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Monoclonal Anti-beta-Actin antibody produced in mouse

RRID:AB_476692

Antibody ID

AB_476692

Target Antigen

beta-Actin antibody produced in mouse chicken/bird, drosophila/arthropod, guinea pig, zebrafish/fish, porcine, rat, c elegans/worm, human, bovine, rabbit, sheep, canine, mouse, feline, canine, guinea pig, hirudo medicinalis, feline, pig, mouse, carp, chicken, sheep, rabbit, rat, human, bovine

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# A1978, RRID:AB_476692)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Vendor recommendations: IgG1 indirect immunofluorescence: suitable, immunohistochemistry (frozen sections): suitable, immunoblotting: 0.5-1 mug/mL; Immunohistochemistry; Other; Immunofluorescence; Immunocytochemistry; Western Blot

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

A1978

Publications that use this research resource

BRET-based RAS biosensors that show a novel small molecule is an inhibitor of RAS-effector protein-protein interactions.

  • Bery N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RAS family of proteins is amongst the most highly mutated in human cancers and has so far eluded drug therapy. Currently, much effort is being made to discover mutant RAS inhibitors and in vitro screening for RAS-binding drugs must be followed by cell-based assays. Here, we have developed a robust set of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based RAS biosensors that enable monitoring of RAS-effector interaction inhibition in living cells. These include KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and a variety of different mutations that mirror those found in human cancers with the major RAS effectors such as CRAF, PI3K and RALGDS. We highlighted the utility of these RAS biosensors by showing a RAS-binding compound is a potent pan-RAS-effector interactions inhibitor in cells. The RAS biosensors represent a useful tool to investigate and characterize the potency of anti-RAS inhibitors in cells and more generally any RAS protein-protein interaction (PPI) in cells.

Funding information:
  • Bloodwise - 12051()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/J000612/1()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)
  • Wellcome - 099246/Z/12/Z()
  • Wellcome - 100842/Z/12/Z()

Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger a Druggable Target to Promote β-Cell Proliferation and Function.

  • Papin J
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2018 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

An important feature of type 2 diabetes is a decrease in β-cell mass. Therefore, it is essential to find new approaches to stimulate β-cell proliferation. We have previously shown that heterozygous inactivation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (isoform 1; NCX1), a protein responsible for Ca2+ extrusion from cells, increases β-cell proliferation, mass, and function in mice. Here, we show that Ncx1 inactivation also increases β-cell proliferation in 2-year-old mice and that NCX1 inhibition in adult mice by four small molecules of the benzoxyphenyl family stimulates β-cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. NCX1 inhibition by small interfering RNA or small molecules activates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway and inhibits apoptosis induced by the immunosuppressors cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus in insulin-producing cell. Moreover, NCX1 inhibition increases the expression of β-cell-specific genes, such as Ins1, Ins2, and Pdx1, and inactivates/downregulates the tumor suppressors retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and miR-193a and the cell cycle inhibitor p53. Our data show that Na+/Ca2+ exchange is a druggable target to stimulate β-cell function and proliferation. Specific β-cell inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ exchange by phenoxybenzamyl derivatives may represent an innovative approach to promote β-cell regeneration in diabetes and improve the efficiency of pancreatic islet transplantation for the treatment of the disease.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 102696HABER(United Kingdom)

Th17 Lymphocytes Induce Neuronal Cell Death in a Human iPSC-Based Model of Parkinson's Disease.

  • Sommer A
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of midbrain neurons (MBNs). Recent evidence suggests contribution of the adaptive immune system in PD. Here, we show a role for human T lymphocytes as cell death inducers of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MBNs in sporadic PD. Higher Th17 frequencies were found in the blood of PD patients and increased numbers of T lymphocytes were detected in postmortem PD brain tissues. We modeled this finding using autologous co-cultures of activated T lymphocytes and iPSC-derived MBNs of sporadic PD patients and controls. After co-culture with T lymphocytes or the addition of IL-17, PD iPSC-derived MBNs underwent increased neuronal death driven by upregulation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and NFκB activation. Blockage of IL-17 or IL-17R, or the addition of the FDA-approved anti-IL-17 antibody, secukinumab, rescued the neuronal death. Our findings indicate a critical role for IL-17-producing T lymphocytes in sporadic PD.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE019075(United States)

Somatic Accumulation of GluA1-AMPA Receptors Leads to Selective Cognitive Impairments in Mice.

  • Bannerman DM
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2018 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The GluA1 subunit of the L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) plays a crucial, but highly selective, role in cognitive function. Here we analyzed AMPAR expression, AMPAR distribution and spatial learning in mice (Gria1R/R ), expressing the "trafficking compromised" GluA1(Q600R) point mutation. Our analysis revealed somatic accumulation and reduction of GluA1(Q600R) and GluA2, but only slightly reduced CA1 synaptic localization in hippocampi of adult Gria1R/R mice. These immunohistological changes were accompanied by a strong reduction of somatic AMPAR currents in CA1, and a reduction of plasticity (short-term and long-term potentiation, STP and LTP, respectively) in the CA1 subfield following tetanic and theta-burst stimulation. Nevertheless, spatial reference memory acquisition in the Morris water-maze and on an appetitive Y-maze task was unaffected in Gria1R/R mice. In contrast, spatial working/short-term memory during both spontaneous and rewarded alternation tasks was dramatically impaired. These findings identify the GluA1(Q600R) mutation as a loss of function mutation that provides independent evidence for the selective role of GluA1 in the expression of short-term memory.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG002899(United States)

ZMYND10 functions in a chaperone relay during axonemal dynein assembly.

  • Mali GR
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Molecular chaperones promote the folding and macromolecular assembly of a diverse set of 'client' proteins. How ubiquitous chaperone machineries direct their activities towards specific sets of substrates is unclear. Through the use of mouse genetics, imaging and quantitative proteomics we uncover that ZMYND10 is a novel co-chaperone that confers specificity for the FKBP8-HSP90 chaperone complex towards axonemal dynein clients required for cilia motility. Loss of ZMYND10 perturbs the chaperoning of axonemal dynein heavy chains, triggering broader degradation of dynein motor subunits. We show that pharmacological inhibition of FKBP8 phenocopies dynein motor instability associated with the loss of ZMYND10 in airway cells and that human disease-causing variants of ZMYND10 disrupt its ability to act as an FKBP8-HSP90 co-chaperone. Our study indicates that Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD), caused by mutations in dynein assembly factors disrupting cytoplasmic pre-assembly of axonemal dynein motors, should be considered a cell-type specific protein-misfolding disease.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MRC_UU_12018/26()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R44 CA165312(United States)

Cerebellar learning properties are modulated by the CRF receptor in granular cells.

  • Ezra-Nevo G
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its type 1 receptor (CRFR1) play an important role in the responses to stressful challenges. Despite the well-established expression of CRFR1 in granular cells (GrCs), its role in procedural motor performance and memory formation remains elusive. To investigate the role of CRFR1 expression in cerebellar GrCs, we used a mouse model depleted of CRFR1 in these cells. We detected changes in the cellular learning mechanisms in GrCs depleted of CRFR1 in that they showed changes in intrinsic excitability and long-term synaptic plasticity. Moreover, male mice depleted of CRFR1 specifically in GrCs showed accelerated Pavlovian associative eye-blink conditioning, but no differences in baseline motor performance, locomotion or fear and anxiety-related behaviors. Last, we analyzed cerebella transcriptome of KO and control mice and detected prominent alterations in the expression of calcium signaling pathways components. Our findings shed light on the interplay between stress-related central mechanisms and cerebellar motor conditioning, highlighting the role of the CRF system in regulating particular forms of cerebellar learning.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAlthough it is known that CRFR1 is highly expressed in the cerebellum, little attention has been given to its role in cerebellar functions in the behaving animal. Moreover, most of the attention was directed to the effect of CRF on Purkinje cells at the cellular level, and to this date, almost no data exist on the role of this stress-related receptor in other cerebellar structures. Here, we explored the behavioral and cellular effect of GrCs specific ablation of CRFR1 We found a profound effect on learning, both at the cellular and behavioral levels, without affecting baseline motor skills.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA105490(United States)

Epigenetic Promoter DNA Methylation of miR-124 Promotes HIV-1 Tat-Mediated Microglial Activation via MECP2-STAT3 Axis.

  • Periyasamy P
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B, which were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation. Bisulfite-converted genomic DNA sequencing in the HIV-1 Tat-exposed mouse primary microglial cells further confirmed increased DNA methylation of the primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 promoters. Bioinformatic analyses identified MECP2 as a novel 3'-UTR target of miR-124. This was further validated in mouse primary microglial cells wherein HIV-1 Tat-mediated downregulation of miR-124 resulted in increased expression of MECP2, leading in turn to further repression of miR-124 via the feedback loop. In addition to MECP2, miR-124 also modulated the levels of STAT3 through its binding to the 3'-UTR, leading to microglial activation. Luciferase assays and Ago2 immunoprecipitation determined the direct binding between miR-124 and 3'-UTR of both MECP2 and STAT3. Gene silencing of MECP2 and DNMT1 and overexpression of miR-124 blocked HIV-1 Tat-mediated downregulation of miR-124 and microglial activation. In vitro findings were also confirmed in the basal ganglia of SIV-infected rhesus macaques (both sexes). In summary, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of HIV-1 Tat-mediated activation of microglia via downregulation of miR-124, leading ultimately to increased MECP2 and STAT3 signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy in controlling viremia, the CNS continues to harbor viral reservoirs. The persistence of low-level virus replication leads to the accumulation of early viral proteins, including HIV-1 Tat protein. Understanding the epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins, such as HIV-1 Tat, can activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. This study demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat-mediated DNA methylation of the miR-124 promoter leads to its downregulation with a concomitant upregulation of the MECP2-STAT3-IL6, resulting in microglial activation. These findings reveal an unexplored epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) underlying HIV-1 Tat-mediated microglial activation, thereby providing a potential target for the development of therapeutics aimed at ameliorating microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the context of HIV-1 infection.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Human Cytomegalovirus Protein UL31 Inhibits DNA Sensing of cGAS to Mediate Immune Evasion.

  • Huang ZF
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS recognizes viral DNA and synthesizes the second messenger cGAMP upon viral infection. cGAMP binds to the adaptor protein MITA/STING to activate downstream signaling events, leading to induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and antiviral effector genes. Here we identify the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein UL31 as an inhibitor of cGAS. UL31 interacts directly with cGAS and disassociates DNA from cGAS, thus inhibiting cGAS enzymatic functions and reducing cGAMP production. UL31 overexpression markedly reduces antiviral responses stimulated by cytosolic DNA, while knockdown or knockout of UL31 heightens HCMV-triggered induction of type I IFNs and downstream antiviral genes. Moreover, wild-type HCMV replicates more efficiently than UL31-deficient HCMV, a phenotype that is reversed in cGAS null cells. These results highlight the importance of cGAS in the host response to HCMV as well as an important viral strategy to evade this innate immune sensor.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR008605(United States)

Cancer Cells Co-opt the Neuronal Redox-Sensing Channel TRPA1 to Promote Oxidative-Stress Tolerance.

  • Takahashi N
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancer cell survival is dependent on oxidative-stress defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS) that accumulate during tumorigenesis. Here, we show a non-canonical oxidative-stress defense mechanism through TRPA1, a neuronal redox-sensing Ca2+-influx channel. In TRPA1-enriched breast and lung cancer spheroids, TRPA1 is critical for survival of inner cells that exhibit ROS accumulation. Moreover, TRPA1 promotes resistance to ROS-producing chemotherapies, and TRPA1 inhibition suppresses xenograft tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity. TRPA1 does not affect redox status but upregulates Ca2+-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways. NRF2, an oxidant-defense transcription factor, directly controls TRPA1 expression, thus providing an orthogonal mechanism for protection against oxidative stress together with canonical ROS-neutralizing mechanisms. These findings reveal an oxidative-stress defense program involving TRPA1 that could be exploited for targeted cancer therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - C06 RR030414(United States)

Multi-stage Differentiation Defines Melanoma Subtypes with Differential Vulnerability to Drug-Induced Iron-Dependent Oxidative Stress.

  • Tsoi J
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malignant transformation can result in melanoma cells that resemble different stages of their embryonic development. Our gene expression analysis of human melanoma cell lines and patient tumors revealed that melanoma follows a two-dimensional differentiation trajectory that can be subclassified into four progressive subtypes. This differentiation model is associated with subtype-specific sensitivity to iron-dependent oxidative stress and cell death known as ferroptosis. Receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase targeted therapies and activation of the inflammatory signaling associated with immune therapy involves transitions along this differentiation trajectory, which lead to increased sensitivity to ferroptosis. Therefore, ferroptosis-inducing drugs present an orthogonal therapeutic approach to target the differentiation plasticity of melanoma cells to increase the efficacy of targeted and immune therapies.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - IK2 BX001559(United States)
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR000124()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA169993()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008042()

Pseudouridylation of tRNA-Derived Fragments Steers Translational Control in Stem Cells.

  • Guzzi N
  • Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pseudouridylation (Ψ) is the most abundant and widespread type of RNA epigenetic modification in living organisms; however, the biological role of Ψ remains poorly understood. Here, we show that a Ψ-driven posttranscriptional program steers translation control to impact stem cell commitment during early embryogenesis. Mechanistically, the Ψ "writer" PUS7 modifies and activates a novel network of tRNA-derived small fragments (tRFs) targeting the translation initiation complex. PUS7 inactivation in embryonic stem cells impairs tRF-mediated translation regulation, leading to increased protein biosynthesis and defective germ layer specification. Remarkably, dysregulation of this posttranscriptional regulatory circuitry impairs hematopoietic stem cell commitment and is common to aggressive subtypes of human myelodysplastic syndromes. Our findings unveil a critical function of Ψ in directing translation control in stem cells with important implications for development and disease.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK068164(United States)

Stress Increases Peripheral Axon Growth and Regeneration through Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Transcriptional Programs.

