Literature context: RRID:AB_355060 1:50
Muscle satellite cells are the primary source of stem cells for postnatal skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Understanding genetic control of satellite cell formation, maintenance, and acquisition of their stem cell properties is on-going, and we have identified SOXF (SOX7, SOX17, SOX18) transcriptional factors as being induced during satellite cell specification. We demonstrate that SOXF factors regulate satellite cell quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation. Moreover, ablation of Sox17 in the muscle lineage impairs postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. We further determine that activities of SOX7, SOX17 and SOX18 overlap during muscle regeneration, with SOXF transcriptional activity requisite. Finally, we show that SOXF factors also control satellite cell expansion and renewal by directly inhibiting the output of β-catenin activity, including inhibition of Ccnd1 and Axin2. Together, our findings identify a key regulatory function of SoxF genes in muscle stem cells via direct transcriptional control and interaction with canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Literature context: ms, Cat# AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 Mouse anti-Actin, alpha-Smooth
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. PD can result from a mutation of alpha-synuclein (α-SNCA), such as α-SNCA A53T. Using episomal vectors, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from skin fibroblasts with the α-SNCA A53T mutation. A huge bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) harboring the normal α-SNCA gene successfully corrected the α-SNCA A53T-mutant iPSCs. Melting curve analysis for allelic composition indicated that the BAC DNA was precisely targeted to the α-SNCA A53T mutation allele, without random integration. The corrected PD-iPSCs displayed the normal karyotype and pluripotency, with the capability to differentiate to any cell type.
Literature context: ems, RRID:AB_355060 Rabbit anti-FOX-A2 1:300 Millip
A skin biopsy of a patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)) caused by a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene, was used to generate an induced pluripotent stem cell line, HIHCNi002-A (iPSC-SCA3). Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using episomal plasmids carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, hL-MYC, and hLIN28. The iPSC-SCA3 line exhibits chromosomal stability with conservation of the ATXN3 repeat expansion, expresses pluripotency markers and differentiates into endo-, meso-, and ectodermal cells in vitro.
Literature context: Systems Cat# AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 Rabbit monoclonal anti-Dnmt1 Ce
Transcription factor (TF)-mediated reprogramming to pluripotency is a slow and inefficient process, because most pluripotency TFs fail to access relevant target sites in a refractory chromatin environment. It is still unclear how TFs actually orchestrate the opening of repressive chromatin during the long latency period of reprogramming. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb plays a pioneering role in recruiting the core pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog to inactive enhancers in closed chromatin during the reprogramming of epiblast stem cells. Esrrb binds to silenced enhancers containing stable nucleosomes and hypermethylated DNA, which are inaccessible to the core factors. Esrrb binding is accompanied by local loss of DNA methylation, LIF-dependent engagement of p300, and nucleosome displacement, leading to the recruitment of core factors within approximately 2 days. These results suggest that TFs can drive rapid remodeling of the local chromatin structure, highlighting the remarkable plasticity of stable epigenetic information.
Literature context: RRID:AB_355060 Differentiation markers Mouse a
Astrotactin-2, encoded by ASTN2, is implicated in neuronal migration. Although genetic studies of schizophrenia (SCZ) patients have suggested that exonic deletions of ASTN2 are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, their biological significance remains unclear. Herein, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a SCZ patient with an exonic deletion of ASTN2. The generated iPSCs carried ASTN2 deletion and showed typical iPSC morphology, pluripotency marker expression, normal chromosomal aneuploidy, and the capacity to differentiate into three germ layers. This iPSC line may be suitable for evaluating Astrotactin-2 function relevant for SCZ onset in the human brain.
Literature context: RRID:AB_355060 Mouse anti-Desmin (IgG1) 1:20 A
Caudal-type homeobox 2 (CDX2) transcription factor is an important marker for early trophoblast lineages and intestinal epithelium. Due to its nuclear expression the immunostaining and sorting of viable CDX2pos cells is not possible. In this paper we report the generation and describe key characteristics of a CDX2Venus knock-in reporter hiPSC-cell line (MHHi007-A-1) which can serve as an in vitro tool to study human trophoblast and intestinal differentiation.
