Literature context: e (RRID:AB_390204)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide neurotransmitter abundantly expressed in the mammalian retina. Since its discovery, NPY has been studied in retinas of several species, but detailed characterization of morphology, cell-type, and connectivity has never been conducted in larger mammals including humans and pigs. As the pig due to size and cellular composition is a well-suited animal for retinal research, we chose to compare the endogenous NPY system of the human retina to that of pigs to support future research in this field. In the present study, using immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy and 3D reconstructions, we found NPY to be expressed in GABAergic and calretinin-immunoreactive (-ir) amacrine cells of both species as well as parvalbumin-ir amacrine cells of humans. Furthermore, we identified at least two different types of medium- to wide-field NPY-ir amacrine cells. Finally, we detected likely synaptic appositions between the NPY-ir amacrine cells and melanopsin- and nonmelanopsin-ir ganglion cells, GABAergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells, rod bipolar cells, and horizontal cells, suggesting that NPY-ir cells play diverse roles in modulation of both image and non-image forming retinal signaling. These findings extend existing knowledge on NPY and NPY-expressing cells in the human and porcine retina showing a high degree of comparability. The extensive distribution and connectivity of NPY-ir cells described in the present study further highlights the potential importance of NPY signaling in retinal function.
Literature context: Millipore Cat# AB_152, RRID:AB_390204
Nervous system development is a precisely orchestrated series of events requiring a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Sortilin and SorCS2 are members of the Vps10p receptor family with complementary influence on some of these cues including the neurotrophins (NTs). However, the developmental time points where sortilin and SorCS2 exert their activities in conjunction or independently still remain unclear. In this study we present the characterization of the spatiotemporal expression pattern of sortilin and SorCS2 in the developing murine nervous system. Sortilin is highly expressed in the fetal nervous system with expression localized to distinct cell populations. Expression was high in neurons of the cortical plate and developing allocortex, as well as subpallial structures. Furthermore, the neuroepithelium lining the ventricles and the choroid plexus showed high expression of sortilin, together with the developing retina, spinal ganglia, and sympathetic ganglia. In contrast, SorCS2 was confined in a marked degree to the thalamus and, at E13.5, the floor plate from midbrain rostrally to spinal cord caudally. SorCS2 was also found in the ventricular zones of the ventral hippocampus and nucleus accumbens areas, in the meninges and in Schwann cells. Hence, sortilin and SorCS2 are extensively present in several distinct anatomical areas in the developing nervous system and are rarely co-expressed. Possible functions of sortilin and SorCS2 pertain to NT signaling, axon guidance and beyond. The present data will form the basis for hypotheses and study designs for unravelling the functions of sortilin and SorCS2 during the establishment of neuronal structures and connections.
OBJECTIVE: The vascular system is central to sustaining tissue survival and homeostasis. Blood vessels are densely present in adipose tissues and exert essential roles in their metabolism. However, conventional immunohistochemistry methods have intrinsic limitations in examining the 3D vascular network in adipose tissues as well as other organs in general. METHODS: We established a 3D volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the vasculatures in mouse adipose tissues by combining the optimized steps of whole-mount immunolabeling, tissue optical clearing, and lightsheet volume fluorescence-imaging. To demonstrate the strength of this novel imaging procedure, we comprehensively assessed the intra-adipose vasculatures under obese conditions or in response to a cold challenge. RESULTS: We show the entirety of the vascular network in mouse adipose tissues on the whole-tissue level at a single-capillary resolution for the first time in the field. We accurately quantify the pathological changes of vasculatures in adipose tissues in wild-type or obese mice (ob/ob, db/db, or diet-induced obesity). In addition, we identify significant and reversible changes of the intra-adipose vasculatures in the mice subjected to cold challenge (i.e., 4°). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the cold-induced vascular plasticity depends on the sympathetic-derived catecholamine signal and is involved in the beiging process of white adipose tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We report a 3D volume fluorescence-imaging procedure that is compatible with many areas of vascular research and is poised to serve the field in future investigations of the vascular system in adipose tissues or other research scenarios.
Literature context: armstadt, Germany; Cat# AB_152, RRID:AB_390204), dopamine plasma membrane tran
The heterotrimeric G-protein Go with its splice variants, Go1α and Go2α, seems to be involved in the regulation of motor function but isoform specific effects are still unclear. We found that Go1α-/- knockouts performed worse on the rota-rod than Go2α-/- and wild type (WT) mice. In Go1+2α-/- mice motor function was partially recovered. Furthermore, Go1+2α-/- mice showed an increased spontaneous motor activity. Compared to wild types or Go2α-/- mice, Go1+2α-/- mice developed increased behavioural sensitization following repetitive cocaine treatment, but failed to develop conditioned place preference. Analysis of dopamine concentration and expression of D1 and D2 receptors unravelled splice-variant specific imbalances in the striatal dopaminergic system: In Go1α-/- mice dopamine concentration and vesicular monoamine uptake were increased compared to wild types. The expression of the D2 receptor was higher in Go1α-/- compared to wild type littermates, but unchanged in Go2α-/- mice. Deletion of both Go1α and Go2α re-established both dopamine and D2 receptor levels comparable to those in the wild type. Cocaine treatment had no effect on the ratio of D1 receptor to D2 receptor in Go1+2α-/- mutants, but decreased this ratio in Go2α-/- mice. Finally, we observed that the deletion of Go1α led to a threefold higher striatal expression of Go2α. Taken together our data suggest that a balance in the expression of Go1α and Go2α sustains normal motor function. Deletion of either splice variant results in divergent behavioural and molecular alterations in the striatal dopaminergic system. Deletion of both splice variants partially restores the behavioural and molecular changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Literature context: at# AB152 RRID:AB_390204), rat anti
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising source for cell transplantation therapy. In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, however, their vulnerability and the transmission of pathological α-Synuclein are possible drawbacks that may prevent PD-specific iPSCs (PDiPSCs) from being used in clinical settings. In this study, we generated iPSCs from idiopathic PD patients and found that there was no significant vulnerability between dopaminergic (DA) neurons generated from healthy individuals and idiopathic PD patients. PDiPSC-derived DA neurons survived and functioned in the brains of PD model rats. In addition, in the brains of α-Synuclein transgenic mice, PDiPSC-derived DA neurons did not cause pathological α-Synuclein accumulation in the host brain or in the grafts. These results suggested that iPSCs derived from idiopathic PD patients are feasible as donor cells for autologous transplantation to treat PD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: RRID:AB_390204 concentration: 1:1000
The experience of rewarding or aversive stimuli is encoded by distinct afferents to dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several neuromodulatory systems including oxytocin regulate DA neuron excitability and synaptic transmission that process socially meaningful stimuli. We and others have recently characterized oxytocinergic modulation of activity in mouse VTA DA neurons, but the mechanisms underlying oxytocinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in DA neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we find that oxytocin application or optogenetic release decrease excitatory synaptic transmission, via long lasting, presynaptic, endocannabinoid-dependent mechanisms. Oxytocin modulation of excitatory transmission alters the magnitude of short and long-term depression. We find that only some glutamatergic projections to DA neurons express CB1 receptors. Optogenetic stimulation of three major VTA inputs demonstrates that oxytocin modulation is limited to projections that show evidence of CB1R transcripts. Thus, oxytocin gates information flow into reward circuits in a temporally selective and pathway-specific manner.
Literature context: -tyrosine hydroxylase Millipore RRID:AB_390204 rabbit anti-GFP Invitrogen RRID
Learning vocal behaviors, like speech and birdsong, is thought to rely on continued performance evaluation. Whether candidate performance evaluation circuits in the brain are sufficient to guide vocal learning is not known. Here, we test the sufficiency of VTA projections to the vocal basal ganglia in singing zebra finches, a songbird species that learns to produce a complex and stereotyped multi-syllabic courtship song during development. We optogenetically manipulate VTA axon terminals in singing birds contingent on how the pitch of an individual song syllable is naturally performed. We find that optical inhibition and excitation of VTA terminals are each sufficient to reliably guide learned changes in song. Inhibition and excitation have opponent effects on future performances of targeted song syllables, consistent with positive and negative reinforcement of performance outcomes. These findings define a central role for reinforcement mechanisms in learning vocalizations and demonstrate minimal circuit elements for learning vocal behaviors. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: lipore catalogue number AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 Antibody monoclonal Anti-Tyrosi
Most neurogenesis in the mammalian brain is completed embryonically, but in certain areas the production of neurons continues throughout postnatal life. The functional properties of mature postnatally generated neurons often match those of their embryonically produced counterparts. However, we show here that in the olfactory bulb (OB), embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis produce functionally distinct subpopulations of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We define two subclasses of OB DA neuron by the presence or absence of a key subcellular specialisation: the axon initial segment (AIS). Large AIS-positive axon-bearing DA neurons are exclusively produced during early embryonic stages, leaving small anaxonic AIS-negative cells as the only DA subtype generated via adult neurogenesis. These populations are functionally distinct: large DA cells are more excitable, yet display weaker and - for certain long-latency or inhibitory events - more broadly tuned responses to odorant stimuli. Embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis can therefore generate distinct neuronal subclasses, placing important constraints on the functional roles of adult-born neurons in sensory processing.
Literature context: to reveal cholinergic neurons. Anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (AB152, Millipore, raised in ra
The nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic neurons in the brains of two species of carnivore, the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo), is presented. The banded mongoose belongs to the feliform suborder and the domestic ferret to the caniform suborder, having last shared a common ancestor approximately 53 million years ago; however, they have a very similar overall morphology and life history, presenting an interesting opportunity to examine the extent of evolutionary plasticity in these systems. The brains of the two carnivore species were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The overall organization and complement of the nuclei of these systems was identical between the two species, although minor differences were noted. Moreover, this overall organization is identical to other studies undertaken in the domestic cat and dog. While for the most part the nuclei forming these systems are similar to those observed in other mammals, two species differences, which appear to be carnivore-specific, were noted. First, cholinergic neurons were observed in the lateral septal nucleus of both species, an apparently carnivore specific feature not recorded previously in other mammals. Second, the serotonergic neurons of the peripheral division of the dorsal raphe complex exhibited a significant caudad expansion, intermingling with the cholinergic and catecholaminergic nuclei of the pons, a carnivore specific feature. These carnivore specific features likely have functional consequences related to coping with stress and the expression of sleep.
Literature context: illipore, RRID:AB_390204)], rabbit
Increased α-synuclein (αsyn) and mitochondrial dysfunction play central roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and lowering αsyn is under intensive investigation as a therapeutic strategy for PD. Increased αsyn levels disrupt mitochondria and impair respiration, while reduced αsyn protects against mitochondrial toxins, suggesting that interactions between αsyn and mitochondria influences the pathologic and physiologic functions of αsyn. However, we do not know if αsyn affects normal mitochondrial function or if lowering αsyn levels impacts bioenergetic function, especially at the nerve terminal where αsyn is enriched. To determine if αsyn is required for normal mitochondrial function in neurons, we comprehensively evaluated how lowering αsyn affects mitochondrial function. We found that αsyn knockout (KO) does not affect the respiration of cultured hippocampal neurons or cortical and dopaminergic synaptosomes, and that neither loss of αsyn nor all three (α, β and γ) syn isoforms decreased mitochondria-derived ATP levels at the synapse. Similarly, neither αsyn KO nor knockdown altered the capacity of synaptic mitochondria to meet the energy requirements of synaptic vesicle cycling or influenced the localization of mitochondria to dopamine (DA) synapses in vivo. Finally, αsyn KO did not affect overall energy metabolism in mice assessed with a Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System. These studies suggest either that αsyn has little or no significant physiological effect on mitochondrial bioenergetic function, or that any such functions are fully compensated for when lost. These results implicate that αsyn levels can be reduced in neurons without impairing (or improving) mitochondrial bioenergetics or distribution.
Literature context: ase (TH) Millipore Cat# AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 Rabbit polyclonal antibody to V
Every animal species has a signature blood glucose level or glycemic set point. These set points are different, and the normal glycemic levels (normoglycemia) of one species would be life threatening for other species. Mouse normoglycemia can be considered diabetic for humans. The biological determinants of the glycemic set point remain unclear. Here we show that the pancreatic islet imposes its glycemic set point on the organism, making it the bona fide glucostat in the body. Moreover, and in contrast to rodent islets, glucagon input from the alpha cell to the insulin-secreting beta cell is necessary to fine-tune the distinctive human set point. These findings affect transplantation and regenerative approaches to treat diabetes because restoring normoglycemia may require more than replacing only the beta cells. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies using glucagon receptor antagonists as hypoglycemic agents need to be reassessed, as they may reset the overall glucostat in the organism.
Literature context: A, AB152, RRID:AB_390204) at a dilu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a prototypical neurotoxicant used in mice to mimic primary features of PD pathology including striatal dopamine depletion and dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the literature, there are several experimental paradigms involving multiple doses of MPTP that are used to elicit dopamine neuron loss. However, a recent study reported that a single low dose caused significant loss of dopamine neurons. Here, we determined the effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of one of three doses of MPTP (0.1, 2 and 20mg/kg) on dopamine neurons, labeled by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH+), and total neuron number (Nissl+) in the SNc using unbiased stereological counting. Data reveal a significant loss of neurons in the SNc (TH+ and Nissl+) only in the group treated with 20mg/kg MPTP. Groups treated with lower dose of MPTP (0.1 and 2mg/kg) only showed significant loss of TH+ neurons rather than TH+ and Nissl+ neurons. Striatal dopamine levels were decreased in the groups treated with 2 and 20mg/kg MPTP and striatal terminal markers including, TH and the dopamine transporter (DAT), were only decreased in the groups treated with 20mg/kg MPTP. These data demonstrate that lower doses of MPTP likely result in loss of TH expression rather than actual dopamine neuron loss in the SN. This finding reinforces the need to measure both total neuron number along with TH+ cells in determining dopamine neuron loss.
Literature context: D Millipore Corporation AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 mouse anti-ATP5Î² AbCam ab14730;
Mitochondrial crista structure partitions vital cellular reactions and is precisely regulated by diverse cellular signals. Here, we show that, in Drosophila, mitochondrial cristae undergo dynamic remodeling among distinct subcellular regions and the Parkinson's disease (PD)-linked Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 participates in their regulation. Mitochondria increase crista junctions and numbers in selective subcellular areas, and this remodeling requires PINK1 to phosphorylate the inner mitochondrial membrane protein MIC60/mitofilin, which stabilizes MIC60 oligomerization. Expression of MIC60 restores crista structure and ATP levels of PINK1-null flies and remarkably rescues their behavioral defects and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In an extension to human relevance, we discover that the PINK1-MIC60 pathway is conserved in human neurons, and expression of several MIC60 coding variants in the mitochondrial targeting sequence found in PD patients in Drosophila impairs crista junction formation and causes locomotion deficits. These findings highlight the importance of maintenance and plasticity of crista junctions to cellular homeostasis in vivo.
Literature context: ydroxylase (Millipore, #AB_152, RRID:AB_390204), chicken anti-Tyrosine hydroxy
Sympathetic arborizations act as the essential efferent signals in regulating the metabolism of peripheral organs including white adipose tissues (WAT). However, whether these local neural structures would be of plastic nature, and how such plasticity might participate in specific metabolic events of WAT, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we exploit the new volume fluorescence-imaging technique to observe the significant, and also reversible, plasticity of intra-adipose sympathetic arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT in response to cold challenge. We demonstrate that this sympathetic plasticity depends on the cold-elicited signal of nerve growth factor (NGF) and TrkA receptor. Blockage of NGF or TrkA signaling suppresses intra-adipose sympathetic plasticity, and moreover, the cold-induced beiging process of WAT. Furthermore, we show that NGF expression in WAT depends on the catecholamine signal in cold challenge. We therefore reveal the key physiological relevance, together with the regulatory mechanism, of intra-adipose sympathetic plasticity in the WAT metabolism.
Literature context: 52, RRID:AB_390204), guinea pig anti-TH (1:1,000,
Dopamine controls essential brain functions through volume transmission. Different from fast synaptic transmission, where neurotransmitter release and receptor activation are tightly coupled by an active zone, dopamine transmission is widespread and may not necessitate these organized release sites. Here, we determine whether striatal dopamine secretion employs specialized machinery for release. Using super resolution microscopy, we identified co-clustering of the active zone scaffolding proteins bassoon, RIM and ELKS in ∼30% of dopamine varicosities. Conditional RIM knockout disrupted this scaffold and, unexpectedly, abolished dopamine release, while ELKS knockout had no effect. Optogenetic experiments revealed that dopamine release was fast and had a high release probability, indicating the presence of protein scaffolds for coupling Ca2+ influx to vesicle fusion. Hence, dopamine secretion is mediated by sparse, mechanistically specialized active zone-like release sites. This architecture supports spatially and temporally precise coding for dopamine and provides molecular machinery for regulation.
Literature context: RRID:AB_390204 Sheep polyclonal anti-Tyrosine
Dysregulated mitophagy has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) due to the role of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) in mediating depolarization-induced mitophagy in vitro. Elegant mouse reporters have revealed the pervasive nature of basal mitophagy in vivo, yet the role of PINK1 and tissue metabolic context remains unknown. Using mito-QC, we investigated the contribution of PINK1 to mitophagy in metabolically active tissues. We observed a high degree of mitophagy in neural cells, including PD-relevant mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and microglia. In all tissues apart from pancreatic islets, loss of Pink1 did not influence basal mitophagy, despite disrupting depolarization-induced Parkin activation. Our findings provide the first in vivo evidence that PINK1 is detectable at basal levels and that basal mammalian mitophagy occurs independently of PINK1. This suggests multiple, yet-to-be-discovered pathways orchestrating mammalian mitochondrial integrity in a context-dependent fashion, and this has profound implications for our molecular understanding of vertebrate mitophagy.
Literature context: n 1% normal goat serum; AB_152, RRID:AB_390204, Millipore). Subsequently, the
Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) inhibition by small-molecule inhibitors can reduce alpha-synuclein (aSyn) aggregation, a key player in Parkinson's disease pathology. However, the significance of PREP protein for aSyn aggregation and toxicity is not known. We studied this in vivo by using PREP knock-out mice with viral vector injections of aSyn and PREP. Animal behavior was studied by locomotor activity and cylinder tests, microdialysis and HPLC were used to analyze dopamine levels, and different aSyn forms and loss of dopaminergic neurons were studied by immunostainings. Additionally, PREP knock-out cells were used to characterize the impact of PREP and aSyn on autophagy, proteasomal system and aSyn secretion. PREP knock-out animals were nonresponsive to aSyn-induced unilateral toxicity but combination of PREP and aSyn injections increased aSyn toxicity. Phosphorylated p129, proteinase K resistant aSyn levels and tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells were decreased in aSyn and PREP injected knock-out animals. These changes were accompanied by altered dopamine metabolite levels. PREP knock-out cells showed reduced response to aSyn, while cells were restored to wild-type cell levels after PREP overexpression. Taken together, our data suggests that PREP can enhance aSyn toxicity in vivo.