  • Lerch JK
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stress and glucocorticoid (GC) release are common behavioral and hormonal responses to injury or disease. In the brain, stress/GCs can alter neuron structure and function leading to cognitive impairment. Stress and GCs also exacerbate pain, but whether a corresponding change occurs in structural plasticity of sensory neurons is unknown. Here, we show that in female mice (Mus musculus) basal GC receptor (Nr3c1, also known as GR) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons is 15-fold higher than in neurons in canonical stress-responsive brain regions (M. musculus). In response to stress or GCs, adult DRG neurite growth increases through mechanisms involving GR-dependent gene transcription. In vivo, prior exposure to an acute systemic stress increases peripheral nerve regeneration. These data have broad clinical implications and highlight the importance of stress and GCs as novel behavioral and circulating modifiers of neuronal plasticity.

Bis-Indole-Derived NR4A1 Ligands and Metformin Exhibit NR4A1-Dependent Glucose Metabolism and Uptake in C2C12 Cells.

  • Mohankumar K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with metformin or the NR4A1 ligand 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) induced NR4A1 and Glut4 messenger RNA and protein expression. Similar results were observed with buttressed (3- or 3,5-substituted) analogs of DIM-C-pPhOH, including 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH-3-Cl-5-OCH3), and the buttressed analogs were more potent than DIM-C-pPhOH NR4A1 agonists. Metformin and the bis-indole substituted analogs also induced expression of several glycolytic genes and Rab4, which has previously been linked to enhancing cell membrane accumulation of Glut4 and overall glucose uptake in C2C12 cells, and these responses were also observed after treatment with metformin and the NR4A1 ligands. The role of NR4A1 in mediating the responses induced by the bis-indoles and metformin was determined by knockdown of NR4A1, and this resulted in attenuating the gene and protein expression and enhanced glucose uptake responses induced by these compounds. Our results demonstrate that the bis-indole-derived NR4A1 ligands represent a class of drugs that enhance glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells, and we also show that the effects of metformin in this cell line are NR4A1-dependent.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA06793(United States)
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P30 ES023512()

Genetic Ablation of All Cerebellins Reveals Synapse Organizer Functions in Multiple Regions Throughout the Brain.

  • Seigneur E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebellins are synaptic organizer molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic receptors. They are well studied in the cerebellum, but three of the four cerebellins (Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4) are also broadly expressed outside of the cerebellum, suggesting that they perform general functions throughout the brain. Here, we generated male and female constitutive single (KO), double KO (dKO), and triple KO (tKO) mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4. We found that all constitutive cerebellin-deficient mice were viable and fertile, suggesting that cerebellins are not essential for survival. Cbln1/2 dKO mice exhibited salience-induced seizures that were aggravated in Cbln1/2/4 tKO mice, suggesting that all cerebellins contribute to brain function. As described previously, Cbln1 KO mice displayed major motor impairments that were aggravated by additional KO of Cbln2. Strikingly, the Cbln1/2 dKO did not cause alterations in synapse density in the hippocampus of young adult (1- and 2-month-old) mice, but produced a selective ∼50% decrease in hippocampal synapse density in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus of aging, 6-month-old mice. A similar decrease in excitatory synapse density was observed in the striatum and retrosplenial cortex. Behaviorally, the Cbln1 KO produced dramatic changes in motor behaviors that were partly aggravated by additional deletion of Cbln2 and/or Cbln4. Our results show that cerebellins are not essential for survival and do not contribute to initial synapse formation, but perform multiple functions throughout the brain; as a consequence, their ablation results in a delayed loss of synapses and in behavioral impairments.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellins (Cbln1-4) are trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules. In the cerebellum, Cbln1 functions as a bidirectional organizer of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses by binding to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic GluRδ2. Little is known about the function of cerebellins outside of the cerebellum; therefore, the present study used single, double, and triple constitutive KO mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4 to analyze the overall function of cerebellins. We show that cerebellins act as important synaptic organizers in specific subsets of neurons and likely contribute to many different brain functions. We also show that cerebellins are not initially required for synapse formation, but rather for specification and long-term synapse maintenance and demonstrate that all cerebellins, not just Cbln1, contribute to brain function.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD07190(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH052804()

FFAR4 is involved in regulation of neurotensin release from neuroendocrine cells and male C57BL/6 mice.

  • Li J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

NT, a 13-amino acid peptide, is predominantly released from enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel in response to fat ingestion. Free fatty acid receptors, FFAR1 and FFAR4, regulate secretion of gut hormones and insulin. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, has the most dramatic effect on NT release. FFAR1 agonists slightly whereas FFAR4 agonists dramaticly stimulate and amplify NT secretion. Double knockdown of FFAR1 and FFAR4 decreases, but overexpression of FFAR4 but not FFAR1 increases, NT release. Administration of cpdA, the FFAR4 agonist, but not TAK-875, a selective FFAR1 agonist, increases plasma NT and further increases olive oil-stimulated plasma NT levels. Inhibition of MEK/ERK1/2 decreased FA-stimulated NT release but increased AMPK phosphorylation. In contrast, inhibition of AMPK further increased NT secretion and ERK1/2 phosphorylation mediated by FFAR1 or 4. Our results indicate that FFAR4 plays more critical role vs. FFAR1 in mediation of fat-regulated NT release and an inhibitory crosstalk between MEK/ERK1/2 and AMPK in the control of NT release downstream of FFAR1/4.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R44 HD057744(United States)

RIM C2B Domains Target Presynaptic Active Zone Functions to PIP2-Containing Membranes.

  • de Jong APH
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid and efficient synaptic vesicle fusion requires a pool of primed vesicles, the nearby tethering of Ca2+ channels, and the presence of the phospholipid PIP2 in the target membrane. Although the presynaptic active zone mediates the first two requirements, it is unclear how fusion is targeted to membranes with high PIP2 content. Here we find that the C2B domain of the active zone scaffold RIM is critical for action potential-triggered fusion. Remarkably, the known RIM functions in vesicle priming and Ca2+ influx do not require RIM C2B domains. Instead, biophysical experiments reveal that RIM C2 domains, which lack Ca2+ binding, specifically bind to PIP2. Mutational analyses establish that PIP2 binding to RIM C2B and its tethering to the other RIM domains are crucial for efficient exocytosis. We propose that RIM C2B domains are constitutive PIP2-binding modules that couple mechanisms for vesicle priming and Ca2+ channel tethering to PIP2-containing target membranes.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR026461()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD018027()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH113349()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS072030()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083898()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097333()
  • Wellcome Trust - GM043375(United Kingdom)

AIDA Selectively Mediates Downregulation of Fat Synthesis Enzymes by ERAD to Retard Intestinal Fat Absorption and Prevent Obesity.

  • Luo H
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The efficiency of intestinal absorption of dietary fat constitutes a primary determinant accounting for individual vulnerability to obesity. However, how fat absorption is controlled and contributes to obesity remains unclear. Here, we show that inhibition of endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) increases the abundance of triacylglycerol synthesis enzymes and fat absorption in small intestine. The C2-domain protein AIDA acts as an essential factor for the E3-ligase HRD1 of ERAD to downregulate rate-limiting acyltransferases GPAT3, MOGAT2, and DGAT2. Aida-/- mice, when grown in a thermal-neutral condition or fed high-fat diet, display increased intestinal fatty acid re-esterification, circulating and tissue triacylglycerol, accompanied with severely increased adiposity without enhancement of adipogenesis. Intestine-specific knockout of Aida largely phenocopies its whole-body knockout, strongly indicating that increased intestinal TAG synthesis is a primary impetus to obesity. The AIDA-mediated ERAD system may thus represent an anti-thrifty mechanism impinging on the enzymes for intestinal fat absorption and systemic fat storage.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA064140(United States)

Adipocyte p62/SQSTM1 Suppresses Tumorigenesis through Opposite Regulations of Metabolism in Adipose Tissue and Tumor.

  • Huang J
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity is a leading risk factor for cancer. However, understanding the crosstalk between adipocytes and tumor cells in vivo, independently of dietary contributions, is a major gap in the field. Here we used a prostate cancer (PCa) mouse model in which the signaling adaptor p62/Sqstm1 is selectively inactivated in adipocytes. p62 loss in adipocytes results in increased osteopontin secretion, which mediates tumor fatty acid oxidation and invasion, leading to aggressive metastatic PCa in vivo. Furthermore, p62 deficiency triggers in adipocytes a general shutdown of energy-utilizing pathways through mTORC1 inhibition, which supports nutrient availability for cancer cells. This reveals a central role of adipocyte's p62 in the symbiotic adipose tissue-tumor collaboration that enables cancer metabolic fitness.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 22358(United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA192642()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211794()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA218254()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK108743()

The Dietary Supplement Chondroitin-4-Sulfate Exhibits Oncogene-Specific Pro-tumor Effects on BRAF V600E Melanoma Cells.

  • Lin R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mechanistically, chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T) signals through its product CHSA to enhance casein kinase 2 (CK2)-PTEN binding and consequent phosphorylation and inhibition of PTEN, which requires CHSA chains and is essential to sustain AKT activation in BRAF V600E-expressing melanoma cells. However, this CHSA-dependent PTEN inhibition is dispensable in cancer cells expressing mutant NRAS or PI3KCA, which directly activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. These results suggest that dietary supplements may exhibit oncogene-dependent pro-tumor effects.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140515()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA174786()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183594()
  • Wellcome Trust - 090532(United Kingdom)

Dynamic Regulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation by a Noncanonical Interaction between the MCL-1 BH3 Helix and VLCAD.

  • Escudero S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

MCL-1 is a BCL-2 family protein implicated in the development and chemoresistance of human cancer. Unlike its anti-apoptotic homologs, Mcl-1 deletion has profound physiologic consequences, indicative of a broader role in homeostasis. We report that the BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3) α helix of MCL-1 can directly engage very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), a key enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) pathway. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the mitochondrial matrix isoform of MCL-1 (MCL-1Matrix) interacts with VLCAD. Mcl-1 deletion, or eliminating MCL-1Matrix alone, selectively deregulated long-chain FAO, causing increased flux through the pathway in response to nutrient deprivation. Transient elevation in MCL-1 upon serum withdrawal, a striking increase in MCL-1 BH3/VLCAD interaction upon palmitic acid titration, and direct modulation of enzymatic activity by the MCL-1 BH3 α helix are consistent with dynamic regulation. Thus, the MCL-1 BH3 interaction with VLCAD revealed a separable, gain-of-function role for MCL-1 in the regulation of lipid metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA166429()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA217092()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197583()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R50 CA211399()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL067395-08(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL123543()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103295()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007753()

NRL and CRX Define Photoreceptor Identity and Reveal Subgroup-Specific Dependencies in Medulloblastoma.

  • Garancher A
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancer cells often express differentiation programs unrelated to their tissue of origin, although the contribution of these aberrant phenotypes to malignancy is poorly understood. An aggressive subgroup of medulloblastoma, a malignant pediatric brain tumor of the cerebellum, expresses a photoreceptor differentiation program normally expressed in the retina. We establish that two photoreceptor-specific transcription factors, NRL and CRX, are master regulators of this program and are required for tumor maintenance in this subgroup. Beyond photoreceptor lineage genes, we identify BCL-XL as a key transcriptional target of NRL and provide evidence substantiating anti-BCL therapy as a rational treatment opportunity for select MB patients. Our results highlight the utility of studying aberrant differentiation programs in cancer and their potential as selective therapeutic vulnerabilities.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL36110(United States)

Ribosome Levels Selectively Regulate Translation and Lineage Commitment in Human Hematopoiesis.

  • Khajuria RK
  • Cell
  • 2018 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Blood cell formation is classically thought to occur through a hierarchical differentiation process, although recent studies have shown that lineage commitment may occur earlier in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The relevance to human blood diseases and the underlying regulation of these refined models remain poorly understood. By studying a genetic blood disorder, Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), where the majority of mutations affect ribosomal proteins and the erythroid lineage is selectively perturbed, we are able to gain mechanistic insight into how lineage commitment is programmed normally and disrupted in disease. We show that in DBA, the pool of available ribosomes is limited, while ribosome composition remains constant. Surprisingly, this global reduction in ribosome levels more profoundly alters translation of a select subset of transcripts. We show how the reduced translation of select transcripts in HSPCs can impair erythroid lineage commitment, illuminating a regulatory role for ribosome levels in cellular differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R33 HL120791()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007574()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103794()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM062917-06(United States)

Genome-Scale Signatures of Gene Interaction from Compound Screens Predict Clinical Efficacy of Targeted Cancer Therapies.

  • Jiang P
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Identifying reliable drug response biomarkers is a significant challenge in cancer research. We present computational analysis of resistance (CARE), a computational method focused on targeted therapies, to infer genome-wide transcriptomic signatures of drug efficacy from cell line compound screens. CARE outputs genome-scale scores to measure how the drug target gene interacts with other genes to affect the inhibitor efficacy in the compound screens. Such statistical interactions between drug targets and other genes were not considered in previous studies but are critical in identifying predictive biomarkers. When evaluated using transcriptome data from clinical studies, CARE can predict the therapy outcome better than signatures from other computational methods and genomics experiments. Moreover, the CARE signatures for the PLX4720 BRAF inhibitor are associated with an anti-programmed death 1 clinical response, suggesting a common efficacy signature between a targeted therapy and immunotherapy. When searching for genes related to lapatinib resistance, CARE identified PRKD3 as the top candidate. PRKD3 inhibition, by both small interfering RNA and compounds, significantly sensitized breast cancer cells to lapatinib. Thus, CARE should enable large-scale inference of response biomarkers and drug combinations for targeted therapies using compound screen data.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA119070()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA180980()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK081587(United States)

Enhanced Expression of the Key Mitosis Regulator Cyclin B1 Is Mediated by PDZ-Binding Kinase in Islets of Pregnant Mice.

