OBJECTIVE: The vascular system is central to sustaining tissue survival and homeostasis. Blood vessels are densely present in adipose tissues and exert essential roles in their metabolism. However, conventional immunohistochemistry methods have intrinsic limitations in examining the 3D vascular network in adipose tissues as well as other organs in general. METHODS: We established a 3D volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the vasculatures in mouse adipose tissues by combining the optimized steps of whole-mount immunolabeling, tissue optical clearing, and lightsheet volume fluorescence-imaging. To demonstrate the strength of this novel imaging procedure, we comprehensively assessed the intra-adipose vasculatures under obese conditions or in response to a cold challenge. RESULTS: We show the entirety of the vascular network in mouse adipose tissues on the whole-tissue level at a single-capillary resolution for the first time in the field. We accurately quantify the pathological changes of vasculatures in adipose tissues in wild-type or obese mice (ob/ob, db/db, or diet-induced obesity). In addition, we identify significant and reversible changes of the intra-adipose vasculatures in the mice subjected to cold challenge (i.e., 4°). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the cold-induced vascular plasticity depends on the sympathetic-derived catecholamine signal and is involved in the beiging process of white adipose tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We report a 3D volume fluorescence-imaging procedure that is compatible with many areas of vascular research and is poised to serve the field in future investigations of the vascular system in adipose tissues or other research scenarios.
Literature context: (used at 1:200) BD Cat#553370; RRID:AB_394816 Rat monoclonal anti-CD31 PE (us
The generation of new blood vessels via angiogenesis is critical for meeting tissue oxygen demands. A role for adult stem cells in this process remains unclear. Here, we identified CD157 (bst1, bone marrow stromal antigen 1) as a marker of tissue-resident vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) in large arteries and veins of numerous mouse organs. Single CD157+ VESCs form colonies in vitro and generate donor-derived portal vein, sinusoids, and central vein endothelial cells upon transplantation in the liver. In response to injury, VESCs expand and regenerate entire vasculature structures, supporting the existence of an endothelial hierarchy within blood vessels. Genetic lineage tracing revealed that VESCs maintain large vessels and sinusoids in the normal liver for more than a year, and transplantation of VESCs rescued bleeding phenotypes in a mouse model of hemophilia. Our findings show that tissue-resident VESCs display self-renewal capacity and that vascular regeneration potential exists in peripheral blood vessels.
Literature context: sciences Cat# 553370, RRID:AB_394816 Rat Anti-CD73 Monoclonal BD Bio
Despite much work studying ex vivo multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), the identity and characteristics of MSCs in vivo are not well defined. Here, we generated a CD73-EGFP reporter mouse to address these questions and found EGFP+ MSCs in various organs. In vivo, EGFP+ mesenchymal cells were observed in fetal and adult bones at proliferative ossification sites, while in solid organs EGFP+ cells exhibited a perivascular distribution pattern. EGFP+ cells from the bone compartment could be clonally expanded ex vivo from single cells and displayed trilineage differentiation potential. Moreover, in the central bone marrow CD73-EGFP+ specifically labeled sinusoidal endothelial cells, thought to be a critical component of the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Purification and molecular characterization of this CD73-EGFP+ population revealed an endothelial subtype that also displays a mesenchymal signature, highlighting endothelial cell heterogeneity in the marrow. Thus, the CD73-EGFP mouse is a powerful tool for studying MSCs and sinusoidal endothelium.
Literature context: D pharmingen Cat# 553370; RRID:AB_394816 Rabbit anti-Sox17 (1:1000) Zhou
Dural cerebral veins (CV) are required for cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption and brain homeostasis, but mechanisms that regulate their growth and remodeling are unknown. We report molecular and cellular processes that regulate dural CV development in mammals and describe venous malformations in humans with craniosynostosis and TWIST1 mutations that are recapitulated in mouse models. Surprisingly, Twist1 is dispensable in endothelial cells but required for specification of osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate into preosteoblasts that produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Inactivation of Bmp2 and Bmp4 in preosteoblasts and periosteal dura causes skull and CV malformations, similar to humans harboring TWIST1 mutations. Notably, arterial development appears normal, suggesting that morphogens from the skull and dura establish optimal venous networks independent from arterial influences. Collectively, our work establishes a paradigm whereby CV malformations result from primary or secondary loss of paracrine BMP signaling from preosteoblasts and dura, highlighting unique cellular interactions that influence tissue-specific angiogenesis in mammals.