Literature context: RID:RRID:AB_355060 Eif3c Cell Signaling Cat#2068S;
Stem cell-specific transcriptional networks are well known to control pluripotency, but constitutive cellular processes such as mRNA splicing and protein synthesis can add complex layers of regulation with poorly understood effects on cell-fate decisions. Here, we show that the RNA binding protein HTATSF1 controls embryonic stem cell differentiation by regulating multiple aspects of RNA processing during ribosome biogenesis. HTATSF1, in a complex with splicing factor SF3B1, controls intron removal from ribosomal protein transcripts and regulates ribosomal RNA transcription and processing, thereby controlling 60S ribosomal abundance and protein synthesis. HTATSF1-dependent protein synthesis is essential for naive pre-implantation epiblast to transition into post-implantation epiblast, a stage with transiently low protein synthesis, and further differentiation toward neuroectoderm. Together, these results identify coordinated regulation of ribosomal RNA and protein synthesis by HTATSF1 and show that this essential mechanism controls protein synthesis during early mammalian embryogenesis.
Literature context: ti SOX1710â€¯Î¼g/mlR&D Systems Cat#AF1924Differentiation markerMouse anti
The human embryonic stem cell line NYSCFe001-A was derived from a day 6 blastocyst in feeder-free and antibiotic free conditions. The blastocyst was voluntarily donated for research as surplus after in vitro fertilization treatment following informed consent. The NYSCFe001-A line, registered as NYSCF100 on the NIH registry, presents normal karyotype, is mycoplasma free, expresses all the pluripotency markers and has the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro.
Literature context: ms, RRID:AB_355060 rabbit anti-FOX-A2 1:300 Millip
STUB1/CHIP is a central component of cellular protein homeostasis and interacts with key proteins involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we reprogrammed human skin fibroblasts from a 12-year-old male patient with recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 16 (OMIM #615768), carrying compound heterozygous mutations (c.355C>T, c.880A>T) in STUB1. Genomic integrity of the iPSC line HIHCNi001-A without transgene integration and genomic aberration but with maintained disease-relevant mutations was proven by SNP array analysis and Sanger sequencing while pluripotency was verified by the expression of important pluripotency markers and the capacity to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers.
Literature context: 200R and D Systems Cat# AF1924, RRID: AB_355060Differentiation MarkerGoat anti-
Mutations in RAB39B are a known cause of X-linked early onset Parkinson's disease. Isogenic human embryonic stem cell lines carrying two independent deletions of RAB39B were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool. The deletions were confirmed by PCR and direct sequence analysis in two edited stem cell lines. Both cell lines showed pluripotency and displayed a normal karyotype. Further, they were able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and express markers indicative of differentiation to the three germ layers.
Literature context: -SOX17 1:40 R&D, cat. # AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 Secondary antibody Alexa FluorÂ®
The human embryonic stem cell line NERCe002-A-2 was generated by transduction of NERCe002-A cells with an expression vector carrying the luciferase gene. The stem cells labelled with luciferase can be transplanted into animals and detected by the bioluminescence imaging technology. This provides optimal prospects of application to in vivo stem cell tracing. Luciferin served as a substrate to detect the activity of luciferase, and luciferase expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Characterization assays suggested that the NERCe002-A-2 cell line expresses typical markers of pluripotency and can form the 3 germ layers in vivo.
Literature context: ems; AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 Secondary antibodies Alexa Fluo
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic, lethal disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) gene. Here we report the production of CF-iPS cell lines from two different p.F508del homozygous female patients (Table 1). Two different primary cell types, skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, were transfected with retroviral cocktails containing four: c-MYC, KLF4, OCT4 and SOX2 (MKOS) or three: KLF4, OCT4 and SOX2 (KOS) reprogramming factors. Two fibroblast-derived MKOS lines are described in the main text. The lines carry the p.F508del mutation, have a normal karyotype, express pluripotency markers and are able to differentiate into the three germ layers.
Literature context: ti-SOX17 1:200 R&D Cat# AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 Secondary antibodies Alexa Fluo
X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disease that caused by mutations in adenosine triphosphate [ATP]-binding-cassette transporter superfamily D member 1 (ABCD1) gene. We generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 21-year-old male X-ALD patient-derived fibroblasts by Sendai virus mediated reprogramming. Established iPSCs stably expanded while maintaining immunoreactivity for various pluripotency markers and alkaline phosphatase, as well as normal 44+XY karyotype. Under the differentiation condition, the cells gave rise to cells of three germ layers.