  • Uesato T
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The proliferation of pancreatic β cells is enhanced to enable an increase in β-cell mass and to compensate for insulin resistance during pregnancy. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we previously investigated islets from pregnant and nonpregnant mice by gene expression profiling and found that the expression of postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)-binding kinase (Pbk), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family, is increased in pregnant mouse islets compared with control mouse islets. Among the pregnancy hormones, treatment with estradiol upregulated Pbk expression. Inhibition of Pbk expression using a small interfering RNA for Pbk reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in mouse insulinoma 6 cells, which was accompanied by a decreased expression of Ccnb1, a regulatory gene involved in mitosis. Ccnb1 expression was augmented in mouse islets during pregnancy. The forced expression of Pbk using an adenovirus system in isolated mouse islets increased Ccnb1 expression, and the Pbk inhibitor HI-TOPK-032 suppressed Ccnb1 expression in islets isolated from pregnant mice. Our results suggest that Pbk contributes to the expansion of islets during pregnancy and that Ccnb1 may assist Pbk in its role in β-cell proliferation.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK063687(United States)

Human Pancreatic Tumor Organoids Reveal Loss of Stem Cell Niche Factor Dependence during Disease Progression.

  • Seino T
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite recent efforts to dissect the inter-tumor heterogeneity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by determining prognosis-predictive gene expression signatures for specific subtypes, their functional differences remain elusive. Here, we established a pancreatic tumor organoid library encompassing 39 patient-derived PDACs and identified 3 functional subtypes based on their stem cell niche factor dependencies on Wnt and R-spondin. A Wnt-non-producing subtype required Wnt from cancer-associated fibroblasts, whereas a Wnt-producing subtype autonomously secreted Wnt ligands and an R-spondin-independent subtype grew in the absence of Wnt and R-spondin. Transcriptome analysis of PDAC organoids revealed gene-expression signatures that associated Wnt niche subtypes with GATA6-dependent gene expression subtypes, which were functionally supported by genetic perturbation of GATA6. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing of PDAC driver genes (KRAS, CDKN2A, SMAD4, and TP53) demonstrated non-genetic acquisition of Wnt niche independence during pancreas tumorigenesis. Collectively, our results reveal functional heterogeneity of Wnt niche independency in PDAC that is non-genetically formed through tumor progression.

Identification of New Activators of Mitochondrial Fusion Reveals a Link between Mitochondrial Morphology and Pyrimidine Metabolism.

  • Miret-Casals L
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that produce most of the cellular ATP, and are involved in many other cellular functions such as Ca2+ signaling, differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell growth. One key process of mitochondrial dynamics is mitochondrial fusion, which is catalyzed by mitofusins (MFN1 and MFN2) and OPA1. The outer mitochondrial membrane protein MFN2 plays a relevant role in the maintenance of mitochondrial metabolism, insulin signaling, and mutations that cause neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, modulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics has emerged as a potential pharmacological strategy. Here, we report the identification of small molecules by high-throughput screen that promote mitochondrial elongation in an MFN1/MFN2-dependent manner. Detailed analysis of their mode of action reveals a previously unknown connection between pyrimidine metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics. Our data indicate a link between pyrimidine biosynthesis and mitochondrial dynamics, which maintains cell survival under stress conditions characterized by loss of pyrimidine synthesis.

PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB-Signaling Cascade Is Crucial for Epigenetic Control of the Inflammatory Response.

  • Kim D
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The inflammatory response mediated by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling is essential for host defense against pathogens. Although the regulatory mechanism of NF-κB signaling has been well studied, the molecular basis for epigenetic regulation of the inflammatory response is poorly understood. Here we identify a new signaling axis of PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB, which is critical for activation and amplification of the inflammatory response. In response to excessive inflammatory stimuli, PKCα translocates to the nucleus and phosphorylates LSD1. LSD1 phosphorylation is required for p65 binding and facilitates p65 demethylation, leading to enhanced stability. In vivo genetic analysis using Lsd1SA/SA mice with ablation of LSD1 phosphorylation and chemical approaches in wild-type mice with inhibition of PKCα or LSD1 activity show attenuated sepsis-induced inflammatory lung injury and mortality. Together, we demonstrate that the PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB signaling cascade is crucial for epigenetic control of the inflammatory response, and targeting this signaling could be a powerful therapeutic strategy for systemic inflammatory diseases, including sepsis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 1P01CA163205-01A1(United States)

Dopamine Secretion Is Mediated by Sparse Active Zone-like Release Sites.

  • Liu C
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine controls essential brain functions through volume transmission. Different from fast synaptic transmission, where neurotransmitter release and receptor activation are tightly coupled by an active zone, dopamine transmission is widespread and may not necessitate these organized release sites. Here, we determine whether striatal dopamine secretion employs specialized machinery for release. Using super resolution microscopy, we identified co-clustering of the active zone scaffolding proteins bassoon, RIM and ELKS in ∼30% of dopamine varicosities. Conditional RIM knockout disrupted this scaffold and, unexpectedly, abolished dopamine release, while ELKS knockout had no effect. Optogenetic experiments revealed that dopamine release was fast and had a high release probability, indicating the presence of protein scaffolds for coupling Ca2+ influx to vesicle fusion. Hence, dopamine secretion is mediated by sparse, mechanistically specialized active zone-like release sites. This architecture supports spatially and temporally precise coding for dopamine and provides molecular machinery for regulation.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL081398(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD090255()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS072030()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083898()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS103484()

Explosive mutation accumulation triggered by heterozygous human Pol ε proofreading-deficiency is driven by suppression of mismatch repair.

  • Hodel KP
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumors defective for DNA polymerase (Pol) ε proofreading have the highest tumor mutation burden identified. A major unanswered question is whether loss of Pol ε proofreading by itself is sufficient to drive this mutagenesis, or whether additional factors are necessary. To address this, we used a combination of next generation sequencing and in vitro biochemistry on human cell lines engineered to have defects in Pol ε proofreading and mismatch repair. Absent mismatch repair, monoallelic Pol ε proofreading deficiency caused a rapid increase in a unique mutation signature, similar to that observed in tumors from patients with biallelic mismatch repair deficiency and heterozygous Pol ε mutations. Restoring mismatch repair was sufficient to suppress the explosive mutation accumulation. These results strongly suggest that concomitant suppression of mismatch repair, a hallmark of colorectal and other aggressive cancers, is a critical force for driving the explosive mutagenesis seen in tumors expressing exonuclease-deficient Pol ε.

Funding information:
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - NIH P20 RR020152()
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - NIH R00 ES016780()
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - NIH R01ES028271()
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - NIH R56ES026821()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA129925()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR020152()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R56 AI028847(United States)
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R00 ES016780()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES028271()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R56 ES026821()
  • Tulane University - Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Faculty Grant()

Metformin Alters Upper Small Intestinal Microbiota that Impact a Glucose-SGLT1-Sensing Glucoregulatory Pathway.

  • Bauer PV
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The gut microbiota alters energy homeostasis. In parallel, metformin regulates upper small intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), but whether changes of the microbiota or SGLT1-dependent pathways in the upper small intestine mediate metformin action is unknown. Here we report that upper small intestinal glucose sensing triggers an SGLT1-dependent pathway to lower glucose production in rodents. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding reduces glucose sensing and SGLT1 expression in the upper small intestine. Upper small intestinal metformin treatment restores SGLT1 expression and glucose sensing while shifting the upper small intestinal microbiota partly by increasing the abundance of Lactobacillus. Transplantation of upper small intestinal microbiota from metformin-treated HFD rats to the upper small intestine of untreated HFD rats also increases the upper small intestinal abundance of Lactobacillus and glucose sensing via an upregulation of SGLT1 expression. Thus, we demonstrate that metformin alters upper small intestinal microbiota and impacts a glucose-SGLT1-sensing glucoregulatory pathway.

Mutant p53 Gains Its Function via c-Myc Activation upon CDK4 Phosphorylation at Serine 249 and Consequent PIN1 Binding.

  • Liao P
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

TP53 missense mutations significantly influence the development and progression of various human cancers via their gain of new functions (GOF) through different mechanisms. Here we report a unique mechanism underlying the GOF of p53-R249S (p53-RS), a p53 mutant frequently detected in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is highly related to hepatitis B infection and aflatoxin B1. A CDK inhibitor blocks p53-RS's nuclear translocation in HCC, whereas CDK4 interacts with p53-RS in the G1/S phase of the cells, phosphorylates it, and enhances its nuclear localization. This is coupled with binding of a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) to p53-RS, but not the p53 form with mutations of four serines/threonines previously shown to be crucial for PIN1 binding. As a result, p53-RS interacts with c-Myc and enhances c-Myc-dependent rDNA transcription key for ribosomal biogenesis. These results unveil a CDK4-PIN1-p53-RS-c-Myc pathway as a novel mechanism for the GOF of p53-RS in HCC.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00HL-091133(United States)

Defective trafficking of Kv2.1 channels in MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration.

  • Chao RY
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intracellular protein trafficking is tightly regulated, and improper trafficking might be the fundamental provocateur for human diseases including neurodegeneration. In neurons, protein trafficking to and from the plasma membrane affects synaptic plasticity. Voltage-gated potassium channel 2.1 (Kv2.1) is a predominant delayed rectifier potassium (K+ ) current, and electrical activity patterns of dopamine (DA) neurons within the substantia nigra are generated and modulated by the orchestrated function of different ion channels. The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the progressive loss of these DA neurons, resulting in the degeneration of striatal dopaminergic terminals. However, whether trafficking of Kv2.1 channels contributes to PD remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that MPTP/MPP+ increases the surface expression of the Kv2.1 channel and causes nigrostriatal degeneration by using a subchronic MPTP mouse model. The inhibition of the Kv2.1 channel by using a specific blocker, guangxitoxin-1E, protected nigrostriatal projections against MPTP/MPP+ insult and thus facilitated the recovery of motor coordination. These findings highlight the importance of trafficking of Kv2.1 channels in the pathogenesis of PD.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG00983(United States)

Inducible and reversible phenotypes in a novel mouse model of Friedreich's Ataxia.

  • Chandran V
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia, is caused by recessive mutations that reduce the levels of frataxin (FXN), a mitochondrial iron binding protein. We developed an inducible mouse model of Fxn deficiency that enabled us to control the onset and progression of disease phenotypes by the modulation of Fxn levels. Systemic knockdown of Fxn in adult mice led to multiple phenotypes paralleling those observed in human patients across multiple organ systems. By reversing knockdown after clinical features appear, we were able to determine to what extent observed phenotypes represent reversible cellular dysfunction. Remarkably, upon restoration of near wild-type FXN levels, we observed significant recovery of function, associated pathology and transcriptomic dysregulation even after substantial motor dysfunction and pathology were observed. This model will be of broad utility in therapeutic development and in refining our understanding of the relative contribution of reversible cellular dysfunction at different stages in disease.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR019391(United States)

Long-Fiber Carbon Nanotubes Replicate Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma with Disruption of the Tumor Suppressor Gene Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf).

  • Chernova T
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mesothelioma is a fatal tumor of the pleura and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. The molecular mechanisms underlying the long latency period of mesothelioma and driving carcinogenesis are unknown. Moreover, late diagnosis means that mesothelioma research is commonly focused on end-stage disease. Although disruption of the CDKN2A (INK4A/ARF) locus has been reported in end-stage disease, information is lacking on the status of this key tumor suppressor gene in pleural lesions preceding mesothelioma. Manufactured carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are similar to asbestos in terms of their fibrous shape and biopersistent properties and thus may pose an asbestos-like inhalation hazard. Here we show that instillation of either long CNTs or long asbestos fibers into the pleural cavity of mice induces mesothelioma that exhibits common key pro-oncogenic molecular events throughout the latency period of disease progression. Sustained activation of pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, increased proliferation, and oxidative DNA damage form a common molecular signature of long-CNT- and long-asbestos-fiber-induced pathology. We show that hypermethylation of p16/Ink4a and p19/Arf in CNT- and asbestos-induced inflammatory lesions precedes mesothelioma; this results in silencing of Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf) and loss of p16 and p19 protein, consistent with epigenetic alterations playing a gatekeeper role in cancer. In end-stage mesothelioma, silencing of p16/Ink4a is sustained and deletion of p19/Arf is detected, recapitulating human disease. This study addresses the long-standing question of which early molecular changes drive carcinogenesis during the long latency period of mesothelioma development and shows that CNT and asbestos pose a similar health hazard.

Leptin suppresses adenosine triphosphate-induced impairment of spinal cord astrocytes.

  • Li B
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability and has no clinically effective treatment. After SCI, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may be released from neuronal cells and astrocytes in large amounts. Our previous studies have shown that the extracellular release of ATP increases the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and triggers the rapid release of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via the stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the downstream phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2. Leptin, a glycoprotein, induces the activation of the Janus kinase (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (Stat3) pathway via the leptin receptor. In this study, we found that 1) prolonged leptin treatment suppressed the ATP-stimulated release of AA and PGE2 from cultured spinal cord astrocytes; 2) leptin elevated the expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) via the JAK2/Stat3 signaling pathway; 3) Cav-1 blocked the interaction between Src and EGFR, thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and cPLA2 and attenuating the release of AA or PGE2; 4) pretreatment with leptin decreased ;he level of apoptosis and the release of interleukin-6 from cocultured neurons and astrocytes; and 5) leptin improved the recovery of locomotion in mice after SCI. Our results highlight leptin as a promising therapeutic agent for SCI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY020533(United States)

Sex- and Tissue-Specific Role of Estrogen Sulfotransferase in Energy Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity.

