Literature context: a Cat# P2983 RRID:AB_439685 Rat polyclonal anti HA Roche Ca
A primary cause of disease progression in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β cell dysfunction due to inflammatory stress and insulin resistance. However, preventing β cell exhaustion under diabetic conditions is a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we identify the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a key modulator of inflammation and β cell survival. Alternative recognition of an acetylated lysine in VDR by bromodomain proteins BRD7 and BRD9 directs association to PBAF and BAF chromatin remodeling complexes, respectively. Mechanistically, ligand promotes VDR association with PBAF to effect genome-wide changes in chromatin accessibility and enhancer landscape, resulting in an anti-inflammatory response. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of BRD9 promotes PBAF-VDR association to restore β cell function and ameliorate hyperglycemia in murine T2D models. These studies reveal an unrecognized VDR-dependent transcriptional program underpinning β cell survival and identifies the VDR:PBAF/BAF association as a potential therapeutic target for T2D.
Literature context: body (Sigma-Aldrich Cat# P2983, RRID:AB_439685).
Owing to the spread of multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR), there is a pressing need to identify potential targets for the development of more-effective anti-M. tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs. PafA, as the sole Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein ligase in the Pup-proteasome System (PPS) of Mtb, is an attractive drug target. Here, we show that the activity of purified Mtb PafA is significantly inhibited upon the association of AEBSF (4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride) to PafA residue Serine 119 (S119). Mutation of S119 to amino acids that resemble AEBSF has similar inhibitory effects on the activity of purified Mtb PafA. Structural analysis reveals that although S119 is distant from the PafA catalytic site, it is located at a critical position in the groove where PafA binds the C-terminal region of Pup. Phenotypic studies demonstrate that S119 plays critical roles in the function of Mtb PafA when tested in M. smegmatis. Our study suggests that targeting S119 is a promising direction for developing an inhibitor of M. tuberculosis PafA.
Literature context: 1460); FLAG (M2) (Sigma-Aldrich AB_439685), pIÎºBÎ± S32 (Cell Signaling AB_
Despite being overexpressed in different tumor entities, RIO kinases are hardly characterized in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of these atypical kinases in different cancer cells. Using isogenic colon-, breast- and lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that knockdown of RIOK1, but not of RIOK2 or RIOK3, strongly impairs proliferation and invasiveness in conventional and 3D culture systems. Interestingly, these effects were mainly observed in RAS mutant cancer cells. In contrast, growth of RAS wildtype Caco-2 and Bcr-Abl-driven K562 cells is not affected by RIOK1 knockdown, suggesting a specific requirement for RIOK1 in the context of oncogenic RAS signaling. Furthermore, we show that RIOK1 activates NF-κB signaling and promotes cell cycle progression. Using proteomics, we identified the pro-invasive proteins Metadherin and Stathmin1 to be regulated by RIOK1. Additionally, we demonstrate that RIOK1 promotes lung colonization in vivo and that RIOK1 is overexpressed in different subtypes of human lung- and breast cancer. Altogether, our data suggest RIOK1 as a potential therapeutic target, especially in RAS-driven cancers.
Literature context: a-Aldrich Cat# F1804, RRID:AB_439685 Mouse monoclonal anti Histone H
Recurrent mutations in chromatin modifiers are specifically prevalent in adolescent or adult patients with Sonic hedgehog-associated medulloblastoma (SHH MB). Here, we report that mutations in the acetyltransferase CREBBP have opposing effects during the development of the cerebellum, the primary site of origin of SHH MB. Our data reveal that loss of Crebbp in cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) during embryonic development of mice compromises GNP development, in part by downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Interestingly, concomitant cerebellar hypoplasia was also observed in patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a congenital disorder caused by germline mutations of CREBBP. By contrast, loss of Crebbp in GNPs during postnatal development synergizes with oncogenic activation of SHH signaling to drive MB growth, thereby explaining the enrichment of somatic CREBBP mutations in SHH MB of adult patients. Together, our data provide insights into time-sensitive consequences of CREBBP mutations and corresponding associations with human diseases.