Literature context: roxylase Millipore Cat# AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 Rat monoclonal anti-CD68, Clone
While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots. Subcutaneous fat demonstrates prominent regional variation in beige fat biogenesis with localization of UCP1+ beige adipocytes to areas with dense sympathetic neurites. We present evidence that the density of sympathetic projections is dependent on PRDM16 in adipocytes, providing another potential mechanism underlying the metabolic benefits mediated by PRDM16. This powerful imaging tool highlights the interaction of tissue components during beige fat biogenesis and reveals a previously undescribed mode of regulation of the sympathetic nervous system by adipocytes.
Literature context: 00; Millipore, catalog #AB_152, RRID:AB_390204) in 3% normal donkey serum (Jac
Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced long-term potentiation in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats. We found that dnGluN1 expression in the VTA limited to the 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration prevents the subsequent increase in tissue GluA1 levels when compared with control infusions of HSV-LacZ. Surprisingly, dnGluN1 expression led to an enhancement in the motivation to self-administer cocaine as measured using a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule and to enhanced cocaine seeking measured in extinction/reinstatement tests following an extended 3 week withdrawal period. Despite blocking tissue GluA1 increases in cocaine self-administering animals, the HSV-dnGluN1 treatment resulted in increased membrane levels of GluA1 and GluN2B, along with markedly higher locomotor responses to intra-VTA infusions of AMPA, suggesting a paradoxical increase in VTA AMPA receptor responsiveness. Together, these data suggest that NMDARs mediate cocaine-induced increases in VTA GluA1 expression, but such transient NMDAR inactivation also leads to compensatory scaling of synaptic AMPA receptors that enhance the motivational for cocaine.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are critical substrates of drug rewards. Animal models indicate that chronic cocaine use enhances excitatory glutamatergic input to these neurons, making them more susceptible to environmental stimuli that trigger drug craving and relapse. We previously found that self-administration of cocaine increases AMPA glutamate receptors in the VTA, and this effect enhances motivation for cocaine. Here we report that the mechanism for this upregulation involves NMDA receptor activity during cocaine use. While interference with NMDA receptor function blocks AMPA receptor upregulation, it also produces a paradoxical enhancement in membrane AMPA receptor subunits, AMPA responsiveness, and the motivation for cocaine. Thus, pharmacotherapy targeting NMDA receptors may inadvertently produce substantial adverse consequences for cocaine addiction.
Literature context: ylase EMD Millipore Cat#AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 Rabbit monoclonal anti-phosphor
Catecholamines stimulate epithelial proliferation, but the role of sympathetic nerve signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is poorly understood. Catecholamines promoted ADRB2-dependent PDAC development, nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion, and pancreatic nerve density. Pancreatic Ngf overexpression accelerated tumor development in LSL-Kras+/G12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mice. ADRB2 blockade together with gemcitabine reduced NGF expression and nerve density, and increased survival of LSL-Kras+/G12D;LSL-Trp53+/R172H;Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mice. Therapy with a Trk inhibitor together with gemcitabine also increased survival of KPC mice. Analysis of PDAC patient cohorts revealed a correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, nerve density, and increased survival of patients on nonselective β-blockers. These findings suggest that catecholamines drive a feedforward loop, whereby upregulation of neurotrophins increases sympathetic innervation and local norepinephrine accumulation.
Literature context: Millipore; catalog no. AB_152; RRID:AB_390204) at 4Â°C for 48 hours followed b
The contribution of leptin-induced modulation of dopamine neurons to feeding behavior and energy homeostasis remains unclear. Midbrain dopamine neurons regulate the reward value of food, and direct leptin administration to the midbrain reduces food intake. However, selective deletion of leptin receptors (Leprs) from dopamine neurons has no effect on body weight, food intake, or hedonic responses, suggesting that leptin acts indirectly or demonstrating that sufficient compensation occurs to mask any direct leptin-dopamine effects. To further explore the role of direct Lepr-dopamine neuron signaling in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, we generated mice in which Leprs were expressed exclusively in dopamine transporter (DAT)-expressing neurons (LeprDAT). We then assessed weekly body weight, daily food intake, hyperphagic feeding, and leptin-induced suppression of feeding in the LeprDAT mice compared with their Lepr-deficient (LeprNULL) and wild-type control (LeprCON) littermates. We also used metabolic cages to characterize running wheel activity, home-cage activity, and total energy expenditure. As expected, LeprNULL mice exhibited increased body weight and food intake compared with LeprCON mice. LeprDAT male mice exhibited acute leptin-induced suppression of food intake and reduced hedonic feeding but also exhibited significantly increased postweaning body weight gain compared with the LeprNULL mice. This was associated with significantly reduced home-cage activity counts, although no differences in food intake were observed between the LeprDAT and LeprNULL mice. These data demonstrate that restoring Lepr signaling exclusively in dopamine neurons reduces some aspects of food reward and activity but does not ameliorate the obesity phenotype of Lepr-deficient mice.
Literature context: (Millipore Cat# AB_152, RRID:AB_390204). After several rinses in PBS,
Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract. Using wholemount tissue staining and clearing, or retrograde tracing in a METEGFP transgenic mouse, we identify three novel subpopulations of EGFP+ vagal brainstem neurons: (a) EGFP+ neurons in the nAmb projecting to the esophagus or laryngeal muscles, (b) EGFP+ neurons in the medial DMV projecting to the stomach, and (b) EGFP+ neurons in the lateral DMV projecting to the cecum and/or proximal colon. Expression of the MET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), by tissues innervated by vagal motor neurons during fetal development reveal potential sites of HGF-MET interaction. Furthermore, similar cellular expression patterns of MET in the brainstem of both the mouse and nonhuman primate suggests that MET expression at these sites is evolutionarily conserved. Together, the data suggest that MET+ neurons in the brainstem vagal motor nuclei are anatomically positioned to regulate distinct portions of the gastrointestinal tract, with implications for the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal comorbidities of ASD.
Literature context: o. AB152, RRID:AB_3902041:100; Chemicon;
Although mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease, their function is largely unknown. LRRK2 is pleiotropic in nature, shown to be involved in neurodegeneration and in more peripheral processes, including kidney functions, in rats and mice. Recent studies in zebrafish have shown conflicting evidence that removal of the LRRK2 WD40 domain may or may not affect dopaminergic neurons and/or locomotion. This study shows that ∼50% LRRK2 knockdown in zebrafish causes not only neuronal loss but also developmental perturbations such as axis curvature defects, ocular abnormalities, and edema in the eyes, lens, and otic vesicles. We further show that LRRK2 knockdown results in significant neuronal loss, including a reduction of dopaminergic neurons. Immunofluorescence demonstrates that endogenous LRRK2 is expressed in the lens, brain, heart, spinal cord, and kidney (pronephros), which mirror the LRRK2 morphant phenotypes observed. LRRK2 knockdown results further in the concomitant upregulation of β-synuclein, PARK13, and SOD1 and causes β-synuclein aggregation in the diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain, and postoptic commissure. LRRK2 knockdown causes mislocalization of the Na(+) /K(+) ATPase protein in the pronephric ducts, suggesting that the edema might be linked to renal malfunction and that LRRK2 might be associated with pronephric duct epithelial cell differentiation. Combined, our study shows that LRRK2 has multifaceted roles in zebrafish and that zebrafish represent a complementary model to further our understanding of this central protein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: :500 dilution, catalog #AB_152, RRID:AB_390204; Millipore Bioscience Research
The development of the dopamine input to the medial prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence and is a process that is vulnerable to disruption by stimulant drugs such as amphetamine. We have previously linked the amphetamine-induced disruption of dopamine connectivity and prefrontal cortex maturation during adolescence to the downregulation of the Netrin-1 receptor, DCC, in dopamine neurons. However, how DCC expression in dopamine neurons is itself regulated is completely unknown. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation of mRNA translation and stability is a prominent mechanism linking environmental events to changes in protein expression. Here, using male mice, we show that miR-218 is expressed in dopamine neurons and is a repressor of DCC. Whereas Dcc mRNA levels increase from early adolescence to adulthood, miR-218 exhibits the exact opposite switch, most likely maintaining postnatal Dcc expression. This dynamic regulation appears to be selective to Dcc since the expression of Robo 1, the other guidance cue receptor target of miR-218, does not vary with age. Amphetamine in adolescence, but not in adulthood, increases miR-218 in the VTA and this event is required for drug-induced downregulation of Dcc mRNA and protein expression. This effect seems to be specific to Dcc because amphetamine does not alter Robo1. Furthermore, the upregulation of miR-218 by amphetamine requires dopamine D2 receptor activation. These findings identify miR-218 as regulator of DCC in the VTA both in normal development and after drug exposure in adolescence.
Literature context: og #AB_152 RRID:AB_390204, both used at 1:1000 dilution)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by the selective loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Recent evidence has suggested a role of LRRK2, linked to the most frequent familial PD, in regulating synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking. However, the mechanism whereby LRRK2 mutants contribute to nigral vulnerability remains unclear. Here we show that the most common PD mutation LRRK2 G2019S impairs SV endocytosis in ventral midbrain (MB) neurons, including DA neurons, and the slowed endocytosis can be rescued by inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity. A similar endocytic defect, however, was not observed in LRRK2 mutant neurons from the neocortex (hereafter, cortical neurons) or the hippocampus, suggesting a brain region-specific vulnerability to the G2019S mutation. Additionally, we found MB-specific impairment of SV endocytosis in neurons carrying heterozygous deletion of SYNJ1 (PARK20), a gene that is associated with recessive Parkinsonism. Combining SYNJ1+/- and LRRK2 G2019S does not exacerbate SV endocytosis but impairs sustained exocytosis in MB neurons and alters specific motor functions of 1-year-old male mice. Interestingly, we show that LRRK2 directly phosphorylates synaptojanin1 in vitro, resulting in the disruption of endophilin-synaptojanin1 interaction required for SV endocytosis. Our work suggests a merge of LRRK2 and SYNJ1 pathogenic pathways in deregulating SV trafficking in MB neurons as an underlying molecular mechanism of early PD pathogenesis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron-selective vulnerability in PD is essential for the development of targeted therapeutics. We report, for the first time, a nerve terminal impairment in SV trafficking selectively in MB neurons but not cortical neurons caused by two PARK genes: LRRK2 (PARK8) and SYNJ1 (PARK20). We demonstrate that the enhanced kinase activity resulting from the most frequent G2019S mutation in LRRK2 is the key to this impairment. We provide evidence suggesting that LRRK2 G2019S and SYNJ1 loss of function share a similar pathogenic pathway in deregulating DAergic neuron SV endocytosis and that they play additive roles in facilitating each other's pathogenic functions in PD.
Literature context: droxylase Millipore Cat#AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 chicken anti-Tyrosine hydroxyla
Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes. We demonstrate that these sympathetic fibers originate from the celiac ganglia, which are activated by cold challenge. Sympathetic-specific deletion of TrkA receptor or pharmacologic ablation by 6-hydroxydopamine abolishes these intra-adipose arborizations and, as a result, cold-induced beiging of inguinal WAT. Furthermore, we find that local sympathetic arborizations function through beta-adrenergic receptors in this beiging process. These findings uncover an essential link connecting efferent neural signals with metabolism of individual adipocytes.
Literature context: catalog no. AB_152, Millipore; RRID:AB_390204) overnight at 4Â°C. The floating
The in vivo firing pattern of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons is controlled by GABA afferents originating primarily from the nucleus accumbens (NAc), rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), and local GABA neurons within the VTA. Although different forms of plasticity have been observed from GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons, one dependent on cyclic GMP synthesis and the other on adenylyl cyclase activation, it is unknown whether plasticity is differentially expressed in each. Using an optogenetic strategy, we show that identified inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from local VTA GABA neurons and NAc afferents exhibit a cyclic GMP-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) that is capable of inhibiting the firing activity of dopamine neurons. However, this form of LTP was not induced from RMTg afferents. Only an adenylyl cyclase-mediated increase in IPSCs was exhibited by all three inputs. Thus discrete plasticity mechanisms recruit overlapping but different subsets of GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe a mapping of plasticity expression, mediated by different mechanisms, among three distinct GABA afferents to ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons: the rostromedial tegmental nucleus, the nucleus accumbens, and the local GABA neurons within the VTA known to synapse on VTA dopamine neurons. This work is the first demonstration that discrete plasticity mechanisms recruit overlapping but different subsets of GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons.
Literature context: illipore; RRID:AB_390204) for 72 h
Normally, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) does not appear during waking or non-REMS. Isolated, independent studies showed that elevated noradrenaline (NA) levels inhibit REMS and induce REMS loss-associated cytomolecular, cytomorphological, psychosomatic changes and associated symptoms. However, the source of NA and its target in the brain for REMS regulation and function in health and diseases remained to be confirmed in vivo. Using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-siRNA and virus-coated TH-shRNA in normal freely moving rats, we downregulated NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) REM-OFF neurons in vivo. These TH-downregulated rats showed increased REMS, which was prevented by infusing NA into the pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons, normal REMS returned after recovery. Moreover, unlike normal or control-siRNA- or shRNA-injected rats, upon REMS deprivation (REMSD) TH-downregulated rat brains did not show elevated Na-K ATPase (molecular changes) expression and activity. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first in vivo findings in an animal model confirming that NA from the LC REM-OFF neurons (1) acts on the PPT REM-ON neurons to prevent appearance of REMS, and (2) are responsible for inducing REMSD-associated molecular changes and symptoms. These observations clearly show neuro-physio-chemical mechanism of why normally REMS does not appear during waking. Also, that LC neurons are the primary source of NA, which in turn causes some, if not many, REMSD-associated symptoms and behavioral changes. The findings are proof-of-principle for the first time and hold potential to be exploited for confirmation toward treating REMS disorder and amelioration of REMS loss-associated symptoms in patients.
Literature context: t #: AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 Donkey anti-Goat IgG secondary
Sodium deficiency increases angiotensin II (ATII) and aldosterone, which synergistically stimulate sodium retention and consumption. Recently, ATII-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) and aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTSHSD2 neurons) were shown to drive sodium appetite. Here we investigate the basis for NTSHSD2 neuron activation, identify the circuit by which NTSHSD2 neurons drive appetite, and uncover an interaction between the NTSHSD2 circuit and ATII signaling. NTSHSD2 neurons respond to sodium deficiency with spontaneous pacemaker-like activity-the consequence of "cardiac" HCN and Nav1.5 channels. Remarkably, NTSHSD2 neurons are necessary for sodium appetite, and with concurrent ATII signaling their activity is sufficient to produce rapid consumption. Importantly, NTSHSD2 neurons stimulate appetite via projections to the vlBNST, which is also the effector site for ATII-responsive SFO neurons. The interaction between angiotensin signaling and NTSHSD2 neurons provides a neuronal context for the long-standing "synergy hypothesis" of sodium appetite regulation.
Literature context: B_152; RRID:AB_390204 Mouse anti-pTyr Sigma Cat# p411
Axonal targeting of signaling receptors is essential for neuronal responses to extracellular cues. Here, we report that retrograde signaling by target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) is necessary for soma-to-axon transcytosis of TrkA receptors in sympathetic neurons, and we define the molecular underpinnings of this positive feedback regulation that enhances neuronal sensitivity to trophic factors. Activated TrkA receptors are retrogradely transported in signaling endosomes from distal axons to cell bodies, where they are inserted on soma surfaces and promote phosphorylation of resident naive receptors, resulting in their internalization. Endocytosed TrkA receptors are then dephosphorylated by PTP1B, an ER-resident protein tyrosine phosphatase, prior to axonal transport. PTP1B inactivation prevents TrkA exit from soma and causes receptor degradation, suggesting a "gatekeeper" mechanism that ensures targeting of inactive receptors to axons to engage with ligand. In mice, PTP1B deletion reduces axonal TrkA levels and attenuates neuron survival and target innervation under limiting NGF (NGF+/-) conditions.
Literature context: al antibody (Antibody Registry: RRID:AB_390204, at 1:100). Slices were then wa
The mu and delta opioid receptors (MOR and DOR) are highly homologous members of the opioid family of GPCRs. There is evidence that MOR and DOR interact, however the extent to which these interactions occur in vivo and affect synaptic function is unknown. There are two stable DOR subtypes: DPDPE sensitive (DOR1) and deltorphin II sensitive (DOR2); both agonists are blocked by DOR selective antagonists. Robust motivational effects are produced by local actions of both MOR and DOR ligands in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here we demonstrate that a majority of both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA neurons express combinations of functional DOR1, DOR2, and/or MOR, and that within a single VTA neuron, DOR1, DOR2, and MOR agonists can differentially couple to downstream signaling pathways. As reported for the MOR agonist DAMGO, DPDPE and deltorphin II produced either a predominant K+ dependent hyperpolarization or a Cav2.1 mediated depolarization in different neurons. In some neurons DPDPE and deltorphin II produced opposite responses. Excitation, inhibition, or no effect by DAMGO did not predict the response to DPDPE or deltorphin II, arguing against a MOR-DOR interaction generating DOR subtypes. However, in a subset of VTA neurons the DOR antagonist TIPP-Ψ augmented DAMGO responses; we also observed DPDPE or deltorphin II responses augmented by the MOR selective antagonist CTAP. These findings directly support the existence of two independent, stable forms of the DOR, and show that MOR and DOR can interact in some neurons to alter downstream signaling.
Literature context: ting tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH; #RRID:AB_152, Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA)
Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition for which there is no cure. Converging evidence implicates gangliosides in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a potential new class of therapeutic targets. We have shown that interventions that simultaneously increase the neuroprotective GM1 ganglioside and decrease the pro-apoptotic GD3 ganglioside - such as inhibition of GD3 synthase (GD3S) or administration of sialidase - are neuroprotective in vitro and in a number of preclinical models. In this study, we investigated the effects of GD3S deletion on parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP was administered to GD3S-/- mice or controls using a subchronic regimen consisting of three series of low-dose injections (11 mg/kg/day × 5 days each, 3 weeks apart), and motor function was assessed after each. The typical battery of tests used to assess parkinsonism failed to detect deficits in MPTP-treated mice. More sensitive measures - such as the force-plate actimeter and treadmill gait parameters - detected subtle effects of MPTP, some of which were absent in mice lacking GD3S. In wild-type mice, MPTP destroyed 53% of the tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and reduced striatal dopamine 60.7%. In contrast, lesion size was only 22.5% in GD3S-/- mice and striatal dopamine was reduced by 37.2%. Stereological counts of Nissl-positive SNc neurons that did not express TH suggest that neuroprotection was complete but TH expression was suppressed in some cells. These results show that inhibition of GD3S has neuroprotective properties in the MPTP model and may warrant further investigation as a therapeutic target.