  • Garbacz WG
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Estrogen sulfotransferase catalyzes the sulfoconjugation and deactivation of estrogens. Previously, we showed that loss of Est in male ob/ob mice, but not in female ob/ob mice, exacerbated the diabetic phenotype, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. In this study, we show that transgenic reconstitution of Est in the adipose tissue, but not in the liver, attenuated diabetic phenotype in Est-deficient ob/ob mice (obe mice). Mechanistically, adipose reconstitution of Est in obe mice (oae mice) resulted in reduced local and systemic inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure. At the molecular level, adipose induction of lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) in oae males may have contributed to the inhibition of inflammation because the level of Lcn2 was negatively associated with tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) α expression, and treatment of differentiated adipocytes with Lcn2 antagonized Tnfα-responsive inhibition of insulin signaling. The metabolic benefit of adipose reconstitution of Est was sex specific, because adipose reconstitution of Est in obe females had little effect. Interestingly, despite their improved metabolic functions, obe male mice with reconstituted Est in their adipose tissue failed to ameliorate the impairment of the structure and function of the pancreatic islets. In summary, our study uncovers a crucial adipose- and male-specific role of Est in maintaining the whole-body energy homeostasis.

Tetherin Suppresses Type I Interferon Signaling by Targeting MAVS for NDP52-Mediated Selective Autophagic Degradation in Human Cells.

  • Jin S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tetherin (BST2/CD317) is an interferon-inducible antiviral factor known for its ability to block the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. Yet its role in type I interferon (IFN) signaling remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Tetherin is a negative regulator of RIG-I like receptor (RLR)-mediated type I IFN signaling by targeting MAVS. The induction of Tetherin by type I IFN accelerates MAVS degradation via ubiquitin-dependent selective autophagy in human cells. Moreover, Tetherin recruits E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 to catalyze K27-linked ubiquitin chains on MAVS at lysine 7, which serves as a recognition signal for NDP52-dependent autophagic degradation. Taken together, our findings reveal a negative feedback loop of RLR signaling generated by Tetherin-MARCH8-MAVS-NDP52 axis and provide insights into a better understanding of the crosstalk between selective autophagy and optimal deactivation of type I IFN signaling.

Direct Activation of BAX by BTSA1 Overcomes Apoptosis Resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

  • Reyna DE
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The BCL-2 family protein BAX is a central mediator of apoptosis. Overexpression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins contributes to tumor development and resistance to therapy by suppressing BAX and its activators. We report the discovery of BTSA1, a pharmacologically optimized BAX activator that binds with high affinity and specificity to the N-terminal activation site and induces conformational changes to BAX leading to BAX-mediated apoptosis. BTSA1-induced BAX activation effectively promotes apoptosis in leukemia cell lines and patient samples while sparing healthy cells. BAX expression levels and cytosolic conformation regulate sensitivity to BTSA1. BTSA1 potently suppressed human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenografts and increased host survival without toxicity. This study provides proof-of-concept for direct BAX activation as a treatment strategy in AML.

Mitotic Disassembly of Nuclear Pore Complexes Involves CDK1- and PLK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Key Interconnecting Nucleoporins.

  • Linder MI
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

During interphase, the nuclear envelope (NE) serves as a selective barrier between cytosol and nucleoplasm. When vertebrate cells enter mitosis, the NE is dismantled in the process of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). Disassembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is a key aspect of NEBD, required for NE permeabilization and formation of a cytoplasmic mitotic spindle. Here, we show that both CDK1 and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) support mitotic NPC disintegration by hyperphosphorylation of Nup98, the gatekeeper nucleoporin, and Nup53, a central nucleoporin linking the inner NPC scaffold to the pore membrane. Multisite phosphorylation of Nup53 critically contributes to its liberation from its partner nucleoporins, including the pore membrane protein NDC1. Initial steps of NPC disassembly in semi-permeabilized cells can be reconstituted by a cocktail of mitotic kinases including cyclinB-CDK1, NIMA, and PLK1, suggesting that the unzipping of nucleoporin interactions by protein phosphorylation is an important principle underlying mitotic NE permeabilization.

Sirtuin-3 Promotes Adipogenesis, Osteoclastogenesis, and Bone Loss in Aging Male Mice.

  • Ho L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is an essential metabolic regulatory enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial metabolism, but its role in bone marrow and skeletal homeostasis remains largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesize that increased expression of Sirt3 plays a role in skeletal aging. Using mice that overexpress Sirt3 [i.e., Sirt3 transgenic (Sirt3Tg)], we show that Sirt3 is a positive regulator of adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis and a negative regulator of skeletal homeostasis. Sirt3Tg mice exhibited more adipocytes in the tibia compared with control mice. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from Sirt3Tg mice displayed an enhanced ability to differentiate into adipocytes compared with control BMSCs. We found a 2.5-fold increase in the number of osteoclasts on the bone surface in Sirt3Tg mice compared with control mice (P < 0.03), and increased osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Importantly, Sirt3 activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to regulate osteoclastogenesis. Sirt3Tg male mice exhibited a significant reduction in cortical thickness at the tibiofibular junction (P < 0.05). In summary, Sirt3 activity in bone marrow cells is associated with increased adipogenesis, increased osteoclastogenesis through activation of mTOR signaling, and reduced bone mass. Interestingly, Sirt3 expression in bone marrow cells increases during aging, suggesting that Sirt3 promotes age-related adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis associated with bone loss. These findings identify Sirt3 as an important regulator of adipogenesis and skeletal homeostasis in vivo and identify Sirt3 as a potential target for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX003212()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - P30 AR066262()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR066735()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R56 MH081152(United States)

Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition restored hippocampal long term potentiation after primary blast.

  • Vogel EW
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Due to recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) presents a health concern for military and civilian personnel alike. Although secondary blast (penetrating injury) and tertiary blast (inertia-driven brain deformation) are known to be injurious, the effects of primary blast caused by the supersonic shock wave interacting with the skull and brain remain debated. Our group previously reported that in vitro primary blast exposure reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), the electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory, in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) and that primary blast affects key proteins governing LTP. Recent studies have investigated phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for reducing LTP deficits following inertia-driven TBI. We investigated the therapeutic potential of PDE4 inhibitors, specifically roflumilast, to ameliorate primary blast-induced deficits in LTP. We found that roflumilast at concentrations of 1nM or greater prevented deficits in neuronal plasticity measured 24h post-injury. We also observed a therapeutic window of at least 6h, but <23h. Additionally, we investigated molecular mechanisms that could elucidate this therapeutic effect. Roflumilast treatment (1nM delivered 6h post-injury) significantly increased total AMPA glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit expression, phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit at the serine-831 site, and phosphorylation of stargazin at the serine-239/240 site upon LTP induction, measured 24h following injury. Roflumilast treatment significantly increased PSD-95 regardless of LTP induction. These findings indicate that further investigation into the translation of PDE4 inhibition as a therapy following bTBI is warranted.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS088176()

Efficient protein targeting to the inner nuclear membrane requires Atlastin-dependent maintenance of ER topology.

  • Pawar S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Newly synthesized membrane proteins are targeted to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by diffusion within the membrane system of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), translocation through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and retention on nuclear partners. Using a visual in vitro assay we previously showed that efficient protein targeting to the INM depends on nucleotide hydrolysis. We now reveal that INM targeting is GTP-dependent. Exploiting in vitro reconstitution and in vivo analysis of INM targeting, we establish that Atlastins, membrane-bound GTPases of the ER, sustain the efficient targeting of proteins to the INM by their continued activity in preserving ER topology. When ER topology is altered, the long-range diffusional exchange of proteins in the ER network and targeting efficiency to the INM are diminished. Highlighting the general importance of proper ER topology, we show that Atlastins also influence NPC biogenesis and timely exit of secretory cargo from the ER.

Opening a New Time Window for Treatment of Stroke by Targeting HDAC2.

  • Lin YH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Narrow therapeutic window limits treatments with thrombolysis and neuroprotection for most stroke patients. Widening therapeutic window remains a critical challenge. Understanding the key mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological events in the peri-infarct area where secondary injury coexists with neuroplasticity over days to weeks may offer an opportunity for expanding the therapeutic window. Here we show that ischemia-induced histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) upregulation from 5 to 7 d after stroke plays a crucial role. In this window phase, suppressing HDAC2 in the peri-infarct cortex of rodents by HDAC inhibitors, knockdown or knock-out of Hdac2 promoted recovery of motor function from stroke via epigenetically enhancing cells survival and neuroplasticity of surviving neurons as well as reducing neuroinflammation, whereas overexpressing HDAC2 worsened stroke-induced functional impairment of both WT and Hdac2 conditional knock-out mice. More importantly, inhibiting other isoforms of HDACs had no effect. Thus, the intervention by precisely targeting HDAC2 in this window phase is a novel strategy for the functional recovery of stroke survivors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Narrow time window phase impedes current therapies for stroke patients. Understanding the key mechanisms underlying secondary injury may open a new window for pharmacological interventions to promote recovery from stroke. Our study indicates that ischemia-induced histone deacetylase 2 upregulation from 5 to 7 d after stroke mediates the secondary functional loss by reducing survival and neuroplasticity of peri-infarct neurons as well as augmenting neuroinflammation. Thus, precisely targeting histone deacetylase 2 in the window phase provides a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke recovery.

Unique versus Redundant Functions of Neuroligin Genes in Shaping Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapse Properties.

  • Chanda S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuroligins are evolutionarily conserved postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules that interact with presynaptic neurexins. Neurons express multiple neuroligin isoforms that are targeted to specific synapses, but their synaptic functions and mechanistic redundancy are not completely understood. Overexpression or RNAi-mediated knockdown of neuroligins, respectively, causes a dramatic increase or decrease in synapse density, whereas genetic deletions of neuroligins impair synapse function with only minor effects on synapse numbers, raising fundamental questions about the overall physiological role of neuroligins. Here, we have systematically analyzed the effects of conditional genetic deletions of all major neuroligin isoforms (i.e., NL1, NL2, and NL3), either individually or in combinations, in cultured mouse hippocampal and cortical neurons. We found that conditional genetic deletions of neuroligins caused no change or only a small change in synapses numbers, but strongly impaired synapse function. This impairment was isoform specific, suggesting that neuroligins are not functionally redundant. Sparse neuroligin deletions produced phenotypes comparable to those of global deletions, indicating that neuroligins function in a cell-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, neuroligin deletions decreased the synaptic levels of neurotransmitter receptors and had no effect on presynaptic release probabilities. Overexpression of neuroligin-1 in control or neuroligin-deficient neurons increased synaptic transmission and synapse density but not spine numbers, suggesting that these effects reflect a gain-of-function mechanism; whereas overexpression of neuroligin-3, which, like neuroligin-1 is also targeted to excitatory synapses, had no comparable effect. Our data demonstrate that neuroligins are required for the physiological organization of neurotransmitter receptors in postsynaptic specializations and suggest that they do not play a major role in synapse formation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human neuroligin genes have been associated with autism, but the cellular functions of different neuroligins and their molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we performed comparative analyses in cultured mouse neurons of all major neuroligin isoforms, either individually or in combinations, using conditional knockouts. We found that neuroligin deletions did not affect synapse numbers but differentially impaired excitatory or inhibitory synaptic functions in an isoform-specific manner. These impairments were due, at least in part, to a decrease in synaptic distribution of neurotransmitter receptors upon deletion of neuroligins. Conversely, the overexpression of neuroligin-1 increased synapse numbers but not spine numbers. Our results suggest that various neuroligin isoforms perform unique postsynaptic functions in organizing synapses but are not essential for synapse formation or maintenance.

Defining the Role of Estrogen Receptor β in the Regulation of Female Fertility.

  • Rumi MAK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Estrogens are essential hormones for the regulation of fertility. Cellular responses to estrogens are mediated by estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and estrogen receptor β (ESR2). In mouse and rat models, disruption of Esr1 causes infertility in both males and females. However, the role of ESR2 in reproductive function remains undecided because of a wide variation in phenotypic observations among Esr2-mutant mouse strains. Regulatory pathways independent of ESR2 binding to its cognate DNA response element have also been implicated in ESR2 signaling. To clarify the regulatory roles of ESR2, we generated two mutant rat models: one with a null mutation (exon 3 deletion, Esr2ΔE3) and the other with an inframe deletion selectively disrupting the DNA binding domain (exon 4 deletion, Esr2ΔE4). In both models, we observed that ESR2-mutant males were fertile. ESR2-mutant females exhibited regular estrous cycles and could be inseminated by wild-type (WT) males but did not become pregnant or pseudopregnant. Esr2-mutant ovaries were small and differed from WT ovaries by their absence of corpora lutea, despite the presence of follicles at various stages of development. Esr2ΔE3- and Esr2ΔE4-mutant females exhibited attenuated preovulatory gonadotropin surges and did not ovulate in response to a gonadotropin regimen effective in WT rats. Similarities of reproductive deficits in Esr2ΔE3 and Esr2ΔE4 mutants suggest that DNA binding-dependent transcriptional function of ESR2 is critical for preovulatory follicle maturation and ovulation. Overall, the findings indicate that neuroendocrine and ovarian deficits are linked to infertility observed in Esr2-mutant rats.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - R21 OD010478()

CRY1/2 Selectively Repress PPARδ and Limit Exercise Capacity.

