Literature context: e 3F10) Roche Cat# 11867423001; RRID:AB_390914 Anti-AUP1 Klemm et al., 2011 an
Ubiquitylation is one of the most versatile protein post-translational modifications and is frequently altered during virus infections. Here we employed a functional proteomics screen to identify host proteins that are differentially ubiquitylated upon dengue virus (DENV) infection. Among the several differentially modified proteins identified in infected cells was AUP1, a lipid droplet-localized type-III membrane protein, which exists predominantly in the mono-ubiquitylated form. AUP1 associated with DENV NS4A and relocalized from lipid droplets to autophagosomes upon infection. Virus production was abolished in cells deleted for AUP1 or expressing an AUP1 acyltransferase domain mutant. Ubiquitylation disrupted the AUP1-NS4A interaction, resulting in inhibited acyltransferase activity, defective lipophagy, and attenuated virus production. Our results show that DENV-NS4A exploits the acyltransferase activity of AUP1 to trigger lipophagy, a process regulated by ubiquitylation. This mechanism appears to be a general phenomenon in biogenesis of flaviviruses and underscores the critical role of post-translational modifications in virus infections.
Literature context: nity matrix (Roche 11815016001, RRID:AB_390914) that was pre-washed twice in l
Nodal is considered the key inducer of mesendoderm in vertebrate embryos and embryonic stem cells. Other TGF-beta-related signals, such as Vg1/Dvr1/Gdf3, have also been implicated in this process but their roles have been unclear or controversial. Here we report that zebrafish embryos without maternally provided vg1 fail to form endoderm and head and trunk mesoderm, and closely resemble nodal loss-of-function mutants. Although Nodal is processed and secreted without Vg1, it requires Vg1 for its endogenous activity. Conversely, Vg1 is unprocessed and resides in the endoplasmic reticulum without Nodal, and is only secreted, processed and active in the presence of Nodal. Co-expression of Nodal and Vg1 results in heterodimer formation and mesendoderm induction. Thus, mesendoderm induction relies on the combination of two TGF-beta-related signals: maternal and ubiquitous Vg1, and zygotic and localized Nodal. Modeling reveals that the pool of maternal Vg1 enables rapid signaling at low concentrations of zygotic Nodal.
Literature context: 15016001; RRID:AB_390914 Bacterial
Autophagy maintains cellular health and homeostasis during stress by delivering cytosolic material captured by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation is complex: initiated by the recruitment of autophagy (Atg) proteins to the formation site, it is sustained by activation of Atg proteins to allow growth and closure of the autophagosome. How Atg proteins are translocated to the forming autophagosome is not fully understood. Transport of the ATG8 family member GABARAP from the centrosome occurs during starvation-induced autophagosome biogenesis, but how centrosomal proteins regulate GABARAP localization is unknown. We show that the centriolar satellite protein PCM1 regulates the recruitment of GABARAP to the pericentriolar material. In addition to residing on the pericentriolar material, GABARAP marks a subtype of PCM1-positive centriolar satellites. GABARAP, but not another ATG8 family member LC3B, binds directly to PCM1 through a canonical LIR motif. Loss of PCM1 results in destabilization of GABARAP, but not LC3B, through proteasomal degradation. GABARAP instability is mediated through the centriolar satellite E3 ligase Mib1, which interacts with GABARAP through its substrate-binding region and promotes K48-linked ubiquitination of GABARAP. Ubiquitination of GABARAP occurs in the N terminus, a domain associated with ATG8-family-specific functions during autophagosome formation, on residues absent in the LC3 family. Furthermore, PCM1-GABARAP-positive centriolar satellites colocalize with forming autophagosomes. PCM1 enhances GABARAP/WIPI2/p62-positive autophagosome formation and flux but has no significant effect on LC3B-positive autophagosome formation. These data suggest a mechanism for how centriolar satellites can specifically regulate an ATG8 ortholog, the centrosomal GABARAP reservoir, and centrosome-autophagosome crosstalk.
Literature context: tzerland,Â RRID:AB_390914), anti-HA
IRE1α is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized endonuclease activated by misfolded proteins in the ER. Previously, we demonstrated that IRE1α forms a complex with the Sec61 translocon, to which its substrate XBP1u mRNA is recruited for cleavage during ER stress (Plumb et al., 2015). Here, we probe IRE1α complexes in cells with blue native PAGE immunoblotting. We find that IRE1α forms a hetero-oligomeric complex with the Sec61 translocon that is activated upon ER stress with little change in the complex. In addition, IRE1α oligomerization, activation, and inactivation during ER stress are regulated by Sec61. Loss of the IRE1α-Sec61 translocon interaction as well as severe ER stress conditions causes IRE1α to form higher-order oligomers that exhibit continuous activation and extended cleavage of XBP1u mRNA. Thus, we propose that the Sec61-IRE1α complex defines the extent of IRE1α activity and may determine cell fate decisions during ER stress conditions.
Literature context: 15016001; RRID:AB_390914 Chemicals,
Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) is commonly used to map nucleosomes genome-wide, but nucleosome maps are affected by the degree of digestion. It has been proposed that many yeast promoters are not nucleosome-free but instead occupied by easily digested, unstable, "fragile" nucleosomes. We analyzed the histone content of all MNase-sensitive complexes by MNase-ChIP-seq and sonication-ChIP-seq. We find that yeast promoters are predominantly bound by non-histone protein complexes, with little evidence for fragile nucleosomes. We do detect MNase-sensitive nucleosomes elsewhere in the genome, including at transcription termination sites. However, they have high A/T content, suggesting that MNase sensitivity does not indicate instability, but rather the preference of MNase for A/T-rich DNA, such that A/T-rich nucleosomes are digested faster than G/C-rich nucleosomes. We confirm our observations by analyzing ChIP-exo, chemical mapping, and ATAC-seq data from other laboratories. Thus, histone ChIP-seq experiments are essential to distinguish nucleosomes from other DNA-binding proteins that protect against MNase.