Literature context: ouse) Sigma Aldrich Cat# F1804; RRID:AB_439685 p-Tyr (PY20) monoclonal antibod
In the active HER receptor dimers, kinases play distinct roles; one is the catalytically active kinase and the other is its allosteric activator. This specialization enables signaling by the catalytically inactive HER3, which functions exclusively as an allosteric activator upon heterodimerization with other HER receptors. It is unclear whether the allosteric activation mechanism evolved before HER receptors functionally specialized. We determined the crystal structure of the kinase domain of the only EGF receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans, LET-23. Our structure of a non-human EGFR kinase reveals autoinhibitory features conserved in the human counterpart. Strikingly, mutations within the putative allosteric dimer interface abrogate activity of the isolated LET-23 kinase and of the full-length receptor despite these regions being only partially conserved with human EGFR. Our results indicate that ancestral EGFRs have built-in features that poise them for allosteric activation that could facilitate emergence of the catalytically dead, yet functional, orthologs.
Literature context: ID:RRID:AB_439685 total Akt Cell Signaling Cat. #
Proper organization of the mitotic spindle is key to genetic stability, but molecular components of inter-microtubule bridges that crosslink kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) are still largely unknown. Here we identify a kinase-independent function of class II phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase α (PI3K-C2α) acting as limiting scaffold protein organizing clathrin and TACC3 complex crosslinking K-fibers. Downregulation of PI3K-C2α causes spindle alterations, delayed anaphase onset, and aneuploidy, indicating that PI3K-C2α expression is required for genomic stability. Reduced abundance of PI3K-C2α in breast cancer models initially impairs tumor growth but later leads to the convergent evolution of fast-growing clones with mitotic checkpoint defects. As a consequence of altered spindle, loss of PI3K-C2α increases sensitivity to taxane-based therapy in pre-clinical models and in neoadjuvant settings.
Literature context: a-Aldrich, P2983 Monoclonal RRID:AB_439685
The thyroid hormone (TH) analog eprotirome (KB2115) was developed to lower cholesterol through selective activation of the TH receptor (TR) β1 in the liver. Interestingly, eprotirome shows low uptake in nonhepatic tissues, explaining its lipid-lowering action without adverse extrahepatic thyromimetic effects. Clinical trials have shown marked decreases in serum cholesterol levels. We explored the transport of eprotirome across the plasma membrane by members of three TH transporter families: monocarboxylate transporters MCT8 and MCT10; Na-independent organic anion transporters 1A2, 1B1, 1B3, 1C1, 2A1, and 2B1; and Na-dependent organic anion transporters SLC10A1 to SLC10A7. Cellular transport was studied in transfected COS1 cells using [14C]eprotirome and [125I]TH analogs. Of the 15 transporters tested initially, the liver-specific bile acid transporter SLC10A1 showed the highest eprotirome uptake (greater than a sevenfold induction after 60 minutes) as well as TRβ1-mediated transcriptional activity. Uptake of eprotirome by SLC10A1 was Na+ dependent and saturable with a Michaelis constant of 8 μM. Eprotirome transport was inhibited by known substrates for SLC10A1 (e.g., cholate and taurocholate), and by TH analogs such as triiodothyropropionic acid and triiodothyroacetic acid. However, no significant SLC10A1-mediated transport was observed of these [125I]TH analogs. We also studied the plasma disappearance and biliary excretion of [14C]eprotirome injected in control and Slc10a1 knockout mice. Although eprotirome is also transported by mouse Slc10a1, the pharmacokinetics of eprotirome were not affected by Slc10a1 deficiency. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the liver-specific bile acid transporter SLC10A1 effectively transports eprotirome. However, Slc10a1 does not appear to be critical for the liver targeting of this TH analog in mice. Therefore, the importance of SLC10A1 for liver uptake of eprotirome in humans remains to be elucidated.