  • Jordan SD
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cellular metabolite balance and mitochondrial function are under circadian control, but the pathways connecting the molecular clock to these functions are unclear. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) enables preferential utilization of lipids as fuel during exercise and is a major driver of exercise endurance. We show here that the circadian repressors CRY1 and CRY2 function as co-repressors for PPARδ. Cry1-/-;Cry2-/- myotubes and muscles exhibit elevated expression of PPARδ target genes, particularly in the context of exercise. Notably, CRY1/2 seem to repress a distinct subset of PPARδ target genes in muscle compared to the co-repressor NCOR1. In vivo, genetic disruption of Cry1 and Cry2 enhances sprint exercise performance in mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CRY1 and CRY2 modulate exercise physiology by altering the activity of several transcription factors, including CLOCK/BMAL1 and PPARδ, and thereby alter energy storage and substrate selection for energy production.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA014195()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL105278()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - P30 AR061303()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R24 HD050837()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK090188()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097164()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK105126()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R37 DK057978()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016357()

IGF1R Expression in Ovarian Granulosa Cells Is Essential for Steroidogenesis, Follicle Survival, and Fertility in Female Mice.

  • Baumgarten SC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Folliculogenesis is a lengthy process that requires the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells (GCs) for preovulatory follicle formation. The most crucial endocrine factor involved in this process is follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Interestingly, previous in vitro studies indicated that FSH does not stimulate GC proliferation in the absence of the insulinlike growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). To determine the role of the IGF1R in vivo, female mice with a conditional knockdown of the IGF1R in the GCs were produced and had undetectable levels of IGF1R mRNA and protein in the GCs. These animals were sterile, and their ovaries were smaller than those of control animals and contained no antral follicles even after gonadotropin stimulation. The lack of antral follicles correlated with a 90% decrease in serum estradiol levels. In addition, under a superovulation protocol no oocytes were found in the oviducts of these animals. Accordingly, the GCs of the mutant females expressed significantly lower levels of preovulatory markers including aromatase, luteinizing hormone receptor, and inhibin α. In contrast, no alterations in FSH receptor expression were observed in GCs lacking IGF1R. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that ovaries lacking IGF1R had higher levels of apoptosis in follicles from the primary to the large secondary stages. Finally, molecular studies determined that protein kinase B activation was significantly impaired in mutant females when compared with controls. These in vivo findings demonstrate that IGF1R has a crucial role in GC function and, consequently, in female fertility.

Androgen Receptor Regulation of Local Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer Cells.

  • Recouvreux MV
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prostate cancer (PCa) growth is mainly driven by androgen receptor (AR), and tumors that initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or AR inhibition usually relapse into a more aggressive, castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) stage. Circulating growth hormone (GH) has a permissive role in PCa development in animal models and in human PCa xenograft growth. As GH and GH receptor (GHR) are both expressed in PCa cells, we assessed whether prostatic GH production is linked to AR activity and whether GH contributes to the castration-resistant phenotype. Using online datasets, we found that GH is highly expressed in human CRPC. We observed increased GH expression in castration-resistant C4-2 compared with castration-sensitive LNCaP cells as well as in enzalutamide (MDV3100)-resistant (MDVR) C4-2B (C4-2B MDVR) cells compared with parental C4-2B. We describe a negative regulation of locally produced GH by androgens/AR in PCa cells following treatment with AR agonists (R1881) and antagonists (enzalutamide, bicalutamide). We also show that GH enhances invasive behavior of CRPC 22Rv1 cells, as reflected by increased migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth, as well as expression of matrix metalloproteases. Moreover, GH induces expression of the AR splice variant 7, which correlates with antiandrogen resistance, and also induces insulinlike growth factor 1, which is implicated in PCa progression and ligand-independent AR activation. In contrast, blockade of GH action with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant reverses these effects both in vitro and in vivo. GH induction following ADT or AR inhibition may contribute to CRPC progression by bypassing androgen growth requirements.

Gestational Diabetes Alters Functions in Offspring's Umbilical Cord Cells With Implications for Cardiovascular Health.

  • Amrithraj AI
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Because noncommunicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus have their roots in prenatal development and conditions such as maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we aimed to test this hypothesis in primary cells derived from the offspring of mothers with GDM compared with control subjects. We have assessed primary umbilical cord-derived cells such as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells from the offspring of mothers with and without GDM. We have compared the primary isolates in cell-based assays measuring proliferation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and the ability to support blood vessel growth. We conducted gene expression microarray studies with subsequent pathway analysis and candidate gene validation. We observed striking differences between the two groups, such as lower metabolic rates and impairment of endothelial tube formation in cells with GDM background. HUVECs from subjects with maternal GDM have lower expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-xL, suggesting compromised angiogenic capabilities. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed blood vessel formation as a major pathway enriched in the GDM-derived HUVECs with the surface marker CD44 as a gene underexpressed in the GDM group. Functional validation of CD44 revealed that it regulates tube formation in HUVECs, thereby providing insights into a pathway imprinted in primary umbilical cord-derived cells from GDM offspring. Our data demonstrate that primary cells isolated from the umbilical cord of offspring born to mothers with GDM maintain metabolic and molecular imprints of maternal hyperglycemia, reflecting an increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS074194(United States)

IL-22 Upregulates Epithelial Claudin-2 to Drive Diarrhea and Enteric Pathogen Clearance.

  • Tsai PY
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diarrhea is a host response to enteric pathogens, but its impact on pathogenesis remains poorly defined. By infecting mice with the attaching and effacing bacteria Citrobacter rodentium, we defined the mechanisms and contributions of diarrhea and intestinal barrier loss to host defense. Increased permeability occurred within 2 days of infection and coincided with IL-22-dependent upregulation of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-2. Permeability increases were limited to small molecules, as expected for the paracellular water and Na+ channel formed by claudin-2. Relative to wild-type, claudin-2-deficient mice experienced severe disease, including increased mucosal colonization by C. rodentium, prolonged pathogen shedding, exaggerated cytokine responses, and greater tissue injury. Conversely, transgenic claudin-2 overexpression reduced disease severity. Chemically induced osmotic diarrhea reduced colitis severity and C. rodentium burden in claudin-2-deficient, but not transgenic, mice, demonstrating that claudin-2-mediated protection is the result of enhanced water efflux. Thus, IL-22-induced claudin-2 upregulation drives diarrhea and pathogen clearance.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025643()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007009()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F30 DK103511()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK009180()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK092381()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK061931()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK068271()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK099803()

Neurokinin B Exerts Direct Effects on the Ovary to Stimulate Estradiol Production.

  • Qi X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurokinin B (NKB) and its receptor, NK3R, play critical roles in reproduction by regulating the secretion of the hypothalamic GnRH. NKB and NK3R genes are also expressed in the ovary; however, their physiological roles within the ovary are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NKB acts directly on the ovary to regulate reproduction. Injection of NKB into zebrafish accelerated follicle development, increased the mRNA levels of cyp11a1 and cyp19a1, and enhanced estradiol production. Similarly, NKB induced cyp11a1 and cyp19a1 expression in primary cultures of zebrafish follicular cells and stimulated estradiol production from cultured follicles. Furthermore, NKB activates cAMP response element-binding protein and ERK, and ERK inhibitors abolished the effect of NKB on cyp11a1, whereas protein kinase A and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors that blocked the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein, attenuated the effect of NKB on cyp19a1 expression. In a human granulosa cell line, COV434, a NKB agonist, senktide, also increased CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and enhanced aromatase protein levels and activities. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of NK3R reduced senktide-induced CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 mRNA levels. Finally, we found that NK3R mRNA was strongly down-regulated in granulosa cells obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients when compared with non-PCOS subjects. Taken together, our findings establish a direct action of NKB to induce ovarian estrogen production and raise the possibility that defective signaling of this pathway may contribute to the development of PCOS.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL129178(United States)

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

RasGRP3 Mediates MAPK Pathway Activation in GNAQ Mutant Uveal Melanoma.

  • Chen X
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Constitutive activation of Gαq signaling by mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 occurs in over 80% of uveal melanomas (UMs) and activates MAPK. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a link, but the mechanistic details remained unclear. We identified PKC δ and ɛ as required and sufficient to activate MAPK in GNAQ mutant melanomas. MAPK activation depends on Ras and is caused by RasGRP3, which is significantly and selectively overexpressed in response to GNAQ/11 mutation in UM. RasGRP3 activation occurs via PKC δ- and ɛ-dependent phosphorylation and PKC-independent, DAG-mediated membrane recruitment, possibly explaining the limited effect of PKC inhibitors to durably suppress MAPK in UM. The findings nominate RasGRP3 as a therapeutic target for cancers driven by oncogenic GNAQ/11.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA142873()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA143874()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01 AI091580()

Manganese-Stimulated Kisspeptin Is Mediated by the IGF-1/Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway in the Prepubertal Female Rat.

  • Srivastava VK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Low-dose administration of manganese chloride (MnCl2) causes release of hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and advances puberty in rat. Recently, this element was shown to up-regulate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), kisspeptin gene (KiSS-1), and LHRH gene expressions in the brain preoptic area (POA)/anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Because these genes are critical for puberty, this study was conducted to identify the upstream mechanism by which Mn activates the mTOR/KiSS-1 pathway. On day 12, immature female rats began receiving a daily supplemental dose of 10 mg/kg of MnCl2 or saline by gavage, and POA/AVPV tissues were collected on day 29 for specific protein assessments. Another experiment assessed in vitro IGF-1 release in response to Mn and assessed signal transduction pathways in the POA/AVPV region after Mn delivery into the third ventricle. Chronic Mn exposure increased (P < .05) basal expressions of mTOR and kisspeptin proteins. Mn increased protein kinase B (Akt) and Ras homolog enriched in brain, both capable of activating mTOR. Central Mn delivery increased expressions of phosphorylated IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) (P < .05) and Akt (P < .01) in the POA/AVPV region. The previous central delivery of JB1, an IGF-1R antagonist, blocked Mn-induced expressions of both phosphorylated IGF-1R and Akt. Downstream to Akt, centrally administered Mn increased tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (P < .05), Ras homolog enriched in brain (P < .01), mTOR (P < .05), and kisspeptin (P < .05). Finally, we observed that the early puberty induced by Mn was blocked by the administration of an mTOR inhibitor. These results suggest that Mn acts, at least in part, through the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway to influence prepubertal kisspeptin and LHRH.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R37 DK33165(United States)

A Tunable Brake for HECT Ubiquitin Ligases.

  • Chen Z
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The HECT E3 ligases ubiquitinate numerous transcription factors and signaling molecules, and their activity must be tightly controlled to prevent cancer, immune disorders, and other diseases. In this study, we have found unexpectedly that peptide linkers tethering WW domains in several HECT family members are key regulatory elements of their catalytic activities. Biochemical, structural, and cellular analyses have revealed that the linkers can lock the HECT domain in an inactive conformation and block the proposed allosteric ubiquitin binding site. Such linker-mediated autoinhibition of the HECT domain can be relieved by linker post-translational modifications, but complete removal of the brake can induce hyperactive autoubiquitination and E3 self destruction. These results clarify the mechanisms of several HECT protein cancer associated mutations and provide a new framework for understanding how HECT ubiquitin ligases must be finely tuned to ensure normal cellular behavior.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA062924()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA074305()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R37 CA043460()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F32 GM120855()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM034933()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM109102()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118177()

Synthesis and Degradation of Adenosine 5'-Tetraphosphate by Nicotinamide and Nicotinate Phosphoribosyltransferases.

  • Amici A
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ap4) is a ubiquitous metabolite involved in cell signaling in mammals. Its full physiological significance remains unknown. Here we show that two enzymes committed to NAD biosynthesis, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPT), can both catalyze the synthesis and degradation of Ap4 through their facultative ATPase activity. We propose a mechanism for this unforeseen additional reaction, and demonstrate its evolutionary conservation in bacterial orthologs of mammalian NAMPT and NAPT. Furthermore, evolutionary distant forms of NAMPT were inhibited in vitro by the FK866 drug but, remarkably, it does not block synthesis of Ap4. In fact, FK866-treated murine cells showed decreased NAD but increased Ap4 levels. Finally, murine cells and plasma with engineered or naturally fluctuating NAMPT levels showed matching Ap4 fluctuations. These results suggest a role of Ap4 in the actions of NAMPT, and prompt to evaluate the role of Ap4 production in the actions of NAMPT inhibitors.

Aging Triggers Cytoplasmic Depletion and Nuclear Translocation of the E3 Ligase Mahogunin: A Function for Ubiquitin in Neuronal Survival.

  • Benvegnù S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

A decline in proteasome function is causally connected to neuronal aging and aging-associated neuropathologies. By using hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo, we show that aging triggers a reduction and a cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of the E3 ubiquitin ligase mahogunin (MGRN1). Proteasome impairment induces MGRN1 monoubiquitination, the key post-translational modification for its nuclear entry. One potential mechanism for MGRN1 monoubiquitination is via progressive deubiquitination at the proteasome of polyubiquitinated MGRN1. Once in the nucleus, MGRN1 potentiates the transcriptional cellular response to proteotoxic stress. Inhibition of MGRN1 impairs ATF3-mediated neuronal responsiveness to proteosomal stress and increases neuronal stress, while increasing MGRN1 ameliorates signs of neuronal aging, including cognitive performance in old animals. Our results imply that, among others, the strength of neuronal survival in a proteasomal deterioration background, like during aging, depends on the fine-tuning of ubiquitination-deubiquitination.