Literature context: y against TH (1:500; Millipore, RRID:AB_152) at 4Â°C overnight. After washin
The ability to predict reward promotes animal survival. Both dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area and serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) participate in reward processing. Although the learning effects on dopamine neurons have been extensively characterized, it remains largely unknown how the response of serotonin neurons evolves during learning. Moreover, although stress is known to strongly influence reward-related behavior, we know very little about how stress modulates neuronal reward responses. By monitoring Ca2+ signals during the entire process of Pavlovian conditioning, we here show that learning differentially shapes the response patterns of serotonin neurons and dopamine neurons in mice of either sex. Serotonin neurons gradually develop a slow ramp-up response to the reward-predicting cue, and ultimately remain responsive to the reward, whereas dopamine neurons increase their response to the cue but reduce their response to the reward. For both neuron types, the responses to the cue and the reward depend on reward value, are reversible when the reward is omitted, and are rapidly reinstated by restoring the reward. We also found that stressors including head restraint and fearful context substantially reduce the response strength of both neuron types, to both the cue and the reward. These results reveal the dynamic nature of the reward responses, support the hypothesis that DRN serotonin neurons signal the current likelihood of receiving a net benefit, and suggest that the inhibitory effect of stress on the reward responses of serotonin neurons and dopamine neurons may contribute to stress-induced anhedonia.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Both serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe and dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area are intimately involved in reward processing. Using long-term fiber photometry of Ca2+ signals from freely behaving mice, we here show that learning produces a ramp-up activation pattern in serotonin neurons that differs from that in dopamine neurons, indicating complementary roles for these two neuron types in reward processing. Moreover, stress treatment substantially reduces the reward responses of both serotonin neurons and dopamine neurons, suggesting a possible physiological basis for stress-induced anhedonia.
Literature context: xylase Millipore Cat #: AB_152, RRID:AB_390204 Rabbit polyclonal anti-SOCS-3 C
Beige adipocytes can interconvert between white and brown-like states and switch between energy storage versus expenditure. Here we report that beige adipocyte plasticity is important for feeding-associated changes in energy expenditure and is coordinated by the hypothalamus and the phosphatase TCPTP. A fasting-induced and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of TCPTP, inhibited insulin signaling in AgRP/NPY neurons, repressed the browning of white fat and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely feeding reduced hypothalamic TCPTP, to increase AgRP/NPY neuronal insulin signaling, white adipose tissue browning and energy expenditure. The feeding-induced repression of hypothalamic TCPTP was defective in obesity. Mice lacking TCPTP in AgRP/NPY neurons were resistant to diet-induced obesity and had increased beige fat activity and energy expenditure. The deletion of hypothalamic TCPTP in obesity restored feeding-induced browning and increased energy expenditure to promote weight loss. Our studies define a hypothalamic switch that coordinates energy expenditure with feeding for the maintenance of energy balance.
Literature context: lipore; ab152; RRID:AB_390204) and guinea pig anti-phenyletha
Fasting evokes a homeostatic response that maintains circulating levels of energy-rich metabolites and increases the drive to eat. Centrally, this reflex activates a small population of hypothalamic neurons that are characterized by the expression of AgRP, a neuropeptide with an extremely restricted distribution. Apart from the hypothalamus, the only other site with substantial expression is the adrenal gland, but there is disagreement about which cells synthesize AgRP. Using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we show AgRP is present in the mouse adrenal medulla and is expressed by neuroendocrine chromaffin cells that also synthesize the catecholamines and neuropeptide Y. Short-term fasting led to an increase in adrenal AgRP expression. Because AgRP can act as an antagonist at MC3/4 receptors, we tested whether melanotan II, an MC3/4 receptor agonist, could regulate pre- and postsynaptic signaling within the adrenal medulla. Melanotan II decreased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked synaptic currents recorded in chromaffin cells; this effect was blocked by exogenous AgRP. In contrast, neither melanotan II nor AgRP altered the optogenetically evoked release of catecholamines from isolated chromaffin cells. These results are consistent with the idea that AgRP regulates the strength of the sympathetic input by modulation of presynaptic MC3/4 receptors located on preganglionic neurons. We conclude that a small population of neuroendocrine cells in the adrenal medulla, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, express AgRP and neuropeptide Y and are functionally involved in the systemic response to fasting.
Literature context: llipore Corporation Cat#AB_152; RRID:AB_390204 Rabbit polyclonal anti-mCherry
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission controls behaviors important for survival, including voluntary movement, reward processing, and detection of salient events, such as food or mate availability. Dopaminergic tone also influences circadian physiology and behavior. Although the evolutionary significance of this input is appreciated, its precise neurophysiological architecture remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel, direct connection between the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We demonstrate that D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1) signaling within the SCN is necessary for properly timed resynchronization of activity rhythms to phase-shifted light:dark cycles and that elevation of DA tone through selective activation of VTA DA neurons accelerates photoentrainment. Our findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for direct DA input to the master circadian clock and highlight the importance of an evolutionarily significant relationship between the circadian system and the neuromodulatory circuits that govern motivational behaviors.
Literature context: re Ab152; RRID:AB_390204 Guinea pig
Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression. We find that these populations undergo different electrophysiological adaptations in response to social defeat stress, which are normalized by antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, manipulation of each population mediates either social withdrawal or behavioral despair, but not both. We propose that distinct components of the VP PV circuit can subserve related, yet separate depressive-like phenotypes in mice, which could ultimately provide a platform for symptom-specific treatments of depression.
Literature context: iotechnology, Gainesville, FL); rabbit anti-TH (catalog number AB152, Millipore, Billerica, MA or catalog numbe
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5% of the population over the age of 85 years. Current treatments primarily involve dopamine replacement therapy, which leads to temporary relief of motor symptoms but fails to slow the underlying neurodegeneration. Thus, there is a need for safe PD therapies with neuroprotective activity. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe from Western Montana to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify medicinal plants that are affordable to traditional communities and accessible to larger populations. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aims of this study were to (i) identify medicinal plants used by the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe to treat individuals with symptoms related to PD or other CNS disorders, and (ii) characterize a subset of the identified plants in terms of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cellular models of PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews of healers and local people were carried out on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. Plant samples were collected, and water extracts were produced for subsequent analysis. A subset of botanical extracts was tested for the ability to induce activation of the Nrf2-mediated transcriptional response and to protect against neurotoxicity elicited by the PD-related toxins rotenone and paraquat. RESULTS: The ethnopharmacological interviews resulted in the documentation of 26 medicinal plants used to treat various ailments and diseases, including symptoms related to PD. Seven botanical extracts (out of a total of 10 extracts tested) showed activation of Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity in primary cortical astrocytes. Extracts prepared from Allium sativum cloves, Trifolium pratense flowers, and Amelanchier arborea berries exhibited neuroprotective activity against toxicity elicited by rotenone, whereas only the extracts prepared from Allium sativum and Amelanchier arborea alleviated PQ-induced dopaminergic cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the potential clinical utility of plants used for medicinal purposes over generations by the Pikuni-Blackfeet people, and they shed light on mechanisms by which the plant extracts could slow neurodegeneration in PD.
Literature context: at#AB152; RRID:AB_390204 Mouse anti
The release of dopamine (DA) regulates rewarding behavior and motor actions through striatum-targeting efferents from ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Here, we map and functionally characterize axonal projections from oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to midbrain DA regions. Electrophysiological recordings of DA neurons reveal that both the application of oxytocin and optogenetic stimulation of oxytocinergic terminals suffice to increase DA neuron activity in the VTA but downregulate it in SNc. This biased modulation is mediated by oxytocin and vasopressin G-protein-coupled receptors. Oxytocin release directly activates DA neurons and indirectly inhibits them through local GABA neurons, but the relative magnitudes of the two mechanisms differ in VTA and SNc. Oxytocin-modulated DA neurons give rise to canonical striatal projections. Since hypothalamic oxytocinergic projections also target the striatum, oxytocin is poised to bias the balance of DA tone through multiple sites in vertebrate reward circuits.
Literature context: t# AB152, RRID:AB_390204 Chicken An
Stress-induced hyperglycemia is a fundamental adaptive response that mobilizes energy stores in response to threats. Here, our examination of the contributions of the central catecholaminergic (CA) neuronal system to this adaptive response revealed that CA neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) control stress-induced hyperglycemia. Ablation of VLM CA neurons abolished the hyperglycemic response to both physical and psychological stress, whereas chemogenetic activation of these neurons was sufficient to induce hyperglycemia. We further found that CA neurons in the rostral VLM, but not those in the caudal VLM, cause hyperglycemia via descending projections to the spinal cord. Monosynaptic tracing experiments showed that VLM CA neurons receive direct inputs from multiple stress-responsive brain areas. Optogenetic studies identified an excitatory PVN-VLM circuit that induces hyperglycemia. This study establishes the central role of VLM CA neurons in stress-induced hyperglycemia and substantially expands our understanding of the central mechanism that controls glucose metabolism.
Literature context: t# AB152; RRID:AB_390204 PSD-95 Neu
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements. Here, we circumvent this limitation by exploiting cultured intestinal organoids together with single-cell measurements to elucidate intrinsic biophysical, pharmacological, and genetic properties of EC cells. We show that EC cells express specific chemosensory receptors, are electrically excitable, and modulate serotonin-sensitive primary afferent nerve fibers via synaptic connections, enabling them to detect and transduce environmental, metabolic, and homeostatic information from the gut directly to the nervous system.
Literature context: ion of DA neurons (Figure 3D). (RRID:AB_390204 for the antibody)
Responses of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons reflecting expected reward from sensory cues are critical for reward-based associative learning. However, critical pathways by which reward-related visual information is relayed to DA neurons remain unclear. To address this question, we investigated Pavlovian conditioning in macaque monkeys with unilateral primary visual cortex (V1) lesions (an animal model of 'blindsight'). Anticipatory licking responses to obtain juice drops were elicited in response to visual conditioned stimuli (CS) in the affected visual field. Subsequent pharmacological inactivation of the superior colliculus (SC) suppressed the anticipatory licking. Concurrent single unit recordings indicated that DA responses reflecting the reward expectation could be recorded in the absence of V1, and that these responses were also suppressed by SC inactivation. These results indicate that the subcortical visual circuit can relay reward-predicting visual information to DA neurons and integrity of the SC is necessary for visually-elicited classically conditioned responses after V1 lesion.
Literature context: essed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sheep, AB152, 1:5000; Lot 2668078; Millipore; Antibodyregistry.org) using a standard immunohistolo
A method for capturing gait signatures in neurological conditions that allows comparison of human gait with animal models would be of great value in translational research. However, the velocity dependence of gait parameters and differences between quadruped and biped gait have made this comparison challenging. Here we present an approach that accounts for changes in velocity during walking and allows for translation across species. In mice, we represented spatial and temporal gait parameters as a function of velocity and established regression models that reproducibly capture the signatures of these relationships during walking. In experimental parkinsonism models, regression curves representing these relationships shifted from baseline, implicating changes in gait signatures, but with marked differences between models. Gait parameters in healthy human subjects followed similar strict velocity dependent relationships which were altered in Parkinson's patients in ways that resemble some but not all mouse models. This novel approach is suitable to quantify qualitative walking abnormalities related to CNS circuit dysfunction across species, identify appropriate animal models, and it provides important translational opportunities.
Literature context: t# AB152, RRID:AB_390204 glial fibr
Bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) develops in various hematological and non-hematological conditions and is a central pathological feature of myelofibrosis. Effective cell-targeted therapeutics are needed, but the cellular origin of BMF remains elusive. Here, we show using genetic fate tracing in two murine models of BMF that Gli1+ mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited from the endosteal and perivascular niche to become fibrosis-driving myofibroblasts in the bone marrow. Genetic ablation of Gli1+ cells abolished BMF and rescued bone marrow failure. Pharmacological targeting of Gli proteins with GANT61 inhibited Gli1+ cell expansion and myofibroblast differentiation and attenuated fibrosis severity. The same pathway is also active in human BMF, and Gli1 expression in BMF significantly correlates with the severity of the disease. In addition, GANT61 treatment reduced the myofibroblastic phenotype of human MSCs isolated from patients with BMF, suggesting that targeting of Gli proteins could be a relevant therapeutic strategy.
Literature context: Millipore RRID:AB_390204 Cy3-conjug
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation, particularly to the striatum. PD patients often exhibit sensory impairments, yet the underlying network mechanisms are unknown. Here we examined how dopamine (DA) depletion affects sensory processing in the mouse striatum. We used the optopatcher for online identification of direct and indirect pathway projection neurons (MSNs) during in vivo whole-cell recordings. In control mice, MSNs encoded the laterality of sensory inputs with larger and earlier responses to contralateral than ipsilateral whisker deflection. This laterality coding was lost in DA-depleted mice due to adaptive changes in the intrinsic and synaptic properties, mainly, of direct pathway MSNs. L-DOPA treatment restored laterality coding by increasing the separation between ipsilateral and contralateral responses. Our results show that DA depletion impairs bilateral tactile acuity in a pathway-dependent manner, thus providing unexpected insights into the network mechanisms underlying sensory deficits in PD. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: illipore; RRID:AB_390204) with the
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of embryonic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. To study the function of TGF-β signaling in the adult nigrostriatal system, we generated transgenic mice with reduced TGF-β signaling in mature neurons. These mice display age-related motor deficits and degeneration of the nigrostriatal system. Increasing TGF-β signaling in the substantia nigra through adeno-associated virus expressing a constitutively active type I receptor significantly reduces 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits. These results suggest that TGF-β signaling is critical for adult DA neuron survival and that modulating this signaling pathway has therapeutic potential in Parkinson disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show that reducing Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling promotes Parkinson disease-related pathologies and motor deficits, and increasing TGF-β signaling reduces neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a parkinsonism-inducing agent. Our results provide a rationale to pursue a means of increasing TGF-β signaling as a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease.
Literature context: l, AB152, RRID:AB_390204 1:1,000
Our previous analysis of progenitor domains in the pretectum of Xenopus revealed three molecularly distinct anteroposterior subdivisions, identified as precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic domains (Morona et al.  J Comp Neurol 519:1024-1050). Here we analyzed at later developmental stages the nuclei derived from these areas, attending to their gene expression patterns and histogenesis. Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of each domain: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); Foxp1 and Six3 (JcP); and Xiro1, VGlut2, Ebf1, and Ebf3 (PcP). Additional genoarchitectural information was provided by the expression of Gbx2, NPY, Lhx1, and Lhx9. This allowed both unambiguous characterization of the anuran pretectal nuclei with regard to their origin in the three early anteroposterior progenitor domains, and their comparison with counterparts in the chick and mouse pretectum. Our observations demonstrated a molecular conservation, during practically all the stages analyzed, for most of the main markers used to define genoarchitecturally the main derivatives of each pretectal domain. We found molecular evidence to propose homologous derivatives from the CoP (olivary pretectal, parvocellular, and magnocellular posterior commissure and lateral terminal nuclei), JcP (spiriformis lateral and lateral terminal nuclei), and PcP (anterior pretectal nucleus) to those described in avian studies. These results represent significant progress in the comprehension of the diencephalic region of Xenopus and show that the organization of the pretectum possesses many features shared with birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:715-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: illipore; RRID:AB_390204), mouse an
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in rodent models of Parkinson's disease and restores DA circuitry when delivered after these neurons have begun to degenerate. These DA neurons have been suggested to transport striatal CDNF retrogradely to the substantia nigra (SN). However, in cultured cells the binding and internalization of extracellular CDNF has not been reported. The first aim of this study was to examine the cellular localization and pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant human CDNF (rhCDNF) protein after its infusion into rat brain parenchyma. Second, we aimed to study whether the transport of rhCDNF from the striatum to the SN results from its retrograde transport via DA neurons or from its anterograde transport via striatal GABAergic projection neurons. We show that after intrastriatal infusion, rhCDNF diffuses rapidly and broadly, and is cleared with a half-life of 5.5 h. Confocal microscopy analysis of brain sections at 2 and 6 h after infusion of rhCDNF revealed its widespread unspecific internalization by cortical and striatal neurons, exhibiting different patterns of subcellular rhCDNF distribution. Electron microscopy analysis showed that rhCDNF is present inside the endosomes and multivesicular bodies. In addition, we present data that after intrastriatal infusion the rhCDNF found in the SN is almost exclusively localized to the DA neurons, thus showing that it is retrogradely transported.
Literature context: t# AB152; RRID:AB_390204 Donkey Ant
Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.
Literature context: t# AB152; RRID:AB_390204 Anti-Ret G
Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons facilitate or diminish pain remain elusive. Here we used in vivo opto/chemogenetic manipulations and trans-synaptic tracing of genetically identified dorsal horn and RVM neurons to uncover an RVM-spinal cord-primary afferent circuit controlling pain thresholds. Unexpectedly, we found that RVM GABAergic neurons facilitate mechanical pain by inhibiting dorsal horn enkephalinergic/GABAergic interneurons. We further demonstrate that these interneurons gate sensory inputs and control pain through temporally coordinated enkephalin- and GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition of somatosensory neurons. Our results uncover a descending disynaptic inhibitory circuit that facilitates mechanical pain, is engaged during stress, and could be targeted to establish higher pain thresholds. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: t# AB152; RRID:AB_390204 Rabbit pol
Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients. Synapses of these mice displayed endocytic defects and a striking accumulation of clathrin-coated intermediates, strongly implicating Sac domain's activity in endocytic protein dynamics. Mutant brains had elevated auxilin (PARK19) and parkin (PARK2) levels. Moreover, dystrophic axonal terminal changes were selectively observed in dopaminergic axons in the dorsal striatum. These results strengthen evidence for a link between synaptic endocytic dysfunction and Parkinson's disease.
Literature context: og AB152, RRID:AB_390204) at 1:500
Decreased noradrenergic excitation of hypoglossal motoneurons during sleep causing hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator muscles is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a widespread disease for which treatment options are limited. Previous OSA drug candidates targeting various excitatory/inhibitory receptors on hypoglossal motoneurons have proved unviable in reactivating these neurons, particularly during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. To identify a viable drug target, we show that the repurposed α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine potently reversed the depressant effect of REM sleep on baseline hypoglossal motoneuron activity (a first-line motor defense against OSA) in rats. Remarkably, yohimbine also restored the obstructive apnea-induced long-term facilitation of hypoglossal motoneuron activity (hLTF), a much-neglected form of noradrenergic-dependent neuroplasticity that could provide a second-line motor defense against OSA but was also depressed during REM sleep. Corroborating immunohistologic, optogenetic, and pharmacologic evidence confirmed that yohimbine's beneficial effects on baseline hypoglossal motoneuron activity and hLTF were mediated mainly through activation of pontine A7 and A5 noradrenergic neurons. Our results suggest a 2-tier (impaired first- and second-line motor defense) mechanism of noradrenergic-dependent pathogenesis of OSA and a promising pharmacotherapy for rescuing both these intrinsic defenses against OSA through disinhibition of A7 and A5 neurons by α2-adrenergic blockade.
