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Monoclonal Anti-c-Myc antibody produced in mouse

RRID:AB_439694

Antibody ID

AB_439694

Target Antigen

c-Myc human

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# M4439, RRID:AB_439694)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Vendor recommendations:

Clone ID

Clone 9E10

Host Organism

mouse

MLKL Requires the Inositol Phosphate Code to Execute Necroptosis.

  • Dovey CM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Necroptosis is an important form of lytic cell death triggered by injury and infection, but whether mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is sufficient to execute this pathway is unknown. In a genetic selection for human cell mutants defective for MLKL-dependent necroptosis, we identified mutations in IPMK and ITPK1, which encode inositol phosphate (IP) kinases that regulate the IP code of soluble molecules. We show that IP kinases are essential for necroptosis triggered by death receptor activation, herpesvirus infection, or a pro-necrotic MLKL mutant. In IP kinase mutant cells, MLKL failed to oligomerize and localize to membranes despite proper receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)-dependent phosphorylation. We demonstrate that necroptosis requires IP-specific kinase activity and that a highly phosphorylated product, but not a lowly phosphorylated precursor, potently displaces the MLKL auto-inhibitory brace region. These observations reveal control of MLKL-mediated necroptosis by a metabolite and identify a key molecular mechanism underlying regulated cell death.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA8766(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - DP2 AI104557()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI020211()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32 AI007328()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI109662()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM122923()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM124404()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007347()

Shade-induced nuclear localization of PIF7 is regulated by phosphorylation and 14-3-3 proteins in Arabidopsis.

  • Huang X
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Shade avoidance syndrome enables shaded plants to grow and compete effectively against their neighbors. In Arabidopsis, the shade-induced de-phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF7 (PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 7) is the key event linking light perception to stem elongation. However, the mechanism through which phosphorylation regulates the activity of PIF7 is unclear. Here, we show that shade light induces the de-phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of PIF7. Phosphorylation-resistant site mutations in PIF7 result in increased nuclear localization and shade-induced gene expression, and consequently augment hypocotyl elongation. PIF7 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins. Blocking the interaction between PIF7 and 14-3-3 proteins or reducing the expression of 14-3-3 proteins accelerates shade-induced nuclear localization and de-phosphorylation of PIF7, and enhances the shade phenotype. By contrast, the 14-3-3 overexpressing line displays an attenuated shade phenotype. These studies demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent translocation of PIF7 when plants are in shade and a novel mechanism involving 14-3-3 proteins, mediated by the retention of PIF7 in the cytoplasm that suppresses the shade response.

Funding information:
  • National Key Research and Development Program of China - 2017YFA0503800()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31470374()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31500973()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI059881(United States)

Extrinsic Phagocyte-Dependent STING Signaling Dictates the Immunogenicity of Dying Cells.

  • Ahn J
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ability of dying cells to activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to avoid unwarranted inflammatory responses. Here, we show that engulfed cells containing cytosolic double-stranded DNA species (viral or synthetic) or cyclic di-nucleotides (CDNs) are able to stimulate APCs via extrinsic STING (stimulator of interferon genes) signaling, to promote antigen cross-presentation. In the absence of STING agonists, dying cells were ineffectual in the stimulation of APCs in trans. Cytosolic STING activators, including CDNs, constitute cellular danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) only generated by viral infection or following DNA damage events that rendered tumor cells highly immunogenic. Our data shed insight into the molecular mechanisms that drive appropriate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses, while averting harmful autoinflammatory disease, and provide a therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - RC1 HL101102-01(United States)

FUS Regulates Activity of MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing.

  • Zhang T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing is a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. It remains unclear how the efficiency of RNA silencing could be influenced by RNA-binding proteins associated with the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). Here we report that fused in sarcoma (FUS), an RNA-binding protein linked to neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), interacts with the core miRISC component AGO2 and is required for optimal microRNA-mediated gene silencing. FUS promotes gene silencing by binding to microRNA and mRNA targets, as illustrated by its action on miR-200c and its target ZEB1. A truncated mutant form of FUS that leads its carriers to an aggressive form of ALS, R495X, impairs microRNA-mediated gene silencing. The C. elegans homolog fust-1 also shares a conserved role in regulating the microRNA pathway. Collectively, our results suggest a role for FUS in regulating the activity of microRNA-mediated silencing.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA045508()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD24061(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS074324()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089616()

Context-dependent deposition and regulation of mRNAs in P-bodies.

