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Anti-p38 MAPK, phospho (Thr180 / Tyr182) Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_331641

IDH2 Deficiency in Microglia Decreases the Pro-inflammatory Response via the ERK and NF-κB Pathways.

  • Chae U
  • Inflammation
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

In various neuronal diseases, the activation of microglia contributes to the production of excessive neurotoxic factors, such as pro-inflammatory mediators. In particular, the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) has critical effects on the development of neurodegenerative diseases and gliomas in the brain. Recent studies have suggested that isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) plays a key role in inducing gliomas and neurodegeneration. IDH2 dysfunction has been linked to various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases associated with uncontrolled inflammatory responses, such as the excessive generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that IDH2 contributes to the regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglia. The downregulation of IDH2 decreased the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory response in BV-2 and primary microglial cells. Furthermore, IDH2 deficiency downregulated pro-inflammatory mediators via modulation of the ERK and NF-κB pathways. These results indicate that IDH2 is a potential target for the regulation of pro-inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglial cells. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of new therapies for pro-inflammatory responses in dysfunction-associated neuronal diseases.

Funding information:
  • National Research Foundation of Korea - NRF-2015R1A4A1042271()
  • National Research Foundation of Korea - NRF-2017R1A2B4008176()
  • National Research Foundation of Korea - NRF-2017R1A5A2015391()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL079071(United States)

The cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway promotes genome stability and prevents tumor initiation.

  • Girnius N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. Analysis of breast cancer genomic DNA indicates frequent loss-of-function mutations in components of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Since JNK signaling can promote cell proliferation by activating the AP1 transcription factor, this apparent association of reduced JNK signaling with tumor development was unexpected. We examined the effect of JNK deficiency in the murine breast epithelium. Loss of JNK signaling caused genomic instability and the development of breast cancer. Moreover, JNK deficiency caused widespread early neoplasia and rapid tumor formation in a murine model of breast cancer. This tumor suppressive function was not mediated by a role of JNK in the growth of established tumors, but by a requirement of JNK to prevent tumor initiation. Together, these data identify JNK pathway defects as 'driver' mutations that promote genome instability and tumor initiation.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - Investigator()
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases - DK107220()
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases - DK112698()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK092062(United States)

A Novel Role for Lymphotactin (XCL1) Signaling in the Nervous System: XCL1 Acts via its Receptor XCR1 to Increase Trigeminal Neuronal Excitability.

  • Bird EV
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chemokines are known to have a role in the nervous system, influencing a range of processes including the development of chronic pain. To date there are very few studies describing the functions of the chemokine lymphotactin (XCL1) or its receptor (XCR1) in the nervous system. We investigated the role of the XCL1-XCR1 axis in nociceptive processing, using a combination of immunohistochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological techniques. Expression of XCR1 in the rat mental nerve was elevated 3 days following chronic constriction injury (CCI), compared with 11 days post-CCI and sham controls. XCR1 co-existed with neuronal marker PGP9.5, leukocyte common antigen CD45 and Schwann cell marker S-100. In the trigeminal root and white matter of the brainstem, XCR1-positive cells co-expressed the oligodendrocyte marker Olig2. In trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), XCR1 immunoreactivity was present in the outer laminae and was colocalized with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or isolectin B4 (IB4). Incubation of brainstem slices with XCL1 induced activation of c-Fos, ERK and p38 in the superficial layers of Vc, and enhanced levels of intrinsic excitability. These effects were blocked by the XCR1 antagonist viral CC chemokine macrophage inhibitory protein-II (vMIP-II). This study has identified for the first time a role for XCL1-XCR1 in nociceptive processing, demonstrating upregulation of XCR1 at nerve injury sites and identifying XCL1 as a modulator of central excitability and signaling via XCR1 in Vc, a key area for modulation of orofacial pain, thus indicating XCR1 as a potential target for novel analgesics.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 87834(United Kingdom)

BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  • Zhang XY
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA068458(United States)

Systematic Functional Annotation of Somatic Mutations in Cancer.

  • Ng PK
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The functional impact of the vast majority of cancer somatic mutations remains unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap for implementing precision oncology. Here, we report the development of a moderate-throughput functional genomic platform consisting of efficient mutant generation, sensitive viability assays using two growth factor-dependent cell models, and functional proteomic profiling of signaling effects for select aberrations. We apply the platform to annotate >1,000 genomic aberrations, including gene amplifications, point mutations, indels, and gene fusions, potentially doubling the number of driver mutations characterized in clinically actionable genes. Further, the platform is sufficiently sensitive to identify weak drivers. Our data are accessible through a user-friendly, public data portal. Our study will facilitate biomarker discovery, prediction algorithm improvement, and drug development.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-090775(United States)

Losmapimod Overcomes Gefitinib Resistance in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer by Preventing Tetraploidization.

