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Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) Antibody

RRID:AB_331679

Antibody ID

AB_331679

Target Antigen

Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) chicken/bird, mouse, non-human primate, rat, yeast/fungi, xenopus/amphibian, human, h, m, r, mk, sc, (c, x)

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 2211, RRID:AB_331679)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IHC-P, IHC-F, IF-IC, F. Consolidation: AB_331680.

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Unbiased Combinatorial Screening Identifies a Bispecific IgG1 that Potently Inhibits HER3 Signaling via HER2-Guided Ligand Blockade.

  • Geuijen CAW
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

HER2-driven cancers require phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling through HER3 to promote tumor growth and survival. The therapeutic benefit of HER2-targeting agents, which depend on PI3K/Akt inhibition, can be overcome by hyperactivation of the heregulin (HRG)/HER3 pathway. Here we describe an unbiased phenotypic combinatorial screening approach to identify a bispecific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody against HER2 and HER3. In tumor models resistant to HER2-targeting agents, the bispecific IgG1 potently inhibits the HRG/HER3 pathway and downstream PI3K/Akt signaling via a "dock & block" mechanism. This bispecific IgG1 is a potentially effective therapy for breast cancer and other tumors with hyperactivated HRG/HER3 signaling.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Phosphatidylinositol-5-Phosphate 4-Kinases Regulate Cellular Lipid Metabolism By Facilitating Autophagy.

  • Lundquist MR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the majority of phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PI-4, 5-P2) in mammalian cells is generated by the conversion of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4-P) to PI-4, 5-P2, a small fraction can be made by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI-5-P). The physiological relevance of this second pathway is not clear. Here, we show that deletion of the genes encoding the two most active enzymes in this pathway, Pip4k2a and Pip4k2b, in the liver of mice causes a large enrichment in lipid droplets and in autophagic vesicles during fasting. These changes are due to a defect in the clearance of autophagosomes that halts autophagy and reduces the supply of nutrients salvaged through this pathway. Similar defects in autophagy are seen in nutrient-starved Pip4k2a-/-Pip4k2b-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in C. elegans lacking the PI5P4K ortholog. These results suggest that this alternative pathway for PI-4, 5-P2 synthesis evolved, in part, to enhance the ability of multicellular organisms to survive starvation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197588()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA210184()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1RR024128(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM041890()

Interventions Targeting Glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like Factor 15-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Signaling Improve Disease Phenotypes in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice.

  • Walter LM
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The circadian glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like factor 15-branched-chain amino acid (GC-KLF15-BCAA) signaling pathway is a key regulatory axis in muscle, whose imbalance has wide-reaching effects on metabolic homeostasis. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder also characterized by intrinsic muscle pathologies, metabolic abnormalities and disrupted sleep patterns, which can influence or be influenced by circadian regulatory networks that control behavioral and metabolic rhythms. We therefore set out to investigate the contribution of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway in SMA pathophysiology of Taiwanese Smn-/-;SMN2 and Smn2B/- mouse models. We thus uncover substantial dysregulation of GC-KLF15-BCAA diurnal rhythmicity in serum, skeletal muscle and metabolic tissues of SMA mice. Importantly, modulating the components of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway via pharmacological (prednisolone), genetic (muscle-specific Klf15 overexpression) and dietary (BCAA supplementation) interventions significantly improves disease phenotypes in SMA mice. Our study highlights the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway as a contributor to SMA pathogenesis and provides several treatment avenues to alleviate peripheral manifestations of the disease. The therapeutic potential of targeting metabolic perturbations by diet and commercially available drugs could have a broader implementation across other neuromuscular and metabolic disorders characterized by altered GC-KLF15-BCAA signaling.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI55624(United States)

Rescue of Learning and Memory Deficits in the Human Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability Cereblon Knock-Out Mouse Model by Targeting the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-mTORC1 Translational Pathway.