Literature context: iotechnology, Gainesville, FL); rabbit anti-TH (#AB152, Millipore, Billerica, MA); mouse anti-Î²-ac
Neuropathological and genetic findings suggest that the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (aSyn) is involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathy disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy. Evidence suggests that the self-assembly of aSyn conformers bound to phospholipid membranes in an aggregation-prone state plays a key role in aSyn neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that protein binding partners of lipid-associated aSyn could inhibit the formation of toxic aSyn oligomers at membrane surfaces. To address this hypothesis, we characterized the protein endosulfine-alpha (ENSA), previously shown to interact selectively with membrane-bound aSyn, in terms of its effects on the membrane-induced aggregation and neurotoxicity of two familial aSyn mutants, A30P and G51D. We found that wild-type ENSA, but not the non-aSyn-binding S109E variant, interfered with membrane-induced aSyn self-assembly, aSyn-mediated vesicle disruption and aSyn neurotoxicity. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that ENSA was down-regulated in the brains of synucleinopathy patients versus non-diseased individuals. Collectively, these results suggest that ENSA can alleviate neurotoxic effects of membrane-bound aSyn via an apparent chaperone-like activity at the membrane surface, and a decrease in ENSA expression may contribute to aSyn neuropathology in synucleinopathy disorders. More generally, our findings suggest that promoting interactions between lipid-bound, amyloidogenic proteins and their binding partners is a viable strategy to alleviate cytotoxicity in a range of protein misfolding disorders.
Literature context: g #AB152; RRID:AB_390204), Î±-smooth
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) is an RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. To understand the physiological function of CPEB2, we generated CPEB2 knock-out (KO) mice and found that most died within 3 d after birth. CPEB2 is highly expressed in the brainstem, which controls vital functions, such as breathing. Whole-body plethysmography revealed that KO neonates had aberrant respiration with frequent apnea. Nevertheless, the morphology and function of the respiratory rhythm generator and diaphragm neuromuscular junctions appeared normal. We found that upregulated translation of choline acetyltransferase in the CPEB2 KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus resulted in hyperactivation of parasympathetic signaling-induced bronchoconstriction, as evidenced by increased pulmonary acetylcholine and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 in bronchial smooth muscles. Specific deletion of CPEB2 in cholinergic neurons sufficiently caused increased apnea in neonatal pups and airway hyper-reactivity in adult mice. Moreover, inhalation of an anticholinergic bronchodilator reduced apnea episodes in global and cholinergic CPEB2-KO mice. Together, the elevated airway constriction induced by cholinergic transmission in KO neonates may account for the respiratory defect and mortality. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study first generated and characterized cpeb2 gene-deficient mice. CPEB2-knock-out (KO) mice are born alive but most die within 3 d after birth showing no overt defects in anatomy. We found that the KO neonates showed severe apnea and altered respiratory pattern. Such respiratory defects could be recapitulated in mice with pan-neuron-specific or cholinergic neuron-specific ablation of the cpeb2 gene. Further investigation revealed that cholinergic transmission in the KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus was overactivated because KO mice lack CPEB2-suppressed translation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of acetylcholine (i.e., choline acetyltransferase). Consequently, increased parasympathetic signaling leads to hyperactivated bronchoconstriction and abnormal respiration in the KO neonates.
Literature context: 0; AB152, RRID:AB_390204, Millipore
Decreased clearance of α-synuclein (aSyn) and aSyn protein misfolding and aggregation are seen as major factors in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies that leads to disruption in neuronal function and eventually to cell death. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) can accelerate the aSyn aggregation process, while inhibition of PREP by a small molecule inhibitor decreases aSyn oligomer formation and enhances its clearance via autophagy in different aSyn overexpressing cell types and in transgenic PD animal models. In this study, we investigated the impact of chronic PREP inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor, 4-phenylbutanoyl-l-prolyl-2(S)-cyanopyrrolidine (KYP-2047), on aSyn oligomerization, clearance, and underlying spontaneous motor behavior in a virus vector-based aSyn overexpression mouse model 4 weeks after aSyn microinjections and after the onset of symptomatic forepaw bias. Following 4 weeks of PREP inhibition, we saw an improved spontaneous forelimb use in mice that correlated with a decreased immunoreactivity against oligomer-specific forms of aSyn. Additionally, KYP-2047 had a trend to enhance dopaminergic systems activity. Our results suggest that PREP inhibition exhibits a beneficial effect on the aSyn clearance and aggregation in a virus mediated aSyn overexpression PD mouse model and that PREP inhibitors could be a novel therapeutic strategy for synucleinopathies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Alpha-synuclein (aSyn) has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, with aSyn aggregates believed to exert toxic effects on neurons, while prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) has been shown to interact with aSyn both in cells and cell free conditions, thus enhancing its aggregation. We demonstrate the possibility to abolish motor imbalance caused by aSyn viral vector injection with chronic 4 week PREP inhibition by a potent small-molecule PREP inhibitor, 4-phenylbutanoyl-l-prolyl-2(S)-cyanopyrrolidine (KYP-2047). Treatment was initiated postsymptomatically, 4 weeks after aSyn injection. KYP-2047-treated animals had a significantly decreased amount of oligomeric aSyn particles and improved dopamine system activity compared to control animals. To our knowledge, this is the first time viral overexpression of aSyn has been countered and movement impairments abolished after their onset.
Literature context: illipore; RRID:AB_390204) and secon
Dopamine is thought to regulate learning from appetitive and aversive events. Here we examined how optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of mice respond to aversive events in different conditions. In low reward contexts, most dopamine neurons were exclusively inhibited by aversive events, and expectation reduced dopamine neurons' responses to reward and punishment. When a single odor predicted both reward and punishment, dopamine neurons' responses to that odor reflected the integrated value of both outcomes. Thus, in low reward contexts, dopamine neurons signal value prediction errors (VPEs) integrating information about both reward and aversion in a common currency. In contrast, in high reward contexts, dopamine neurons acquired a short-latency excitation to aversive events that masked their VPE signaling. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering the contexts to examine the representation in dopamine neurons and uncover different modes of dopamine signaling, each of which may be adaptive for different environments.
Literature context: ll as in the Antibody Registry (RRID:AB_390204; antibodyregistry.org). Its spe
The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a widely used animal model of depression, which is characterized by dysregulation of noradrenergic signaling. We previously demonstrated that WKY rats show a unique behavioral profile on the forced swim test (FST), characterized by high levels of immobility upon initial exposure and a greater learning-like response by further increasing immobility upon re-exposure than the genetically related Wistar rats. In the current study we aimed to determine whether altered activation of brainstem noradrenergic cell groups contributes to this behavioral profile. We exposed WKY and Wistar rats, to either 5min of forced swim or to the standard two-day FST (i.e. 15min forced swim on Day 1, followed by 5min on Day 2). We then stained their brains for FOS/tyrosine hydroxylase double-immunocytochemistry to determine potential differences in the activation of the brainstem noradrenergic cell groups. We detected a relative hyperactivation in the locus coeruleus of WKY rats when compared to Wistars in response to both one- and two-day forced swim. In contrast, within the A2 noradrenergic cell group, WKY rats exhibited diminished levels of FOS across both days of the FST, suggesting their lesser activation. We followed up these observations by selectively lesioning the A2 neurons, using anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase-conjugated saporin, in Wistar rats, which resulted in increased FST immobility on both days of the test. Together these data indicate that the A2 noradrenergic cell group regulates FST behavior, and that its hypoactivation may contribute to the unique behavioral phenotype of WKY rats.
Literature context: ylaseMilliporeCat# AB152; RRID: AB_390204Rabbit polyclonal anti-c-FosSant
Urine release (micturition) serves an essential physiological function as well as a critical role in social communication in many animals. Here, we show a combined effect of olfaction and social hierarchy on micturition patterns in adult male mice, confirming the existence of a micturition control center that integrates pro- and anti-micturition cues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a cluster of neurons expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) in the pontine micturition center (PMC) is electrophysiologically distinct from their Crh-negative neighbors and sends glutamatergic projections to the spinal cord. The activity of PMC Crh-expressing neurons correlates with and is sufficient to drive bladder contraction, and when silenced impairs micturition behavior. These neurons receive convergent input from widespread higher brain areas that are capable of carrying diverse pro- and anti-micturition signals, and whose activity modulates hierarchy-dependent micturition. Taken together, our results indicate that PMC Crh-expressing neurons are likely the integration center for context-dependent micturition behavior.
Literature context: A; AB152, RRID:AB_390204) resulted
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are mainly known for regulating excitability of neurons. However, mGluR6 at the photoreceptor-ON bipolar cell synapse mediates sign inversion through glutamatergic inhibition. Although this is currently the only confirmed function of mGluR6, other functions have been suggested. Here we present Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1, a new transgenic zebrafish line recapitulating endogenous expression of one of the two mglur6 paralogs in zebrafish. Investigating transgene as well as endogenous mglur6b expression within the zebrafish retina indicates that EGFP and mglur6b mRNA are not only expressed in bipolar cells, but also in a subset of ganglion and amacrine cells. The amacrine cells labeled in Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1 constitute a novel cholinergic, non-GABAergic, non-starburst amacrine cell type described for the first time in teleost fishes. Apart from the retina, we found transgene expression in subsets of periventricular neurons of the hypothalamus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, various cell types of the optic tectum, and mitral/ruffed cells of the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest novel functions of mGluR6 besides sign inversion at ON bipolar cell dendrites, opening up the possibility that inhibitory glutamatergic signaling may be more prevalent than currently thought. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2363-2378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: e #AB152, RRID:AB_390204), mouse an
It is widely believed that damaged axons in the adult mammalian brain have little capacity to regrow, thereby impeding functional recovery after injury. Studies using fixed tissue have suggested that serotonin neurons might be a notable exception, but remain inconclusive. We have employed in vivo two-photon microscopy to produce time-lapse images of serotonin axons in the neocortex of the adult mouse. Serotonin axons undergo massive retrograde degeneration following amphetamine treatment and subsequent slow recovery of axonal density, which is dominated by new growth with little contribution from local sprouting. A stab injury that transects serotonin axons running in the neocortex is followed by local regression of cut serotonin axons and followed by regrowth from cut ends into and across the stab rift zone. Regrowing serotonin axons do not follow the pathways left by degenerated axons. The regrown axons release serotonin and their regrowth is correlated with recovery in behavioral tests.
Literature context: rgic neurons (1:1000, Millipore RRID:AB_152) followed by 2 hours with donke
CRISPR/Cas9 mediated DNA double strand cutting is emerging as a powerful approach to increase rates of homologous recombination of large targeting vectors, but the optimization of parameters, equipment and expertise required remain barriers to successful mouse generation by single-step zygote injection. Here, we sought to apply CRISPR/Cas9 methods to traditional embryonic stem (ES) cell targeting followed by blastocyst injection to overcome the common issues of difficult vector construction and low targeting efficiency. To facilitate the study of noradrenergic function, which is implicated in myriad behavioral and physiological processes, we generated two different mouse lines that express FLPo recombinase under control of the noradrenergic-specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH) gene. We found that by co-electroporating a circular vector expressing Cas9 and a locus-specific sgRNA, we could target FLPo to the DBH locus in ES cells with shortened 1 kb homology arms. Two different sites in the DBH gene were targeted; the translational start codon with 6-8% targeting efficiency, and the translational stop codon with 75% targeting efficiency. Using this approach, we established two mouse lines with DBH-specific expression of FLPo in brainstem catecholaminergic populations that are publically available on MMRRC (MMRRC_041575-UCD and MMRRC_041577-UCD). Altogether, this study supports simplified, high-efficiency Cas9/CRISPR-mediated targeting in embryonic stem cells for production of knock-in mouse lines in a wider variety of contexts than zygote injection alone.
Literature context: DAKO), TH protein (rabbit host, Millipore, AB152), and phosphorylation at ser31
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporters (DATs) regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission at the biosynthesis and reuptake steps, respectively. Dysfunction or loss of these proteins occurs in impaired locomotor or addictive behavior, but little is known about the influence of DAT expression on TH function. Differences in TH phosphorylation, DA tissue content, l-DOPA biosynthesis, and DA turnover exist between the somatodendritic and terminal field compartments of nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbens pathways. We examined whether differential DAT expression affects these compartmental differences in DA regulation by comparing TH expression and phosphorylation at ser31 and ser40. In heterozygous DAT knockout (KO) (+/-) mice, DA tissue content and DA turnover were unchanged relative to wild-type mice, despite a 40% reduction in DAT protein expression. In DAT KO (-/-) mice, DA turnover increased in all DA compartments, but DA tissue content decreased (90-96%) only in terminal fields. TH protein expression and phosphorylation were differentially affected within DA pathway compartments by relative expression of DAT. TH protein decreased (∼74%), though to a significantly lesser extent than DA, in striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in DAT -/- mice, with no decrease in substantia nigra or ventral tegmental area. Striatal ser31 TH phosphorylation and recovery of DA relative to TH protein expression in DAT +/- and DAT -/- mice decreased, whereas ser40 TH phosphorylation increased ∼2- to 3-fold in striatum and NAc of DAT -/- mice. These results suggest that DAT expression affects TH expression and phosphorylation largely in DA terminal field compartments, further corroborating evidence for dichotomous regulation of TH between somatodendritic and terminal field compartments of the nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbens pathways.
Literature context: TH AB152, RRID:AB_390204 1:500; 1:2
Ganglion cells (GCs), the retinal output neurons, receive synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and send information to the brain nuclei via the optic nerve. Although GCs constitute less than 1% of the total retinal cells, they occur in numerous types and are the first neurons formed during retinal development. Using Brn3a and Brn3b mutant mice in which the alkaline phosphatase gene was knocked-in (Badea et al. [Neuron] 2009;61:852-864; Badea and Nathans [Vision Res] 2011;51:269-279), we studied the general effects after gene removal on the retinal neuropil together with the consequences of lack of development of large numbers of GCs onto the remaining retinal neurons of the same class. We analyzed the morphology, number, and general architecture of various neuronal types presynaptic to GCs, searching for changes secondary to the decrement in the number of their postsynaptic partners, as well as the morphology and distribution of retinal astrocytes, for their strong topographical relation to GCs. We found that, despite GC losses, retinal organization in Brn3 null mice is remarkably similar to that of wild-type controls. J. Comp. Neurol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: 0; Bioscience Research Reagents RRID:AB_152, Millipore) overnight at 4Â°C. T
Serotonergic neurons in the brainstem raphe nuclei densely innervate the olfactory bulb (OB), where they can modulate the initial representation and processing of olfactory information. Serotonergic modulation of sensory responses among defined OB cell types is poorly characterized in vivo Here, we used cell-type-specific expression of optical reporters to visualize how raphe stimulation alters sensory responses in two classes of GABAergic neurons of the mouse OB glomerular layer, periglomerular (PG) and short axon (SA) cells, as well as mitral/tufted (MT) cells carrying OB output to piriform cortex. In PG and SA cells, brief (1-4 s) raphe stimulation elicited a large increase in the magnitude of responses linked to inhalation of ambient air, as well as modest increases in the magnitude of odorant-evoked responses. Near-identical effects were observed when the optical reporter of glutamatergic transmission iGluSnFR was expressed in PG and SA cells, suggesting enhanced excitatory input to these neurons. In contrast, in MT cells imaged from the dorsal OB, raphe stimulation elicited a strong increase in resting GCaMP fluorescence with only a slight enhancement of inhalation-linked responses to odorant. Finally, optogenetically stimulating raphe serotonergic afferents in the OB had heterogeneous effects on presumptive MT cells recorded extracellularly, with an overall modest increase in resting and odorant-evoked responses during serotonergic afferent stimulation. These results suggest that serotonergic afferents from raphe dynamically modulate olfactory processing through distinct effects on multiple OB targets, and may alter the degree to which OB output is shaped by inhibition during behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Modulation of the circuits that process sensory information can profoundly impact how information about the external world is represented and perceived. This study investigates how the serotonergic system modulates the initial processing of olfactory information by the olfactory bulb, an obligatory relay between sensory neurons and cortex. We find that serotonergic projections from the raphe nuclei to the olfactory bulb dramatically enhance the responses of two classes of inhibitory interneurons to sensory input, that this effect is mediated by increased glutamatergic drive onto these neurons, and that serotonergic afferent activation alters the responses of olfactory bulb output neurons in vivo These results elucidate pathways by which neuromodulatory systems can dynamically regulate brain circuits during behavior.
Literature context: t #AB152, RRID:AB_390204, 1:1,000),
Transplantation of DA neurons is actively pursued as a restorative therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Pioneering clinical trials using transplants of fetal DA neuroblasts have given promising results, although a number of patients have developed graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs), and the mechanism underlying this troublesome side effect is still unknown. Here we have used a new model where the activity of the transplanted DA neurons can be selectively modulated using a bimodal chemogenetic (DREADD) approach, allowing either enhancement or reduction of the therapeutic effect. We show that exclusive activation of a cAMP-linked (Gs-coupled) DREADD or serotonin 5-HT6 receptor, located on the grafted DA neurons, is sufficient to induce GIDs. These findings establish a mechanistic link between the 5-HT6 receptor, intracellular cAMP, and GIDs in transplanted PD patients. This effect is thought to be mediated through counteraction of the D2 autoreceptor feedback inhibition, resulting in a dysplastic DA release from the transplant.
Literature context: RRID:AB_390204 GAD C-term
α-Synuclein, the major constituent of Lewy bodies (LBs), is normally expressed in presynapses and is involved in synaptic function. Abnormal intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein is observed as LBs and Lewy neurites in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies. Accumulated evidence suggests that abundant intracellular expression of α-synuclein is one of the risk factors for pathological aggregation. Recently, we reported differential expression patterns of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal neurons. Here we further investigated the precise expression profile in the adult mouse brain with special reference to vulnerable regions along the progression of idiopathic PD. The results show that α-synuclein was highly expressed in the neuronal cell bodies of some early PD-affected brain regions, such as the olfactory bulb, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Synaptic expression of α-synuclein was mostly accompanied by expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1, an excitatory presynaptic marker. In contrast, expression of α-synuclein in the GABAergic inhibitory synapses was different among brain regions. α-Synuclein was clearly expressed in inhibitory synapses in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, but not in the cerebral cortex, subthalamic nucleus, or thalamus. These results suggest that some neurons in early PD-affected human brain regions express high levels of perikaryal α-synuclein, as happens in the mouse brain. Additionally, synaptic profiles expressing α-synuclein are different in various brain regions.