  • Yeung YT
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to play a critical role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Constitutively active EGFR mutations, including in-frame deletion in exon 19 and L858R point mutation in exon 21, contribute about 90% of all EGFR-activating mutations in NSCLC. Although oral EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, show dramatic clinical efficacy with significantly prolonged progression-free survival in patients harboring these EGFR-activating mutations, most of these patients will eventually develop acquired resistance. Researchers have recently named genomic instability as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Genomic instability usually involves a transient phase of polyploidization, in particular tetraploidization. Tetraploid cells can undergo asymmetric cell division or chromosome loss, leading to tumor heterogeneity and multidrug resistance. Therefore, identification of signaling pathways involved in tetraploidization is crucial in overcoming drug resistance. In our present study, we found that gefitinib could activate YAP-MKK3/6-p38 MAPK-STAT3 signaling and induce tetraploidization in gefitinib-resistance cells. Using p38 MAPK inhibitors, SB203580 and losmapimod, we could eliminate gefitinib-induced tetraploidization and overcome gefitinib-resistance. In addition, shRNA approach to knockdown p38α MAPK could prevent tetraploidy formation and showed significant inhibition of cancer cell growth. Finally, in an in vivo study, losmapimod could successfully overcome gefitinib resistance using an in-house established patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model. Overall, these findings suggest that losmapimod could be a potential clinical agent to overcome gefitinib resistance in NSCLC.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG010668(United States)

A constitutively-active IKK-complex at the axon initial segment.

  • König HG
  • Brain Res.
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Previous studies provided evidence for an accumulation of IκB-kinase (IKK) α/β at the axon initial segment (AIS), a neuronal compartment defined by ankyrin-G expression. Here we explored whether the presence of the IKK-complex at the AIS was associated with the activation of IKK signaling at this site. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proximity-ligation assays (PLAs) using pan-IKKα/β, phospho-IKKα/β-specific as well as ankyrin-G specific antibodies validated their binding to proximal epitopes in the AIS, while antibodies to other phosphorylated signaling proteins showed no preference for the AIS. Small-hairpin mediated silencing of IKKβ significantly reduced anti-phospho-IKKα/β-immunoreactivities in the AIS. ank3 gene-deficient cerebellar Purkinje cells also exhibited no phosphorylated IKKα/β at the proximal region of their axons. Transient ankyrin-G overexpression in PC12 cells augmented NF-κB transactivation in an ankyrin-G death-domain dependent manner. Finally, small molecule inhibitors of IKK-activity, including Aspirin, inhibited the accumulation of activated IKK proteins in the AIS. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the existence of a constitutively-active IKK signaling complex in the AIS.

Microglial TNFα Induces COX2 and PGI2 Synthase Expression in Spinal Endothelial Cells during Neuropathic Pain.

  • Kanda H
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prostaglandins (PGs) are typical lipid mediators that play a role in homeostasis and disease. They are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and COX2. Although COX2 has been reported to be upregulated in the spinal cord after nerve injury, its expression and functional roles in neuropathic pain remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Cox2, PGI2 synthase (Pgis), and prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP receptor) mRNA in the rat spinal cord after spared nerve injury (SNI). Levels of Cox2 and Pgis mRNA increased in endothelial cells from 24 to 48 h after nerve injury. IP receptor mRNA was constitutively expressed in dorsal horn neurons. A COX2 inhibitor and IP receptor antagonists attenuated pain behavior in the early phase of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between COX2 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the spinal cord of a rat SNI model. Levels of TNFα mRNA transiently increased in the spinal microglia 24 h after SNI. The TNF receptors Tnfr1 and Tnfr2 mRNA were colocalized with COX2. Intrathecal injection of TNFα induced Cox2 and Pgis mRNA expression in endothelial cells. These results revealed that microglia-derived TNFα induced COX2 and PGIS expression in spinal endothelial cells and that endothelial PGI2 played a critical role in neuropathic pain via neuronal IP receptor. These findings further suggest that the glia-endothelial cell interaction of the neurovascular unit via transient TNFα is involved in the generation of neuropathic pain.

PEP-1-glutaredoxin-1 induces dedifferentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes by the endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent ERK-1/2 pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-independent p38 kinase and PI-3 kinase pathways.