Literature context: from Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA, (RRID:AB_439685), rabbit anti-human PSAP antibo
The frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) protein progranulin (PGRN) is essential for proper lysosomal function. PGRN localizes in the lysosomal compartment within the cell. Prosaposin (PSAP), the precursor of lysosomal saposin activators (saposin A, B, C, D), physically interacts with PGRN. Previously, we have shown that PGRN and PSAP facilitate each other's lysosomal trafficking. Here, we report that the interaction between PSAP and PGRN requires the linker region of saposin B and C (BC linker). PSAP protein with the BC linker mutated, fails to interact with PGRN and deliver PGRN to lysosomes in the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways. On the other hand, PGRN interacts with PSAP through multiple granulin motifs. Granulin D and E bind to PSAP with similar affinity as full-length PGRN. Read the Editorial Comment for this article on page 154.
Literature context: 000, RRID:AB_439685) were purchased from the indica
Commissural axons switch on responsiveness to Wnt attraction during midline crossing and turn anteriorly only after exiting the floor plate. We report here that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Smoothened signaling downregulates Shisa2, which inhibits the glycosylation and cell surface presentation of Frizzled3 in rodent commissural axon growth cones. Constitutive Shisa2 expression causes randomized turning of post-crossing commissural axons along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Loss of Shisa2 led to precocious anterior turning of commissural axons before or during midline crossing. Post-crossing commissural axon turning is completely randomized along the A-P axis when Wntless, which is essential for Wnt secretion, is conditionally knocked out in the floor plate. This regulatory link between Shh and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling may also occur in other developmental processes.
Literature context: clonal antibody to Flag (Sigma, RRID:AB_439685). Rabbit polyclonal antibody to
Adam13/33 is a cell surface metalloprotease critical for cranial neural crest (CNC) cell migration. It can cleave multiple substrates including itself, fibronectin, ephrinB, cadherin-11, pcdh8 and pcdh8l (this work). Cleavage of cadherin-11 produces an extracellular fragment that promotes CNC migration. In addition, the adam13 cytoplasmic domain is cleaved by gamma secretase, translocates into the nucleus and regulates multiple genes. Here, we show that adam13 interacts with the arid3a/dril1/Bright transcription factor. This interaction promotes a proteolytic cleavage of arid3a and its translocation to the nucleus where it regulates another transcription factor: tfap2α. Tfap2α in turn activates multiple genes including the protocadherin pcdh8l (PCNS). The proteolytic activity of adam13 is critical for the release of arid3a from the plasma membrane while the cytoplasmic domain appears critical for the cleavage of arid3a. In addition to this transcriptional control of pcdh8l, adam13 cleaves pcdh8l generating an extracellular fragment that also regulates cell migration.
Literature context: ody (1:200, Sigma-Aldrich, USA; RRID:AB_439685) and. Goat anti-rabbit lgG conj
The recycling of neurotransmitters is essential for sustained synaptic transmission. In Drosophila, histamine recycling is required for visual synaptic transmission. Synaptic histamine is rapidly taken up by laminar glia, and is converted to carcinine. After delivered back to photoreceptors, carcinine is hydrolyzed to release histamine and β-alanine. This histamine is repackaged into synaptic vesicles, but it is unclear how the β-alanine is returned to the laminar glial cells. Here, we identified a new β-alanine transporter, which we named BalaT (Beta-alanine Transporter). Null balat mutants exhibited lower levels of β-alanine, as well as less β-alanine accumulation in the retina. Moreover, BalaT is expressed and required in retinal pigment cells for maintaining visual synaptic transmission and phototaxis behavior. These results provide the first genetic evidence that retinal pigment cells play a critical role in visual neurotransmission, and suggest that a BalaT-dependent β-alanine trafficking pathway is required for histamine homeostasis and visual neurotransmission.