  • Wang C
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells respond to stress by remodeling their transcriptome through transcription and degradation. Xrn1p-dependent degradation in P-bodies is the most prevalent decay pathway, yet, P-bodies may facilitate not only decay, but also act as a storage compartment. However, which and how mRNAs are selected into different degradation pathways and what determines the fate of any given mRNA in P-bodies remain largely unknown. We devised a new method to identify both common and stress-specific mRNA subsets associated with P-bodies. mRNAs targeted for degradation to P-bodies, decayed with different kinetics. Moreover, the localization of a specific set of mRNAs to P-bodies under glucose deprivation was obligatory to prevent decay. Depending on its client mRNA, the RNA-binding protein Puf5p either promoted or inhibited decay. Furthermore, the Puf5p-dependent storage of a subset of mRNAs in P-bodies under glucose starvation may be beneficial with respect to chronological lifespan.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK089016(United States)

MPK3- and MPK6-Mediated ICE1 Phosphorylation Negatively Regulates ICE1 Stability and Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  • Li H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Low temperatures affect plant growth, development, productivity, and ecological distribution. Expression of the C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) transcription factors is induced by cold stress, which in turn activates downstream cold-responsive (COR) genes that are required for the acquisition of freezing tolerance. Inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) is a master regulator of CBFs, and ICE1 stability is crucial for its function. However, the regulation of ICE1 is not well understood. Here, we report that mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 interact with and phosphorylate ICE1, which reduces its stability and transcriptional activity. Consistently, the mpk3 and mpk6 single mutants and the mpk3 mpk6 double mutants show enhanced freezing tolerance, whereas MPK3/MPK6 activation attenuates freezing tolerance. Phosphor-inactive mutations of ICE1 complement freezing sensitivity in the ice1-2 mutant. These combined results indicate that MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylate and destabilize ICE1, which negatively regulates CBF expression and freezing tolerance in plants.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 HL005801-05(United States)

Neuropilin-2/PlexinA3 Receptors Associate with GluA1 and Mediate Sema3F-Dependent Homeostatic Scaling in Cortical Neurons.

  • Wang Q
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) number at synapses is a major mechanism for controlling synaptic strength during homeostatic scaling in response to global changes in neural activity. We show that the secreted guidance cue semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) and its neuropilin-2 (Npn-2)/plexinA3 (PlexA3) holoreceptor mediate homeostatic plasticity in cortical neurons. Sema3F-Npn-2/PlexA3 signaling is essential for cell surface AMPAR homeostatic downscaling in response to an increase in neuronal activity, Npn-2 associates with AMPARs, and Sema3F regulates this interaction. Therefore, Sema3F-Npn-2/PlexA3 signaling controls both synapse development and synaptic plasticity.

The Elongation Factor Spt6 Maintains ESC Pluripotency by Controlling Super-Enhancers and Counteracting Polycomb Proteins.

  • Wang AH
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spt6 coordinates nucleosome dis- and re-assembly, transcriptional elongation, and mRNA processing. Here, we report that depleting Spt6 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) reduced expression of pluripotency factors, increased expression of cell-lineage-affiliated developmental regulators, and induced cell morphological and biochemical changes indicative of ESC differentiation. Selective downregulation of pluripotency factors upon Spt6 depletion may be mechanistically explained by its enrichment at ESC super-enhancers, where Spt6 controls histone H3K27 acetylation and methylation and super-enhancer RNA transcription. In ESCs, Spt6 interacted with the PRC2 core subunit Suz12 and prevented H3K27me3 accumulation at ESC super-enhancers and associated promoters. Biochemical as well as functional experiments revealed that Spt6 could compete for binding of the PRC2 methyltransferase Ezh2 to Suz12 and reduce PRC2 chromatin engagement. Thus, in addition to serving as a histone chaperone and transcription elongation factor, Spt6 counteracts repression by opposing H3K27me3 deposition at critical genomic regulatory regions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AR041126-17()

The Kinetochore Receptor for the Cohesin Loading Complex.