Inhibition of Hematopoietic Cell Kinase Activity Suppresses Myeloid Cell-Mediated Colon Cancer Progression.

  • Poh AR
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aberrant activation of the SRC family kinase hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) triggers hematological malignancies as a tumor cell-intrinsic oncogene. Here we find that high HCK levels correlate with reduced survival of colorectal cancer patients. Likewise, increased Hck activity in mice promotes the growth of endogenous colonic malignancies and of human colorectal cancer cell xenografts. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages of the corresponding tumors show a pronounced alternatively activated endotype, which occurs independently of mature lymphocytes or of Stat6-dependent Th2 cytokine signaling. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic reduction of Hck activity suppresses alternative activation of tumor-associated macrophages and the growth of colon cancer xenografts. Thus, Hck may serve as a promising therapeutic target for solid malignancies.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI065495()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI068150()

Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells with In Vivo Embryonic and Extraembryonic Potency.

  • Yang Y
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Of all known cultured stem cell types, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) sit atop the landscape of developmental potency and are characterized by their ability to generate all cell types of an adult organism. However, PSCs show limited contribution to the extraembryonic placental tissues in vivo. Here, we show that a chemical cocktail enables the derivation of stem cells with unique functional and molecular features from mice and humans, designated as extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which are capable of chimerizing both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Notably, a single mouse EPS cell shows widespread chimeric contribution to both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages in vivo and permits generating single-EPS-cell-derived mice by tetraploid complementation. Furthermore, human EPS cells exhibit interspecies chimeric competency in mouse conceptuses. Our findings constitute a first step toward capturing pluripotent stem cells with extraembryonic developmental potentials in culture and open new avenues for basic and translational research. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

The ER Stress Sensor PERK Coordinates ER-Plasma Membrane Contact Site Formation through Interaction with Filamin-A and F-Actin Remodeling.

  • van Vliet AR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of ER Ca2+ homeostasis triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives ER-PM contact sites formation in order to refill ER-luminal Ca2+. Recent studies suggest that the ER stress sensor and mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) PERK regulates intracellular Ca2+ fluxes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID), we identified the actin-binding protein Filamin A (FLNA) as a key PERK interactor. Cells lacking PERK accumulate F-actin at the cell edges and display reduced ER-PM contacts. Following ER-Ca2+ store depletion, the PERK-FLNA interaction drives the expansion of ER-PM juxtapositions by regulating F-actin-assisted relocation of the ER-associated tethering proteins Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) and Extended Synaptotagmin-1 (E-Syt1) to the PM. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation elicits rapid and UPR-independent PERK dimerization, which enforces PERK-FLNA-mediated ER-PM juxtapositions. Collectively, our data unravel an unprecedented role of PERK in the regulation of ER-PM appositions through the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

HIV-1 Tat Primes and Activates Microglial NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Neuroinflammation.

  • Chivero ET
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuroinflammation associated with HIV-1 infection is a problem affecting ∼50% of HIV-infected individuals. NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in HIV-induced microglial activation, but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Because HIV-1 Transactivator of Transcription (Tat) protein continues to be present despite antiretroviral therapy and activates NF-kB, we hypothesized that Tat could prime the NLRP3 inflammasome. We found a dose- and time-dependent induction of NLRP3 expression in microglia exposed to Tat compared with control. Tat exposure also time-dependently increased the mature caspase-1 and IL-1β levels and enhanced the IL-1β secretion. These in vitro findings were validated in archival brain tissues from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. Further validation of NLRP3 priming in vivo involved administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to HIV transgenic (Tg) rats followed by assessment of IL-1β mRNA expression and inflammasome activation (ASC oligomers and mature IL-1β). Intriguingly, LPS potentiated upregulation of IL-1β mRNA and inflammasome activation in HIV-Tg rats compared with the wild-type controls. Interestingly, we found an inverse relationship in the expression of NLRP3 and its negative regulator, miR-223, suggesting a miR-223-mediated mechanism for Tat-induced NLRP3 priming. Furthermore, blockade of NLRP3 resulted in decreased IL-1β secretion. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel role of Tat in priming and activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. Therefore, NLRP3 can be envisioned as a therapeutic target for ameliorating Tat-mediated neuroinflammation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite successful suppression of viremia with increased longevity in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy, chronic inflammation with underlying neurocognitive impairment continues to afflict almost 50% of infected individuals. Viral, bacterial, and cellular products have all been implicated in promoting the chronic inflammation found in these individuals. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins such as HIV-1 Transactivator of Transcription (Tat) protein can activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. Herein, we demonstrate a novel role of Tat in priming and activating NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes in microglial cells and in HIV-Tg rats administered lipopolysaccharide. Targeting NLRP3 inflammasome pathway mediators could thus be developed as therapeutic interventions to alleviate or prevent neuroinflammation and subsequent cognitive impairment in HIV-positive patients.

Crosstalk between CLCb/Dyn1-Mediated Adaptive Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Increases Metastasis.

  • Chen PH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signaling receptors are internalized and regulated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Two clathrin light chain isoforms, CLCa and CLCb, are integral components of the endocytic machinery whose differential functions remain unknown. We report that CLCb is specifically upregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Engineered single CLCb-expressing NSCLC cells, as well as "switched" cells that predominantly express CLCb, exhibit increased rates of CME and altered clathrin-coated pit dynamics. This "adaptive CME" resulted from upregulation of dynamin-1 (Dyn1) and its activation through a positive feedback loop involving enhanced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent Akt/GSK3β phosphorylation. CLCb/Dyn1-dependent adaptive CME selectively altered EGF receptor trafficking, enhanced cell migration in vitro, and increased the metastatic efficiency of NSCLC cells in vivo. We define molecular mechanisms for adaptive CME in cancer cells and a role for the reciprocal crosstalk between signaling and CME in cancer progression.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM042455()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM073165()

The TRAIL-Induced Cancer Secretome Promotes a Tumor-Supportive Immune Microenvironment via CCR2.

  • Hartwig T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is known for specifically killing cancer cells, whereas in resistant cancers, TRAIL/TRAIL-R can promote metastasis via Rac1 and PI3K. It remains unknown, however, whether and to what extent TRAIL/TRAIL-R signaling in cancer cells can affect the immune microenvironment. Here we show that TRAIL-triggered cytokine secretion from TRAIL-resistant cancer cells is FADD dependent and identify the TRAIL-induced secretome to drive monocyte polarization to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-like macrophages. TRAIL-R suppression in tumor cells impaired CCL2 production and diminished both lung MDSC presence and tumor growth. In accordance, the receptor of CCL2, CCR2, is required to facilitate increased MDSC presence and tumor growth. Finally, TRAIL and CCL2 are co-regulated with MDSC/M2 markers in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Collectively, endogenous TRAIL/TRAIL-R-mediated CCL2 secretion promotes accumulation of tumor-supportive immune cells in the cancer microenvironment, thereby revealing a tumor-supportive immune-modulatory role of the TRAIL/TRAIL-R system in cancer biology.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I004580/1()
  • Cancer Research UK - 10950()

ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 Differentially Stimulate APP Transcription and Aβ Secretion.

  • Huang YA
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) apolipoprotein is primarily expressed in three isoforms (ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4) that differ only by two residues. ApoE4 constitutes the most important genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), ApoE3 is neutral, and ApoE2 is protective. How ApoE isoforms influence AD pathogenesis, however, remains unclear. Using ES-cell-derived human neurons, we show that ApoE secreted by glia stimulates neuronal Aβ production with an ApoE4 > ApoE3 > ApoE2 potency rank order. We demonstrate that ApoE binding to ApoE receptors activates dual leucine-zipper kinase (DLK), a MAP-kinase kinase kinase that then activates MKK7 and ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Activated ERK1/2 induces cFos phosphorylation, stimulating the transcription factor AP-1, which in turn enhances transcription of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and thereby increases amyloid-β levels. This molecular mechanism also regulates APP transcription in mice in vivo. Our data describe a novel signal transduction pathway in neurons whereby ApoE activates a non-canonical MAP kinase cascade that enhances APP transcription and amyloid-β synthesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048131()

DNA methylation directs genomic localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 in embryonic stem cells.

  • Hainer SJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that both proteins are required for normal levels of cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Mbd2 and Mbd3 regulate overlapping sets of genes that are also regulated by DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation factors. These findings reveal an interdependent regulatory mechanism mediated by the DNA methylation machinery and its readers.

Rescue of Isolated GH Deficiency Type II (IGHD II) via Pharmacologic Modulation of GH-1 Splicing.

  • Miletta MC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Oct 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) type II, the autosomal dominant form of GHD, is mainly caused by mutations that affect splicing of GH-1. When misspliced RNA is translated, it produces a toxic 17.5-kDa GH isoform that reduces the accumulation and secretion of wild-type-human GH (wt-hGH). Usually, isolated GHD type II patients are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH in order to maintain normal growth. However, this type of replacement therapy does not prevent toxic effects of the 17.5-kDa GH isoform on the pituitary gland, which can eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. Here, we tested the possibility to restore the constitutive splicing pattern of GH-1 by using butyrate, a drug that mainly acts as histone deacetylase inhibitor. To this aim, wt-hGH and/or different hGH-splice site mutants (GH-IVS3+2, GH-IVS3+6, and GH-ISE+28) were transfected in rat pituitary cells expressing human GHRH receptor (GHRHR) (GC-GHRHR). Upon butyrate treatment, GC-GHRHR cells coexpressing wt-hGH and each of the mutants displayed increased GH transcript level, intracellular GH content, and GH secretion when compared with the corresponding untreated condition. The effect of butyrate was most likely mediated by the alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2. Overexpression of alternative ASF/SF2 in the same experimental setting, indeed, promoted the amount of full-length transcripts thus increasing synthesis and secretion of the 22-kDa GH isoform. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that modulation of GH-1 splicing pattern to increase the 22-kDa GH isoform levels can be clinically beneficial and hence a crucial challenge in GHD research.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - U42 OD010924(United States)

Regulation of morphine-induced synaptic alterations: Role of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy.

  • Cai Y
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2016 Oct 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Our findings suggest that morphine dysregulates synaptic balance in the hippocampus, a key center for learning and memory, via a novel signaling pathway involving reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy. We demonstrate in this study that exposure of morphine to hippocampal neurons leads to a reduction in excitatory synapse densities with a concomitant enhancement of inhibitory synapse densities via activation of the μ opioid receptor. Furthermore, these effects of morphine are mediated by up-regulation of intracellular ROS from NADPH oxidase, leading, in turn, to sequential induction of ER stress and autophagy. The detrimental effects of morphine on synaptic densities were shown to be reversed by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a pleiotropic growth factor that has been implicated in neuroprotection. These results identify a novel cellular mechanism involved in morphine-mediated synaptic alterations with implications for therapeutic interventions by PDGF.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - DA14241(United States)

Fusion Competent Synaptic Vesicles Persist upon Active Zone Disruption and Loss of Vesicle Docking.

  • Wang SSH
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

In a nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle docking and release are restricted to an active zone. The active zone is a protein scaffold that is attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane and opposed to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we generated conditional knockout mice removing the active zone proteins RIM and ELKS, which additionally led to loss of Munc13, Bassoon, Piccolo, and RIM-BP, indicating disassembly of the active zone. We observed a near-complete lack of synaptic vesicle docking and a strong reduction in vesicular release probability and the speed of exocytosis, but total vesicle numbers, SNARE protein levels, and postsynaptic densities remained unaffected. Despite loss of the priming proteins Munc13 and RIM and of docked vesicles, a pool of releasable vesicles remained. Thus, the active zone is necessary for synaptic vesicle docking and to enhance release probability, but releasable vesicles can be localized distant from the presynaptic plasma membrane.

Funding information:
  • MRC - 200829/Z/16/Z(United Kingdom)

Histological characterization of orphan transporter MCT14 (SLC16A14) shows abundant expression in mouse CNS and kidney.

  • Roshanbin S
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2016 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: MCT14 (SLC16A14) is an orphan member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, also known as the SLC16 family of secondary active transmembrane transporters. Available expression data for this transporter is limited, and in this paper we aim to characterize MCT14 with respect to tissue distribution and cellular localization in mouse brain. RESULTS: Using qPCR, we found that Slc16a14 mRNA was highly abundant in mouse kidney and moderately in central nervous system, testis, uterus and liver. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we determined that MCT14 was highly expressed in excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as epithelial cells in the mouse brain. The expression was exclusively localized to the soma of neurons. Furthermore, we showed with our phylogenetic analysis that MCT14 most closely relate to the aromatic amino acid- and thyroid-hormone transporters MCT8 (SLC16A2) and MCT10 (SLC16A10), in addition to the carnitine transporter MCT9 (SLC16A9). CONCLUSIONS: We provide here the first histological mapping of MCT14 in the brain and our data are consistent with the hypothesis that MCT14 is a neuronal aromatic-amino-acid transporter.

Extended Synaptotagmin (ESyt) Triple Knock-Out Mice Are Viable and Fertile without Obvious Endoplasmic Reticulum Dysfunction.

  • Sclip A
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2016 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extended synaptotagmins (ESyts) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins composed of an N-terminal transmembrane region, a central SMP-domain, and five (ESyt1) or three C-terminal cytoplasmic C2-domains (ESyt2 and ESyt3). ESyts bind phospholipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner via their C2-domains, are localized to ER-plasma membrane contact sites, and may catalyze lipid exchange between the plasma membrane and the ER via their SMP-domains. However, the overall function of ESyts has remained enigmatic. Here, we generated triple constitutive and conditional knock-out mice that lack all three ESyt isoforms; in addition, we produced knock-in mice that express mutant ESyt1 or ESyt2 carrying inactivating substitutions in the Ca2+-binding sites of their C2A-domains. Strikingly, all ESyt mutant mice, even those lacking all ESyts, were apparently normal and survived and bred in a manner indistinguishable from control mice. ESyt mutant mice displayed no major changes in brain morphology or synaptic protein composition, and exhibited no large alterations in stress responses. Thus, in mice ESyts do not perform an essential role in basic cellular functions, suggesting that these highly conserved proteins may perform a specialized role that may manifest only during specific, as yet untested challenges.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY11379(United States)

ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains.