Literature context: 0Î± (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-flag M2 (Sigma), anti-tubulin alpha (Ab
Molecular recognition reagents are key tools for understanding biological processes and are used universally by scientists to study protein expression, localisation and interactions. Antibodies remain the most widely used of such reagents and many show excellent performance, although some are poorly characterised or have stability or batch variability issues, supporting the use of alternative binding proteins as complementary reagents for many applications. Here we report on the use of Affimer proteins as research reagents. We selected 12 diverse molecular targets for Affimer selection to exemplify their use in common molecular and cellular applications including the (a) selection against various target molecules; (b) modulation of protein function in vitro and in vivo; (c) labelling of tumour antigens in mouse models; and (d) use in affinity fluorescence and super-resolution microscopy. This work shows that Affimer proteins, as is the case for other alternative binding scaffolds, represent complementary affinity reagents to antibodies for various molecular and cell biology applications.
Literature context: (antibody RRID:AB_439685 and affini
Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) generate cAMP, a second messenger of utmost importance that regulates a vast array of biological processes in all kingdoms of life. However, almost nothing is known about how AC activity is regulated through protein degradation mediated by ubiquitination or other mechanisms. Here, we show that transcriptional regulator interacting with the PHD-bromodomain 1 (TRIP-Br1, Sertad1), a newly identified protein with poorly characterized functions, acts as an adaptor that bridges the interaction of multiple AC isoforms with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a RING-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase. XIAP ubiquitinates a highly conserved Lys residue in AC isoforms and thereby accelerates the endocytosis and degradation of multiple AC isoforms in human cell lines and mice. XIAP/TRIP-Br1-mediated degradation of ACs forms part of a negative-feedback loop that controls the homeostasis of cAMP signaling in mice. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism for degrading multiple AC isoforms and modulating the homeostasis of cAMP signaling.
Literature context: t# P2983; RRID:AB_439685 Mouse mono
RFWD3 is a recently identified Fanconi anemia protein FANCW whose E3 ligase activity toward RPA is essential in homologous recombination (HR) repair. However, how RPA ubiquitination promotes HR remained unknown. Here, we identified RAD51, the central HR protein, as another target of RFWD3. We show that RFWD3 polyubiquitinates both RPA and RAD51 in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation by ATR and ATM kinases is required for this activity in vivo. RFWD3 inhibits persistent mitomycin C (MMC)-induced RAD51 and RPA foci by promoting VCP/p97-mediated protein dynamics and subsequent degradation. Furthermore, MMC-induced chromatin loading of MCM8 and RAD54 is defective in cells with inactivated RFWD3 or expressing a ubiquitination-deficient mutant RAD51. Collectively, our data reveal a mechanism that facilitates timely removal of RPA and RAD51 from DNA damage sites, which is crucial for progression to the late-phase HR and suppression of the FA phenotype.
Literature context: ouis,Â MO; RRID:AB_439685), mouse an
Transverse (T)-tubules make-up a specialized network of tubulated muscle cell membranes involved in excitation-contraction coupling for power of contraction. Little is known about how T-tubules maintain highly organized structures and contacts throughout the contractile system despite the ongoing muscle remodeling that occurs with muscle atrophy, damage and aging. We uncovered an essential role for autophagy in T-tubule remodeling with genetic screens of a developmentally regulated remodeling program in Drosophila abdominal muscles. Here, we show that autophagy is both upregulated with and required for progression through T-tubule disassembly stages. Along with known mediators of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, our screens uncovered an unexpected shared role for Rab2 with a broadly conserved function in autophagic clearance. Rab2 localizes to autophagosomes and binds to HOPS complex members, suggesting a direct role in autophagosome tethering/fusion. Together, the high membrane flux with muscle remodeling permits unprecedented analysis both of T-tubule dynamics and fundamental trafficking mechanisms.