  • Yu SM
  • Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
  • 2018 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutaredoxin-1 (GRX-1), belonging to the oxidoreductase family, is a component of the endogenous antioxidant defense system. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PEP-1-GRX-1 in rabbit articular chondrocytes. We found that PEP-1-GRX-1 causes a loss of the differentiated chondrocyte phenotype. PEP-1-GRX-1-treated cells exhibited decreases in type II collagen expression and sulfated-proteoglycan synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PEP-1-GRX-1 causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, as evidenced by increases in ER stress marker proteins, i.e., glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, GRP 94, and phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) α. These effects were inhibited by ER stress inhibitors. PEP-1-GRX-1 increased the phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2, and p38. Inhibition of ERK-1/2 by PD98059 prevented PEP-1-GRX-1-induced dedifferentiation and inhibited ER stress. The blockage of PI-3K/Akt or p38 kinase with SB203580 and LY294002 accelerated PEP-1-GRX-1-induced dedifferentiation, but did not have any effect on PEP-GRX-1-induced ER stress. Our results indicate that the ERK-1/2 pathway mediates chondrocyte dedifferentiation by PEP-GRX-1-induced ER stress. The PI-3K and p38 kinase pathways regulate PEP-1-GRX-1-induced chondrocyte dedifferentiation by an ER stress-independent pathway.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM049831(United States)

Sensing and Transmitting Intracellular Amino Acid Signals through Reversible Lysine Aminoacylations.

  • He XD
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amino acids are known regulators of cellular signaling and physiology, but how they are sensed intracellularly is not fully understood. Herein, we report that each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) senses its cognate amino acid sufficiency through catalyzing the formation of lysine aminoacylation (K-AA) on its specific substrate proteins. At physiologic levels, amino acids promote ARSs bound to their substrates and form K-AAs on the ɛ-amine of lysines in their substrates by producing reactive aminoacyl adenylates. The K-AA marks can be removed by deacetylases, such as SIRT1 and SIRT3, employing the same mechanism as that involved in deacetylation. These dynamically regulated K-AAs transduce signals of their respective amino acids. Reversible leucylation on ras-related GTP-binding protein A/B regulates activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. Glutaminylation on apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 suppresses apoptosis. We discovered non-canonical functions of ARSs and revealed systematic and functional amino acid sensing and signal transduction networks.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01AI045757(United States)

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1-Dependent Protein Acetylation Controls Breast Cancer Metastasis and Recurrence.

  • Rios Garcia M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Breast tumor recurrence and metastasis represent the main causes of cancer-related death in women, and treatments are still lacking. Here, we define the lipogenic enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 as a key player in breast cancer metastasis. ACC1 phosphorylation was increased in invading cells both in murine and human breast cancer, serving as a point of convergence for leptin and transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling. ACC1 phosphorylation was mediated by TGFβ-activated kinase (TAK) 1, and ACC1 inhibition was indispensable for the elevation of cellular acetyl-CoA, the subsequent increase in Smad2 transcription factor acetylation and activation, and ultimately epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis induction. ACC1 deficiency worsened tumor recurrence upon primary tumor resection in mice, and ACC1 phosphorylation levels correlated with metastatic potential in breast and lung cancer patients. Given the demonstrated effectiveness of anti-leptin receptor antibody treatment in halting ACC1-dependent tumor invasiveness, our work defines a "metabolocentric" approach in metastatic breast cancer therapy.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK065988(United States)

Pharmacological targeting of GSK-3 and NRF2 provides neuroprotection in a preclinical model of tauopathy.

  • Cuadrado A
  • Redox Biol
  • 2017 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders where TAU protein is presented as aggregates or is abnormally phosphorylated, leading to alterations of axonal transport, neuronal death and neuroinflammation. Currently, there is no treatment to slow progression of these diseases. Here, we have investigated whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an inducer of the transcription factor NRF2, could mitigate tauopathy in a mouse model. The signaling pathways modulated by DMF were also studied in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) from wild type or KEAP1-deficient mice. The effect of DMF on neurodegeneration, astrocyte and microglial activation was examined in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2-/- mice stereotaxically injected in the right hippocampus with an adeno-associated vector expressing human TAUP301L and treated daily with DMF (100mg/kg, i.g) during three weeks. DMF induces the NRF2 transcriptional through a mechanism that involves KEAP1 but also PI3K/AKT/GSK-3-dependent pathways. DMF modulates GSK-3β activity in mouse hippocampi. Furthermore, DMF modulates TAU phosphorylation, neuronal impairment measured by calbindin-D28K and BDNF expression, and inflammatory processes involved in astrogliosis, microgliosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. This study reveals neuroprotective effects of DMF beyond disruption of the KEAP1/NRF2 axis by inhibiting GSK3 in a mouse model of tauopathy. Our results support repurposing of this drug for treatment of these diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR16462(United States)

Cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor-1 causes dedifferentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes via the ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

  • Yu SM
  • Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor-1 (CIAPIN-1, formally named anamorsin) is a well-known regulator of apoptosis in many different cell types. Recently, it has been reported that some anti-apoptotic proteins are involved with the regulation of cell differentiation. However, relatively little is known about the role of CIAPIN-1 on rabbit articular chondrocytes differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of CIAPIN-1 in chondrocytes, focusing on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and p38 kinase signaling. CIAPIN-1 caused dedifferentiation, as determined by the inhibition of type II collagen expression and sulfated-proteoglycan synthesis. CIAPIN-1 activated ERK-1/2 and inactivated p38 kinase, as determined by the phosphorylation level of each protein. CIAPIN-1-induced ERK phosphorylation was abolished by the MEK inhibitor, PD98059, which also prevented the CIAPIN-1-induced loss of type II collagen expression. Inhibition of p38 kinase with SB203580 enhanced the decrease in type II collagen expression. Our findings collectively suggest that ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase regulate CIAPIN-1-induced dedifferentiation in rabbit articular chondrocytes.

Rac1 Dosage Is Crucial for Normal Endochondral Bone Growth.

  • Suzuki D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rac1, a member of the small Rho GTPase family, plays multiple cellular roles. Studies of mice conditionally lacking Rac1 have revealed essential roles for Rac1 in various tissues, including cartilage and limb mesenchyme, where Rac1 loss produces dwarfism and long bone shortening. To gain further insight into the role of Rac1 in skeletal development, we have used transgenic mouse lines to express a constitutively active (ca) Rac1 mutant protein in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Overexpression of caRac1 in limb bud mesenchyme or chondrocytes leads to reduced body weight and shorter bones compared with control mice. Histological analysis of growth plates showed that caRac1;Col2-Cre mice displayed ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferative zone and enlarged hypertrophic zones. These mice also displayed a reduced proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the proliferative zone and nuclear β-catenin localization in the ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of caRac1 partially rescued the phenotypes of Rac1fl/fl;Col2-Cre and Rac1fl/fl;Prx1-Cre conditional knockout mice, including body weight, bone length, and growth plate disorganization. These results suggest that tight regulation of Rac1 activity is necessary for normal cartilage development.

Purinergic receptor P2Y6 contributes to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced oxidative stress and cell death in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells.

  • Qian Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Jul 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxidative stress and neural degeneration have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The P2Y6 purinergic receptor (P2Y6R) has been shown to participate in the activation of microglia and the production of pro-inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide to cause neuronal loss. However, the function of P2Y6R during oxidative stress in neurons is unclear. In the present study, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) treatment increased the level of UDP/P2Y6R on neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of P2Y6R or knockdown of P2Y6R using a siRNA exerted an increased protective effect by preventing MPP+ -induced increases in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide anion, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expression. UDP, an agonist of P2Y6R, enhanced the effects of MPP+ , which was also inhibited by apyrase or MRS2578. Additionally, P2Y6R knockdown also significantly reversed both the loss of cell viability and the increase in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK1/2) and p38 (p-p38) caused by MPP+ stimulation. However, the inhibition of the ERK1/2 and p38 kinase signaling pathways had no effect on P2Y6R expression. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that P2Y6R expressed on neuronal SH-SY5Y cell is associated with the progression of oxidative stress and cell death induced by MPP+ , suggesting that P2Y6R may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD.

Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (GPR120) Stimulates Bone Formation and Suppresses Bone Resorption in the Presence of Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels.