Literature context: t# AB152, RRID:AB_390204 1:10,000 H
Dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) release dopamine in response to light-driven synaptic inputs, and are critical to retinal light adaptation. Retinal degeneration (RD) compromises the light responsiveness of the retina and, subsequently, dopamine metabolism is impaired. As RD progresses, retinal neurons exhibit aberrant activity, driven by AII amacrine cells, a primary target of the retinal dopaminergic network. Surprisingly, DACs are an exception to this physiological change; DACs exhibit rhythmic activity in healthy retina, but do not burst in RD. The underlying mechanism of this divergent behavior is not known. It is also unclear whether RD leads to structural changes in DACs, impairing functional regulation of AII amacrine cells. Here we examine the anatomical details of DACs in three mouse models of human RD to determine how changes to the dopaminergic network may underlie physiological changes in RD. By using rd10, rd1, and rd1/C57 mice we were able to dissect the impacts of genetic background and the degenerative process on DAC structure in RD retina. We found that DACs density, soma size, and primary dendrite length are all significantly reduced. Using a novel adeno-associated virus-mediated technique to label AII amacrine cells in mouse retina, we observed diminished dopaminergic contacts to AII amacrine cells in RD mice. This was accompanied by changes to the components responsible for dopamine synthesis and release. Together, these data suggest that structural alterations of the retinal dopaminergic network underlie physiological changes during RD.
Literature context: onal IgG, RRID:AB_39024 1:500 Mill
Elucidating the link between cellular activity and goal-directed behavior requires a fuller understanding of the mechanisms underlying burst firing in midbrain dopaminergic neurons and those that suppress activity during aversive or non-rewarding events. We have characterized the afferent synaptic connections onto these neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), and compared these findings with cholinergic interneurons and spiny projection neurons in the striatum. We found that the average absolute number of synapses was three to three and one-half times greater onto the somata of dorsal striatal spiny projection neurons than onto the somata of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc or dorsal striatal cholinergic interneurons. A similar comparison between populations of dopamine neurons revealed a two times greater number of somatic synapses on VTA dopaminergic neurons than SNpc dopaminergic neurons. The percentage of symmetrical, presumably inhibitory, synaptic inputs on somata was significantly higher on spiny projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons compared with SNpc dopaminergic neurons. Synaptic data on the primary dendrites yielded similar significant differences for the percentage of symmetrical synapses for VTA dopaminergic vs. striatal neurons. No differences in the absolute number or type of somatic synapses were evident for dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc of Wistar vs. Sprague-Dawley rat strains. These data from identified neurons are pivotal for interpreting their electrophysiological responses to afferent activity and for generating realistic computer models of neuronal networks of striatal and midbrain dopaminergic function.
There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.
Literature context: 0; AB152; RRID:AB_390204; Millipore
Cell adhesion molecules play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Among the contactin-associated protein (Caspr; also known as Cntnap) family, which belongs to the neurexin superfamily of proteins, Caspr and Caspr2 are indispensable for the formation and maintenance of myelinated nerves. In contrast, a physiological role for Caspr3 remains to be elucidated. This study examines the expression and localization of Caspr3 in the mouse brain using newly generated Caspr3 antibodies. Caspr3 was expressed abundantly between the first and the second postnatal weeks. During this period, Caspr3 was localized especially to the basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, and no gross abnormalities were apparent in the basal ganglia of Caspr3 knockout mice. In the striatum, Caspr3 was expressed by a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. Caspr3 immunostaining was observed as punctate around the cell bodies as well as in the soma. These Caspr3 signals did not, however, overlap with those of synaptic markers. Our findings suggest that Caspr3 may play an important role in basal ganglia development during early postnatal stages.
Literature context: rat;PINK1;AB_390204;RRID:AB_19
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that leads to a wide range of motor and nonmotor deficits. Specifically, voice and swallow deficits manifest early, are devastating to quality of life, and are difficult to treat with standard medical therapies. The pathological hallmarks of PD include accumulation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (αSyn) as well as degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. However, there is no clear understanding of how or when this pathology contributes to voice and swallow dysfunction in PD. The present study evaluates the effect of loss of function of the phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene in rats (PINK1(-/-) ), a model of autosomal recessive PD in humans, on vocalization, oromotor and limb function, and neurodegenerative pathologies. Behavioral measures include ultrasonic vocalizations, tongue force, biting, and gross motor performance that are assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months of age. Aggregated αSyn and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) were measured at 8 months. We show that, compared with wild-type controls, PINK1(-/-) rats develop (1) early and progressive vocalization and oromotor deficits, (2) reduced TH-ir in the locus coeruleus that correlates with vocal loudness and tongue force, and (3) αSyn neuropathology in brain regions important for cranial sensorimotor control. This novel approach of characterizing a PINK1(-/-) genetic model of PD provides the foundational work required to define behavioral biomarkers for the development of disease-modifying therapeutics for PD patients.
Literature context: t# AB152, RRID:AB_390204) and secon
Dopamine (DA) neurons are thought to facilitate learning by signaling reward prediction errors (RPEs), the discrepancy between actual and expected reward. However, how RPEs are calculated remains unknown. It has been hypothesized that DA neurons receive RPE signals from the lateral habenula. Here, we tested how lesions of the habenular complex affect the response of optogenetically identified DA neurons in mice. We found that lesions impaired specific aspects of RPE signaling in DA neurons. The inhibitory responses caused by reward omission were greatly diminished while inhibitory responses to aversive stimuli, such as air puff-predictive cues or air puff, remained unimpaired. Furthermore, we found that after habenula lesions, DA neurons' ability to signal graded levels of positive RPEs became unreliable, yet significant excitatory responses still remained. These results demonstrate that the habenula plays a critical role in DA RPE signaling but suggest that it is not the exclusive source of RPE signals.
Literature context: o. AB152, RRID:AB_390204) was produ
Alpha synuclein (α-syn) is a 140 amino acid vertebrate-specific protein, highly expressed in the human nervous system and abnormally accumulated in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, known as synucleinopathies. The common occurrence of α-syn aggregates suggested a role for α-syn in these disorders, although its biological activity remains poorly understood. Given the high degree of sequence similarity between vertebrate α-syns, we investigated this proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, with the aim of comparing its anatomical and cellular distribution with that of mammalian α-syn. The distribution of α-syn was analyzed by semiquantitative western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence by a novel monoclonal antibody (3D5) against a fully conserved epitope between carp and human α-syn. The distribution of 3D5 immunoreactivity was also compared with that of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and serotonin (5HT) by double immunolabelings. The results showed that a α-syn-like protein of about 17 kDa is expressed to different levels in several brain regions and in the spinal cord. Immunoreactive materials were localized in neuronal perikarya and varicose fibers but not in the nucleus. The present findings indicate that α-syn-like proteins may be expressed in a few subpopulations of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the carp brain. However, evidence of cellular colocalization 3D5/TH or 3D5/5HT was rare. Differently, the same proteins appear to be coexpressed with ChAT by cholinergic neurons in several motor and reticular nuclei. These results sustain the functional conservation of the α-syn expression in cholinergic systems and suggest that α-syn modulates similar molecular pathways in phylogenetically distant vertebrates.
Targeted deletion of VGF, a secreted neuronal and endocrine peptide precursor, produces lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes. Previous studies suggest that VGF controls energy expenditure (EE), fat storage, and lipolysis, whereas VGF C-terminal peptides also regulate reproductive behavior and glucose homeostasis. To assess the functional equivalence of human VGF(1-615) (hVGF) and mouse VGF(1-617) (mVGF), and to elucidate the function of the VGF C-terminal region in the regulation of energy balance and susceptibility to obesity, we generated humanized VGF knockin mouse models expressing full-length hVGF or a C-terminally deleted human VGF(1-524) (hSNP), encoded by a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs35400704). We show that homozygous male and female hVGF and hSNP mice are fertile. hVGF female mice had significantly increased body weight compared with wild-type mice, whereas hSNP mice have reduced adiposity, increased activity- and nonactivity-related EE, and improved glucose tolerance, indicating that VGF C-terminal peptides are not required for reproductive function, but 1 or more specific VGF C-terminal peptides are likely to be critical regulators of EE. Taken together, our results suggest that human and mouse VGF proteins are largely functionally conserved but that species-specific differences in VGF peptide function, perhaps a result of known differences in receptor binding affinity, likely alter the metabolic phenotype of hVGF compared with mVGF mice, and in hSNP mice in which several C-terminal VGF peptides are ablated, result in significantly increased activity- and nonactivity-related EE.
Literature context: g #AB152, RRID:AB_390204; IF, 1:200
Accumulating evidence from genetic and biochemical studies implicates dysfunction of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway as a key feature in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most studies have focused on accumulation of neurotoxic α-synuclein secondary to defects in autophagy as the cause of neurodegeneration, but abnormalities of the autophagic-lysosomal system likely mediate toxicity through multiple mechanisms. To further explore how endolysosomal dysfunction causes PD-related neurodegeneration, we generated a murine model of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), characterized by early-onset Parkinsonism with additional neurological features. KRS is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2 gene encoding the endolysosomal ATPase ATP13A2. We show that loss of ATP13A2 causes a specific protein trafficking defect, and that Atp13a2 null mice develop age-related motor dysfunction that is preceded by neuropathological changes, including gliosis, accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates, lipofuscinosis, and endolysosomal abnormalities. Contrary to predictions from in vitro data, in vivo mouse genetic studies demonstrate that these phenotypes are α-synuclein independent. Our findings indicate that endolysosomal dysfunction and abnormalities of α-synuclein homeostasis are not synonymous, even in the context of an endolysosomal genetic defect linked to Parkinsonism, and highlight the presence of α-synuclein-independent neurotoxicity consequent to endolysosomal dysfunction.
Literature context: RRID:AB_390204 1:2,000
The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Although these studies have shown that the medial and lateral divisions of the LHb have somewhat distinct projections, the topographic specificity of LHb efferents is not completely understood, and the relative extent of these projections to brainstem targets is unknown. Here we have used anterograde tracing with adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein, combined with serial two-photon tomography, to map the efferents of the LHb on a standard coordinate system for the entire mouse brain, and reconstruct the efferent pathways of the LHb in three dimensions. Using automated quantitation of fiber density, we show that in addition to the RMTg, the median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray are major recipients of LHb efferents. By using retrograde tract tracing with cholera toxin subunit B, we show that LHb neurons projecting to the hypothalamus, VTA, median raphe, caudal dorsal raphe, and pontine central gray reside in characteristic, but sometimes overlapping regions of the LHb. Together these results provide the anatomical basis for systematic studies of LHb function in neural circuits and behavior in mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:32-60, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: g #AB152, RRID:AB_390204); rabbit p
Motor thalamus (Mthal) is a key node in the corticobasal ganglia (BG) loop that controls complex, cognitive aspects of movement. In Parkinson's disease (PD), profound alterations in neuronal activity occur in BG nuclei and cortex. Because Mthal is located between these two structures, altered Mthal activity has been assumed to underlie the pathogenesis of PD motor deficits. However, to date, inconsistent changes in neuronal firing rate and pattern have been reported in parkinsonian animals. Moreover, although a distinct firing pattern of Mthal neurons, called low-threshold calcium spike bursts (LTS bursts), is observed in reduced preparations, it remains unknown whether they occur or what their role might be in behaving animals. We recorded Mthal spiking activity in control and unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats performing a skilled forelimb-reaching task. We show for the first time that Mthal firing rate in control rats is modulated in a temporally precise pattern during reach-to-grasp movements, with a peak at the time of the reach-end and troughs just before and after it. We identified LTS-like events on the basis of LTS burst characteristics. These were rare, but also modulated, decreasing in incidence just after reach-end. The inhibitory modulations in firing rate and LTS-like events were abolished in parkinsonian rats. These data confirm that nigrostriatal dopamine depletion is accompanied by profound and specific deficits in movement-related Mthal activity. These changes would severely impair Mthal contributions to motor program development in motor cortex and are likely to be an important factor underlying the movement deficits of PD.
Literature context: o. AB152, RRID:AB_390204), the prim
The role of dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in appetitive and rewarding behavior has been widely studied, but the VTA also has documented DA-independent functions. Several drugs of abuse, act on VTA GABAergic neurons, and most studies have focused on local inhibitory connections. Relatively little is known about VTA GABA projection neurons and their connections to brain sites outside the VTA. This study employed viral-vector-mediated cell-type-specific anterograde tracing, classical retrograde tracing, and immunohistochemistry to characterize VTA GABA efferents throughout the brain. We found that VTA GABA neurons project widely to forebrain and brainstem targets, including the ventral pallidum, lateral and magnocellular preoptic nuclei, lateral hypothalamus, and lateral habenula. Minor projections also go to central amygdala, mediodorsal thalamus, dorsal raphe, and deep mesencephalic nuclei, and sparse projections go to prefrontal cortical regions and to nucleus accumbens shell and core. These projections differ from the major VTA DA target regions. Retrograde tracing studies confirmed results from the anterograde experiments and differences in projections from VTA subnuclei. Retrogradely labeled GABA neurons were not numerous, and most non-tyrosine hydroxylase/retrogradely labeled cells lacked GABAergic markers. Many non-TH/retrogradely labeled cells projecting to several areas expressed VGluT2. VTA GABA and glutamate neurons project throughout the brain, most prominently to regions with reciprocal connections to the VTA. These data indicate that VTA GABA and glutamate neurons may have more DA-independent functions than previously recognized.
Literature context: g #AB152, RRID:AB_390204), rabbit a
Disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the selective degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the normal functions of mitochondrial dynamics in these neurons, especially in axons where degeneration begins, and this makes it difficult to understand the disease process. To study one aspect of mitochondrial dynamics-mitochondrial fission-in mouse DA neurons, we deleted the central fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Drp1 loss rapidly eliminates the DA terminals in the caudate-putamen and causes cell bodies in the midbrain to degenerate and lose α-synuclein. Without Drp1, mitochondrial mass dramatically decreases, especially in axons, where the mitochondrial movement becomes uncoordinated. However, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subset of midbrain DA neurons characterized by small hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) is spared, despite near complete loss of their axonal mitochondria. Drp1 is thus critical for targeting mitochondria to the nerve terminal, and a disruption in mitochondrial fission can contribute to the preferential death of nigrostriatal DA neurons.
Literature context: g #AB152, RRID:AB_390204). Microgli
Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1(-/-)), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose-response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91(phox) and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD.
Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug combination may be a well-tolerated novel therapeutic or preventive option for malignant PCC.
Literature context: g #AB152, RRID:AB_390204; Millipore
The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control.
The onset and developmental dynamics of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system (CNS) of embryos, larvae, and recently metamorphosed juveniles of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. During the embryonic period, the Pax proteins start being detectable in neuroepithelial domains. Subsequently, they become restricted to subsets of cells in distinct brain regions, maintaining different degrees of expression in late larvae and juvenile brains. Specifically, Pax6 is broadly expressed all along the urodele CNS (olfactory bulbs, pallium, basal ganglia, diencephalon, mesencephalic tegmentum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord) and the developing olfactory organ and retina. Pax3 and Pax7 are excluded from the rostral forebrain and were usually observed in overlapping regions during embryonic development, whereas Pax3 expression is highly downregulated as development proceeds. Thus, Pax3 is restricted to the roof plate of prosomere 2, pretectum, optic tectum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord. Comparatively, Pax7 was more conspicuous in all these regions. Pax7 cells were also found in the paraphysis, intermediate lobe of the hypophysis, and basal plate of prosomere 3. Our data show that the expression patterns of the three Pax genes studied are overall evolutionarily conserved, and therefore could unequivocally be used to identify subdivisions in the urodele brain similar to other vertebrates, which are not clearly discernable with classical techniques. In addition, the spatiotemporal sequences of expression provide indirect evidence of putative migratory routes across neuromeric limits and the alar-basal boundary.
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that acetylcholine can directly modulate immune function in peripheral tissues including the spleen and gastrointestinal tract. However, the anatomical relationships between the peripheral cholinergic system and immune cells located in these lymphoid tissues remain unclear due to inherent technical difficulties with currently available neuroanatomical methods. In this study, mice with specific expression of the tdTomato fluorescent protein in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing cells were used to label preganglionic and postganglionic cholinergic neurons and their projections to lymphoid tissues. Notably, our anatomical observations revealed an abundant innervation in the intestinal lamina propria of the entire gastrointestinal tract principally originating from cholinergic enteric neurons. The aforementioned innervation frequently approached macrophages, plasma cells, and lymphocytes located in the lamina propria and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes in the interfollicular areas of Peyer's patches. In addition to the above innervation, we observed labeled epithelial cells in the gallbladder and lower intestines, as well as Microfold cells and T-cells within Peyer's patches. In contrast, we found only a sparse innervation in the spleen consisting of neuronal fibers of spinal origin present around arterioles and in lymphocyte-containing areas of the white pulp. Lastly, a small population of ChAT-expressing lymphocytes was identified in the spleen including both T- and B-cells. In summary, this study describes the variety of cholinergic neuronal and nonneuronal cells in a position to modulate gastrointestinal and splenic immunity in the mouse.
Kainate receptors mediate fast, excitatory synaptic transmission for a range of inner neurons in the mammalian retina. However, allocation of functional kainate receptors to known cell types and their sensitivity remains unresolved. Using the cation channel probe 1-amino-4-guanidobutane agmatine (AGB), we investigated kainate sensitivity of neurochemically identified cell populations within the structurally intact rat retina. Most inner retinal neuron populations responded to kainate in a concentration-dependent manner. OFF cone bipolar cells demonstrated the highest sensitivity of all inner neurons to kainate. Immunocytochemical localization of AGB and macromolecular markers confirmed that type 2 bipolar cells were part of this kainate-sensitive population. The majority of amacrine (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs) showed kainate responses with different sensitivities between major neurochemical classes (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]/glycine ACs > glycine ACs > GABA ACs; glutamate [Glu]/weakly GABA GCs > Glu GCs). Conventional and displaced cholinergic ACs were highly responsive to kainate, whereas dopaminergic ACs do not appear to express functional kainate receptors. These findings further contribute to our understanding of neuronal networks in complex multicellular tissues.
Expression patterns of Pax6, Pax7, and, to a lesser extent, Pax3 genes were analyzed by a combination of immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system of adult specimens of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. Only Pax6 was found in the telencephalon, specifically the olfactory bulbs, striatum, septum, and lateral and central parts of the amygdala. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, respectively, of prosomere 3. The distribution of Pax6, Pax7, and Pax3 cells correlated with the three pretectal domains. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the dorsal mesencephalon, mainly in the optic tectum, and Pax6 cells were the only cells found in the tegmentum. Large populations of Pax7 cells occupied the rostral rhombencephalon, along with lower numbers of Pax6 and Pax3 cells. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum. Pax6 cells also formed a column of scattered neurons in the reticular formation and were found in the octavolateral area. The rhombencephalic ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Dorsal Pax7 cells and ventral Pax6 cells were found along the spinal cord. Our results show that the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 is widely maintained in the brains of adult urodeles, in contrast to the situation in other tetrapods. This discrepancy could be due to the generally pedomorphic features of urodele brains. Although the precise role of these transcription factors in adult brains remains to be determined, our findings support the idea that they may also function in adult urodeles.