  • Bavley CC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Mar 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

A homozygous nonsense mutation in the cereblon (CRBN) gene results in autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic intellectual disability that is devoid of other phenotypic features, suggesting a critical role of CRBN in mediating learning and memory. In this study, we demonstrate that adult male Crbn knock-out (CrbnKO) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that are recapitulated by focal knock-out of Crbn in the adult dorsal hippocampus, with no changes in social or repetitive behavior. Cellular studies identify deficits in long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral CA1 synapses. We further show that Crbn is robustly expressed in the mouse hippocampus and CrbnKO mice exhibit hyperphosphorylated levels of AMPKα (Thr172). Examination of processes downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) finds that CrbnKO mice have a selective impairment in mediators of the mTORC1 translation initiation pathway in parallel with lower protein levels of postsynaptic density glutamatergic proteins and higher levels of excitatory presynaptic markers in the hippocampus with no change in markers of the unfolded protein response or autophagy pathways. Acute pharmacological inhibition of AMPK activity in adult CrbnKO mice rescues learning and memory deficits and normalizes hippocampal mTORC1 activity and postsynaptic glutamatergic proteins without altering excitatory presynaptic markers. Thus, this study identifies that loss of Crbn results in learning, memory, and synaptic defects as a consequence of exaggerated AMPK activity, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, and decreased glutamatergic synaptic proteins. Thus, CrbnKO mice serve as an ideal model of intellectual disability to further explore molecular mechanisms of learning and memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intellectual disability (ID) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. The cereblon (CRBN) gene has been linked to autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic ID, characterized by an intelligence quotient between 50 and 70 but devoid of other phenotypic features, making cereblon an ideal protein for the study of the fundamental aspects of learning and memory. Here, using the cereblon knock-out mouse model, we show that cereblon deficiency disrupts learning, memory, and synaptic function via AMP-activated protein kinase hyperactivity, downregulation of mTORC1, and dysregulation of excitatory synapses, with no changes in social or repetitive behaviors, consistent with findings in the human population. This establishes the cereblon knock-out mouse as a model of pure ID without the confounding behavioral phenotypes associated with other current models of ID.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U137761446(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA029122()

Systematic Functional Annotation of Somatic Mutations in Cancer.

  • Ng PK
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The functional impact of the vast majority of cancer somatic mutations remains unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap for implementing precision oncology. Here, we report the development of a moderate-throughput functional genomic platform consisting of efficient mutant generation, sensitive viability assays using two growth factor-dependent cell models, and functional proteomic profiling of signaling effects for select aberrations. We apply the platform to annotate >1,000 genomic aberrations, including gene amplifications, point mutations, indels, and gene fusions, potentially doubling the number of driver mutations characterized in clinically actionable genes. Further, the platform is sufficiently sensitive to identify weak drivers. Our data are accessible through a user-friendly, public data portal. Our study will facilitate biomarker discovery, prediction algorithm improvement, and drug development.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-090775(United States)

Minute amounts of hamartin wildtype rescue the emergence of tuber-like lesions in conditional Tsc1 ablated mice.

  • Robens BK
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2018 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a phacomatosis associated with highly differentiated malformations including tubers in the brain. Those are composed of large dysplastic neurons and 'giant cells'. Cortical tubers are frequent causes of chronic seizures and resemble neuropathologically focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) type IIb. Patients with FCDIIb, however, lack additional stigmata of TSC. Mutations and allelic variants of the TSC1 gene have been observed in patients with tubers as well as FCDIIb. Those include hamartin(R692X) and hamartin(R786X), stop mutants frequent in TSC patients and hamartin(H732Y) frequent in FCDIIb. Expression of these variants in cell culture led to aberrant distribution of corresponding proteins. We here scrutinized morphological and structural effects of these TSC1 variants by intraventricular in utero electroporation (IUE), genetically mimicking the discrete focal character and a somatic postzygotic mosaicism of the lesion, focusing on the gene dosage required for tuber-like lesions to emerge in Tsc1(flox/flox) mice. Expression of only hamartin(R692X) as well as hamartin(R786X) led to a 2-fold enlargement of neurons with high pS6 immunoreactivity, stressing their in vivo pathogenic potential. Co-electroporation of the different aberrant alleles and varying amounts of wildtype TSC1 surprisingly revealed already minimal amounts of functional hamartin to be sufficient for phenotype rescue. This result strongly calls for further studies to unravel new mechanisms for substantial silencing of the second allele in cortical tubers, as proposed by Knudson's '2-hit hypothesis'. The rescuing effects may provide a promising basis for gene therapies aiming at reconstituting hamartin expression in tubers.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS063226(United States)

Cooperative Epigenetic Remodeling by TET2 Loss and NRAS Mutation Drives Myeloid Transformation and MEK Inhibitor Sensitivity.

