C57BL/6 background, an increase in cAMP, caused by ablation of PDE3B and administration of CL316243, may promote differentiation of prostaglandin-responsive progenitor cells in the EWAT stromal vascular fraction into functional brown adipocytes.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007516(United States)

Overexpression of nerve growth factor by murine smooth muscle cells: role of the p75 neurotrophin receptor on sympathetic and sensory sprouting.

  • Petrie CN
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Elevating levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) can have pronounced effects on the survival and maintenance of distinct populations of neurons. We have generated a line of transgenic mice in which NGF is expressed under the control of the smooth muscle α-actin promoter. These transgenic mice have augmented levels of NGF protein in the descending colon and urinary bladder, so these tissues display increased densities of NGF-sensitive sympathetic efferents and sensory afferents. Here we provide a thorough examination of sympathetic and sensory axonal densities in the descending colon and urinary bladder of NGF transgenic mice with and without the expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). In response to elevated NGF levels, sympathetic axons (immunostained for tyrosine hydroxylase) undergo robust collateral sprouting in the descending colon and urinary bladder of adult transgenic mice (i.e., those tissues having smooth muscle cells); this sprouting is not augmented in the absence of p75NTR expression. As for sensory axons (immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide) in the urinary bladders of transgenic mice, fibers undergo sprouting that is further increased in the absence of p75NTR expression. Sympathetic axons are also seen invading the sensory ganglia of transgenic mice; these fibers form perineuronal plexi around a subpopulation of sensory somata. Our results reveal that elevated levels of NGF in target tissues stimulate sympathetic and sensory axonal sprouting and that an absence of p75NTR by sensory afferents (but not by sympathetic efferents) leads to a further increase of terminal arborization in certain NGF-rich peripheral tissues.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41-EB001978(United States)

CRTC2 is required for β-cell function and proliferation.

  • Eberhard CE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous work in insulinoma cell lines has established that calcineurin plays a critical role in the activation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (Creb), a key transcription factor required for β-cell function and survival, by dephosphorylating the Creb coactivator Creb-regulated transcription coactivator (Crtc)2 at 2 regulatory sites, Ser171 and Ser275. Here, we report that Crtc2 is essential both for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and cell survival in the β-cell. Endogenous Crtc2 activation is achieved via increasing glucose levels to the physiological feeding range, indicating that Crtc2 is a sensor that couples ambient glucose concentrations to Creb activity in the β-cell. Immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporin A and tacrolimus that target the protein phosphatase calcineurin are commonly administered after organ transplantation. Chronic use is associated with reduced insulin secretion and new onset diabetes, suggestive of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Importantly, we show that overexpression of a Crtc2 mutant rendered constitutively active by introduction of nonphosphorylatable alanine residues at Ser171 and Ser275 permits Creb target gene activation under conditions when calcineurin is inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that promoting Crtc2-Creb activity is required for β-cell function and proliferation and promoting this pathway could ameliorate symptoms of new onset diabetes after transplantation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS082672(United States)

cAMP-responsive element binding protein: a vital link in embryonic hormonal adaptation.

  • Schindler M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factor cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factors (ATFs) are downstream components of the insulin/IGF cascade, playing crucial roles in maintaining cell viability and embryo survival. One of the CREB target genes is adiponectin, which acts synergistically with insulin. We have studied the CREB-ATF-adiponectin network in rabbit preimplantation development in vivo and in vitro. From the blastocyst stage onwards, CREB and ATF1, ATF3, and ATF4 are present with increasing expression for CREB, ATF1, and ATF3 during gastrulation and with a dominant expression in the embryoblast (EB). In vitro stimulation with insulin and IGF-I reduced CREB and ATF1 transcripts by approximately 50%, whereas CREB phosphorylation was increased. Activation of CREB was accompanied by subsequent reduction in adiponectin and adiponectin receptor (adipoR)1 expression. Under in vivo conditions of diabetes type 1, maternal adiponectin levels were up-regulated in serum and endometrium. Embryonic CREB expression was altered in a cell lineage-specific pattern. Although in EB cells CREB localization did not change, it was translocated from the nucleus into the cytosol in trophoblast (TB) cells. In TB, adiponectin expression was increased (diabetic 427.8 ± 59.3 pg/mL vs normoinsulinaemic 143.9 ± 26.5 pg/mL), whereas it was no longer measureable in the EB. Analysis of embryonic adipoRs showed an increased expression of adipoR1 and no changes in adipoR2 transcription. We conclude that the transcription factors CREB and ATFs vitally participate in embryo-maternal cross talk before implantation in a cell lineage-specific manner. Embryonic CREB/ATFs act as insulin/IGF sensors. Lack of insulin is compensated by a CREB-mediated adiponectin expression, which may maintain glucose uptake in blastocysts grown in diabetic mothers.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01-HL57278(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS94668(United States)

Investigating new therapeutic strategies targeting hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effects in a female mouse breast cancer model.