  • Ahn SH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) has been reported to be a receptor for n-3 fatty acids (FAs). Although n-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, a role of FFA4 in bone metabolism has been rarely investigated. We noted that FFA4 was more abundantly expressed in both mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts than their respective precursors and that it was activated by docosahexaenoic acid. FFA4 knockout (Ffar4(-/-)) and wild-type mice exhibited similar bone masses when fed a normal diet. Because fat-1 transgenic (fat-1(Tg+)) mice endogenously converting n-6 to n-3 FAs contain high n-3 FA levels, we crossed Ffar4(-/-) and fat-1(Tg+) mice over two generations to generate four genotypes of mice littermates: Ffar4(+/+);fat-1(Tg-), Ffar4(+/+);fat-1(Tg+), Ffar4(-/-);fat-1(Tg-), and Ffar4(-/-);fat-1(Tg+). Female and male littermates were included in ovariectomy- and high-fat diet-induced bone loss models, respectively. Female fat-1(Tg+) mice decreased bone loss after ovariectomy both by promoting osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption than their wild-type littermates, only when they had the Ffar4(+/+) background, but not the Ffar4(-/-) background. In a high-fat diet-fed model, male fat-1(Tg+) mice had higher bone mass resulting from stimulated bone formation and reduced bone resorption than their wild-type littermates, only when they had the Ffar4(+/+) background, but not the Ffar4(-/-) background. In vitro studies supported the role of FFA4 as n-3 FA receptor in bone metabolism. In conclusion, FFA4 is a dual-acting factor that increases osteoblastic bone formation and decreases osteoclastic bone resorption, suggesting that it may be an ideal target for modulating metabolic bone diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F32 DC000210(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007315(United States)

Follistatin Targets Distinct Pathways To Promote Brown Adipocyte Characteristics in Brown and White Adipose Tissues.

  • Singh R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously demonstrated that Fst expression is highest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle, but is also present at substantial levels in epididymal and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (WATs). Fst promotes mouse brown preadipocyte differentiation and promotes browning during differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Fst-transgenic (Fst-Tg) mice show substantial increases in circulating Fst levels and increased brown adipose mass. BAT of Fst-Tg mice had increased expression of brown adipose-associated markers including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PRDM16, PGC-1α, and Glut4. WATs from Fst-Tg mice show upregulation of brown/beige adipose markers and significantly increased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK/ERK1/2 proteins compared with the wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition of pp38 MAPK/pERK1/2 pathway of recombinant mouse Fst (rFst) treated differentiating 3T3-L1 cells led to significant blockade of Fst-induced UCP1 protein expression. On the other hand, BAT from Fst-Tg mice or differentiating mouse BAT cells treated with rFst show dramatic increase in Myf5 protein levels as well as upregulation of Zic1 and Lhx8 gene expression. Myf5 levels were significantly downregulated in Fst knock-out embryos and small inhibitory RNA-mediated inhibition of Myf5 led to significant inhibition of UCP1, Lhx8, and Zic1 gene expression and significant blockade of Fst-induced induction of UCP1 protein expression in mouse BAT cells. Both interscapular BAT and WAT tissues from Fst-Tg mice display enhanced response to CL316,243 treatment and decreased expression of pSmad3 compared with the WT mice. Therefore, our results indicate that Fst promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in both WAT and BAT depots in vivo through distinct mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - SC1 AG049682()
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - S21 MD000103()
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - U54 MD007598()

Cardiac Tissue Injury and Remodeling Is Dependent Upon MR Regulation of Activation Pathways in Cardiac Tissue Macrophages.

  • Shen JZ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Macrophage mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling is an important mediator of cardiac tissue inflammation and fibrosis. The goal of the present study was to determine the cellular mechanisms of MR signaling in macrophages that promote cardiac tissue injury and remodeling. We sought to identify specific markers of MR signaling in isolated tissue macrophages (cardiac, aortic) vs splenic mononuclear cells from wild-type and myeloid MR-null mice given vehicle/salt or deoxycorticosterone (DOC)/salt for 8 weeks. Cardiac tissue fibrosis in response to 8 weeks of DOC/salt treatment was found in the hearts from wild-type but not myeloid MR-null mice. This was associated with an increased expression of the profibrotic markers TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase-12 and type 1 inflammatory markers TNFα and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-9 in cardiac macrophages. Differential expression of immunomodulatory M2-like markers (eg, arginase-1, macrophage scavenger receptor 1) was dependent on the tissue location of wild-type and MR-null macrophages. Finally, intact MR signaling is required for the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in response to a proinflammatory stimulus in bone marrow monocytes/macrophages in culture. These data suggest that the activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway in macrophages after a tissue injury and inflammatory stimuli in the DOC/salt model is MR dependent and regulates the transcription of downstream profibrotic factors, which may represent potential therapeutic targets in heart failure patients.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA163640(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG009975(United States)

A simple optogenetic MAPK inhibitor design reveals resonance between transcription-regulating circuitry and temporally-encoded inputs.

