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Rabbit Anti-Histone H3 Polyclonal antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_417398

Antibody ID

AB_417398

Target Antigen

Histone H3 chicken/avian, human, mouse, rat, yeast, chicken, human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# 07-690, RRID:AB_417398)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Western Blotting,Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Millipore

Serine is the major residue for ADP-ribosylation upon DNA damage.

  • Palazzo L
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a family of enzymes that synthesise ADP-ribosylation (ADPr), a reversible modification of proteins that regulates many different cellular processes. Several mammalian PARPs are known to regulate the DNA damage response, but it is not clear which amino acids in proteins are the primary ADPr targets. Previously, we reported that ARH3 reverses the newly discovered type of ADPr (ADPr on serine residues; Ser-ADPr) and developed tools to analyse this modification (Fontana et al., 2017). Here, we show that Ser-ADPr represents the major fraction of ADPr synthesised after DNA damage in mammalian cells and that globally Ser-ADPr is dependent on HPF1, PARP1 and ARH3. In the absence of HPF1, glutamate/aspartate becomes the main target residues for ADPr. Furthermore, we describe a method for site-specific validation of serine ADP-ribosylated substrates in cells. Our study establishes serine as the primary form of ADPr in DNA damage signalling.

Funding information:
  • Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro - 14895()
  • Cancer Research UK - C35050/A22284()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - EXC 229()
  • European Research Council - 281739()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - 281739()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - 657501()
  • Wellcome - 101794()
  • Wellcome Trust - 101794()
  • Wellcome Trust - WT087675MA(United Kingdom)

SLFN11 Blocks Stressed Replication Forks Independently of ATR.

  • Murai J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

SLFN11 sensitizes cancer cells to a broad range of DNA-targeted therapies. Here we show that, in response to replication stress induced by camptothecin, SLFN11 tightly binds chromatin at stressed replication foci via RPA1 together with the replication helicase subunit MCM3. Unlike ATR, SLFN11 neither interferes with the loading of CDC45 and PCNA nor inhibits the initiation of DNA replication but selectively blocks fork progression while inducing chromatin opening across replication initiation sites. The ATPase domain of SLFN11 is required for chromatin opening, replication block, and cell death but not for the tight binding of SLFN11 to chromatin. Replication stress by the CHK1 inhibitor Prexasertib also recruits SLFN11 to nascent replicating DNA together with CDC45 and PCNA. We conclude that SLFN11 is recruited to stressed replication forks carrying extended RPA filaments where it blocks replication by changing chromatin structure across replication sites.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA132630(United States)

OsMAPK3 Phosphorylates OsbHLH002/OsICE1 and Inhibits Its Ubiquitination to Activate OsTPP1 and Enhances Rice Chilling Tolerance.

  • Zhang Z
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Improvement of chilling tolerance is a major target in rice breeding. The signaling pathways regulating chilling consist of complex networks, including key transcription factors and their targets. However, it remains largely unknown how transcription factors are activated by chilling stress. Here, we report that the transcription factor OsbHLH002/OsICE1 is phosphorylated by OsMAPK3 under chilling stress. The osbhlh002-1 knockout mutant and antisense transgenic plants showed chilling hypersensitivity, whereas OsbHLH002-overexpressing plants exhibited enhanced chilling tolerance. OsbHLH002 can directly target OsTPP1, which encodes a key enzyme for trehalose biosynthesis. OsMAPK3 interacts with OsbHLH002 to prevent its ubiquitination by the E3 ligase OsHOS1. Under chilling stress, active OsMAPK3 phosphorylates OsbHLH002, leading to accumulation of phospho-OsbHLH002, which promotes OsTPP1 expression and increases trehalose content and resistance to chilling damage. Taken together, these results indicate that OsbHLH002 is phosphorylated by OsMAPK3, which enhances OsbHLH002 activation to its target OsTPP1 during chilling stress.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007198(United States)

Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice.

  • Newman JC
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - K08 AG048354()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK085610()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS065780()

Methylation of DNA Ligase 1 by G9a/GLP Recruits UHRF1 to Replicating DNA and Regulates DNA Methylation.

  • Ferry L
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark in mammals that has to be re-established after each round of DNA replication. The protein UHRF1 is essential for this process; it has been proposed that the protein targets newly replicated DNA by cooperatively binding hemi-methylated DNA and H3K9me2/3, but this model leaves a number of questions unanswered. Here, we present evidence for a direct recruitment of UHRF1 by the replication machinery via DNA ligase 1 (LIG1). A histone H3K9-like mimic within LIG1 is methylated by G9a and GLP and, compared with H3K9me2/3, more avidly binds UHRF1. Interaction with methylated LIG1 promotes the recruitment of UHRF1 to DNA replication sites and is required for DNA methylation maintenance. These results further elucidate the function of UHRF1, identify a non-histone target of G9a and GLP, and provide an example of a histone mimic that coordinates DNA replication and DNA methylation maintenance.

EDEM Function in ERAD Protects against Chronic ER Proteinopathy and Age-Related Physiological Decline in Drosophila.

  • Sekiya M
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model. ERAD activity in the brain decreased with aging, and upregulation of EDEMs suppressed age-dependent behavioral decline and extended the lifespan without affecting the UPR gene expression network. Intriguingly, EDEM mannosidase activity was dispensable for these protective effects. Therefore, upregulation of EDEM function in the ERAD protects against ER proteinopathy in vivo and thus represents a potential therapeutic target for chronic diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG032279()
  • NIA NIH HHS - U01 AG046170()

Landscape of histone modifications in a sponge reveals the origin of animal cis-regulatory complexity.

  • Gaiti F
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Combinatorial patterns of histone modifications regulate developmental and cell type-specific gene expression and underpin animal complexity, but it is unclear when this regulatory system evolved. By analysing histone modifications in a morphologically-simple, early branching animal, the sponge Amphimedonqueenslandica, we show that the regulatory landscape used by complex bilaterians was already in place at the dawn of animal multicellularity. This includes distal enhancers, repressive chromatin and transcriptional units marked by H3K4me3 that vary with levels of developmental regulation. Strikingly, Amphimedon enhancers are enriched in metazoan-specific microsyntenic units, suggesting that their genomic location is extremely ancient and likely to place constraints on the evolution of surrounding genes. These results suggest that the regulatory foundation for spatiotemporal gene expression evolved prior to the divergence of sponges and eumetazoans, and was necessary for the evolution of animal multicellularity.

PCGF6-PRC1 suppresses premature differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by regulating germ cell-related genes.

  • Endoh M
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a subset of PRC1 target genes by recruiting RING1B and mediating downstream mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A. PCGF6-PRC1 bound loci are highly enriched for promoters of germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conditional ablation of Pcgf6 in ESCs leads to robust de-repression of such germ cell-related genes, in turn affecting cell growth and viability. We also find a role for PCGF6 in pre- and peri-implantation mouse embryonic development. We further show that a heterodimer of the transcription factors MAX and MGA recruits PCGF6 to target loci. PCGF6 thus links sequence specific target recognition by the MAX/MGA complex to PRC1-dependent transcriptional silencing of germ cell-specific genes in pluripotent stem cells.