Literature context: lone M2); RRID:AB_439685), mouse an
Expanded GGGGCC repeats in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene represent the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the mechanisms underlying repeat-induced disease remain incompletely resolved. One proposed gain-of-function mechanism is that repeat-containing RNA forms aggregates that sequester RNA binding proteins, leading to altered RNA metabolism in motor neurons. Here, we identify the zinc finger protein Zfp106 as a specific GGGGCC RNA repeat-binding protein, and using affinity purification-mass spectrometry, we show that Zfp106 interacts with multiple other RNA binding proteins, including the ALS-associated factors TDP-43 and FUS. We also show that Zfp106 knockout mice develop severe motor neuron degeneration, which can be suppressed by transgenic restoration of Zfp106 specifically in motor neurons. Finally, we show that Zfp106 potently suppresses neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model of C9orf72 ALS. Thus, these studies identify Zfp106 as an RNA binding protein with important implications for ALS.
Literature context: a-Alrich, RRID:AB_439685).
Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods. Our results show that designed inhibitors can be generated for each member of a closely-knit protein family to probe the importance of specific protein-protein interactions in complex biological processes.
Literature context: t# P2983, RRID:AB_439685); sheep an
Teneurins are large cell-surface receptors involved in axon guidance. Teneurin-2 (also known as latrophilin-1-associated synaptic surface organizer (Lasso)) interacts across the synaptic cleft with presynaptic latrophilin-1, an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor that participates in regulating neurotransmitter release. Lasso-latrophilin-1 interaction mediates synapse formation and calcium signaling, highlighting the important role of this trans-synaptic receptor pair. However, Lasso is thought to be proteolytically cleaved within its ectodomain and released into the medium, making it unclear whether it acts as a proper cell-surface receptor or a soluble protein. We demonstrate here that during its intracellular processing Lasso is constitutively cleaved at a furin site within its ectodomain. The cleaved fragment, which encompasses almost the entire ectodomain of Lasso, is potentially soluble; however, it remains anchored on the cell surface via its non-covalent interaction with the transmembrane fragment of Lasso. Lasso is also constitutively cleaved within the intracellular domain (ICD). Finally, Lasso can be further proteolytically cleaved within the transmembrane domain. The third cleavage is regulated and releases the entire ectodomain of Lasso into the medium. The released ectodomain of Lasso retains its functional properties and binds latrophilin-1 expressed on other cells; this binding stimulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the target cells. Thus, Lasso not only serves as a bona fide cell-surface receptor, but also as a partially released target-derived signaling factor.
Literature context: -Aldrich, RRID:AB_439685) and alkal
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen expressing a number of virulence-associated adhesive molecules. In a previous study, we generated in a secretion-competent Escherichia coli strain a library of random FLAG-tag positive (FTP) polypeptides of S. aureus. To identify adhesive proteins and gain additional knowledge on putative virulence factors of S. aureus, we here screened the FTP library against human serum proteins. FINDINGS: Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325-4, origin of the FTP library, adhered to immobilized plasminogen in vitro. In an enzyme-linked immunoassay a C-terminal part of penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3), included in the FTP library, bound to immobilized plasminogen. We expressed and purified full-length PBP3 and its C-terminal fragments as recombinant proteins. In a time-resolved fluorometry-based assay the PBP3 polypeptides bound to immobilized plasminogen. The polypeptides enhanced formation of plasmin from plasminogen as analyzed by cleavage of a chromogenic plasmin substrate. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings, although preliminary, demonstrate reliably that S. aureus NCTC 8325-4 adheres to immobilized plasminogen in vitro and that the adhesion may be mediated by a C-terminal fragment of the PBP3 protein. The full length PBP3 and the penicillin binding C-terminal domain of PBP3 expressed as recombinant proteins bound plasminogen and activated plasminogen to plasmin. These phenomena were inhibited by the lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid suggesting that the binding is mediated by lysine residues. A detailed molecular description of surface molecules enhancing the virulence of S. aureus will aid in understanding of its pathogenicity and help in design of antibacterial drugs in the future.