  • Rostoker R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified hyperinsulinemia as an important risk factor for breast cancer induction and for the poor prognosis in breast cancer patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently it was demonstrated that both the insulin receptor (IR) and the IGF-IR mediate hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effect in several breast cancer models. Although IGF-IR has been intensively investigated, and anti-IGF-IR therapies are now in advanced clinical trials, the role of the IR in mediating hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effect remains to be clarified. Here we aimed to explore the potential of IR inhibition compared to dual IR/IGF-IR blockade on breast tumor growth. To initiate breast tumors, we inoculated the mammary carcinoma Mvt-1 cell line into the inguinal mammary fat pad of the hyperinsulinemic MKR female mice, and to study the role of IR, we treated the mice bearing tumors with the recently reported high-affinity IR antagonist-S961, in addition to the well-documented IGF-IR inhibitor picropodophyllin (PPP). Although reducing IR activation, with resultant severe hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, S961-treated mice had significantly larger tumors compared to the vehicle-treated group. This effect maybe secondary to the severe hyperinsulinemia mediated via the IGF-1 receptor. In contrast, PPP by partially inhibiting both IR and IGF-IR activity reduced tumor growth rate with only mild metabolic consequences. We conclude that targeting (even partially) both IR and IGF-IRs impairs hyperinsulinemia's effects in breast tumor development while simultaneously sparing the metabolic abnormalities observed when targeting IR alone with virtual complete inhibition.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS040929(United States)

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) promotes growth and survival of breast epithelial cells: novel regulation of the estrogen receptor.

  • Foulstone EJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

In breast tumors IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is elevated, and the presence of IGFBP-2 has been shown to correlate with malignancy. However, how IGFBP-2 contributes to the malignant state is still unclear. Silencing IGFBP-2 blocked cell proliferation and in MCF-7 cells increased cell death, indicating that IGFBP-2 was acting in both a mitogenic and a survival capacity. Exogenous IGFBP-2 acting via integrin receptors to reduce phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) levels protected these cells against death induced by various chemotherapeutic agents. This was dependent on a functional estrogen receptor (ER)-α because silencing ER-α blocked the ability of IGFBP-2 to confer cell survival. Loss of IGFBP-2 increased levels of PTEN and improved chemosensitivity of the cells, confirming its role as a survival factor. Silencing IGFBP-2 had no effect on the response to IGF-II, but responses to estrogen and tamoxifen were no longer observed due to loss of ER-α, which could be prevented by the inhibition of PTEN. Conversely, exogenous IGFBP-2 increased ER-α mRNA and protein in both normal and cancer cells via its interaction with integrin receptors. These actions of IGFBP-2 on ER-α involved the IGF-I receptor and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the cancer cells but were independent of this in normal breast cells. The production of IGFBP-2 by breast cancer cells enhances their proliferative potential, increases their survival, and protects them against chemotherapy-induced death. IGFBP-2 not only modulates IGFs and directly regulates PTEN but also has a role in maintaining ER-α expression.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074830(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 1F31NS084706-01(United States)

PCP4 (PEP19) overexpression induces premature neuronal differentiation associated with Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase II-δ activation in mouse models of Down syndrome.