This study used immunohistochemistry, retrograde tracing, and high-resolution confocal microscopy to explore the structure and neurochemistry of nerve terminals in the corneal epithelium of mice and guinea pigs. In both species, sub-basal nerves formed a plexus in the basal epithelium. Some axons had bulbar endings within the basal epithelium, but most projected perpendicularly from sub-basal nerves to within a few micrometers of the epithelial surface. Three morphologies for these nerve terminals were identified. Simple terminals did not branch after leaving the sub-basal nerves and ended with a single, bulbar swelling. Ramifying terminals branched in the squamous cell layer, forming horizontal fibers that ran parallel to the surface and terminated with single bulbar swellings. Complex terminals branched as they approached the epithelial surface, forming a cluster of highly branched fibers with multiple bulbar endings. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunolabeled (peptidergic) axons ended mostly in simple terminals, whereas transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 immunolabeled (cold receptor) axons ended almost exclusively in complex terminals. Retrograde labeling identified discrete subpopulations of corneal afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunolabeled (sympathetic) nerve terminals originating from the superior cervical ganglion occurred throughout the corneal epithelium of mice, but only in the basal epithelium of guinea pigs. These findings demonstrate that nerve terminals in the corneal epithelium of mice and guinea pigs can be distinguished on the basis of their morphology and neurochemistry, and suggest that nerve terminals with different sensory modalities can be defined on the basis of their morphology.
The patterns of expression of a set of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the alar hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development. Combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques were used for the identification of subdivisions and their boundaries. The alar hypothalamus was located rostral to the diencephalon in the secondary prosencephalon and represents the rostral continuation of the alar territories of the diencephalon and brainstem, according to the prosomeric model. It is composed of the supraoptoparaventricular (dorsal) and the suprachiasmatic (ventral) regions, and limits dorsally with the preoptic region, caudally with the prethalamic eminence and the prethalamus, and ventrally with the basal hypothalamus. The supraoptoparaventricular area is defined by the orthopedia (Otp) expression and is subdivided into rostral and caudal portions, on the basis of the Nkx2.2 expression only in the rostral portion. This region is the source of many neuroendocrine cells, primarily located in the rostral subdivision. The suprachiasmatic region is characterized by Dll4/Isl1 expression, and was also subdivided into rostral and caudal portions, based on the expression of Nkx2.1/Nkx2.2 and Lhx1/7 exclusively in the rostral portion. Both alar regions are mainly connected with subpallial areas strongly implicated in the limbic system and show robust intrahypothalamic connections. Caudally, both regions project to brainstem centers and spinal cord. All these data support that in terms of topology, molecular specification, and connectivity the subdivisions of the anuran alar hypothalamus possess many features shared with their counterparts in amniotes, likely controlling similar reflexes, responses, and behaviors.
The present study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) immunoreactive structures in the brain of Xenopus laevis throughout development, conducted with the aim to correlate the onset of the immunoreactivity with the development of compartmentalization of distinct subdivisions recently identified in the brain of adult amphibians and primarily highlighted when analyzed within a segmental paradigm. CR and CB are expressed early in the brain and showed a progressively increasing expression throughout development, although transient expression in some neuronal subpopulations was also noted. Common and distinct characteristics in Xenopus, as compared with reported features during development in the brain of mammals, were observed. The development of specific regions in the forebrain such as the olfactory bulbs, the components of the basal ganglia and the amygdaloid complex, the alar and basal hypothalamic regions, and the distinct diencephalic neuromeres could be analyzed on the basis of the distinct expression of CB and CR in subregions. Similarly, the compartments of the mesencephalon and the main rhombencephalic regions, including the cerebellum, were differently highlighted by their specific content in CB and CR throughout development. Our results show the usefulness of the analysis of the distribution of these proteins as a tool in neuroanatomy to interpret developmental aspects of many brain regions.
The mammalian habenula is involved in regulating the activities of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. It consists of the medial and lateral habenulae, with each subregion having distinct neural connectivity. Despite the functional significance, manipulating neural activity in a subset of habenular pathways remains difficult because of the poor availability of molecular markers that delineate the subnuclear structures. Thus, we examined the molecular nature of neurons in the habenular subnuclei by analyzing the gene expressions of neurotransmitter markers. The results showed that different subregions of the medial habenula (MHb) use different combinations of neurotransmitter systems and could be categorized as either exclusively glutamatergic (superior part of MHb), both substance P-ergic and glutamatergic (dorsal region of central part of MHb), or both cholinergic and glutamatergic (inferior part, ventral region of central part, and lateral part of MHb). The superior part of the MHb strongly expressed interleukin-18 and was innervated by noradrenergic fibers. In contrast, the inferior part, ventral region of the central part, and lateral part of the MHb were peculiar in that acetylcholine and glutamate were cotransmitted from the axonal terminals. In contrast, neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) were almost uniformly glutamatergic. Finally, the expressions of Htr2c and Drd2 seemed complementary in the medial LHb division, whereas they coincided in the lateral division, suggesting that the medial and lateral divisions of LHb show strong heterogeneity with respect to monoamine receptor expression. These analyses clarify molecular differences between subnuclei in the mammalian habenula that support their respective functional implications.
Literature context: with primary antibodies against TH (1:1000; Millipore), Iba1 (1:300; Wako), GFAP (1:30
Inflammation and its mediators, including cytokines and reactive oxygen species, are thought to contribute to neurodegeneration. In the mouse brain, we found that IL-13Rα1 was expressed in the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, which are preferentially lost in human Parkinson's disease. Mice deficient for Il13ra1 exhibited resistance to loss of DA neurons in a model of chronic peripheral inflammation using bacterial LPS. IL-13, as well as IL-4, potentiated the cytotoxic effects of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide on mouse DA MN9D cells. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of IL-13Rα1 on DA neurons can increase their susceptibility to oxidative stress-mediated damage, thereby contributing to their preferential loss. In humans, Il13ra1 lies on the X chromosome within the PARK12 locus of susceptibility to Parkinson's disease, suggesting that IL-13Rα1 may have a role in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease.
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is an important neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of adult mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons and regulates their adequate development. Since mDA neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease, a comprehensive understanding of their development and maintenance might contribute to the development of causative therapeutic approaches. The current analysis addressed the role of FGF-2 in mDA axonal outgrowth, pathway formation, and innervation of respective forebrain targets using organotypic explant cocultures of ventral midbrain (VM) and forebrain (FB). An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mouse strain was used for the VM explants, which allowed combining and distinguishing of individual VM and FB tissue from wildtype and FGF-2-deficient embryonic day (E)14.5 embryos, respectively. These cocultures provided a suitable model to study the role of target-derived FB and intrinsic VM-derived FGF-2. In fact, we show that loss of FGF-2 in both FB and VM results in significantly increased mDA fiber outgrowth compared to wildtype cocultures, proving a regulatory role of FGF-2 during nigrostriatal wiring. Further, we found in heterogeneous cocultures deficient for FGF-2 in FB and VM, respectively, similar phenotypes with wider fiber tracts compared to wildtype cocultures and shorter fiber outgrowth distance than cocultures completely deficient for FGF-2. Additionally, the loss of target-derived FGF-2 in FB explants resulted in decreased caudorostral glial migration. Together these findings imply an intricate interplay of target-derived and VM-derived FGF signaling, which assures an adequate nigrostriatal pathway formation and target innervation.
Developmental studies of the central catecholaminergic (CA) system are essential for understanding its evolution. To obtain knowledge about the CA system in chondrichthyans, an ancient gnathostome group, we used immunohistochemical techniques for detecting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the initial rate-limiting enzyme of the CA synthesis, to study: 1) the neuromery of developing TH-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal populations, 2) the development of TH-ir innervation, and 3) the organization of TH-ir cells and fibers in the brain of postembryonic stages of the shark Scyliorhinus canicula. The first TH-ir cells appeared in the hypothalamus and rostral diencephalon (suprachiasmatic, posterior recess and posterior tubercle nuclei at embryonic stage 26, and dorsomedial hypothalamus at stage 28); then in more caudal basal regions of the diencephalon and rostral mesencephalon (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area); and later on in the anterior (locus coeruleus/nucleus subcoeruleus) and posterior (vagal lobe and reticular formation) rhombencephalon. The appearance of TH-ir cells in the telencephalon (pallium) was rather late (stage [S]31) with respect to the other TH-ir prosencephalic populations. The first TH-ir fibers arose from cells of the posterior tubercle (S30) and formed recognizable ascending (toward dorsal and rostral territories) and descending pathways at S31. When the second half of embryonic development started (S32), TH-ir fibers innervated most brain areas, and nearly all TH-ir cell groups of the postembryonic brain were already established. This study provides key information about the evolution of the developmental patterns of central CA systems in fishes and thus may help in understanding how the vertebrate CA systems have evolved.
New neurons are added into the mammalian olfactory bulb throughout life, but it remains unknown whether the properties of new neurons generated in newborn animals differ from those added during adulthood. We compared the densities of glutamatergic synapses of granule cells (GCs) generated in newborn and adult rats over extended periods of time. We observed that, whereas adult-born GCs maintained stable cell-to-cell variability of synaptic densities soon after they integrated into the circuit, cell-to-cell variability of synaptic densities of neonatal-born GCs increased months after their integration. We also investigated whether the synaptic reorganization induced by sensory deprivation occurred differently in mature neonatal- and adult-born GCs. Sensory deprivation after new GCs had differentiated induced more pronounced changes in the synaptic densities of neonatal-born GCs than in adult-born GCs. These observations suggest that the synapses of mature neonatal-born GCs retain a higher degree of malleability in response to changes in neuronal activity than adult-born GCs.
Monoaminergic innervation of the spinal cord has important modulatory functions for locomotion. Here we performed a quantitative study to determine the plastic changes of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH1(+); mainly dopaminergic), and serotonergic (5-HT(+)) terminals and cells during successful spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish. TH1(+) innervation in the spinal cord is derived from the brain. After spinal cord transection, TH1(+) immunoreactivity is completely lost from the caudal spinal cord. Terminal varicosities increase in density rostral to the lesion site compared with unlesioned controls and are re-established in the caudal spinal cord at 6 weeks post lesion. Interestingly, axons mostly fail to re-innervate more caudal levels of the spinal cord even after prolonged survival times. However, densities of terminal varicosities correlate with recovery of swimming behavior, which is completely lost again after re-lesion of the spinal cord. Similar observations were made for terminals derived from descending 5-HT(+) axons from the brain. In addition, spinal 5-HT(+) neurons were newly generated after a lesion and transiently increased in number up to fivefold, which depended in part on hedgehog signaling. Overall, TH1(+) and 5-HT(+) innervation is massively altered in the successfully regenerated spinal cord of adult zebrafish. Despite these changes in TH and 5-HT systems, a remarkable recovery of swimming capability is achieved, suggesting significant plasticity of the adult spinal network during regeneration.
Redox changes are observed in neurodegenerative diseases, ranging from increased levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and disturbance of antioxidant systems, to nitro-oxidative damage. By reducing hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and organic hydroperoxides, peroxiredoxins (Prdxs) represent a major potential protective barrier against nitro-oxidative insults in the brain. While recent works have investigated the putative role of Prdxs in neurodegenerative disorders, less is known about their expression in the healthy brain. Here we used immunohistochemistry to map basal expression of Prdxs throughout C57BL/6 mouse brain. We first confirmed the neuronal localization of Prdx2-5 and the glial expression of Prdx1, Prdx4, and Prdx6. Then we performed an in-depth analysis of neuronal Prdx distribution in the brain. Our results show that Prdx2-5 are widely detected in the different neuronal populations, and especially well expressed in the olfactory bulb, in the cerebral cortex, in pons nuclei, in the red nucleus, in all cranial nerve nuclei, in the cerebellum, and in motor neurons of the spinal cord. In contrast, Prdx expression is very low in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta and in the CA1/2 pyramidal cells of hippocampus. This low basal expression may contribute to the vulnerability of these neurons to nitro-oxidative attacks occurring in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we found that Prdx expression levels are unevenly distributed among neurons of a determined region and that distinct regional patterns of expression are observed between isoforms, reinforcing the hypothesis of the nonredundant function of Prdxs.
Midbrain dopamine (MbDA) neurons are functionally heterogeneous and modulate complex functions through precisely organized anatomical groups. MbDA neurons are generated from Wnt1-expressing progenitors located in the ventral mesencephalon (vMes) during embryogenesis. However, it is unclear whether the progenitor pool is partitioned into distinct cohorts based on molecular identity and whether the timing of gene expression uniquely identifies subtypes of MbDA neurons. In this study we show that Wnt1-expressing MbDA progenitors from embryonic day (E)8.5-12.5 have dynamic molecular identities that correlate with specific spatial locations in the vMes. We also tested the hypothesis that the timing of Wnt1 expression in progenitors is related to the distribution of anatomically distinct cohorts of adult MbDA neurons using genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM). We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage contributes to specific cohorts of MbDA neurons during a 7-day epoch and that the contribution to MbDA neurons predominates over other ventral Mb domains. In addition, we show that calbindin-, GIRK2-, and calretinin-expressing MbDA neuron subtypes are derived from Wnt1-expressing progenitors marked over a broad temporal window. Through GIFM and quantitative analysis we demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage does not undergo progressive lineage restriction, which eliminates a restricted competence model of generating MbDA diversity. Interestingly, we uncover that two significant peaks of Wnt1 lineage contribution to MbDA neurons occur at E9.5 and E11.5. Collectively, our findings delineate the temporal window of MbDA neuron generation and show that lineage and timing predicts the terminal distribution pattern of MbDA neurons.
The innervation of the nonpregnant rat uterus has been studied in histological sections, which contain only small samples of nerves and are unlikely to afford a complete picture of uterine innervation. Here we used whole-mount preparations of entire full-thickness uterine horns from nonpregnant rats in estrus to visualize autonomic or sensory nerves with peroxidase immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity was studied for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-labeled sympathetic nerves; vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), parasympathetic nerves; and substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), sensory nerves. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) identified more than one of these functionally distinct nerve types. Axons of all neurochemical classes entered the uterus at the mesometrium and innervated the uterine smooth muscle. The linea uteri, a dense band of longitudinal muscle opposite the mesometrium, contained more TH-, NPY-, CGRP-, and VAChT-immunoreactive axons than the remaining smooth muscle. Axons immunoreactive for NPY, SP, NOS, and VAChT formed a plexus near the circular muscle-endometrium interface. Rare TH- and NPY-immunoreactive axons and occasional CGRP-immunoreactive axons occurred close to uterine glands. Blood vessels had dense perivascular plexuses of TH- and NPY-containing axons and less dense NOS-, SP-, CGRP-, and VAChT-positive plexuses. The circular muscle plexus and glands were absent opposite the mesometrium. Uterine arterioles formed an interconnected network throughout the uterus. This article provides the first comprehensive description of the autonomic and sensory innervation of the nonpregnant rat uterus and will be a foundation for future studies on changes in uterine innervation caused by normal physiological or pathophysiological challenges.
Although the simultaneous presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is considered as a phenotypic signature of dopamine (DA) neurons, it has been suggested that they are not uniformly expressed in all dopaminergic brain nuclei. Moreover, in nonmammalian vertebrates, two tyrosine hydroxylase genes (TH1 and TH2) are found, and they exhibit different expression patterns in zebrafish brains. Here we present a detailed description of the distribution of TH1, TH2, AADC, DAT, and VMAT2 transcripts, in relation to TH and DA immunoreactivity to better characterize dopaminergic nuclei in the adult zebrafish forebrain. TH2-positive cells in the hypothalamus are strongly DA immunoreactive (DAir), providing direct evidence that they are dopaminergic. DAir cells are also found in most TH1-positive or TH-immunoreactive (THir) nuclei. However, the DAir signal was weaker than THir in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, ventral thalamus, pretectum, and some posterior tubercular and preoptic nuclei. These cell populations also exhibited low levels of VMAT2 transcripts, suggesting that low DA is due to a lower vesicular DA accumulation. In contrast, cell populations with low levels of AADC did not always have low levels of DA. DAT transcripts were abundantly expressed in most of the TH1- or TH2-positive territories. In addition, DAT and/or VMAT2 transcripts were found in some periventricular cell populations such as in the telencephalon without TH1 or TH2 expression. Thus, expression patterns of dopaminergic cell markers are not homogeneous, suggesting that the gene regulatory logic determining the dopaminergic phenotype is unexpectedly complex.
Catecholamines, such as dopamine, are evolutionarily ancient neurotransmitters that play an essential role in mediating behavior. In vertebrates, dopamine is central to the nigrostriatal motor and mesolimbic reward systems. Despite its importance, the distribution of the dopaminergic system has not been well studied in the teleost brain. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni has become an important model system in social neuroscience and lends itself to uncovering how social decisions are implemented in the brain. To understand better where dopamine acts to regulate social behavior in this species, we have determined the distribution of putative dopaminergic cells and fibers (by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry) and dopamine receptors (by in situ hybridization for the D(1A) and D(2) dopamine receptor subtypes) throughout the forebrain and part of the mesencephalon of A. burtoni. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was evident in several regions of the fore- and midbrain, in support of putative homologies to tetrapods. Additionally, the D(1A) and D(2) receptors were identified in brain regions known to modulate social behavior in other vertebrates, including the proposed teleost homologues of the mammalian amygdalar complex, hippocampus, striatum, preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers as well as D(1A) and D(2) receptor expression overlap almost completely in their distribution. These results significantly extend our understanding of the distribution of the dopaminergic system in the teleost brain and suggest a conserved role of dopamine in modulating behavior across vertebrates.
A(11) diencephalospinal dopamine (DA) neurons provide the major source of DA innervation to the spinal cord. DA in the dorsal and ventral horns modulates sensory, motor, nociceptive, and sexual functions. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed a sex difference in the density of DA innervation in the lumbar spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences in spinal cord DA are androgen dependent, influenced by adult or perinatal androgens, and whether a sex difference in the number of lumbar-projecting A(11) neurons exists. Adult male mice have significantly higher DA concentrations in the lumbar spinal cord than either females or males carrying the testicular feminization mutation (tfm) in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, suggesting an AR-dependent origin. Spinal cord DA concentrations are not changed following orchidectomy in adult male mice or testosterone administration to ovariectomized adult female mice. Administration of exogenous testosterone to postnatal day 2 female mice results in DA concentrations in the adult lumbar spinal cord comparable to those of males. Male mice display significantly more lumbar-projecting A(11) DA neurons than females, particularly in the caudal portion of the A(11) cell body region, as determined by retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemistry directed toward tyrosine hydroxylase. These results reveal an AR-dependent sex difference in both the number of lumbar-projecting A(11) DA neurons and the lumbar spinal cord DA concentrations, organized by the presence of androgens early in life. The AR-dependent sex difference suggests that this system serves a sexually dimorphic function in the lumbar spinal cord.