  • Hinshaw SM
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ring-shaped cohesin complex brings together distant DNA domains to maintain, express, and segregate the genome. Establishing specific chromosomal linkages depends on cohesin recruitment to defined loci. One such locus is the budding yeast centromere, which is a paradigm for targeted cohesin loading. The kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, drives the recruitment of high levels of cohesin to link sister chromatids together. We have exploited this system to determine the mechanism of specific cohesin recruitment. We show that phosphorylation of the Ctf19 kinetochore protein by a conserved kinase, DDK, provides a binding site for the Scc2/4 cohesin loading complex, thereby directing cohesin loading to centromeres. A similar mechanism targets cohesin to chromosomes in vertebrates. These findings represent a complete molecular description of targeted cohesin loading, a phenomenon with wide-ranging importance in chromosome segregation and, in multicellular organisms, transcription regulation.

Retrograde Synaptic Inhibition Is Mediated by α-Neurexin Binding to the α2δ Subunits of N-Type Calcium Channels.

  • Tong XJ
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The synaptic adhesion molecules Neurexin and Neuroligin alter the development and function of synapses and are linked to autism in humans. In C. elegans, post-synaptic Neurexin (NRX-1) and pre-synaptic Neuroligin (NLG-1) mediate a retrograde synaptic signal that inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release at neuromuscular junctions. Here, we show that the retrograde signal decreases ACh release by inhibiting the function of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 calcium channels. Post-synaptic NRX-1 binds to an auxiliary subunit of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 channels (UNC-36/α2δ), decreasing UNC-36 abundance at pre-synaptic elements. Retrograde inhibition is mediated by a soluble form of NRX-1's ectodomain, which is released from the post-synaptic membrane by the SUP-17/ADAM10 protease. Mammalian Neurexin-1α binds α2δ-3 and decreases CaV2.2 current in transfected cells, whereas Neurexin-1α has no effect on CaV2.2 reconstituted with α2δ-1 and α2δ-2. Collectively, these results suggest that α-Neurexin binding to α2δ is a conserved mechanism for regulating synaptic transmission.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM054728()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS032196()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS055251()

Plasma Membrane CRPK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of 14-3-3 Proteins Induces Their Nuclear Import to Fine-Tune CBF Signaling during Cold Response.

  • Liu Z
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

In plant cells, changes in fluidity of the plasma membrane may serve as the primary sensor of cold stress; however, the precise mechanism and how the cell transduces and fine-tunes cold signals remain elusive. Here we show that the cold-activated plasma membrane protein cold-responsive protein kinase 1 (CRPK1) phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins. The phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins shuttle from the cytosol to the nucleus, where they interact with and destabilize the key cold-responsive C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) proteins. Consistent with this, the crpk1 and 14-3-3κλ mutants show enhanced freezing tolerance, and transgenic plants overexpressing 14-3-3λ show reduced freezing tolerance. Further study shows that CRPK1 is essential for the nuclear translocation of 14-3-3 proteins and for 14-3-3 function in freezing tolerance. Thus, our study reveals that the CRPK1-14-3-3 module transduces the cold signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to modulate CBF stability, which ensures a faithfully adjusted response to cold stress of plants.

The ER Stress Sensor PERK Coordinates ER-Plasma Membrane Contact Site Formation through Interaction with Filamin-A and F-Actin Remodeling.