Literature context: 500 R and D Systems Cat# AF1924 RRID:AB_355060 Differentiation markers Rabbit
The Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor, a member of the Retinoblastoma gene family, functions as a pocket protein for the functional binding of E2F transcription factors. About 1/3 of retinoblastoma patients harbor a germline RB1 mutation or deletion, leading to the development of retinoblastoma. Here, we demonstrate generation of a heterozygous deletion of the RB1 gene in the H1 human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9 nickase genome editing. The RB1 heterozygous knockout H1 cell line shows a normal karyotype, maintains a pluripotent state, and is capable of differentiation to the three germline layers.
Literature context: 17 R and D Systems Cat# AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 1:200
During gastrulation epiblast cells exit pluripotency as they specify and spatially arrange the three germ layers of the embryo. Similarly, human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) undergo spatially organized fate specification on micropatterned surfaces. Since in vivo validation is not possible for the human, we developed a mouse PSC micropattern system and, with direct comparisons to mouse embryos, reveal the robust specification of distinct regional identities. BMP, WNT, ACTIVIN and FGF directed mouse epiblast-like cells to undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and radially pattern posterior mesoderm fates. Conversely, WNT, ACTIVIN and FGF patterned anterior identities, including definitive endoderm. By contrast, epiblast stem cells, a developmentally advanced state, only specified anterior identities, but without patterning. The mouse micropattern system offers a robust scalable method to generate regionalized cell types present in vivo, resolve how signals promote distinct identities and generate patterns, and compare mechanisms operating in vivo and in vitro and across species.
Literature context: 50 R and D Systems Cat# AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 Differentiation markers Goat an
Human lymphoblast cells were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) employing episomal-based plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and L-MYC. The derived iPSCs were defined as pluripotent based on (i) expression of pluripotency-associated markers, (ii) embryoid body-based differentiation into cell types representative of the three germ layers and (iii) the similarity between the transcriptomes of the iPSC line and the human embryonic stem cell line H1 with a Pearson correlation of 0.95.
Literature context: -Sox17 R&D Systems Cat #AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 Rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved
Coordinating angiogenesis with acquisition of tissue-specific properties in endothelial cells is essential for vascular function. In the retina, endothelial cells form a blood-retina barrier by virtue of tight junctions and low transcytosis. While the canonical Norrin/Fz4/Lrp5/6 pathway is essential for angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, and barrier maturation, how these diverse processes are coordinated remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Apcdd1, a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, is expressed in retinal endothelial cells during angiogenesis and barrier formation. Apcdd1-deficient mice exhibit a transient increase in vessel density at ages P10-P12 due to delayed vessel pruning. Moreover, Apcdd1 mutant endothelial cells precociously form the paracellular component of the barrier. Conversely, mice that overexpress Apcdd1 in retina endothelial cells have reduced vessel density but increased paracellular barrier permeability. Apcdd1 thus serves to precisely modulate Wnt/Norrin signaling activity in the retinal endothelium and coordinate the timing of both vascular pruning and barrier maturation.
Literature context: s Cat# AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 Rabbit anti-AFP 1:200 Dako Cat#
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key nuclear receptor that mediates drug metabolism and stimulates hepatocyte proliferation. However, the lack of PXR expression in human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes limits their application for drug screening and toxicity testing. Here, we generated a PXR-mCherry reporter human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. PXR-mCherry hiPSCs were pluripotent and had differentiation potential and a normal karyotype. This cell line is an important tool for identifying factors that increase PXR-mediated drug metabolism and hepatocyte proliferation.
Literature context: nal R and D Systems Cat#AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 1:500 (IF)
Complete and robust human genome duplication requires loading minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complexes at many DNA replication origins, an essential process termed origin licensing. Licensing is restricted to G1 phase of the cell cycle, but G1 length varies widely among cell types. Using quantitative single-cell analyses, we found that pluripotent stem cells with naturally short G1 phases load MCM much faster than their isogenic differentiated counterparts with long G1 phases. During the earliest stages of differentiation toward all lineages, MCM loading slows concurrently with G1 lengthening, revealing developmental control of MCM loading. In contrast, ectopic Cyclin E overproduction uncouples short G1 from fast MCM loading. Rapid licensing in stem cells is caused by accumulation of the MCM loading protein, Cdt1. Prematurely slowing MCM loading in pluripotent cells not only lengthens G1 but also accelerates differentiation. Thus, rapid origin licensing is an intrinsic characteristic of stem cells that contributes to pluripotency maintenance.