  • Kunimoto H
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in epigenetic modifiers and signaling factors often co-occur in myeloid malignancies, including TET2 and NRAS mutations. Concurrent Tet2 loss and NrasG12D expression in hematopoietic cells induced myeloid transformation, with a fully penetrant, lethal chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), which was serially transplantable. Tet2 loss and Nras mutation cooperatively led to decrease in negative regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, including Spry2, thereby causing synergistic activation of MAPK signaling by epigenetic silencing. Tet2/Nras double-mutant leukemia showed preferential sensitivity to MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibition in both mouse model and patient samples. These data provide insights into how epigenetic and signaling mutations cooperate in myeloid transformation and provide a rationale for mechanism-based therapy in CMML patients with these high-risk genetic lesions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA169055()
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA181507()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA173636()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA198089()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197594()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009156(United States)
  • NIH HHS - U54 OD020355()

Post-transcriptional Regulation of De Novo Lipogenesis by mTORC1-S6K1-SRPK2 Signaling.

  • Lee G
  • Cell
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

mTORC1 is a signal integrator and master regulator of cellular anabolic processes linked to cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes lipid biogenesis via SRPK2, a key regulator of RNA-binding SR proteins. mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates SRPK2 at Ser494, which primes Ser497 phosphorylation by CK1. These phosphorylation events promote SRPK2 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of SR proteins. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that lipid biosynthetic enzymes are among the downstream targets of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling. Mechanistically, SRPK2 promotes SR protein binding to U1-70K to induce splicing of lipogenic pre-mRNAs. Inhibition of this signaling pathway leads to intron retention of lipogenic genes, which triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of SRPK2 blunts de novo lipid synthesis, thereby suppressing cell growth. These results thus reveal a novel role of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling in post-transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism and demonstrate that SRPK2 is a potential therapeutic target for mTORC1-driven metabolic disorders.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL074894(United States)

mTORC1-Mediated Inhibition of 4EBP1 Is Essential for Hedgehog Signaling-Driven Translation and Medulloblastoma.

  • Wu CC
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) cooperates with Hedgehog (HH) signaling, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacologic evidence that MTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation is a prerequisite for HH signaling. The genetic loss of mTORC1 function inhibited HH signaling-driven growth of the cerebellum and medulloblastoma. Inhibiting translation or mTORC1 blocked HH signaling. Depleting 4EBP1, an mTORC1 target that inhibits translation, alleviated the dependence of HH signaling on mTORC1. Consistent with this, phosphorylated 4EBP1 levels were elevated in HH signaling-driven medulloblastomas in mice and humans. In mice, an mTORC1 inhibitor suppressed medulloblastoma driven by a mutant SMO that is inherently resistant to existing SMO inhibitors, prolonging the survival of the mice. Our study reveals that mTORC1-mediated translation is a key component of HH signaling and an important target for treating medulloblastoma and other cancers driven by HH signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765()

Pimozide reduces toxic forms of tau in TauC3 mice via 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated autophagy.

  • Kim YD
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

In neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), tau is hyperphosphorylated and forms aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles in affected neurons. Autophagy is critical to clear the aggregates of disease-associated proteins and is often altered in patients and animal models of AD. Because mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negatively regulates autophagy and is hyperactive in the brains of patients with AD, mTOR is an attractive therapeutic target for AD. However, pharmacological strategies to increase autophagy by targeting mTOR inhibition cause various side effects. Therefore, autophagy activation mediated by non-mTOR pathways is a new option for autophagy-based AD therapy. Here, we report that pimozide activates autophagy to rescue tau pathology in an AD model. Pimozide increased autophagic flux through the activation of the AMPK-Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) axis, but not of mTOR, in neuronal cells, and this function was independent of dopamine D2 receptor inhibition. Pimozide reduced levels of abnormally phosphorylated tau aggregates in neuronal cells. Further, daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of pimozide led to a recovery from memory deficits of TauC3 mice expressing a caspase-cleaved form of tau. In the brains of these mice, we found increased phosphorylation of AMPK1 and ULK1, and reduced levels of the soluble oligomers and NP40-insoluble aggregates of abnormally phosphorylated tau. Together, these results suggest that pimozide rescues memory impairments in TauC3 mice and reduces tau aggregates by increasing autophagic flux through the mTOR-independent AMPK-ULK1 axis.