  • Mouton-Liger F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pcp4/pep19 is a modulator of Ca(2+) -CaM, a key molecule for calcium signaling, expressed in postmitotic neuroectoderm cells during mouse embryogenesis. The PCP4 gene is located on human chromosome 21 and is present in three copies in Down syndrome (DS). To evaluate the consequences of three copies of this gene on the development of these cells in the nervous system, we constructed a transgenic (TgPCP4) mouse model, with one copy of human PCP4, and investigated the effects in this model and in the Ts1Cje, a mouse model of DS. During embryogenesis, we analyzed 1) the level of pcp4 transcript and protein in the two models; 2) the extent of colabeling for markers of neuronal differentiation (βIII-tubulin, Map2c, calbindin, and calretinin) and pcp4 by immunofluorescence analysis and overall protein levels of these markers by Western blotting; and 3) the rate of activation of CaMKII, a Ca(2+) -CaM target, to evaluate the impact of pcp4 overexpression on the Ca(2+) -CaM signaling pathway. We showed that three copies of the pcp4 gene induced the overexpression of transcripts and proteins during embryogenesis. Pcp4 overexpression 1) induced precocious neuronal differentiation, as shown by the distribution and levels of early neuronal markers; and 2) was associated with an increase in CaMKIIδ activation, confirming involvement in neuronal differentiation in vivo via a Pcp4-Ca(2+) -CaM pathway. TgPCP4 and Ts1Cje mice developed similar modifications, demonstrating that these mechanisms may account for abnormal neuronal development in DS.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - 1U54DA021519-01A1(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS36739(United States)

Nerve growth factor promoter activity revealed in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

  • Kawaja MD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT085822MA(United Kingdom)

Combined extrinsic and intrinsic manipulations exert complementary neuronal enrichment in embryonic rat neural precursor cultures: an in vitro and in vivo analysis.

  • Furmanski O
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Numerous central nervous system (CNS) disorders share a common pathology in dysregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory signaling. Transplantation of GABA-releasing cells at the site of disinhibition holds promise for alleviating disease symptoms with fewer side effects than traditional drug therapies. We manipulated fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 deprivation and mammalian achaete-scute homolog (MASH)1 transcription factor levels in an attempt to amplify the default GABAergic neuronal fate in cultured rat embryonic neural precursor cells (NPCs) for use in transplantation studies. Naïve and MASH1 lentivirus-transduced NPCs were maintained in FGF-2 or deprived of FGF-2 for varying lengths of time. Immunostaining and quantitative analysis showed that GABA- and beta-III-tubulin-immunoreactive cells generally decreased through successive passages, suggesting a loss of neurogenic potential in rat neurospheres expanded in vitro. However, FGF-2 deprivation resulted in a small, but significantly increased population of GABAergic cells derived from passaged neurospheres. In contrast to naïve and GFP lentivirus-transduced clones, MASH1 transduction resulted in increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and clonal colony size. Western blotting showed that MASH1 overexpression and FGF-2 deprivation additively increased beta-III-tubulin and decreased cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CNPase) expression, whereas FGF-2 deprivation alone attenuated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. These results suggest that low FGF-2 signaling and MASH1 activity can operate in concert to enrich NPC cultures for a GABA neuronal phenotype. When transplanted into the adult rat spinal cord, this combination also yielded GABAergic neurons. These findings indicate that, even for successful utilization of the default GABAergic neuronal precursor fate, a combination of both extrinsic and intrinsic manipulations will likely be necessary to realize the full potential of NSC grafts in restoring function.

Changes in apical dendritic structure correlate with sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation in medial prefrontal cortex of a rat model of dopamine D1 receptor agonist sensitization.

  • Papadeas ST
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rats lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) as neonates exhibit behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in adulthood that mimic Lesch-Nyhan disease, schizophrenia, and other developmental disorders of frontostriatal circuit dysfunction. In these animals a latent sensitivity to D1 agonists is maximally exposed by repeated administration of dopamine agonists in the postpubertal period (D1 priming). In neonate-lesioned, adult rats primed with SKF-38393, we found selective, persistent alterations in the morphology of pyramidal neuron apical dendrites in the prelimbic area of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In these animals, dendrite bundling patterns and the typically straight trajectories of primary dendritic shafts were disrupted, whereas the diameter of higher-order oblique branches was increased. Although not present in neonate-lesioned rats treated with saline, these morphological changes persisted at least 21 days after repeated dosing with SKF-38393, and were not accompanied by markers of neurodegenerative change. A sustained increase in phospho-ERK immunoreactivity in wavy dendritic shafts over the same period suggested a relationship between prolonged ERK phosphorylation and dendritic remodeling in D1-primed rats. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors PD98059 or SL327, prior to each priming dose of SKF-38393, prevented the morphological changes associated with D1 priming. Together, these findings demonstrate that repeated stimulation of D1 receptors in adulthood interacts with the developmental loss of dopamine to profoundly and persistently modify neuronal signaling and dendrite morphology in the mature prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, sustained elevation of ERK activity in mPFC pyramidal neurons may play a role in guiding these morphological changes in vivo.