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein expressed predominantly in neurons. The transcript of the tau gene is alternatively spliced. Resulting isoforms contain three or four microtubule-binding repeats. The shortest tau isoform contains only three repeats (3R) and is expressed at birth. Previous data on rodents suggested that this isoform is no longer expressed during adulthood. It is replaced by tau isoforms containing four repeats (4R). The adult 4R tau isoforms bind to microtubules with higher affinity than 3R tau isoforms. Therefore, this isoform switch may reflect a need for more dynamic microtubules during development. Recently, we observed in rats that the 3R tau isoform is transiently expressed in adult neurogenesis. Subsequently, we performed an immunohistochemical labeling of the 3R tau isoform on serial sections of the adult rat brain. Interestingly, the 3R tau isoform is not only expressed in neuronal precursor cells. It is also present in mature neurons of the olfactory bulb, magnocellular neurosecretory system, posterolateral hypothalamus, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, solitary nucleus, medial septum and diagonal band, olfactory tuberculus, and piriform/olfactory cortex. This expression pattern is similar to that observed for the polysialylated form of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and the microtubule-associated proteins doublecortin and collapsin response mediating protein (CRMP-4/TUC-4/Ulip-1), which are also highly expressed during early development. The retention of a juvenile phenotype in some neurons might be associated with a functionally significant neuronal plasticity.
Neuropeptides play a major role in the modulation of information processing in neural networks. Somatostatin, one of the most concentrated neuropeptides in the brain, is found in many sensory systems including the olfactory pathway. However, its cellular distribution in the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB) is yet to be characterized. Here we show that approximately 95% of mouse bulbar somatostatin-immunoreactive (SRIF-ir) cells describe a homogeneous population of interneurons. These are restricted to the inner lamina of the external plexiform layer (iEPL) with dendritic field strictly confined to the region. iEPL SRIF-ir neurons share some morphological features of Van Gehuchten short-axon cells, and always express glutamic acid decarboxylase, calretinin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide. One-half of SRIF-ir neurons are parvalbumin-ir, revealing an atypical neurochemical profile when compared to SRIF-ir interneurons of other forebrain regions such as cortex or hippocampus. Somatostatin is also present in fibers and in a few sparse presumptive deep short-axon cells in the granule cell layer (GCL), which were previously reported in other mammalian species. The spatial distribution of somatostatin interneurons in the MOB iEPL clearly outlines the region where lateral dendrites of mitral cells interact with GCL inhibitory interneurons through dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses. Symmetrical and asymmetrical synaptic contacts occur between SRIF-ir dendrites and mitral cell dendrites. Such restricted localization of somatostatin interneurons and connectivity in the bulbar synaptic network strongly suggest that the peptide plays a functional role in the modulation of olfactory processing.
The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) contains many neurons that innervate the brainstem, but information regarding their target sites remains incomplete. Here we labeled neurons in the rat PVH with an anterograde axonal tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL), and studied their descending projections in reference to specific neuronal subpopulations throughout the brainstem. While many of their target sites were identified previously, numerous new observations were made. Major findings include: 1) In the midbrain, the PVH projects lightly to the ventral tegmental area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter, reticular formation, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, and dorsal raphe nucleus. 2) In the dorsal pons, the PVH projects heavily to the pre-locus coeruleus, yet very little to the catecholamine neurons in the locus coeruleus, and selectively targets the viscerosensory subregions of the parabrachial nucleus. 3) In the ventral medulla, the superior salivatory nucleus, retrotrapezoid nucleus, compact and external formations of the nucleus ambiguous, A1 and caudal C1 catecholamine neurons, and caudal pressor area receive dense axonal projections, generally exceeding the PVH projection to the rostral C1 region. 4) The medial nucleus of the solitary tract (including A2 noradrenergic and aldosterone-sensitive neurons) receives the most extensive projections of the PVH, substantially more than the dorsal vagal nucleus or area postrema. Our findings suggest that the PVH may modulate a range of homeostatic functions, including cerebral and ocular blood flow, corneal and nasal hydration, ingestive behavior, sodium intake, and glucose metabolism, as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory activities.
The locus coeruleus (LC) is a dense cluster of neurons that projects axons throughout the neuroaxis and is located in the rostral pontine tegmentum extending from the level of the inferior colliculus to the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. LC neurons are lost in the course of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this study we used Nissl staining and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity to compare the human LC with that of closely related primate species, including great and lesser apes, and macaque monkeys. TH catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in catecholamine biosynthesis. The number of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons was estimated in each species using stereologic methods. In the LC of humans the mean total number of TH-ir neurons was significantly higher compared to the other primates. Because the total number of TH-ir neurons in the LC was highly correlated with the species mean volume of the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and neocortical gray matter, we conclude that much of the observed phylogenetic variation can be explained by anatomical scaling. Notably, the total number of LC neurons in humans was most closely predicted by the nonhuman allometric scaling relationship relative to medulla size, whereas the number of LC neurons in humans was considerably lower than predicted according to neocortex and cerebellum volume.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivation and reward. While there is ample evidence for sex differences in addiction-related behaviors, little is known about the neuroanatomical substrates that underlie these sexual dimorphisms. We investigated sex differences in synaptic connectivity of the NAc by evaluating pre- and postsynaptic measures in gonadally intact male and proestrous female rats. We used DiI labeling and confocal microscopy to measure dendritic spine density, spine head size, dendritic length, and branching of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc, and quantitative immunofluorescence to measure glutamatergic innervation using pre- (vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and 2) and postsynaptic (postsynaptic density 95) markers, as well as dopaminergic innervation of the NAc. We also utilized electron microscopy to complement the above measures. Clear but subtle sex differences were identified, namely, in distal dendritic spine density and the proportion of large spines on MSNs, both of which are greater in females. Sex differences in spine density and spine head size are evident in both the core and shell subregions, but are stronger in the core. This study is the first demonstration of neuroanatomical sex differences in the NAc and provides evidence that structural differences in synaptic connectivity and glutamatergic input may contribute to behavioral sex differences in reward and addiction.
Vagal afferents regulate energy balance by providing a link between the brain and postprandial signals originating from the gut. In the current study, we investigated melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) expression in the nodose ganglion, where the cell bodies of vagal sensory afferents reside. By using a line of mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the MC4R promoter, we found GFP expression in approximately one-third of nodose ganglion neurons. By using immunohistochemistry combined with in situ hybridization, we also demonstrated that approximately 20% of GFP-positive neurons coexpressed cholecystokinin receptor A. In addition, we found that the GFP is transported to peripheral tissues by both vagal sensory afferents and motor efferents, which allowed us to assess the sites innervated by MC4R-GFP neurons. GFP-positive efferents that co-expressed choline acetyltransferase specifically terminated in the hepatic artery and the myenteric plexus of the stomach and duodenum. In contrast, GFP-positive afferents that did not express cholinergic or sympathetic markers terminated in the submucosal plexus and mucosa of the duodenum. Retrograde tracing experiments confirmed the innervation of the duodenum by GFP-positive neurons located in the nodose ganglion. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC4R signaling in vagal afferents may modulate the activity of fibers sensitive to satiety signals such as cholecystokinin, and that MC4R signaling in vagal efferents may contribute to the control of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
The mammalian retina contains six major cell types, several of which are divided into multiple molecularly and morphologically distinct subtypes. To understand how subtype diversity arises during development, we focused on amacrine interneurons in the mouse retina; approximately 30 amacrine subtypes have been identified in mammals. We used antibody markers to identify the two main amacrine subsets--GABAergic and glycinergic--and further subdivided these groups into smaller subsets based on expression of neurotransmitter and transcription factor markers. We then used bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling to see whether amacrine subsets are born (become postmitotic) at different times, as is the case for lamina-specified subsets of cortical projection neurons. We found that GABAergic amacrines are generated on average 2-3 days before glycinergic amacrines. Moreover, subsets of GABAergic amacrines are born at distinct times. We also found a strong correlation between amacrine cell birthday and soma position in the mature retina, another point of similarity with cortical projection neurons. This relationship raised the possibility that amacrine subtype identity is determined by signals that uncommitted cells receive after they migrate to their destinations. However, cells labeled with BrdU in vivo, then dissociated and allowed to develop in vitro, acquired the amacrine subtype-specific markers appropriate for their birthdays, supporting the idea that they become specified near the time and place of their birth. Together, our results suggest that the birthdays of amacrine cells independently specify their destinations and subtype identities.
Polymorphisms of the gene TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2) are strongly associated with the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. TCF7L2 is important in the development of peripheral organs such as adipocytes, pancreas, and the intestine. However, very little is known about its expression elsewhere. In this study we used in situ hybridization histochemistry to show that TCF7L2 has a unique expression pattern in the mouse brain. TCF7L2 is expressed in two distinct populations. First, it is highly expressed in thalamic and tectal structures. Additionally, TCF7L2 mRNA is expressed at moderate to low levels in specific cells of the hypothalamus, preoptic nucleus, and circumventricular organs. Collectively, these patterns of expression suggest that TCF7L2 has distinct functions within the brain, with a general role in the development and maintenance of thalamic and midbrain neurons, and then a distinct role in autonomic homeostasis.
A key principle of retinal organization is that distinct ON and OFF channels are relayed by separate populations of bipolar cells to different sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). ON bipolar cell axons have been thought to synapse exclusively in the inner IPL (the ON sublamina) onto dendrites of ON-type amacrine and ganglion cells. However, M1 melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells and dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells apparently violate this dogma. Both are driven by ON bipolar cells, but their dendrites stratify in the outermost IPL, within the OFF sublamina. Here, in the mouse retina, we show that some ON cone bipolar cells make ribbon synapses in the outermost OFF sublayer, where they costratify with and contact the dendrites of M1 and DA cells. Whole-cell recording and dye filling in retinal slices indicate that type 6 ON cone bipolars provide some of this ectopic ON channel input. Imaging studies in dissociated bipolar cells show that these ectopic ribbon synapses are capable of vesicular release. There is thus an accessory ON sublayer in the outer IPL.
Despite its small size, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus has a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. We have begun to define genetic approaches to express genes in specific cell types within the developing arcuate nucleus, to allow precise molecular perturbations of these cells. Furthermore, our analysis aims to contribute to defining the transcriptional networks that regulate the development of function of the arcuate neurons. Here, we define the neuronal cells types within the arcuate that express Nkx2.1 and Dlx homeobox genes. In addition, we used mice expressing Cre recombinase from the Dlx5/6 intergenic enhancer (Dlx5/6i) and from the Nkx2.1 locus to follow the fate of embryonic cells expressing these genes within the arcuate nucleus. We demonstrate that NKX2.1(+) cells and their lineages are broadly expressed in arcuate neurons [gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(+), neuropeptide Y (NPY)(+), proopiomelanocortin (POMC)(+), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)] and glia (tanycytes). On the other hand, DLX(+) cells and their lineages mark only GABA(+) and TH(+) (dopaminergic) neurons, and Dlx1(-/-) mutants have fewer TH(+) neurons. These results have implications for the genetic control of arcuate development and function and for the utility of the Nkx2.1-Cre and Dlx5/6i-Cre mouse lines to alter gene expression in the developing arcuate.
Calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) are calcium binding proteins present in distinct sets of neurons; they act as buffers regulating the concentration of intracellular calcium. CB and CR immunohistochemistry was studied in the brainstem of anuran and urodele amphibians in combination with other markers (choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and nitric oxide synthase), which served to clarify the localization and signature of many cell groups. CR labeled the retinorecipient layers of the optic tectum, and CB and CR labeled distinct tectal cell populations. The two proteins were largely complementary in the torus semicircularis and marked auditory and lateral line sensory regions, depending on the species. CB and CR in the mesencephalic and isthmic tegmentum specified the boundaries of basal and medial longitudinal bands. In the cerebellum, CB labeled Purkinje cells in all species, whereas CR was mainly found in fibers and labeled Purkinje cells only in Rana. In the parabrachial region, CB and CR allowed the distinction of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, isthmic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and rostral octavolateral nuclei. The distribution of CB- and CR-immunoreactive cells in the reticular formation and central gray was consistent with the current models of brainstem segmentation in amphibians. CR was found in the auditory fibers and nuclei in Rana and in mechanosensory lateral line fibers in Xenopus and urodeles, whereas CB mainly labeled vestibular fibers and nuclei in all species. These results highlight the anatomical complexity of the amphibian brainstem and help in an understanding of its regional organization that is not cytoarchitectonically evident.
Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in vertebrate blood erythrocytes. Here we report that hemoglobin chains are expressed in mammalian brain neurons and are regulated by a mitochondrial toxin. Transcriptome analyses of laser-capture microdissected nigral dopaminergic neurons in rats and striatal neurons in mice revealed the presence of hemoglobin alpha, adult chain 2 (Hba-a2) and hemoglobin beta (Hbb) transcripts, whereas other erythroid markers were not detected. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed the expression of Hba-a2 and Hbb in nigral dopaminergic neurons, striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons, and cortical pyramidal neurons in rats. Combined in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry with the neuronal marker neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) in rat brain further confirmed the presence of hemoglobin mRNAs in neurons. Immunohistochemistry identified hemoglobin alpha- and beta-chains in both rat and human brains, and hemoglobin proteins were detected by Western blotting in whole rat brain tissue as well as in cultures of mesencephalic neurons, further excluding the possibility of blood contamination. Systemic administration of the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone (2 mg/kg/d, 7d, s.c.) induced a marked decrease in Hba-a2 and Hbb but not neuroglobin or cytoglobin mRNA in transcriptome analyses of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the transcriptional downregulation of Hba-a2 and Hbb in nigral, striatal, and cortical neurons. Thus, hemoglobin chains are expressed in neurons and are regulated by treatments that affect mitochondria, opening up the possibility that they may play a novel role in neuronal function and response to injury.
Life-long addition and elimination of neurons within the adult olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb allows for adaptive structural responses to sensory experience, learning, and recovery after injury. The interdependence of the two structures is highlighted by the shortened life span of sensory neurons deprived of bulb contact, and has prompted the hypothesis that trophic cues from the bulb contribute to their survival. The specific identity and source of these signals remain unknown. To investigate the potential role of target neurons in this support, we employed a neurotoxic lesion to selectively remove them while preserving the remaining nerve projection pathway, and examined the dynamics of sensory neuron proliferation and survival. Pulse-labeling of progenitors with bromodeoxyuridine showed that, as with surgical bulb removal, increased apoptosis in the epithelium triggered accelerated production of new neurons after chemical depletion of target cells. Rather than undergoing premature death, a large subpopulation of these neurons survived long term. The combination of increased proliferation and extended survival resulted in essentially normal numbers of new sensory neurons surviving for as long as 5 weeks, with an accompanying restoration of olfactory marker protein expression. Changes in neurotrophic factor expression levels as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), and in bulb cell populations, including the addition of new neurons generated in the subventricular zone, were observed in the injured bulb. These data indicate that olfactory sensory neurons can adapt to reductions in their normal target field by obtaining sufficient support from remaining or alternative cell sources to survive and maintain their projections.
Patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS1) often display high titers of autoantibodies (autoAbs) directed against aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Neurological symptoms, including stiff-man syndrome and cerebellar ataxia, can occur in subjects with high levels of GAD autoAbs, particularly when patient sera can immunohistochemically stain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. However, it was not known if APS1 sera can also stain major monoamine systems in the brain. Therefore, in this work we applied sera from 17 APS1 patients known to contain autoAbs against AADC, TH, TPH, and/or GAD to rat brain sections and processed the sections according to the sensitive immunohistochemical tyramide signal amplification method. We found that autoAbs in sera from 11 patients were able to stain AADC-containing dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic as well as AADC only (D-group) neurons and fibers in the rat brain, in several cases with a remarkably high quality and sensitivity (dilution up to 1:1,000,000); and, since they are human antibodies, they offer a good opportunity for performing multiple-labeling experiments using antibodies from other species. Six APS1 sera also stained GABAergic neuronal circuitries. Similar results were obtained in the mouse and primate brain. Our data demonstrate that many APS1 sera can immunostain the major monoamine and GABA systems in the brain. Only in a few cases, however, there was evidence that these autoAbs can be associated with neurological manifestations in APS1 patients, as, e.g., shown in previous studies in stiff-man syndrome.
Overactivity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia is known to be closely related to the onset and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Glutamate homeostasis around glutamatergic synapses is tightly regulated by two groups of glutamate transporters: glial glutamate transporters GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), and neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1. In order to investigate the changes of glutamate transporters after the onset of Parkinson's disease, unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat, an animal model of Parkinson's disease, was employed. By immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, GLT1 and GLAST proteins were significantly reduced in the striatum with lesion. No change in GLT1 and GLAST protein was found in the substantia nigra. The reduction of GLT1 protein in the striatum was more prominent than that of GLAST protein (approximately 40% vs. 20%). In addition, EAAC1 protein was found to be increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of the lesioned rats but not in the striatum. The present results indicate that reductions of GLT1 and GLAST may impair glutamate homeostasis around glutamatergic synapses in the striatum and contribute to over-spills of glutamate in the system. An increase in the EAAC1 level in the substantia nigra pars reticulata may increase GABA synthesis and enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. These results indicate that there are differential and distinct modulations of glutamate transporters after dopamine denervation in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat.
Neuroactive substances such as serotonin and other monoamines have been suggested to be involved in the transmission of gustatory signals from taste bud cells to afferent fibers. Lampreys are the earliest vertebrates that possess taste buds, although these differ in structure from taste buds in jawed vertebrates, and their neurochemistry remains unknown. We used immunofluorescence methods with antibodies raised against serotonin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin, and acetylated alpha-tubulin to characterize the neurochemistry and innervation of taste buds in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L. For localization of proliferative cells in taste buds we used bromodeoxyuridine labeling and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Results with both markers indicate that proliferating cells are restricted to a few basal cells and that almost all cells in taste buds are nonproliferating. A large number of serotonin-, calretinin-, and CGRP-immunoreactive bi-ciliated cells were revealed in lamprey taste buds. This suggests that serotonin participates in the transmission of gustatory signals and indicates that this substance appeared early on in vertebrate evolution. The basal surface of the bi-ciliated taste bud cells was contacted by tubulin-immunoreactive fibers. Some of the fibers surrounding the taste bud were calretinin immunoreactive. Lamprey taste bud cells or afferent fibers did not exhibit TH, GABA, glutamate, or NPY immunoreactivity, which suggests that expression of these substances evolved in taste buds of some gnathostomes lines after the separation of gnathostomes and lampreys.