Literature context: D31 BD Biosciences Cat# 553370; RRID:AB_394816 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Glut1 Th
Reck, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, and Gpr124, an orphan GPCR, have been implicated in Wnt7a/Wnt7b signaling in the CNS vasculature. We show here that vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific reduction in Reck impairs CNS angiogenesis and that EC-specific postnatal loss of Reck, combined with loss of Norrin, impairs blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. The most N-terminal domain of Reck binds to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of Gpr124, and weakening this interaction by targeted mutagenesis reduces Reck/Gpr124 stimulation of Wnt7a signaling in cell culture and impairs CNS angiogenesis. Finally, a soluble Gpr124(LRR-Ig) probe binds to cells expressing Frizzled, Wnt7a or Wnt7b, and Reck, and a soluble Reck(CC1-5) probe binds to cells expressing Frizzled, Wnt7a or Wnt7b, and Gpr124. These experiments indicate that Reck and Gpr124 are part of the cell surface protein complex that transduces Wnt7a- and Wnt7b-specific signals in mammalian CNS ECs to promote angiogenesis and regulate the BBB.
Literature context: #553370; RRID:AB_394816), Î±-Claudi
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a constant homeostatic brain environment that is essential for proper neural function. An unusually low rate of vesicular transport (transcytosis) has been identified as one of the two unique properties of CNS endothelial cells, relative to peripheral endothelial cells, that maintain the restrictive quality of the BBB. However, it is not known how this low rate of transcytosis is achieved. Here we provide a mechanism whereby the regulation of CNS endothelial cell lipid composition specifically inhibits the caveolae-mediated transcytotic route readily used in the periphery. An unbiased lipidomic analysis reveals significant differences in endothelial cell lipid signatures from the CNS and periphery, which underlie a suppression of caveolae vesicle formation and trafficking in brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, lipids transported by Mfsd2a establish a unique lipid environment that inhibits caveolae vesicle formation in CNS endothelial cells to suppress transcytosis and ensure BBB integrity.
Literature context: # 553370; RRID:AB_394816 Mouse mono
Interspecies blastocyst complementation enables organ-specific enrichment of xenogenic pluripotent stem cell (PSC) derivatives. Here, we establish a versatile blastocyst complementation platform based on CRISPR-Cas9-mediated zygote genome editing and show enrichment of rat PSC-derivatives in several tissues of gene-edited organogenesis-disabled mice. Besides gaining insights into species evolution, embryogenesis, and human disease, interspecies blastocyst complementation might allow human organ generation in animals whose organ size, anatomy, and physiology are closer to humans. To date, however, whether human PSCs (hPSCs) can contribute to chimera formation in non-rodent species remains unknown. We systematically evaluate the chimeric competency of several types of hPSCs using a more diversified clade of mammals, the ungulates. We find that naïve hPSCs robustly engraft in both pig and cattle pre-implantation blastocysts but show limited contribution to post-implantation pig embryos. Instead, an intermediate hPSC type exhibits higher degree of chimerism and is able to generate differentiated progenies in post-implantation pig embryos.
Literature context: , 553370, RRID:AB_394816) and NG2 (
Mechanisms underlying the vein development remain largely unknown. Tie2 signaling mediates endothelial cell (EC) survival and vascular maturation and its activating mutations are linked to venous malformations. Here we show that vein formation are disrupted in mouse skin and mesentery when Tie2 signals are diminished by targeted deletion of Tek either ubiquitously or specifically in embryonic ECs. Postnatal Tie2 attenuation resulted in the degeneration of newly formed veins followed by the formation of haemangioma-like vascular tufts in retina and venous tortuosity. Mechanistically, Tie2 insufficiency compromised venous EC identity, as indicated by a significant decrease of COUP-TFII protein level, a key regulator in venogenesis. Consistently, angiopoietin-1 stimulation increased COUP-TFII in cultured ECs, while Tie2 knockdown or blockade of Tie2 downstream PI3K/Akt pathway reduced COUP-TFII which could be reverted by the proteasome inhibition. Together, our results imply that Tie2 is essential for venous specification and maintenance via Akt mediated stabilization of COUP-TFII.
The MRL mouse is unique in its capacity for regenerative healing of wounds. This regenerative ability includes complete closure, with little scarring, of wounds to the ear pinna and repair of cardiac muscle, without fibrosis, following cryoinjury. Here, we examine whether neurogenic zones within the MRL brain show enhanced regenerative capacity. The largest neurogenic zone in the adult brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ), lies adjacent to the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle and is responsible for replacement of interneuron populations within the olfactory bulb. Initial gross observation of the anterior forebrain in MRL mice revealed enlarged lateral ventricles; however, little neurodegeneration was detected within the SVZ or surrounding tissues. Instead, increased proliferation within the SVZ was observed, based on incorporation of the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine. Closer examination using electron microscopy revealed that a significant number of SVZ astrocytes interpolated within the ependyma and established contact with the ventricle. In addition, subependymal, protuberant nests of cells, consisting primarily of neuroblasts, were found along the anterior SVZ of MRL mice. Whole mounts of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle stained for the neuroblast marker doublecortin revealed normal formation of chains of migratory neuroblasts along the entire wall and introduction of enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged retrovirus into the lateral ventricles confirmed that newly generated neuroblasts were able to track into the olfactory bulb.