Literature context: at# P2983 RRID:AB_439685; anti-HA o
Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic pathogen recognition receptor that initiates the immune response against many RNA viruses. Upon RNA ligand binding, RIG-I undergoes a conformational change facilitating its homo-oligomerization and activation that results in its translocation from the cytosol to intracellular membranes to bind its signaling adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS). Here we show that RIG-I activation is regulated by reversible acetylation. Acetyl-mimetic mutants of RIG-I do not form virus-induced homo-oligomers, revealing that acetyl-lysine residues of the RIG-I repressor domain prevent assembly to active homo-oligomers. During acute infection, deacetylation of RIG-I promotes its oligomerization upon ligand binding. We identify histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as the deacetylase that promotes RIG-I activation and innate antiviral immunity to recognize and restrict RNA virus infection.
Cornichon homologs (CNIHs) are AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) auxiliary subunits that modulate AMPAR ion channel function and trafficking. Mechanisms underlying this interaction and functional modulation of the receptor complex are currently unclear. Here, using proteins expressed from mouse and rat cDNA, we show that CNIH-3 forms a stable complex with tetrameric AMPARs and contributes to the transmembrane density in single-particle electron microscopy structures. Peptide array-based screening and in vitro mutagenesis identified two clusters of conserved membrane-proximal residues in CNIHs that contribute to AMPAR binding. Because CNIH-1 binds to AMPARs but modulates gating at a significantly lower magnitude compared with CNIH-3, these conserved residues mediate a direct interaction between AMPARs and CNIHs. In addition, residues in the extracellular loop of CNIH-2/3 absent in CNIH-1/4 are critical for both AMPAR interaction and gating modulation. On the AMPAR extracellular domains, the ligand-binding domain and possibly a stretch of linker, connecting the ligand-binding domain to the fourth membrane-spanning segment, is the principal contact point with the CNIH-3 extracellular loop. In contrast, the membrane-distal N-terminal domain is less involved in AMPAR gating modulation by CNIH-3 and AMPAR binding to CNIH-3. Collectively, our results identify conserved residues in the membrane-proximal region of CNIHs that contribute to AMPAR binding and an additional unique segment in the CNIH-2/3 extracellular loop required for both physical interaction and gating modulation of the AMPAR. Consistent with the dissociable properties of binding and gating modulation, we identified a mutant CNIH-3 that preserves AMPAR binding capability but has attenuated activity of gating modulation.
Literature context: og #P2983 RRID:AB_439685); anti-Î²PI
Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the control of neurotransmitter release. The AS/AGU rat, which has a nonsense mutation in PKCγ, shows symptoms of parkinsonian syndrome, including dopamine release impairments in the striatum. Here, we found that the AS/AGU rat is PKCγ-knock-out (KO) and that PKCγ-KO mice showed parkinsonian syndrome. However, the PKCγ substrates responsible for the regulated exocytosis of dopamine in vivo have not yet been elucidated. To identify the PKCγ substrates involved in dopamine release, we used PKCγ-KO mice and a phosphoproteome analysis. We found 10 candidate phosphoproteins that had decreased phosphorylation levels in the striatum of PKCγ-KO mice. We focused on Pak-interacting exchange factor-β (βPIX), a Cdc42/Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and found that PKCγ directly phosphorylates βPIX at Ser583 and indirectly at Ser340 in cells. Furthermore, we found that PKC phosphorylated βPIX in vivo. Classical PKC inhibitors and βPIX knock-down (KD) significantly suppressed Ca(2+)-evoked dopamine release in PC12 cells. Wild-type βPIX, and not the βPIX mutants Ser340 Ala or Ser583 Ala, fully rescued the decreased dopamine release by βPIX KD. Double KD of Cdc42 and Rac1 decreased dopamine release from PC12 cells. These findings indicate that the phosphorylation of βPIX at Ser340 and Ser583 has pivotal roles in Ca(2+)-evoked dopamine release in the striatum. Therefore, we propose that PKCγ positively modulates dopamine release through β2PIX phosphorylation. The PKCγ-βPIX-Cdc42/Rac1 phosphorylation axis may provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of parkinsonian syndrome.