Clk1-regulated aerobic glycolysis is involved in glioma chemoresistance.

  • Zhang L
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chemoresistance remains a major challenge for the treatment of glioma. In this study, we investigated the role of Clock 1 (Clk1), which encodes an enzyme that is necessary for ubiquinone biosynthesis in glioma chemoresistance in vitro. The results showed that Clk1 was highly expressed in GL261 mouse glioma cells which were most sensitive to 1,3Bis (2-chloroethyl) 1 nitrosourea (BCNU) while was low expressed in BCNU resistant cells such as glioma cancer stem cells, T98G, U87MG and U251 glioma cells. Knockdown of Clk1 in GL261 glioma cells significantly reduced BCNU- or cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis, whereas the proliferative activity and the expression of multidrug resistance-related genes including MDR1, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, and GSTP1 were not changed. When Clk1 was re-expressed in Clk1 knockdown GL261 glioma cells, the BCNU sensitivity was restored. The mechanistic study revealed that knockdown of Clk1 in GL261 glioma cells increased aerobic glycolysis including high glucose consumption, lactate production, and up-regulation of glycolysis-associated genes. Inhibition of glycolysis can reverse the chemoresistance elicited by Clk1 knockdown in GL261 cells. Moreover, knockdown of Clk1 induced HIF-1α expression in GL261 glioma cells which was found to be mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Both metformin and rapamycin reversed the chemoresistance of Clk1 knockdown GL261 glioma cells. Over-expression of Clk1 significantly increased the sensitivity of T98G or U251 human glioblastoma cells to BCNU which was accompanied by decreased lactate secretion, decreased expression of HIF-1α, AMPK activation, and inhibition of mTOR pathway. Inhibition of glycolysis or activation of AMPK did not alter Clk1 expression in variant glioma cell lines suggesting that aerobic glycolysis is not an upstream event of Clk1 expression in glioma cells. Taken together, our results revealed, for the first time, that mitochondrial Clk1 regulated chemoresistance in glioma cells through AMPK/mTOR/HIF-1α mediated glycolysis pathway.

Spatial Activation of TORC1 Is Regulated by Hedgehog and E2F1 Signaling in the Drosophila Eye.

  • Kim W
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) regulates cell growth in response to nutrients and growth factors. Although TORC1 signaling has been thoroughly studied at the cellular level, the regulation of TORC1 in multicellular tissues and organs has remained elusive. Here we found that TORC1 is selectively activated in the second mitotic wave (SMW), the terminal synchronous cell division, of the developing Drosophila eye. We demonstrated that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates TORC1 through E2F1 and the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex in the SMW, and this regulation is independent from insulin and amino acid signaling pathways. TORC1 is necessary for the proper G1/S transition of the cells, and the activation of TORC1 rescues the cell-cycle defect of Hh signaling-deficient cells in the SMW. Based on this evolutionarily conserved regulation of TORC1 by Hh signaling, we propose that Hh-dependent developmental signaling pathways spatially regulate TORC1 activity in multicellular organisms.

Funding information:
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - G12 MD007592(United States)

Focal Adhesion- and IGF1R-Dependent Survival and Migratory Pathways Mediate Tumor Resistance to mTORC1/2 Inhibition.

  • Yoon SO
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aberrant signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) contributes to the devastating features of cancer cells. Thus, mTOR is a critical therapeutic target and catalytic inhibitors are being investigated as anti-cancer drugs. Although mTOR inhibitors initially block cell proliferation, cell viability and migration in some cancer cells are quickly restored. Despite sustained inhibition of mTORC1/2 signaling, Akt, a kinase regulating cell survival and migration, regains phosphorylation at its regulatory sites. Mechanistically, mTORC1/2 inhibition promotes reorganization of integrin/focal adhesion kinase-mediated adhesomes, induction of IGFR/IR-dependent PI3K activation, and Akt phosphorylation via an integrin/FAK/IGFR-dependent process. This resistance mechanism contributes to xenograft tumor cell growth, which is prevented with mTOR plus IGFR inhibitors, supporting this combination as a therapeutic approach for cancers.

Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Employs trkB Signaling for Neuroprotection and Functional Restoration.

  • Fischer DL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the most common neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. In preclinical models, STN DBS provides neuroprotection for substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and increases BDNF in the nigrostriatal system and primary motor cortex. However, whether BDNF signaling in the SN participates in the neuroprotective effects of DBS remains unknown. We demonstrate that STN DBS in male rats activates signaling downstream of tropomyosin receptor kinase type B (trkB), namely, phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6, in SN neurons. Long-term trkB blockade abolished STN DBS-mediated neuroprotection of SN neurons following progressive 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and was associated with decreased phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 immunoreactivity. Acute trkB blockade in rats with stable nigrostriatal denervation attenuated the forelimb akinesia improvement normally induced by STN DBS. These results suggest that STN DBS increases BDNF-trkB signaling to contribute to the neuroprotective and symptomatic efficacy of STN DBS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is increasingly used in mid- to late-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) but with an incomplete knowledge of its molecular mechanisms. STN DBS is neuroprotective against neurotoxicants in animal models and increases BDNF. This study is the first to show that BDNF signaling through the cognate tropomyosin receptor kinase type B (trkB) receptor occurs in substantia nigra pars compacta neurons and is required for neuroprotection. In addition, blockade of trkB unexpectedly reduced the functional benefit of STN DBS on a short timescale that is inconsistent with canonical trkB signaling pathways, suggesting a noncanonical role for trkB in STN DBS-mediated behavioral effects. Together, these data implicate trkB signaling in the symptomatic efficacy and disease-modifying potential of STN DBS.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P50 NS058830()

Interrupted Glucagon Signaling Reveals Hepatic α Cell Axis and Role for L-Glutamine in α Cell Proliferation.

  • Dean ED
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Decreasing glucagon action lowers the blood glucose and may be useful therapeutically for diabetes. However, interrupted glucagon signaling leads to α cell proliferation. To identify postulated hepatic-derived circulating factor(s) responsible for α cell proliferation, we used transcriptomics/proteomics/metabolomics in three models of interrupted glucagon signaling and found that proliferation of mouse, zebrafish, and human α cells was mTOR and FoxP transcription factor dependent. Changes in hepatic amino acid (AA) catabolism gene expression predicted the observed increase in circulating AAs. Mimicking these AA levels stimulated α cell proliferation in a newly developed in vitro assay with L-glutamine being a critical AA. α cell expression of the AA transporter Slc38a5 was markedly increased in mice with interrupted glucagon signaling and played a role in α cell proliferation. These results indicate a hepatic α islet cell axis where glucagon regulates serum AA availability and AAs, especially L-glutamine, regulate α cell proliferation and mass via mTOR-dependent nutrient sensing.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX000666()
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX002728()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P60 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK069603()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK094199()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097829()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R21 DK066636()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK106755()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R33 DK066636()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007563()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK072473()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK089538()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK089572()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK104211()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK108120()

Context Specificity in Causal Signaling Networks Revealed by Phosphoprotein Profiling.

  • Hill SM
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signaling networks downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases are among the most extensively studied biological networks, but new approaches are needed to elucidate causal relationships between network components and understand how such relationships are influenced by biological context and disease. Here, we investigate the context specificity of signaling networks within a causal conceptual framework using reverse-phase protein array time-course assays and network analysis approaches. We focus on a well-defined set of signaling proteins profiled under inhibition with five kinase inhibitors in 32 contexts: four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, UACC812, BT20, and BT549) under eight stimulus conditions. The data, spanning multiple pathways and comprising ∼70,000 phosphoprotein and ∼260,000 protein measurements, provide a wealth of testable, context-specific hypotheses, several of which we experimentally validate. Furthermore, the data provide a unique resource for computational methods development, permitting empirical assessment of causal network learning in a complex, mammalian setting.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_0801/1()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_1302/3()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA112970()

Impairment of cocaine-mediated behaviours in mice by clinically relevant Ras-ERK inhibitors.