  • Melero-Fernandez de Mera RM
  • Nat Commun
  • 2017 May 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Engineering light-sensitive protein regulators has been a tremendous multidisciplinary challenge. Optogenetic regulators of MAPKs, central nodes of cellular regulation, have not previously been described. Here we present OptoJNKi, a light-regulated JNK inhibitor based on the AsLOV2 light-sensor domain using the ubiquitous FMN chromophore. OptoJNKi gene-transfer allows optogenetic applications, whereas protein delivery allows optopharmacology. Development of OptoJNKi suggests a design principle for other optically regulated inhibitors. From this, we generate Optop38i, which inhibits p38MAPK in intact illuminated cells. Neurons are known for interpreting temporally-encoded inputs via interplay between ion channels, membrane potential and intracellular calcium. However, the consequences of temporal variation of JNK-regulating trophic inputs, potentially resulting from synaptic activity and reversible cellular protrusions, on downstream targets are unknown. Using OptoJNKi, we reveal maximal regulation of c-Jun transactivation can occur at unexpectedly slow periodicities of inhibition depending on the inhibitor's subcellular location. This provides evidence for resonance in metazoan JNK-signalling circuits.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA200417()

Dual Role of Insulin in Spexin Regulation: Functional Link Between Food Intake and Spexin Expression in a Fish Model.

  • Ma A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spexin (SPX), a neuropeptide discovered by the bioinformatics approach, has been recently identified as a satiety factor in a fish model. However, the functional link between feeding and SPX expression as well as the signal transduction for SPX regulation are totally unknown. In this study, we used goldfish as a model to examine the functional role of insulin as a postprandial signal for SPX regulation in bony fish. In goldfish, feeding could elevate plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and SPX with concurrent rises in insulin and SPX messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the liver. Similar elevation in SPX mRNA level was also observed in the liver and brain areas involved in appetite control in goldfish after intraperitoneal injection of glucose and insulin, respectively. In parallel experiments with goldfish hepatocytes and brain cell culture, insulin signal induced by glucose was shown to exert a dual role in SPX regulation, namely (1) acting as an autocrine/paracrine signal to trigger SPX mRNA expression in the liver and (2) serving as an endocrine signal to induce SPX gene expression in the brain. Apparently, the peripheral (in the liver) and central actions of insulin (in the brain) on SPX gene expression were mediated by insulin receptor (to a lesser extent by insulin-like growth factor I receptor) coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin but not mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 cascades. Our findings indicate that an insulin component inducible by glucose is present in the liver of the fish model and may serve as the postprandial signal linking food intake with SPX expression both in the central as well as at the hepatic level.

The PERK arm of the unfolded protein response regulates satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration.

  • Xiong G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults is mediated by satellite stem cells. Accumulation of misfolded proteins triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress that leads to unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is relayed to the cell through the activation of PERK, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6. Here, we demonstrate that levels of PERK and IRE1 are increased in satellite cells upon muscle injury. Inhibition of PERK, but not the IRE1 arm of the UPR in satellite cells inhibits myofiber regeneration in adult mice. PERK is essential for the survival and differentiation of activated satellite cells into the myogenic lineage. Deletion of PERK causes hyper-activation of p38 MAPK during myogenesis. Blocking p38 MAPK activity improves the survival and differentiation of PERK-deficient satellite cells in vitro and muscle formation in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that the PERK arm of the UPR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of satellite cell homeostasis during regenerative myogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG029623()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR059810()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR068313()

YOD1/TRAF6 association balances p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.

  • Schimmack G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 is a key regulator of canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulation. Here, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1 (OTUD2) as a novel interactor of TRAF6 in human cells. YOD1 binds to the C-terminal TRAF homology domain of TRAF6 that also serves as the interaction surface for the adaptor p62/Sequestosome-1, which is required for IL-1 signaling to NF-κB. We show that YOD1 competes with p62 for TRAF6 association and abolishes the sequestration of TRAF6 to cytosolic p62 aggregates by a non-catalytic mechanism. YOD1 associates with TRAF6 in unstimulated cells but is released upon IL-1β stimulation, thereby facilitating TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination as well as NEMO/IKKγ substrate ubiquitination. Further, IL-1 triggered IKK/NF-κB signaling and induction of target genes is decreased by YOD1 overexpression and augmented after YOD1 depletion. Hence, our data define that YOD1 antagonizes TRAF6/p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.

Context Specificity in Causal Signaling Networks Revealed by Phosphoprotein Profiling.