  • Held RG
  • Elife
  • 2016 Jun 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic strength is determined by the pool of readily releasable vesicles (RRP) and the probability of release (P) of each RRP vesicle. These parameters are controlled at the active zone and vary across synapses, but how such synapse specific control is achieved is not understood. ELKS proteins are enriched at vertebrate active zones and enhance P at inhibitory hippocampal synapses, but ELKS functions at excitatory synapses are not known. Studying conditional knockout mice for ELKS, we find that ELKS enhances the RRP at excitatory synapses without affecting P. Surprisingly, ELKS C-terminal sequences, which interact with RIM, are dispensable for RRP enhancement. Instead, the N-terminal ELKS coiled-coil domains that bind to Liprin-α and Bassoon are necessary to control RRP. Thus, ELKS removal has differential, synapse-specific effects on RRP and P, and our findings establish important roles for ELKS N-terminal domains in synaptic vesicle priming.

FoxO1 Plays an Important Role in Regulating β-Cell Compensation for Insulin Resistance in Male Mice.

  • Zhang T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

β-Cell compensation is an essential mechanism by which β-cells increase insulin secretion for overcoming insulin resistance to maintain euglycemia in obesity. Failure of β-cells to compensate for insulin resistance contributes to insulin insufficiency and overt diabetes. To understand the mechanism of β-cell compensation, we characterized the role of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in β-cell compensation in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO1 is a key transcription factor that serves as a nutrient sensor for integrating insulin signaling to cell metabolism, growth, and proliferation. We showed that FoxO1 improved β-cell compensation via 3 distinct mechanisms by increasing β-cell mass, enhancing β-cell glucose sensing, and augmenting β-cell antioxidative function. These effects accounted for increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and enhanced glucose tolerance in β-cell-specific FoxO1-transgenic mice. When fed a high-fat diet, β-cell-specific FoxO1-transgenic mice were protected from developing fat-induced glucose disorder. This effect was attributable to increased β-cell mass and function. Furthermore, we showed that FoxO1 activity was up-regulated in islets, correlating with the induction of physiological β-cell compensation in high-fat-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. These data characterize FoxO1 as a pivotal factor for orchestrating physiological adaptation of β-cell mass and function to overnutrition and obesity.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS080614(United States)

The Placental Variant of Human Growth Hormone Reduces Maternal Insulin Sensitivity in a Dose-Dependent Manner in C57BL/6J Mice.

  • Liao S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human placental GH variant (GH-V) is secreted continuously from the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta during pregnancy and is thought to play a key role in the maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Maternal GH-V concentrations are closely related to fetal growth in humans. GH-V has also been proposed as a potential candidate to mediate insulin resistance observed later in pregnancy. To determine the effect of maternal GH-V administration on maternal and fetal growth and metabolic outcomes during pregnancy, we examined the dose-response relationship for GH-V administration in a mouse model of normal pregnancy. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were randomized to receive vehicle or GH-V (0.25, 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg · d) by osmotic pump from gestational days 12.5 to 18.5. Fetal linear growth was slightly reduced in the 5 mg/kg dose compared with vehicle and the 0.25 mg/kg groups, respectively, whereas placental weight was not affected. GH-V treatment did not affect maternal body weights or food intake. However, treatment with 5 mg/kg · d significantly increased maternal fasting plasma insulin concentrations with impaired insulin sensitivity observed at day 18.5 as assessed by homeostasis model assessment. At 5 mg/kg · d, there was also an increase in maternal hepatic GH receptor/binding protein (Ghr/Ghbp) and IGF binding protein 3 (Igfbp3) mRNA levels, but GH-V did not alter maternal plasma IGF-1 concentrations or hepatic Igf-1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that at higher doses, GH-V treatment can cause hyperinsulinemia and is a likely mediator of the insulin resistance associated with late pregnancy.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD028138(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081297(United States)

The ERα-PI3K Cascade in Proopiomelanocortin Progenitor Neurons Regulates Feeding and Glucose Balance in Female Mice.

  • Zhu L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Estrogens act upon estrogen receptor (ER)α to inhibit feeding and improve glucose homeostasis in female animals. However, the intracellular signals that mediate these estrogenic actions remain unknown. Here, we report that anorexigenic effects of estrogens are blunted in female mice that lack ERα specifically in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) progenitor neurons. These mutant mice also develop insulin resistance and are insensitive to the glucose-regulatory effects of estrogens. Moreover, we showed that propyl pyrazole triol (an ERα agonist) stimulates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway specifically in POMC progenitor neurons, and that blockade of PI3K attenuates propyl pyrazole triol-induced activation of POMC neurons. Finally, we show that effects of estrogens to inhibit food intake and to improve insulin sensitivity are significantly attenuated in female mice with PI3K genetically inhibited in POMC progenitor neurons. Together, our results indicate that an ERα-PI3K cascade in POMC progenitor neurons mediates estrogenic actions to suppress food intake and improve insulin sensitivity.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA033150(United States)

Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit regulates memory load capacity.

  • Olivito L
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2016 Jan 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Memory capacity (MC) refers to the number of elements one can maintain for a short retention interval. The molecular mechanisms underlying MC are unexplored. We have recently reported that mice as well as humans have a limited MC, which is reduced by hippocampal lesions. Here, we addressed the molecular mechanisms supporting MC. GluA1 AMPA-receptors (AMPA-R) mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain and are critically involved in memory. Phosphorylation of GluA1 at serine residues S831 and S845 is promoted by CaMKII and PKA, respectively, and regulates AMPA-R function in memory duration. We hypothesized that AMPA-R phosphorylation may also be a key plastic process for supporting MC because it occurs in a few minutes, and potentiates AMPA-R ion channel function. Here, we show that knock-in mutant mice that specifically lack both of S845 and S831 phosphorylation sites on the GluA1 subunit had reduced MC in two different behavioral tasks specifically designed to assess MC in mice. This demonstrated a causal link between AMPA-R phosphorylation and MC. We then showed that information load regulates AMPA-R phosphorylation within the hippocampus, and that an overload condition associated with impaired memory is paralleled by a lack of AMPA-R phosphorylation. Accordingly, we showed that in conditions of high load, but not of low load, the pharmacological inhibition of the NMDA-CaMKII-PKA pathways within the hippocampus prevents memory as well as associated AMPA-R phosphorylation. These data provide the first identified molecular mechanism that regulates MC.

IGF-I and IGFBP-2 Stimulate AMPK Activation and Autophagy, Which Are Required for Osteoblast Differentiation.

  • Xi G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

IGF-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) coordinately stimulate osteoblast differentiation but the mechanisms by which they function have not been determined. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is induced during differentiation and AMPK knockout mice have reduced bone mass. IGF-I modulates AMPK in other cell types; therefore, these studies determined whether IGF-I/IGFBP-2 stimulate AMPK activation and the mechanism by which AMPK modulates differentiation. Calvarial osteoblasts and MC-3T3 cells expressed activated AMPK early in differentiation and AMPK inhibitors attenuated differentiation. However, expression of constitutively activated AMPK inhibited differentiation. To resolve this discrepancy we analyzed the time course of AMPK induction. AMPK activation was required early in differentiation (day 3-6) but down-regulation of AMPK after day 9 was also necessary. IGF-I/IGFBP-2 induced AMPK through their respective receptors and blocking-receptor activation blocked AMPK induction. To determine the mechanism by which AMPK functioned we analyzed components of the autophagosome. Activated AMPK stimulated ULK-1 S555 phosphorylation as well as beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light-chain phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3II) induction. Inhibition of AMPK attenuated these changes and direct inhibition of autophagy inhibited differentiation. Conversely, expression of activated AMPK was associated with persistence of these changes beyond day 9 and inhibited differentiation. Blocking AMPK activation after day 9 down-regulated these autophagosome components and rescued differentiation. This allowed induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin and AKT, which suppressed autophagy. The results show that early induction of AMPK in response to IGF-I/IGFBP-2 followed by suppression is required for osteoblast differentiation. AMPK functions through stimulation of autophagy. The findings suggest that these early catabolic changes are important for determining the energy source for osteoblast respiration and down-regulation of these components may be required for induction of glycolysis, which is required during the final anabolic stages of differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - 5R01DA023210-02(United States)

S-Nitrosylation of NF-κB p65 Inhibits TSH-Induced Na(+)/I(-) Symporter Expression.

  • Nicola JP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in a wide variety of cellular physiological processes. In thyroid cells, NO-synthase III-endogenously produced NO reduces TSH-stimulated thyroid-specific gene expression, suggesting a potential autocrine role of NO in modulating thyroid function. Further studies indicate that NO induces thyroid dedifferentiation, because NO donors repress TSH-stimulated iodide (I(-)) uptake. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the NO-inhibited Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated I(-) uptake in thyroid cells. We showed that NO donors reduce I(-) uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, which correlates with decreased NIS protein expression. NO-reduced I(-) uptake results from transcriptional repression of NIS gene rather than posttranslational modifications reducing functional NIS expression at the plasma membrane. We observed that NO donors repress TSH-induced NIS gene expression by reducing the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB subunit p65. NO-promoted p65 S-nitrosylation reduces p65-mediated transactivation of the NIS promoter in response to TSH stimulation. Overall, our data are consistent with the notion that NO plays a role as an inhibitory signal to counterbalance TSH-stimulated nuclear factor-κB activation, thus modulating thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS067017(United States)

Rictor Regulates Spermatogenesis by Controlling Sertoli Cell Cytoskeletal Organization and Cell Polarity in the Mouse Testis.

  • Dong H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maintenance of cell polarity is essential for Sertoli cell and blood-testis barrier (BTB) function and spermatogenesis; however, the signaling mechanisms that regulate the integrity of the cytoskeleton and polarity of Sertoli cells are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that rapamycin-insensitive component of target of rapamycin (TOR) (Rictor), a core component of mechanistic TOR complex 2 (mTORC2), was expressed in the seminiferous epithelium during testicular development, and was down-regulated in a cadmium chloride-induced BTB damage model. We then conditionally deleted the Rictor gene in Sertoli cells and mutant mice exhibited azoospermia and were sterile as early as 3 months old. Further study revealed that Rictor may regulate actin organization via both mTORC2-dependent and mTORC2-independent mechanisms, in which the small GTPase, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, and phosphorylation of the actin filament regulatory protein, Paxillin, are involved, respectively. Loss of Rictor in Sertoli cells perturbed actin dynamics and caused microtubule disarrangement, both of which accumulatively disrupted Sertoli cell polarity and BTB integrity, accompanied by testicular developmental defects, spermiogenic arrest and excessive germ cell loss in mutant mice. Together, these findings establish the importance of Rictor/mTORC2 signaling in Sertoli cell function and spermatogenesis through the maintenance of Sertoli cell cytoskeletal dynamics, BTB integrity, and cell polarity.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS041590(United States)

Time-dependent activation of MAPK/Erk1/2 and Akt/GSK3 cascades: modulation by agomelatine.

  • Musazzi L
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2014 Oct 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The novel antidepressant agomelatine, a melatonergic MT1/MT2 agonist combined with 5-HT2c serotonin antagonist properties, showed antidepressant action in preclinical and clinical studies. There is a general agreement that the therapeutic action of antidepressants needs the activation of slow-onset adaptations in downstream signalling pathways finally regulating neuroplasticity. In the last several years, particular attention was given to cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-related pathways, since it was shown that chronic antidepressants increase CREB phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, through the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) and mitogen activated protein kinase cascades (MAPK/Erk1/2). Aim of this work was to analyse possible effects of chronic agomelatine on time-dependent changes of different intracellular signalling pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of male rats. To this end, measurements were performed 1 h or 16 h after the last agomelatine or vehicle injection. RESULTS: We have found that in naïve rats chronic agomelatine, contrary to traditional antidepressants, did not increase CREB phosphorylation, but modulates the time-dependent regulation of MAPK/Erk1/2 and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) pathways. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the intracellular molecular mechanisms modulated by chronic agomelatine may be partly different from those of traditional antidepressants and involve the time-dependent regulation of MAPK/Erk1/2 and Akt/GSK-3 signalling pathways. This could exert a role in the antidepressant efficacy of the drug.

The active zone protein family ELKS supports Ca2+ influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.

  • Liu C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle exocytosis is restricted to specialized sites called active zones. At these sites, neurotransmitter release is determined by the number of releasable vesicles and their probability of release. Proteins at the active zone set these parameters by controlling the presynaptic Ca(2+) signal, and through docking and priming of synaptic vesicles. Vertebrate ELKS proteins are enriched at presynaptic active zones, but their functions are not well understood. ELKS proteins are produced by two genes in vertebrates, and each gene contributes ∼50% to total brain ELKS. We generated knock-out mice for ELKS1 and found that its constitutive removal causes lethality. To bypass lethality, and to circumvent redundancy between ELKS1 and ELKS2 in synaptic transmission, we used a conditional genetic approach to remove both genes in cultured hippocampal neurons after synapses are established. Simultaneous removal of ELKS1 and ELKS2 resulted in a 50% decrease of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses, paralleled by a reduction in release probability. Removal of ELKS did not affect synapse numbers or their electron microscopic appearance. Using Ca(2+) imaging, we found that loss of ELKS caused a 30% reduction in single action potential-triggered Ca(2+) influx in inhibitory nerve terminals, consistent with the deficits in synaptic transmission and release probability. Unlike deletion of the active zone proteins RIM, RIM-BP, or bruchpilot, ELKS removal did not lead to a measurable reduction in presynaptic Ca(2+) channel levels. Our results reveal that ELKS is required for normal Ca(2+) influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.