  • Papale A
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ras-ERK signalling in the brain plays a central role in drug addiction. However, to date, no clinically relevant inhibitor of this cascade has been tested in experimental models of addiction, a necessary step toward clinical trials. We designed two new cell-penetrating peptides - RB1 and RB3 - that penetrate the brain and, in the micromolar range, inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, histone H3 and S6 ribosomal protein in striatal slices. Furthermore, a screening of small therapeutics currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy revealed PD325901 as a brain-penetrating drug that blocks ERK signalling in the nanomolar range. All three compounds have an inhibitory effect on cocaine-induced ERK activation and reward in mice. In particular, PD325901 persistently blocks cocaine-induced place preference and accelerates extinction following cocaine self-administration. Thus, clinically relevant, systemically administered drugs that attenuate Ras-ERK signalling in the brain may be valuable tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

Loss of Ntrk2/Kiss1r signaling in oocytes causes premature ovarian failure.

  • Dorfman MD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurotrophins (NTs), once believed to be neural-specific trophic factors, are now known to also provide developmental cues to non-neural cells. In the ovary, NTs contribute to both the formation and development of follicles. Here we show that oocyte-specific deletion of the Ntrk2 gene that encodes the NTRK2 receptor (NTRK2) for neurotrophin-4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) results in post-pubertal oocyte death, loss of follicular organization, and early adulthood infertility. Oocytes lacking NTRK2 do not respond to gonadotropins with activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mediated signaling. Before puberty, oocytes only express a truncated NTRK2 form (NTRK2.T1), but at puberty full-length (NTRK2.FL) receptors are rapidly induced by the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. A cell line expressing both NTRK2.T1 and the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) responds to BDNF stimulation with activation of Ntrk2 expression only if kisspeptin is present. This suggests that BDNF and kisspeptin that are produced by granulosa cells (GCs) of periovulatory follicles act in concert to mediate the effect of gonadotropins on Ntrk2 expression in oocytes. In keeping with this finding, the oocytes of NTRK2-intact mice fail to respond to gonadotropins with increased Ntrk2 expression in the absence of KISS1R. Our results demonstrate that the preovulatory gonadotropin surge promotes oocyte survival at the onset of reproductive cyclicity by inducing oocyte expression of NTRK2.FL receptors that set in motion an AKT-mediated survival pathway. They also suggest that gonadotropins activate NTRK2.FL expression via a dual communication pathway involving BDNF and kisspeptin produced in GCs and their respective receptors NTRK2.T1 and KISS1R expressed in oocytes.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH110404(United States)

Liver mTOR controls IGF-I bioavailability by regulation of protein kinase CK2 and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in fetal growth restriction.

  • Abu Shehab M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes the infant to diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. No treatment for FGR is available, and the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation has been implicated as an important mechanism by which fetal growth is reduced. However, to what extent circulating IGFBP-1 is phosphorylated in FGR is unknown, and the molecular mechanisms linking FGR to IGFBP-1 phosphorylation have not been established. We used umbilical cord plasma of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and growth-restricted human fetuses and determined IGFBP-1 and IGF-I concentrations (ELISA) and site-specific IGFBP-1 phosphorylation (Western blotting using IGFBP-1 phospho-site specific antibodies). In addition, we used a baboon model of FGR produced by 30% maternal nutrient restriction and determined mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)C1 activity, CK2 expression/activity, IGFBP-1 expression and phosphorylation, and IGF-I levels in baboon fetal liver by Western blot, enzymatic assay, and ELISA. HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes were used to explore mechanistic links between mTORC1 signaling and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation. IGFBP-1 was hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in umbilical plasma of human FGR fetuses. IGFBP-1 was also hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in the liver of growth-restricted baboon fetus. mTOR signaling was markedly inhibited, whereas expression and activity of CK2 was increased in growth-restricted baboon fetal liver in vivo. Using HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes, we established a mechanistic link between mTOR inhibition, CK2 activation, IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, and decreased IGF-I-induced IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation. We provide clear evidence for IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in FGR and identified an mTOR and CK2-mediated mechanism for regulation of IGF-I bioavailability. Our findings are consistent with the model that inhibition of mTOR in the fetal liver, resulting in increased CK2 activity and IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, constitutes a novel mechanistic link between nutrient deprivation and restricted fetal growth.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS036715(United States)

Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period in normal-weight or obese ewes results in adrenocortical hypertrophy, an up-regulation of the JAK/STAT and down-regulation of the IGF1R signaling pathways in the adrenal of the postnatal lamb.

  • Zhang S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL-085848(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS070300(United States)