  • van Vliet AR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of ER Ca2+ homeostasis triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives ER-PM contact sites formation in order to refill ER-luminal Ca2+. Recent studies suggest that the ER stress sensor and mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) PERK regulates intracellular Ca2+ fluxes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID), we identified the actin-binding protein Filamin A (FLNA) as a key PERK interactor. Cells lacking PERK accumulate F-actin at the cell edges and display reduced ER-PM contacts. Following ER-Ca2+ store depletion, the PERK-FLNA interaction drives the expansion of ER-PM juxtapositions by regulating F-actin-assisted relocation of the ER-associated tethering proteins Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) and Extended Synaptotagmin-1 (E-Syt1) to the PM. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation elicits rapid and UPR-independent PERK dimerization, which enforces PERK-FLNA-mediated ER-PM juxtapositions. Collectively, our data unravel an unprecedented role of PERK in the regulation of ER-PM appositions through the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

Small-Molecule Stabilization of 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions Stimulates Axon Regeneration.

  • Kaplan A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Damaged central nervous system (CNS) neurons have a poor ability to spontaneously regenerate, causing persistent functional deficits after injury. Therapies that stimulate axon growth are needed to repair CNS damage. 14-3-3 adaptors are hub proteins that are attractive targets to manipulate cell signaling. We identify a positive role for 14-3-3s in axon growth and uncover a developmental regulation of the phosphorylation and function of 14-3-3s. We show that fusicoccin-A (FC-A), a small-molecule stabilizer of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions, stimulates axon growth in vitro and regeneration in vivo. We show that FC-A stabilizes a complex between 14-3-3 and the stress response regulator GCN1, inducing GCN1 turnover and neurite outgrowth. These findings show that 14-3-3 adaptor protein complexes are druggable targets and identify a new class of small molecules that may be further optimized for the repair of CNS damage.

A Rapid Induction Mechanism for Lin28a in Trophic Responses.

  • Amen AM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Environmental cues provoke rapid transitions in gene expression to support growth and cellular plasticity through incompletely understood mechanisms. Lin28 RNA-binding proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in post-transcriptional coordination of pro-growth gene expression, but signaling pathways allowing trophic stimuli to induce Lin28 have remained uncharacterized. We find that Lin28a protein exhibits rapid basal turnover in neurons and that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of the RNA-silencing factor HIV TAR-RNA-binding protein (TRBP) promotes binding and stabilization of Lin28a, but not Lin28b, with an accompanying reduction in Lin28-regulated miRNAs, downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Binding of Lin28a to TRBP in vitro is also enhanced by phospho-mimic TRBP. Further, phospho-TRBP recapitulates BDNF-induced neuronal dendritic spine growth in a Lin28a-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate MAPK-dependent TRBP and Lin28a induction, with physiological function in growth and survival, downstream of diverse growth factors in multiple primary cell types, supporting a broad role for this pathway in trophic responses.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F31 MH103902()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH098016()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH109341()

Phosphorylation of β-arrestin2 at Thr383 by MEK underlies β-arrestin-dependent activation of Erk1/2 by GPCRs.

  • Cassier E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

In addition to their role in desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), β-arrestins are essential scaffolds linking GPCRs to Erk1/2 signaling. However, their role in GPCR-operated Erk1/2 activation differs between GPCRs and the underlying mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors, which engage Erk1/2 pathway via a β-arrestin-dependent mechanism, promotes MEK-dependent β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383, a necessary step for Erk recruitment to the receptor/β-arrestin complex and Erk activation. Likewise, Thr383 phosphorylation is involved in β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 stimulation elicited by other GPCRs such as β2-adrenergic, FSH and CXCR4 receptors, but does not affect the β-arrestin-independent Erk1/2 activation by 5-HT4 receptor. Collectively, these data show that β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383 underlies β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 activation by GPCRs.

The Mechanism of Regulated Release of Lasso/Teneurin-2.