Literature context: 50 R and D Systems Cat# AF1924, RRID:AB_355060 Differentiation markers Rabbit
SIX2-positive renal cells isolated from urine from a 51year old male of African origin bearing the CYP2D6 *4/*17 variant were reprogrammed by nucleofection of a combination of two episomal-based plasmids omitting pathway (TGFβ, MEK and GSK3β) inhibition. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were characterized by immunocytochemistry, embryoid body formation, DNA-fingerprinting and karyotype analysis. Comparative transcriptome analyses with human embryonic stem cell lines H1 and H9 revealed a Pearson correlation of 0.9243 and 0.9619 respectively.
Literature context: t anti-SOX17 R&D Systems AF1924 RRID:AB_355060 1:50
Definitive endoderm (DE) is the first stage of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. Developing human liver cell models for pharmaceutical applications is highly demanding. Due to the vast number of existing protocols to generate DE cells from hPSCs, we aimed to compare the specificity and efficiency of selected published differentiation conditions. We differentiated two hPSC lines (induced PSC and embryonic stem cell) to DE cells on Matrigel matrix using growth factors (Activin A and Wnt-3a) and small molecules (sodium butyrate and IDE 1) in different combinations. By studying dynamic changes during 6 days in cell morphology and the expression of markers for pluripotency, DE, and other germ layer lineages, we found that Activin A is essential for DE differentiation, while Wnt-3a and sodium butyrate are dispensable. Although sodium butyrate exerted rapid DE differentiation kinetics, it caused massive cell death and could not generate sufficient cells for further differentiation and applications. We further discover that IDE 1 could not induce DE as reported previously. Hereby, we compared different conditions for DE induction and found an effective six day-protocol to obtain DE cells for the further differentiation and applications.
Literature context: SOX17 R&D systems Cat#:AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 SOX2 Santa Cruz Biotechnology C
As human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) exit pluripotency, they are thought to switch from a glycolytic mode of energy generation to one more dependent on oxidative phosphorylation. Here we show that, although metabolic switching occurs during early mesoderm and endoderm differentiation, high glycolytic flux is maintained and, in fact, essential during early ectoderm specification. The elevated glycolysis observed in hPSCs requires elevated MYC/MYCN activity. Metabolic switching during endodermal and mesodermal differentiation coincides with a reduction in MYC/MYCN and can be reversed by ectopically restoring MYC activity. During early ectodermal differentiation, sustained MYCN activity maintains the transcription of "switch" genes that are rate-limiting for metabolic activity and lineage commitment. Our work, therefore, shows that metabolic switching is lineage-specific and not a required step for exit of pluripotency in hPSCs and identifies MYC and MYCN as developmental regulators that couple metabolism to pluripotency and cell fate determination.
Literature context: SOX17 R&D Systems AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 TFAP2C Santa Cruz sc-8977; RRID
Germline specification underlies human reproduction and evolution, but it has proven difficult to study in humans since it occurs shortly after blastocyst implantation. This process can be modeled with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by differentiating them into primordial germ cell-like cells (hPGCLCs) through an incipient mesoderm-like cell (iMeLC) state. Here, we elucidate the key transcription factors and their interactions with important signaling pathways in driving hPGCLC differentiation from iPSCs. Germline competence of iMeLCs is dictated by the duration and dosage of WNT signaling, which induces expression of EOMES to activate SOX17, a key driver of hPGCLC specification. Upon hPGCLC induction, BMP signaling activates TFAP2C in a SOX17-independent manner. SOX17 and TFAP2C then cooperatively instate an hPGCLC transcriptional program, including BLIMP1 expression. This specification program diverges from its mouse counterpart regarding key transcription factors and their hierarchies, and it provides a foundation for further study of human germ cell development.