In this study we analyze 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]; serotonin) signaling in zebrafish, an increasingly popular vertebrate disease model. We compare and contrast expression of the 5-HT transporter genes slc6a4a and slc6a4b, which identify 5-HT-producing neurons and three novel 5-HT receptors, htr1aa, htr1ab, and htr1bd. slc6a4a and slc6a4b are expressed in the raphe nuclei, retina, medulla oblongata, paraventricular organ, pretectal diencephalic complex, and caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus, in line with the expression profiles of homologues from other vertebrates. Our analysis of serotonin transporter (SERT)-encoding genes also identifies parallel genetic pathways used to build the 5-HT system in zebrafish. In cells in which 5-HT is synthesized by tph1, slc6a4b is used for re-uptake, whereas tph2-positive cells utilize slc6a4a. The receptors htr1aa, htr1ab, and htr1bd also show widespread expression in both the larval and adult brain. Receptor expression is seen in the superior raphe nucleus, retina, ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, thalamus, posterior tuberculum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and reticular formation, thus implicating 5-HT signaling in several neural circuits. We also examine larval brains double-labeled with 5-HTergic and dopaminergic pathway-specific antibodies, to uncover the identity of some 5-HTergic target neurons. Furthermore, comparison of the expression of transporter and receptor genes also allows us to map sites of autoreceptor activity within the brain. We detect autoreceptor activity in the pretectal diencephalic cluster (htr1aa-, htr1ab-, htr1bd-, and slc6a4a-positive), superior raphe nucleus (htr1aa-, htr1ab-, and slc6a4a-positive), paraventricular organ (htr1aa-, htr1ab-, htr1bd-, and slc6a4b-positive), and the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus (htr1ab- and slc6a4b-positive).
A general pattern of organization of the forebrain shared by amphibians, mainly anurans, and amniotes has been proposed considering the relative topography of the territories, their connectivity, and their neurochemistry. These criteria were needed because the amphibians possess limited cell migration from the ventricle that precludes a parcellation into circumscribed nuclei. In the present study we have tested the identity of most newly described forebrain territories in anurans and urodeles with regard to their content in calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR). By means of immunohistochemistry, these proteins were demonstrated to be particularly abundant and specifically distributed in the amphibian forebrain and were extremely useful markers for delineating nuclear boundaries otherwise indistinguishable. In the telencephalon, labeled cells in the pallium allowed the identification of particular regions with marked differences between anurans and urodeles, whereas the subpallium showed more conservative patterns of distribution. In particular, the components of the amygdaloid complex and the basal ganglia were distinctly labeled. The distribution in the nonevaginated secondary prosencephalon and diencephalon showed abundant common features between anurans and urodeles, highlighted using the prosomeric model for the comparison. In the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus of urodeles, the CB and CR staining was particularly suitable for the identification of diverse structures within the simple periventricular gray layer. However, the analysis across species also revealed a considerable degree of heterogeneity, even within comparatively well-defined neuronal populations. Therefore, the content of a particular calcium binding protein in a neuronal group is not a fully reliable criterion for considering homologies.
Unlike laboratory rats and mice, muridae of the Arvicanthis family (A. ansorgei and A. niloticus) are adapted to functioning best in daylight. To date, they have been used as experimental models mainly in studies of circadian rhythms. However, recent work aimed at optimizing photoreceptor-directed gene delivery vectors (Khani et al.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3954-3961) suggests their potential usefulness for studying retinal pathologies and therapies. In the present study we analyzed the retinal anatomy and visual performance of the Nile grass rat (A. niloticus) using immunohistofluorescence and the optokinetic response (OKR). We found that approximately 35-40% of photoreceptors are cones; that many neural features of the inner retina are similar to those in other diurnal mammals; and that spatial acuity, measured by the OKR, is more than two times that of the usual laboratory rodents. These observations are consistent with the known diurnal habits of this animal, and further support its pertinence as a complementary model for studies of structure, function, and pathology in cone-rich mammalian retinae.
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons of mouse and rat retinas are of the interplexiform subtype (DA-IPC), i.e., they send processes distally toward the outer retina, exhibiting numerous varicosities along their course. The primary question we addressed was whether distally located DA-IPC varicosities, identified by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, had the characteristic presynaptic proteins associated with calcium-dependent vesicular release of neurotransmitter. We found that TH immunoreactive varicosities in the outer retina possessed vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and vesicular GABA transporter, but they lacked immunostaining for any of nine subtypes of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Immunoreactivity for other channels that may permit calcium influx such as certain ionotropic glutamate receptors and canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) was similarly absent, although DA-IPC varicosities did show ryanodine receptor immunoreactivity, indicating the presence of intracellular calcium stores. The synaptic vesicle proteins sv2a and sv2b and certain other proteins associated with the presynaptic membrane were absent from DA-IPC varicosities, but the vesicular SNARE protein, vamp2, was present in a fraction of those varicosities. We identified a presumed second class of IPC that is GABAergic but not dopaminergic. Outer retinal varicosities of this putative GABAergic IPC did colocalize synaptic vesicle protein 2a, suggesting they possessed a conventional vesicular release mechanism.
It is well documented that neuronal activity is required for the developmental segregation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) synaptic connectivity with ON and OFF bipolar cells in mammalian retina. Our recent study showed that light deprivation preferentially blocked the developmental RGC dendritic redistribution from the center to sublamina a of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). To determine whether OFF signals in visual stimulation are required for OFF RGC dendritic development, the light-evoked responses and dendritic stratification patterns of RGCs in Spastic mutant mice, in which the OFF signal transmission in the rod pathway is largely blocked due to a reduction of glycine receptor (GlyR) expression, were quantitatively studied at different ages and rearing conditions. The dendritic distribution in the IPL of these mice was indistinguishable from wildtype controls at the age of postnatal day (P)12. However, the adult Spastic mutants had altered RGC light-evoked synaptic inputs from ON and OFF pathways, which could not be mimicked by pharmacologically blocking of glycinergic synaptic transmission on age-matched wildtype animals. Spastic mutation also blocked the developmental redistribution of RGC dendrites from the center to sublamina a of the IPL, which mimicked the effects induced by light deprivation on wildtype animals. Moreover, light deprivation of the Spastic mutants had no additional impact on the RGC dendritic distribution and light response patterns. We interpret these results as that visual stimulation regulates the maturation of RGC synaptic activity and connectivity primarily through GlyR-mediated synaptic transmission.
Sympathetic ganglia are primarily composed of noradrenergic neurons and satellite glial cells. Although both cell types originate from neural crest cells, the identities of the progenitor populations at intermediate stages of the differentiation process remain to be established. Here we report on the identification in vivo of glial and neuronal progenitor cells in postnatal sympathetic ganglia, by using mouse superior cervical ganglia as a model system. There are significant levels of cellular proliferation in mouse superior cervical ganglia during the first 18 days after birth. A majority of the proliferating cells express both nestin and brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) fate-tracing experiments demonstrate that these nestin and BLBP double-positive cells represent a population of glial progenitors for sympathetic satellite cells. The glial differentiation process is characterized by a marked downregulation of nestin and upregulation of S100, with no significant changes in the levels of BLBP expression. We also identify a small number of proliferating cells that express nestin and tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis that defines sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. Together, these results establish nestin as a common marker for sympathetic neuronal and glial progenitor cells and delineate the cellular basis for the generation and maturation of sympathetic satellite cells.
Area X is a songbird basal ganglia nucleus that is required for vocal learning. Both Area X and its immediate surround, the medial striatum (MSt), contain cells displaying either striatal or pallidal characteristics. We used pathway-tracing techniques to compare directly the targets of Area X and MSt with those of the lateral striatum (LSt) and globus pallidus (GP). We found that the zebra finch LSt projects to the GP, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and pars compacta (SNc), but not the thalamus. The GP is reciprocally connected with the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and projects to the SNr and motor thalamus analog, the ventral intermediate area (VIA). In contrast to the LSt, Area X and surrounding MSt project to the ventral pallidum (VP) and dorsal thalamus via pallidal-like neurons. A dorsal strip of the MSt contains spiny neurons that project to the VP. The MSt, but not Area X, projects to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and SNc, but neither MSt nor Area X projects to the SNr. Largely distinct populations of SNc and VTA dopaminergic neurons innervate Area X and surrounding the MSt. Finally, we provide evidence consistent with an indirect pathway from the cerebellum to the basal ganglia, including Area X. Area X projections thus differ from those of the GP and LSt, but are similar to those of the MSt. These data clarify the relationships among different portions of the oscine basal ganglia as well as among the basal ganglia of birds and mammals.
Dopamine has been implicated in mediating contextual modulation of motor behaviors and learning in many species. In songbirds, dopamine may act on the basal ganglia nucleus Area X to influence the neural activity that contributes to vocal learning and contextual changes in song variability. Neurons in midbrain dopamine centers, the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), densely innervate Area X and show singing-related changes in firing rate. In addition, dopamine levels in Area X change during singing. It is unknown, however, how song-related information could reach dopaminergic neurons. Here we report an anatomical pathway that could provide song-related information to the SNc and VTA. By using injections of bidirectionally transported fluorescent tracers in adult male zebra finches, we show that Area X and other song control nuclei do not project directly to the SNc or VTA. Instead, we describe an indirect pathway from Area X to midbrain dopaminergic neurons via a connection in the ventral pallidum (VP). Specifically, Area X projects to the VP via axon collaterals of Area X output neurons that also project to the thalamus. Dual injections revealed that the area of VP receiving input from Area X projects to the SNc and VTA. Furthermore, VP terminals in the SNc and VTA overlap with cells that project back to Area X. A portion of the arcopallium also projects to the SNc and VTA and could carry auditory information. These data demonstrate an anatomical loop through which Area X activity could influence its dopaminergic input.
We have investigated the development of autonomic nerves in the urogenital tract of male mice and the effect of neurturin gene deletion on this process. At birth, autonomic innervation of the reproductive organs was sparse, but urinary bladder smooth muscle was well innervated. Further innervation of reproductive tissues occurred until P21, but noradrenergic axons established their complete terminal field later than nitrergic cholinergic axons: in adults the former are more prevalent, yet this became apparent only at P7 (vas deferens, seminal vesicles), P14 (prostate) or after P14 (penis). Neurturin was essential for initial projection of axons (mucosa of vas deferens), maintenance of terminal fields (prostate and seminal vesicles), or both functions (cavernosum of penis). In contrast, some targets (e.g., bladder muscle and suburothelium, vas deferens smooth muscle) were unaffected by neurturin gene deletion. Pelvic ganglion neurons more than doubled between birth and adulthood, probably as aresult of continued maturation of p75-positive undifferentiated neuronal precursors rather than cell division. The adult number of neurons was achieved by P7 (sympathetic) or P21 (parasympathetic). In adult neurturin knockout mice, there were approximately 25% fewer parasympathetic neurons compared with wild types, because of failure of differentiation after P14. This study revealed the complexity of postnatal maturation of urogenital innervation, with each organ showing a distinct chronology of innervation and different requirement for neurturin. Our results also indicate that in adults there will be distinct differences in neurturin dependence between organs, such that proregenerative therapies may have to be tailored specifically for the nerve pathway of interest.
Tangential cell dispersion in the retina is a spacing mechanism that establishes a regular mosaic organization among cell types and contributes to their final positioning. The present study has used the X-inactivation transgenic mouse expressing the lacZ reporter gene on one X chromosome. Due to X chromosome inactivation, 50% of early progenitor cells express beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal); therefore, all cells derived from a particular beta-Gal-expressing progenitor cell can be identified in labeled columns. The radial segregation of clonally related beta-Gal-positive and beta-Gal-negative cells can be used to determine whether single cells transgress a clonal boundary in the retina. We investigated the extent to which particular cell classes tangentially disperse by analyzing the placement of labeled cells expressing particular markers at several ages and quantifying their tangential displacement. Retinal neurons expressing cell markers at postnatal day (P) 1 have a greater degree of tangential dispersion compared with amacrine and bipolar cells at P5-6. We also studied whether there is a functional correlation with these dispersion patterns by investigating the emergence of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors. To determine the degree of functional glutamate receptor activation, agmatine (AGB) was used in combination with cell-specific labeling. AGB permeates functional glutamate receptor channels following activation with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Within these receptor groups, high concentrations of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA are associated with a high degree of tangential dispersion in the adult. Developmentally, functional kainate and AMPA receptors were detected by P1 and were associated with tangentially dispersed cells. Functional NMDA receptors were not detected as early as kainate and AMPA receptors. These results indicate that cells generated early during development are more likely to disperse tangentially compared with those generated later in development. Therefore, functional AMPA and kainate receptors may play a critical role in tangentially displacing cell types.
By analyzing the mechanisms that govern dopaminergic axon pathfinding from the midbrain to the striatum in embryonic rat brains, we identified neuroepithelial regions that exert chemotropic effects on mesencephalic dopaminergic axons. Explants from the pretectum and the striatum showed an attractive effect, whereas those from the midhindbrain boundary, the dorsal thalamus, and the ventral thalamus had no effect. Expression of semaphorin (Sema) 3C and Sema3F in the pretectum and of Sema3A in the striatum suggested a role for these axon guidance molecules in dopaminergic axon pathfinding. When expressed in HEK293 cell aggregates, Sema3C had an attractive effect and enhanced axon growth, Sema3A enhanced axon growth, and Sema3F had a repulsive effect on dopaminergic axons. Antineuropilin-1 and antineuropilin-2 antibodies reduced attraction by the pretectum, whereas attraction by the striatum was not affected by the presence of antineuropilin-1 antibodies. Moreover, neuropilin-1- and neuropilin-2-soluble Fc chimeras reduced the attraction by the pretectum. These results suggest that semaphorins may help to establish the dopaminergic projection from the midbrain to the striatum during embryonic development.
In the brain and the retina metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulate synaptic transmission; in particular, L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate-sensitive group-III mGluRs are generally presynaptic and provide negative feedback of neurotransmitter release. We performed a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of all group-III mGluRs in the mouse retina. mGluR6 expression was limited to the outer plexiform layer. Discrete, punctate immunolabeling, exclusively in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), was observed for each of the remaining group-III mGluRs. mGluR4 immunostaining was most abundant in IPL sublamina 1; mGluR7 immunoreactivity was organized in four bands, corresponding to sublaminae 1-4; and mGluR8 was localized in two broad bands, one each in the OFF and ON layers of the IPL. mGluR8 immunoreactivity was evident in the OFF plexus of cholinergic amacrine cell processes. Surprisingly, we found little overlap between group-III mGluR immunolabeling and that for the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1. Instead, we found that mGluR4 and mGluR7 were located close to bipolar cell ribbons. No compensatory changes in the distribution of group-III mGluRs, or of several other markers also showing a stratified localization in the IPL, were observed in genetically engineered mice lacking either mGluR4, mGluR8, or both mGluR4 and mGluR8. The unique pattern of expression of each receptor suggests that they have distinct functions in the retina, and their asymmetric distribution in the ON and OFF layers of the IPL suggests distinct roles in the processing of light-ON and light-OFF stimuli.
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA) are anatomically connected sites necessary for chemosensory regulation of social behaviors in rodents. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a valuable model for studying the neural regulation of social behaviors because, unlike many other rodents, they are gregarious, pair bond after copulating, and are biparental. We herein describe sex and species differences in immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, in the BST and MeA. Virgin male prairie voles had a large number of TH-immunoreactive cells in areas analogous to the rat principal nucleus of the BST (pBST) and the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeAPd). Virgin female prairie voles had far fewer TH-immunoreactive cells in these sites ( approximately 17% of the number of cells as males in the pBST, approximately 35% of the number of cells in the MeAPd). A few TH-immunoreactive cells were found in the BST of male and female hamsters and meadow voles, but not in rats. The MeApd also contained a few TH-immunoreactive cells in male and female hamsters and male meadow voles, but not rats. Castration greatly reduced the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the male prairie vole pBST and MeAPd, an effect that could be reversed with testosterone. Furthermore, treating ovariectomized females with testosterone substantially increased TH-immunoreactive cells in both sites. Therefore, a species-specific sex difference in TH expression is found in a chemosensory pathway in prairie voles. Expression of TH in these sites is influenced by circulating gonadal hormones in adults, which may be related to changes in their display of social behaviors across the reproductive cycle.
The neurochemistry of the retina of the larval and postmetamorphic sea lamprey was studied via immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against the major candidate neurotransmitters [glutamate, glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), aspartate, dopamine, serotonin] and the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Immunoreactivity to rod opsin and calretinin was also used to distinguish some retinal cells. Two retinal regions are present in larvae: the central retina, with opsin-immunoreactive photoreceptors, and the lateral retina, which lacks photoreceptors and is mainly neuroblastic. We observed calretinin-immunostained ganglion cells in both retinal regions; immunolabeled bipolar cells were detected in the central retina only. Glutamate immunoreactivity was present in photoreceptors, ganglion cells, and bipolar cells. Faint to moderate glycine immunostaining was observed in photoreceptors and some cells of the ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer. No GABA-immunolabeled perikarya were observed. GABA-immunoreactive centrifugal fibers were present in the central and lateral retina. These centrifugal fibers contacted glutamate-immunostained ganglion cells. No aspartate, serotonin, dopamine, or TH immunoreactivity was observed in larvae, whereas these molecules, as well as GABA, glycine, and glutamate, were detected in neurons of the retina of recently transformed lamprey. Immunoreactivity to GABA was observed in outer horizontal cells, some bipolar cells, and numerous amacrine cells, whereas immunoreactivity to glycine was found in amacrine cells and interplexiform cells. Dopamine and serotonin immunoreactivity was found in scattered amacrine cells. Amacrine and horizontal cells did not express classical neurotransmitters (with the possible exception of glycine) during larval life, so transmitter-expressing cells of the larval retina appear to participate only in the vertical processing pathway.
The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) contains a subpopulation of neurons that express the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2), which makes them uniquely sensitive to aldosterone. These neurons may drive sodium appetite, which is enhanced by aldosterone. Anterograde and retrograde neural tracing techniques were used to reveal the efferent projections of the HSD2 neurons in the rat. First, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was used to label axonal projections from the medial NTS. Then, NTS-innervated brain regions were injected with a retrograde tracer, cholera toxin beta subunit, to determine which sites are innervated by the HSD2 neurons. The HSD2 neurons project mainly to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl), the pre-locus coeruleus (pre-LC), and the inner division of the external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBel). They also send minor axonal projections to the midbrain ventral tegmental area, lateral and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, central nucleus of the amygdala, and periaqueductal gray matter. The HSD2 neurons do not innervate the ventrolateral medulla, a key brainstem autonomic site. Additionally, our tracing experiments confirmed that the BSTvl receives direct axonal projections from the neighboring A2 noradrenergic neurons in the NTS, and from the same pontine sites that receive major inputs from the HSD2 neurons (PBel and pre-LC). The efferent projections of the HSD2 neurons may provide new insights into the brain circuitry responsible for sodium appetite.