Tat 101-mediated enhancement of brain pericyte migration involves platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer: implications for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  • Niu F
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Aug 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the era of antiretroviral therapy, although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication can be successfully controlled, complications of the CNS continue to affect infected individuals. Viral Tat protein is not only neurotoxic but has also been shown to disrupt the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although the role of brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes in Tat-mediated impairment has been well documented, pericytes, which are important constituents of the BBB and play a key role in maintaining the integrity of the barrier, remain poorly studied in the context of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In the present study, we demonstrated that exposure of human brain microvascular pericytes and C3H/10T1/2 cells to HIV-1 Tat101 resulted in increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer (PDGF-BB) and increased migration of the treated cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that this effect of Tat was mediated via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB pathways. Secreted PDGF-BB resulted in autocrine activation of the PDGF-BB/PDGF β receptor signaling pathway, culminating ultimately into increased pericyte migration. Ex vivo relevance of these findings was further corroborated in isolated microvessels of HIV Tg26 mice that demonstrated significantly increased expression of PDGF-BB in isolated brain microvessels with a concomitant loss of pericytes. Intriguingly, loss of pericyte coverage was also detected in sections of frontal cortex from humans with HIV-encephalitis compared with the uninfected controls. These findings thus implicate a novel role of PDGF-BB in the migration of pericytes, resulting in loss of pericyte coverage from the endothelium with a subsequent breach of the BBB.

Activated AKT pathway promotes establishment of endometriosis.

  • Kim TH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote establishment and survival of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) activity was increased in endometriosis tissues and cells from ovarian endometriomas and that this increase promoted cell survival as well as decreased levels of progesterone receptor. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a role for AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions. First, a dose-dependent inhibition of AKT in stromal cells from human ovarian endometriomas (OSIS) as well as endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients (ESC) with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 was demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)(Ser473)-AKT. Levels of the AKT target protein, p(Ser256)-forkhead box O1 were increased in OSIS cells, which decreased with MK-2206 treatment, whereas levels of p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase 3β did not change in response to MK-2206. Although MK-2206 decreased viability of both OSIS and ESC in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation of OSIS cells was differentially decreased significantly compared with ESC. Next, the role of hyperactive AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions was studied using the bigenic, PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) heterozygous mouse. Autologous implantation of uterine tissues was performed in these mice. After 4 weeks, an average of 4 ± 0.33 lesions per Pten(f/+) mouse and 7.5 ± 0.43 lesions in the PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mouse were found. Histological examination of the lesions showed endometrial tissue-like morphology, which was similar in both the Pten(f/+) and PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mice. Treatment of mice with MK-2206 resulted in a significantly decreased number of lesions established. Immunohistochemical staining of ectopic lesions revealed decreased p(Ser473)-AKT and the proliferation marker Ki67 from MK-2206-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Furthermore, levels of FOXO1 and progesterone receptor increased in lesions of mice receiving MK-2206. These results demonstrate that heightened AKT activity plays an active role in the establishment of ectopic endometrial tissues.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH097062(United States)

Inactivation of AKT induces cellular senescence in uterine leiomyoma.

  • Xu X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are a major public health problem. Current medical treatments with GnRH analogs do not provide long-term benefit. Thus, permanent shrinkage or inhibition of fibroid growth via medical means remains a challenge. The AKT pathway is a major growth and survival pathway for fibroids. We propose that AKT inhibition results in a transient regulation of specific mechanisms that ultimately drive cells into cellular senescence or cell death. In this study, we investigated specific mechanisms of AKT inhibition that resulted in senescence. We observed that administration of MK-2206, an allosteric AKT inhibitor, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated the microRNA miR-182 and several senescence-associated genes (including p16, p53, p21, and β-galactosidase), and drove leiomyoma cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Moreover, induction of SIPS was mediated by HMGA2, which colocalized to senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This study provides a conceivable molecular mechanism of SIPS by AKT inhibition in fibroids.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073875(United States)

High glucose exposure promotes activation of protein phosphatase 2A in rodent islets and INS-1 832/13 β-cells by increasing the posttranslational carboxylmethylation of its catalytic subunit.

  • Arora DK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Existing evidence implicates regulatory roles for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in a variety of cellular functions, including cytoskeletal remodeling, hormone secretion, and apoptosis. We report here activation of PP2A in normal rat islets and insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cells under the duress of hyperglycemic (HG) conditions. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac) markedly attenuated glucose-induced activation of PP2A. HG, but not nonmetabolizable 3-O-methyl glucose or mannitol (osmotic control), significantly stimulated the methylation of PP2Ac at its C-terminal Leu-309, suggesting a novel role for this posttranslational modification in glucose-induced activation of PP2A. Moreover, knockdown of the cytosolic leucine carboxymethyl transferase 1 (LCMT1), which carboxymethylates PP2Ac, significantly attenuated PP2A activation under HG conditions. In addition, HG conditions, but not 3-O-methyl glucose or mannitol, markedly increased the expression of LCMT1. Furthermore, HG conditions significantly increased the expression of B55α, a regulatory subunit of PP2A, which has been implicated in islet dysfunction under conditions of oxidative stress and diabetes. Thapsigargin, a known inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress, failed to exert any discernible effects on the carboxymethylation of PP2Ac, expression of LCMT1 and B55α, or PP2A activity, suggesting no clear role for endoplasmic reticulum stress in HG-induced activation of PP2A. Based on these findings, we conclude that exposure of the islet β-cell to HG leads to accelerated PP2A signaling pathway, leading to loss in glucose-induced insulin secretion.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY 015387(United States)

The heparin-binding domains of IGFBP-2 mediate its inhibitory effect on preadipocyte differentiation and fat development in male mice.

  • Xi G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 overexpression confers resistance to high-fat feeding and inhibits the differentiation of preadipocytes in vitro. However, whether administration of IGFBP-2 can regulate adipogenesis in vivo and the domains that mediate this response have not been defined. IGFBP-2 contains 2 heparin-binding domains (HBD), which are localized in the linker region (HBD1) and C-terminal region (HBD2) of IGFBP-2. To determine the relative importance of these domains, we used synthetic peptides as well as mutagenesis. Both HBD1 and HBD2 peptides inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, but the HBD2 peptide was more effective. Selective substitution of charged residues in the HBD1 or HBD2 regions attenuated the ability of the full-length protein to inhibit cell differentiation, but the HBD2 mutant had the greatest reduction. To determine their activities in vivo, pegylated forms of each peptide were administered to IGFBP-2(-/-) mice for 12 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging scanning showed that only the HBD2 peptide significantly reduced (48 ± 9%, P < .05) gain in total fat mass. Both inguinal (32 ± 7%, P < .01) and visceral fat (44 ± 7%, P < .01) were significantly decreased by HBD2 whereas HBD1 reduced only visceral fat accumulation (24 ± 5%, P < .05). The HBD2 peptide was more effective peptide in reducing triglyceride content and serum adiponectin, but only the HBD2 peptide increased serum leptin. These findings demonstrate that the HBD2 domain of IGFBP-2 is the primary region that accounts for its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and that a peptide encompassing this region has activity that is comparable with native IGFBP-2.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS027881(United States)

Effect of zinc binding residues in growth hormone (GH) and altered intracellular zinc content on regulated GH secretion.

  • Petkovic V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Endocrine cells store hormones in concentrated forms (aggregates) in dense-core secretory granules that are released upon appropriate stimulation. Zn(2+) binding to GH through amino acid residues His18, His21, and Glu174 are essential for GH dimerization and might mediate its aggregation and storage in secretory granules. To investigate whether GH-1 gene mutations at these positions interfere with this process, GH secretion and intracellular production were analyzed in GC cells (rat pituitary cell line) transiently expressing wt-GH and/or GH Zn mutant (GH-H18A-H21A-E174A) in forskolin-stimulated vs nonstimulated conditions. Reduced secretion of the mutant variant (alone or coexpressed with wt-GH) compared with wt-GH after forskolin stimulation was observed, whereas an increased intracellular accumulation of GH Zn mutant vs wt-GH correlates with its altered extracellular secretion. Depleting Zn(2+) from culture medium using N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylemethyl)ethylenediamine, a high-affinity Zn(2+) chelator, led to a significant reduction of the stimulated wt-GH secretion. Furthermore, externally added Zn(2+) to culture medium increased intracellular free Zn(2+) levels and recovered wt-GH secretion, suggesting its direct dependence on free Zn(2+) levels after forskolin stimulation. Confocal microscopy analysis of the intracellular secretory pathway of wt-GH and GH Zn mutant indicated that both variants pass through the regulated secretory pathway in a similar manner. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that loss of affinity of GH to Zn(2+) as well as altering intracellular free Zn(2+) content may interfere with normal GH dimerization (aggregation) and storage of the mutant variant (alone or with wt-GH), which could possibly explain impaired GH secretion.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD52472(United States)

Inducible brown adipose tissue, or beige fat, is anabolic for the skeleton.

  • Rahman S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is known that insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased fractures and that brown adipose tissue (BAT) counteracts many if not all of the symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes. By the use of FoxC2(AD)(+/Tg) mice, a well-established model for induction of BAT, or beige fat, we present data extending the beneficial action of beige fat to also include a positive effect on bone. FoxC2(AD)(+/Tg) mice are lean and insulin-sensitive and have high bone mass due to increased bone formation associated with high bone turnover. Inducible BAT is linked to activation of endosteal osteoblasts whereas osteocytes have decreased expression of the Sost transcript encoding sclerostin and elevated expression of Rankl. Conditioned media (CM) collected from forkhead box c2 (FOXC2)-induced beige adipocytes activated the osteoblast phenotype and increased levels of phospho-AKT and β-catenin in recipient cells. In osteocytes, the same media decreased Sost expression. Immunodepletion of CM with antibodies against wingless related MMTV integration site 10b (WNT10b) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) resulted in the loss of pro-osteoblastic activity, and the loss of increase in the levels of phospho-AKT and β-catenin. Conversely, CM derived from cells overexpressing IGFBP2 or WNT10b restored osteoblastic activity in recipient cells. In conclusion, beige fat secretes endocrine/paracrine activity that is beneficial for the skeleton.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - (International)

Peroxiredoxin distribution in the mouse brain with emphasis on neuronal populations affected in neurodegenerative disorders.

  • Goemaere J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Redox changes are observed in neurodegenerative diseases, ranging from increased levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and disturbance of antioxidant systems, to nitro-oxidative damage. By reducing hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and organic hydroperoxides, peroxiredoxins (Prdxs) represent a major potential protective barrier against nitro-oxidative insults in the brain. While recent works have investigated the putative role of Prdxs in neurodegenerative disorders, less is known about their expression in the healthy brain. Here we used immunohistochemistry to map basal expression of Prdxs throughout C57BL/6 mouse brain. We first confirmed the neuronal localization of Prdx2-5 and the glial expression of Prdx1, Prdx4, and Prdx6. Then we performed an in-depth analysis of neuronal Prdx distribution in the brain. Our results show that Prdx2-5 are widely detected in the different neuronal populations, and especially well expressed in the olfactory bulb, in the cerebral cortex, in pons nuclei, in the red nucleus, in all cranial nerve nuclei, in the cerebellum, and in motor neurons of the spinal cord. In contrast, Prdx expression is very low in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta and in the CA1/2 pyramidal cells of hippocampus. This low basal expression may contribute to the vulnerability of these neurons to nitro-oxidative attacks occurring in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we found that Prdx expression levels are unevenly distributed among neurons of a determined region and that distinct regional patterns of expression are observed between isoforms, reinforcing the hypothesis of the nonredundant function of Prdxs.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085298-03(United States)

Expression of kin of irregular chiasm-like 3/mKirre in proprioceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and its interaction with nephrin in muscle spindles.

  • Komori T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 (Kirrel3), a mammalian homolog of the kirre gene of Drosophila melanogaster, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Previously, we have reported that Kirrel3 is expressed in the developing and adult central nervous system. In the present study we investigated the expression of Kirrel3 in the mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and their projection targets. In the adult DRGs, Kirrel3 mRNA was detected in 21.5 +/- 2.3% of total DRG neurons and the expression was mainly prevalent in the medium- and large-sized neurons. In addition, Kirrel3 mRNA predominantly colocalized with tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) C-immunoreactivity. In the developing DRGs, Kirrel3 mRNA was first detected in a few cells at embryonic day (E) 11.5, gradually increased, and reached the adult level at E17.5. During the development, Kirrel3 was expressed in most TrkC-positive DRG neurons. The expression of Kirrel3 was observed in TrkC-positive nerve fibers around neurotrophin 3 (NT3)-positive intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles at E17.5. However, Kirrel3 was not expressed in TrkC-positive nerve fibers projecting to the spinal cord throughout development. Furthermore, nephrin was expressed in the NT3-positive intrafusal muscle fibers and was in close apposition with Kirrel3-immunoreactivity. Coimmunoprecipitation assay revealed that nephrin interacted with Kirrel3 in the developing muscles. These results suggest that Kirrel3 might play a role in the axonal pathfinding, cell recognition, and synapse formation of DRG neurons on appropriate target cells, including the targeting of proprioceptive neurons on muscle spindles through the interaction with nephrin.