Literature context: RRID:AB_355060 anti-betaIII Tubulin Antibody (
Pluripotent stem cells can self-renew in culture and differentiate along all somatic lineages in vivo. While much is known about the molecular basis of pluripotency, the mechanisms of differentiation remain unclear. Here, we profile individual mouse embryonic stem cells as they progress along the neuronal lineage. We observe that cells pass from the pluripotent state to the neuronal state via an intermediate epiblast-like state. However, analysis of the rate at which cells enter and exit these observed cell states using a hidden Markov model indicates the presence of a chain of unobserved molecular states that each cell transits through stochastically in sequence. This chain of hidden states allows individual cells to record their position on the differentiation trajectory, thereby encoding a simple form of cellular memory. We suggest a statistical mechanics interpretation of these results that distinguishes between functionally distinct cellular "macrostates" and functionally similar molecular "microstates" and propose a model of stem cell differentiation as a non-Markov stochastic process.
Literature context: s AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 Mouse mono
Activation of the FGF signaling pathway during preimplantation development of the mouse embryo is known to be essential for differentiation of the inner cell mass and the formation of the primitive endoderm (PrE). We now show using fluorescent reporter knockin lines that Fgfr1 is expressed in all cell populations of the blastocyst, while Fgfr2 expression becomes restricted to extraembryonic lineages, including the PrE. We further show that loss of both receptors prevents the development of the PrE and demonstrate that FGFR1 plays a more prominent role in this process than FGFR2. Finally, we document an essential role for FGFRs in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation, with FGFR1 again having a greater influence than FGFR2 in ESC exit from the pluripotent state. Collectively, these results identify mechanisms through which FGF signaling regulates inner cell mass lineage restriction and cell commitment during preimplantation development.
Literature context: # AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 Goat anti-
Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is the key signal driving specification of primitive endoderm (PrE) versus pluripotent epiblast (EPI) within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst. To gain insight into the receptor(s) responding to FGF4 within ICM cells, we combined single-cell-resolution quantitative imaging with single-cell transcriptomics of wild-type and Fgf receptor (Fgfr) mutant embryos. Despite the PrE-specific expression of FGFR2, it is FGFR1, expressed by all ICM cells, that is critical for establishment of a PrE identity. Signaling through FGFR1 is also required to constrain levels of the pluripotency-associated factor NANOG in EPI cells. However, the activity of both receptors is required for lineage establishment within the ICM. Gene expression profiling of 534 single ICM cells identified distinct downstream targets associated with each receptor. These data lead us to propose a model whereby unique and additive activities of FGFR1 and FGFR2 within the ICM coordinate establishment of two distinct lineages.
Literature context: s AF1924; RRID:AB_355060 SOX17-PE B
Human disease phenotypes associated with haploinsufficient gene requirements are often not recapitulated well in animal models. Here, we have investigated the association between human GATA6 haploinsufficiency and a wide range of clinical phenotypes that include neonatal and adult-onset diabetes using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas9-mediated genome editing coupled with human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) directed differentiation. We found that loss of one GATA6 allele specifically affects the differentiation of human pancreatic progenitors from the early PDX1+ stage to the more mature PDX1+NKX6.1+ stage, leading to impaired formation of glucose-responsive β-like cells. In addition to this GATA6 haploinsufficiency, we also identified dosage-sensitive requirements for GATA6 and GATA4 in the formation of both definitive endoderm and pancreatic progenitor cells. Our work expands the application of hPSCs from studying the impact of individual gene loci to investigation of multigenic human traits, and it establishes an approach for identifying genetic modifiers of human disease.
Literature context: 17 1:100 (RRID:AB_355060, AF1924, R
The segregation of the trophectoderm (TE) from the inner cell mass (ICM) in the mouse blastocyst is determined by position-dependent Hippo signaling. However, the window of responsiveness to Hippo signaling, the exact timing of lineage commitment and the overall relationship between cell commitment and global gene expression changes are still unclear. Single-cell RNA sequencing during lineage segregation revealed that the TE transcriptional profile stabilizes earlier than the ICM and prior to blastocyst formation. Using quantitative Cdx2-eGFP expression as a readout of Hippo signaling activity, we assessed the experimental potential of individual blastomeres based on their level of Cdx2-eGFP expression and correlated potential with gene expression dynamics. We find that TE specification and commitment coincide and occur at the time of transcriptional stabilization, whereas ICM cells still retain the ability to regenerate TE up to the early blastocyst stage. Plasticity of both lineages is coincident with their window of sensitivity to Hippo signaling.