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Anti-NR2B, clone BWJHL antibody

RRID:AB_417391

Antibody ID

AB_417391

Target Antigen

NR2B clone BWJHL h, r

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# 05-920, RRID:AB_417391)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: IgG; IgG Western Blot; WB

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Millipore

Cat Num

05-920

Publications that use this research resource

PTPσ drives excitatory presynaptic assembly via various extracellular and intracellular mechanisms.

  • Han KA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leukocyte common antigen-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are hub proteins that organize excitatory and inhibitory synapse development through binding to various extracellular ligands. Here, we report that knockdown (KD) of the LAR-RPTP family member PTPσ reduced excitatory synapse number and transmission in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, whereas KD of PTPδ produced comparable decreases at inhibitory synapses, in both cases without altering expression levels of interacting proteins. An extensive series of rescue experiments revealed that extracellular interactions of PTPσ with Slitrks are important for excitatory synapse development. These experiments further showed that the intracellular D2 domain of PTPσ is required for induction of heterologous synapse formation by Slitrk1 or TrkC, suggesting that interaction of LAR-RPTPs with distinct intracellular presynaptic proteins drives presynaptic machinery assembly. Consistent with this, double-KD of liprin-α2 and -α3 or KD of PTPσ substrates (N-cadherin and p250RhoGAP) in neurons inhibited Slitrk6-induced, PTPσ-mediated heterologous synapse formation activity. We propose a synaptogenesis model in presynaptic neurons involving LAR-RPTP-organized retrograde signaling cascades, in which both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms are critical in orchestrating distinct synapse types.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTIn this study, we sought to test the unproven hypothesis that PTPσ and PTPδ are required for excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation/transmission, respectively, in cultured hippocampal neurons, using knockdown-based loss-of-function analyses. We further performed extensive structure-function analyses, focusing on PTPσ-mediated actions, to address the mechanisms of presynaptic assembly at excitatory synaptic sites. Utilizing interdisciplinary approaches, we systematically applied varied set of PTPσ deletion variants, point mutants, and splice variants to demonstrate that both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms are involved in organizing presynaptic assembly. Strikingly, extracellular interactions of PTPσ with heparan sulfates and Slitrks, intracellular interactions of PTPσ with liprin-α and its associated proteins through the D2 domain, as well as distinct substrates are all critical.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE14036(United States)

Juvenile treatment with mGluR2/3 agonist prevents schizophrenia-like phenotypes in adult by acting through GSK3β.

  • Xing B
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prodromal memory deficits represent an important marker for the development of schizophrenia (SZ), in which glutamatergic hypofunction occurs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) attenuates excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced neurotoxicity, a central pathological characteristic of glutamatergic hypofunction. We therefore hypothesized that early treatment with LY37 would rescue cognitive deficits and confer benefits for SZ-like behaviors in adults. To test this, we assessed whether early intervention with LY37 would improve learning outcomes in the Morris Water Maze for rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), a neurodevelopmental SZ model. We found that a medium dose of LY37 prevents learning deficits in MAM rats. These effects were mediated through postsynaptic mGluR2/3 via improving GluN2B-NMDAR function by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Furthermore, dendritic spine loss and learning and memory deficits observed in adult MAM rats were restored by juvenile LY37 treatment, which did not change prefrontal neuronal excitability and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in adult normal rats. Our results provide a mechanism for mGluR2/3 agonists against NMDAR hypofunction, which may prove to be beneficial in the prophylactic treatment of SZ.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R56AI1691785(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085666()

Lithium Inhibits GSK3β and Augments GluN2A Receptor Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex.

  • Monaco SA
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Feb 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in both psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease; therefore regulating its activity has become an important strategy for treatment of cognitive impairments in these disorders. This study examines the effects of lithium on GSK3β and its interaction with β-catenin and NMDA receptors within the prefrontal cortex. Lithium, a clinically relevant drug commonly prescribed as a mood stabilizer for psychiatric disorders, significantly increased levels of phosphorylated GSK3β serine 9, an inhibitory phosphorylation site, and decreased β-catenin ser33/37/thr41 phosphorylation in vitro, indicating GSK3β inhibition and reduced β-catenin degradation. GluN2A subunit levels were concurrently increased following lithium treatment. Similar alterations were also demonstrated in vivo; lithium administration increased GSK3β serine 9 phosphorylation and GluN2A levels, suggesting a reduced GSK3β activity and augmented GluN2A expression. Correspondingly, we observed that the amplitudes of evoked GluN2A-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons were significantly increased following lithium administration. Our data suggest that GSK3β activity negatively regulates GluN2A expression, likely by mediating upstream β-catenin phosphorylation, in prefrontal cortical neurons. Furthermore, our biochemical and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that lithium mediates a specific increase in GluN2A subunit expression, ultimately augmenting GluN2A-mediated currents in the prefrontal cortex.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA100193(United States)

Epigenetic mechanisms underlying NMDA receptor hypofunction in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile animals in the MAM model for schizophrenia.

  • Gulchina Y
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Nov 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ. Using western blot and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we found that the levels of synaptic NR2B protein are significantly decreased in juvenile MAM animals, and the function of NMDARs is substantially compromised. Both NMDA-mEPSCs and synaptic NMDA-eEPSCs are significantly reduced in prelimbic PFC (plPFC). This protein loss during the juvenile period is correlated with an aberrant increase in enrichment of the epigenetic transcriptional repressor RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and the repressive histone marker H3K27me3 at the Grin2b promoter, as assayed by ChIP-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Glutamate hypofunction has been a prominent hypothesis in the understanding of SCZ pathology; however, little attention has been given to the NMDAR system in the developing PFC in models for SCZ. Our work is the first to confirm that NMDAR hypofunction is a feature of early postnatal development, with epigenetic hyper-repression of the Grin2b promoter being a contributing factor. The selective loss of NR2B protein and subsequent synaptic dysfunction weakens plPFC function during development and may underlie early cognitive impairments in SCZ models and patients. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 264.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085666()