  • Vysokov NV
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2016 Aug 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Teneurins are large cell-surface receptors involved in axon guidance. Teneurin-2 (also known as latrophilin-1-associated synaptic surface organizer (Lasso)) interacts across the synaptic cleft with presynaptic latrophilin-1, an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor that participates in regulating neurotransmitter release. Lasso-latrophilin-1 interaction mediates synapse formation and calcium signaling, highlighting the important role of this trans-synaptic receptor pair. However, Lasso is thought to be proteolytically cleaved within its ectodomain and released into the medium, making it unclear whether it acts as a proper cell-surface receptor or a soluble protein. We demonstrate here that during its intracellular processing Lasso is constitutively cleaved at a furin site within its ectodomain. The cleaved fragment, which encompasses almost the entire ectodomain of Lasso, is potentially soluble; however, it remains anchored on the cell surface via its non-covalent interaction with the transmembrane fragment of Lasso. Lasso is also constitutively cleaved within the intracellular domain (ICD). Finally, Lasso can be further proteolytically cleaved within the transmembrane domain. The third cleavage is regulated and releases the entire ectodomain of Lasso into the medium. The released ectodomain of Lasso retains its functional properties and binds latrophilin-1 expressed on other cells; this binding stimulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the target cells. Thus, Lasso not only serves as a bona fide cell-surface receptor, but also as a partially released target-derived signaling factor.

Receptor expression modulates calcium-sensing receptor mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization.

  • Brennan SC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) are class C G protein-coupled receptors that respond to physiological activators, including extracellular Ca2+ (Cao2+) and L-amino acids as well as the pharmaceutical calcimimetic, cinacalcet. Unlike Cao2+, which is an orthosteric agonist, L-amino acids and cinacalcet are positive allosteric modulators. CaSR expression levels vary considerably between tissues, but the physiological significance of these differences in expression for the effects of its activators is unknown. To investigate the impact of receptor expression on CaSR-mediated signaling we used a tetracycline-inducible expression system and focused on intracellular Ca2+ (Cai2+) responses in single cells and considered both population and single-cell behavior. Increased receptor expression positively modulated CaSR-mediated Cai2+ mobilization in response to elevated Cao2+, the amino acid L-phenylalanine, or the calcimimetic cinacalcet. It lowered threshold concentrations for the initiation of Cai2+ oscillations and for their transformation to sustained Cai2+ elevations, and it increased the proportions of responding cells. It also positively modulated the frequency of Cai2+ oscillations with the order of effectiveness: cinacalcet equal to or greater than Cao2+ greater than L-phenylalanine. The results indicate that receptor expression modulates key characteristics of the Cai2+ response at the single-cell level as well as the amplitude of whole-tissue CaSR-mediated responses by recruiting quiescent cells into the active pool of responding cells. By lowering the threshold concentrations for Cao2+- and L-amino acid-induced responses below the physiological levels of these nutrients in plasma, mechanisms that up-regulate receptor expression can control tissue function in the absence of dynamic changes in ligand concentration.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP#97772(Canada)
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - T32AA007573(United States)

Increased proximal bifurcation of CA1 pyramidal apical dendrites in sema3A mutant mice.

  • Nakamura F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) is an attractive guidance molecule for cortical apical dendrites. To elucidate the role of Sema3A in hippocampal dendritic formation, we examined the Sema3A expression pattern in the perinatal hippocampal formation and analyzed hippocampal dendrites of the brains from young adult sema3A mutant mice. Sema3A protein was predominantly expressed in the hippocampal plate and the inner marginal zone at the initial period of apical dendritic growth. Neuropilin-1 and plexin-A, the receptor components for Sema3A, were also localized in the same regions. The Golgi impregnation method revealed that in wildtype mice more than 90% of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons extended a single trunk or apical trunks bifurcated in stratum radiatum. Seven percent of the pyramidal neurons showed proximal bifurcation of apical trunks in stratum pyramidale or at the border of the stratum pyramidale and stratum radiatum. In sema3A mutant mice, proximally bifurcated apical dendrites were increased to 32%, while the single apical dendritic pyramidal neurons were decreased. We designate this phenotype in sema3A mutant mice as "proximal bifurcation." In the dissociated culture system, approximately half of the hippocampal neurons from wildtype mice resembled pyramidal neurons, which possess a long, thick, and tapered dendrite. In contrast, only 30% of the neurons from sema3A mutants exhibited pyramidal-like morphology. Proximal bifurcation of CA1 pyramidal neurons was also increased in the mutant mice of p35, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Thus, Sema3A may facilitate the initial growth of CA1 apical dendrites via the activation of p35/Cdk5, which may in turn signal hippocampal development.