  • Hill SM
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signaling networks downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases are among the most extensively studied biological networks, but new approaches are needed to elucidate causal relationships between network components and understand how such relationships are influenced by biological context and disease. Here, we investigate the context specificity of signaling networks within a causal conceptual framework using reverse-phase protein array time-course assays and network analysis approaches. We focus on a well-defined set of signaling proteins profiled under inhibition with five kinase inhibitors in 32 contexts: four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, UACC812, BT20, and BT549) under eight stimulus conditions. The data, spanning multiple pathways and comprising ∼70,000 phosphoprotein and ∼260,000 protein measurements, provide a wealth of testable, context-specific hypotheses, several of which we experimentally validate. Furthermore, the data provide a unique resource for computational methods development, permitting empirical assessment of causal network learning in a complex, mammalian setting.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_0801/1()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_1302/3()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA112970()

Sympathetic Nerve Activity Maintains an Anti-Inflammatory State in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice by Inhibiting TNF-α Gene Expression in Macrophages.

  • Tang L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play an important role in the inflammatory response in obese animals. How ATMs are regulated in lean animals has remained elusive, however. We now show that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is necessary to maintain the abundance of the mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α at a low level in ATMs of lean mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of agouti-related neuropeptide increased the amount of TNF-α mRNA in epididymal (epi) white adipose tissue (WAT), but not in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), through inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity in epiWAT. The surgical denervation and β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol up-regulated TNF-α mRNA in both epiWAT and BAT in vivo. Signaling by the β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) and protein kinase A down-regulated TNF-α mRNA in epiWAT explants and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of TNF-α mRNA in the stromal vascular fraction of this tissue. β-AR-deficient (β-less) mice manifested an increased plasma TNF-α concentration and increased TNF-α mRNA abundance in epiWAT and BAT. TNF-α mRNA abundance was greater in ATMs (CD11b(+) cells of the stromal vascular fraction) from epiWAT or BAT of wild-type mice than in corresponding CD11b(-) cells, and β2-AR mRNA abundance was greater in ATMs than in CD11b(-) cells of epiWAT. Our results show that the SNS and β2-AR-protein kinase A pathway maintain an anti-inflammatory state in ATMs of lean mice in vivo, and that the brain melanocortin pathway plays a role in maintaining this state in WAT of lean mice via the SNS.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 115076-1(Canada)

Estrogen Receptor-β Up-Regulates IGF1R Expression and Activity to Inhibit Apoptosis and Increase Growth of Medulloblastoma.

  • Cookman CJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Medulloblastoma (Med) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The role of ESR2 [estrogen receptor (ER)-β] in promoting Med growth was comprehensively examined in three in vivo models and human cell lines. In a novel Med ERβ-null knockout model developed by crossing Esr2(-/-) mice with cerebellar granule cell precursor specific Ptch1 conditional knockout mice, the tumor growth rate was significantly decreased in males and females. The absence of Esr2 resulted in increased apoptosis, decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression, and decreased levels of active MAPKs (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (AKT). Treatment of Med in Ptch1(+/-) Trp53(-/-) mice with the antiestrogen chemotherapeutic drug Faslodex significantly increased symptom-free survival, which was associated with increased apoptosis and decreased BCL2 and IGF1R expression and signaling. Similar effects were also observed in nude mice bearing D283Med xenografts. In vitro studies in human D283Med cells metabolically stressed by glutamine withdrawal found that 17β-estradiol and the ERβ selective agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile dose dependently protected Med cells from caspase-3-dependent cell death. Those effects were associated with increased phosphorylation of IGF1R, long-term increases in ERK1/2 and AKT signaling, and increased expression of IGF-1, IGF1R, and BCL2. Results of pharmacological experiments revealed that the cytoprotective actions of estradiol were dependent on ERβ and IGF1R receptor tyrosine kinase activity and independent of ERα and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (G protein coupled receptor 30). The presented results demonstrate that estrogen promotes Med growth through ERβ-mediated increases in IGF1R expression and activity, which induce cytoprotective mechanisms that decrease apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - DC 00716(United States)

Prevention and reversal of lipotoxicity-induced hepatic insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in mice by an antioxidant carotenoid, β-cryptoxanthin.

