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Anti-??-Galactosidase Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_430878

Antibody ID

AB_430878

Target Antigen

& x03B2;-Galactosidase

Proper Citation

(Promega Cat# Z3783, RRID:AB_430878)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

manufacturer recommendations:

Vendor

Promega

Cat Num

Z3783

Publications that use this research resource

Meru couples planar cell polarity with apical-basal polarity during asymmetric cell division.

  • Banerjee JJ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polarity is a shared feature of most cells. In epithelia, apical-basal polarity often coexists, and sometimes intersects with planar cell polarity (PCP), which orients cells in the epithelial plane. From a limited set of core building blocks (e.g. the Par complexes for apical-basal polarity and the Frizzled/Dishevelled complex for PCP), a diverse array of polarized cells and tissues are generated. This suggests the existence of little-studied tissue-specific factors that rewire the core polarity modules to the appropriate conformation. In Drosophila sensory organ precursors (SOPs), the core PCP components initiate the planar polarization of apical-basal determinants, ensuring asymmetric division into daughter cells of different fates. We show that Meru, a RASSF9/RASSF10 homologue, is expressed specifically in SOPs, recruited to the posterior cortex by Frizzled/Dishevelled, and in turn polarizes the apical-basal polarity factor Bazooka (Par3). Thus, Meru belongs to a class of proteins that act cell/tissue-specifically to remodel the core polarity machinery.

Broad Complex isoforms have unique distributions during central nervous system metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Spokony RF
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Broad Complex (BRC) is a highly conserved, ecdysone-pathway gene essential for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster, and possibly all holometabolous insects. Alternative splicing among duplicated exons produces several BRC isoforms, each with one zinc-finger DNA-binding domain (Z1, Z2, Z3, or Z4), highly expressed at the onset of metamorphosis. BRC-Z1, BRC-Z2, and BRC-Z3 represent distinct genetic functions (BRC complementation groups rbp, br, and 2Bc, respectively) and are required at discrete stages spanning final-instar larva through very young pupa. We showed previously that morphogenetic movements necessary for adult CNS maturation require BRC-Z1, -Z2, and -Z3, but not at the same time: BRC-Z1 is required in the mid-prepupa, BRC-Z2 and -Z3 are required earlier, at the larval-prepupal transition. To explore how BRC isoforms controlling the same morphogenesis events do so at different times, we examined their central nervous system (CNS) expression patterns during the approximately 16 hours bracketing the hormone-regulated start of metamorphosis. Each isoform had a unique pattern, with BRC-Z3 being the most distinctive. There was some colocalization of isoform pairs, but no three-way overlap of BRC-Z1, -Z2, and -Z3. Instead, their most prominent expression was in glia (BRC-Z1), neuroblasts (BRC-Z2), or neurons (BRC-Z3). Despite sequence similarity to BRC-Z1, BRC-Z4 was expressed in a unique subset of neurons. These data suggest a switch in BRC isoform choice, from BRC-Z2 in proliferating cells to BRC-Z1, BRC-Z3, or BRC-Z4 in differentiating cells. Together with isoform-selective temporal requirements and phenotype considerations, this cell-type-selective expression suggests a model of BRC-dependent CNS morphogenesis resulting from intercellular interactions, culminating in BRC-Z1-controlled, glia-mediated CNS movements in late prepupa.

Emergence of cellular markers and functional ionotropic glutamate receptors on tangentially dispersed cells in the developing mouse retina.

  • Acosta ML
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tangential cell dispersion in the retina is a spacing mechanism that establishes a regular mosaic organization among cell types and contributes to their final positioning. The present study has used the X-inactivation transgenic mouse expressing the lacZ reporter gene on one X chromosome. Due to X chromosome inactivation, 50% of early progenitor cells express beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal); therefore, all cells derived from a particular beta-Gal-expressing progenitor cell can be identified in labeled columns. The radial segregation of clonally related beta-Gal-positive and beta-Gal-negative cells can be used to determine whether single cells transgress a clonal boundary in the retina. We investigated the extent to which particular cell classes tangentially disperse by analyzing the placement of labeled cells expressing particular markers at several ages and quantifying their tangential displacement. Retinal neurons expressing cell markers at postnatal day (P) 1 have a greater degree of tangential dispersion compared with amacrine and bipolar cells at P5-6. We also studied whether there is a functional correlation with these dispersion patterns by investigating the emergence of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors. To determine the degree of functional glutamate receptor activation, agmatine (AGB) was used in combination with cell-specific labeling. AGB permeates functional glutamate receptor channels following activation with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Within these receptor groups, high concentrations of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA are associated with a high degree of tangential dispersion in the adult. Developmentally, functional kainate and AMPA receptors were detected by P1 and were associated with tangentially dispersed cells. Functional NMDA receptors were not detected as early as kainate and AMPA receptors. These results indicate that cells generated early during development are more likely to disperse tangentially compared with those generated later in development. Therefore, functional AMPA and kainate receptors may play a critical role in tangentially displacing cell types.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM090158(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS29367(United States)

Dynamic patterns of neurotrophin 3 expression in the postnatal mouse inner ear.

  • Sugawara M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies indicate that neurotrophin 3 (NT3) may be important for the maintenance and function of the adult inner ear, but the pattern of postnatal NT3 expression in this organ has not been characterized. We used a reporter mouse in which cells expressing NT3 also express beta-galactosidase, allowing for their histochemical visualization, to determine the pattern of NT3 expression in cochlear and vestibular organs. We analyzed animals from birth (P0) to adult (P135). At P0, NT3 was strongly expressed in supporting cells and hair cells of all vestibular and cochlear sense organs, Reissner's membrane, saccular membrane, and the dark cells adjacent to canal organs. With increasing age, staining disappeared in most cell types but remained relatively high in inner hair cells (IHCs) and to a lesser extent in IHC supporting cells. In the cochlea, by P0 there is a longitudinal gradient (apex > base) that persists into adulthood. In vestibular maculae, staining gradients are: striolar > extrastriolar regions and supporting cells > hair cells. By P135, cochlear staining is restricted to IHCs and their supporting cells, with stronger expression in the apex than the base. By the same age, in the vestibular organs, NT3 expression is weak and restricted to saccular and utricular supporting cells. These results suggest that NT3 might play a long-term role in the maintenance and functioning of the adult auditory and vestibular systems and that supporting cells are the main source of this factor in the adult.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)