  • Ni Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excessive hepatic lipid accumulation promotes macrophages/Kupffer cells activation, resulting in exacerbation of insulin resistance and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, few promising treatment modalities target lipotoxicity-mediated hepatic activation/polarization of macrophages for NASH. Recent epidemiological surveys showed that serum β-cryptoxanthin, an antioxidant carotenoid, was inversely associated with the risks of insulin resistance and liver dysfunction. In the present study, we first showed that β-cryptoxanthin administration ameliorated hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Next, we investigated the preventative and therapeutic effects of β-cryptoxanthin using a lipotoxic model of NASH: mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat (CL) diet. After 12 weeks of CL diet feeding, β-cryptoxanthin administration attenuated insulin resistance and excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and peroxidation, with increases in M1-type macrophages/Kupffer cells and activated stellate cells, and fibrosis in CL diet-induced NASH. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that β-cryptoxanthin down-regulated macrophage activation signal-related genes significantly without affecting most lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis revealed that, on a CL diet, β-cryptoxanthin caused a predominance of M2 over M1 macrophage populations, in addition to reducing total hepatic macrophage and T-cell contents. In parallel, β-cryptoxanthin decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 marker mRNA expression in peritoneal macrophages, whereas it augmented IL-4-induced M2 marker mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, β-cryptoxanthin reversed steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis progression in preexisting NASH in mice. In conclusion, β-cryptoxanthin prevents and reverses insulin resistance and steatohepatitis, at least in part, through an M2-dominant shift in macrophages/Kupffer cells in a lipotoxic model of NASH.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA027827(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK095359(United States)

Opposing effects of membrane-anchored CX3CL1 on amyloid and tau pathologies via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  • Lee S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk genes are specifically expressed by microglia within the CNS. However, the mechanisms by which microglia regulate the pathological hallmarks of AD--extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)--remain to be established. Notably, deficiency for the microglial CX3CR1 receptor has opposing effects on Aβ and MAPT pathologies. CX3CL1, the neuronally derived cognate ligand for CX3CR1, signals both in membrane-anchored and soluble forms. In this study, we sought to determine the relative contribution on membrane-anchored versus soluble CX3CL1 in regulating the microglia-mediated amelioration of Aβ pathology, as well as provide insight into the potential downstream microglial-based mechanisms. As expected, CX3CL1 deficiency reduced Aβ deposition in APPPS1 animals in a similar manner to CX3CR1 deficiency. Surprisingly, however, CX3CL1-deficient APPPS1 animals exhibited enhanced neuronal MAPT phosphorylation despite reduced amyloid burden. Importantly, neither of these phenotypes was altered by transgenic expression of the soluble CX3CL1 isoform, suggesting that it is the membrane-anchored version of CX3CL1 that regulates microglial phagocytosis of Aβ and neuronal MAPT phosphorylation. Analysis of transcript levels in purified microglia isolated from APPPS1 mice with the various CX3CL1/CX3CR1 genotypes revealed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and phagocytic markers, which was associated with activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Aβ internalization within microglia. Together, these studies challenge the "frustrated phagocytosis" concept and suggest that neuronal-microglial communication link the two central AD pathologies.

Endothelin-1 stimulates resistin gene expression.

  • Tang YC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Resistin and endothelin (ET)-1 have been reported to inhibit adipogenesis and regulate adipocyte insulin resistance, respectively. Although both hormones interact with each other, the exact signaling pathway of ET-1 to act on resistin gene expression is still unknown. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in ET-1-stimulated resistin gene expression. The up-regulation of resistin mRNA expression by ET-1 depends on concentration and timing. The concentration of ET-1 that increased resistin mRNA levels by 100%-250% was approximately 100 nM for a range of 0.25-12 hours of treatment. Treatment with actinomycin D blocked ET-1-increased resistin mRNA levels, suggesting that the effect of ET-1 requires new mRNA synthesis. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ET type-A receptor, such as N-[1-Formyl-N-[N-[(hexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl)carbonyl]-L-leucyl]-D-tryptophyl]-D-tryptophan (BQ610), but not with the ET type-B receptor antagonist N-[(cis-2,6-Dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)carbonyl]-4-methyl-L-leucyl-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophyl-D-norleucine (BQ788), blocked ET-1, increased the levels of resistin mRNA, and phosphorylated levels of downstream signaling molecules, such as ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), protein kinase B (AKT), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Moreover, pretreatment of specific inhibitors of either ERK1/2 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene [U0126] and 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one [PD98059], two inhibitors of MEK1), JNKs (SP600125), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (LY294002 and Wortmannin), or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 ((E)-2-Cyano-3-(3,4-dihydrophenyl)-N-(phenylmethyl)-2-propenamide, AG490) prevented ET-1-increased levels of resistin mRNA and reduced the ET-1-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNKs, AKT, and STAT3, respectively. However, the p38 kinase antagonist 4-[5-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridine (SB203580) did not alter the effect of ET-1. These results imply that ET type-A receptor, ERK1/2, JNKs, AKT, and JAK2, but not ET type-B receptor or p38, are necessary for the ET-1 stimulation of resistin gene expression. In vivo observations that ET-1 increased resistin mRNA and protein levels in sc and epididymal adipose tissues support the in vitro findings.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL107147(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD029990(United States)