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Phospho-Akt (Ser473) (193H12) Rabbit mAb antibody

RRID:AB_331168

Antibody ID

AB_331168

Target Antigen

Phospho-Akt (Ser473) (193H12) Rabbit mAb h, m, r, human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 4058, RRID:AB_331168)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IF-IC, F. Consolidation: AB_331169.

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Calorie Restriction-Induced Increase in Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Is Not Prevented by Overexpression of the p55α Subunit of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase.

  • Martins VF
  • Front Physiol
  • 2018 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Introduction: The Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. While whole-body and tissue specific knockout (KO) of individual or combinations of the regulatory subunits of PI3K (p85α, p55α, and p50α or p85β); increase insulin sensitivity, no study has examined whether increasing the expression of the individual regulatory subunits would inhibit insulin action in vivo. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the p55α regulatory subunit of PI3K impairs skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, or prevents its enhancement by caloric restriction. Methods: We developed a novel "floxed" mouse that, through the Cre-LoxP approach, allows for tamoxifen (TMX)-inducible and skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the p55α subunit of PI3K (referred to as, 'p55α-mOX'). Beginning at 10 weeks of age, p55α-mOX mice and their floxed littermates (referred to as wildtype [WT]) either continued with free access to food (ad libitum; AL), or were switched to a calorie restricted diet (CR; 60% of AL intake) for 20 days. We measured body composition, whole-body energy expenditure, oral glucose tolerance and ex vivo skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles using the 2-deoxy-glucose (2DOG) uptake method. Results: p55α mRNA and protein expression was increased ∼2 fold in muscle from p55α-mOX versus WT mice. There were no differences in energy expenditure, total activity, or food intake of AL-fed mice between genotypes. Body weight, fat and lean mass, tissue weights, and fasting glucose and insulin were comparable between p55α-mOX and WT mice on AL, and were decreased equally by CR. Interestingly, overexpression of p55α did not impair oral glucose tolerance or skeletal muscle insulin signaling or sensitivity, nor did it impact the ability of CR to enhance these parameters. Conclusion: Skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of p55α does not impact skeletal muscle insulin action, suggesting that p85α and/or p50α may be more important regulators of skeletal muscle insulin signaling and sensitivity.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U105359875(United Kingdom)

BRET-based RAS biosensors that show a novel small molecule is an inhibitor of RAS-effector protein-protein interactions.

  • Bery N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RAS family of proteins is amongst the most highly mutated in human cancers and has so far eluded drug therapy. Currently, much effort is being made to discover mutant RAS inhibitors and in vitro screening for RAS-binding drugs must be followed by cell-based assays. Here, we have developed a robust set of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based RAS biosensors that enable monitoring of RAS-effector interaction inhibition in living cells. These include KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and a variety of different mutations that mirror those found in human cancers with the major RAS effectors such as CRAF, PI3K and RALGDS. We highlighted the utility of these RAS biosensors by showing a RAS-binding compound is a potent pan-RAS-effector interactions inhibitor in cells. The RAS biosensors represent a useful tool to investigate and characterize the potency of anti-RAS inhibitors in cells and more generally any RAS protein-protein interaction (PPI) in cells.

Funding information:
  • Bloodwise - 12051()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/J000612/1()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)
  • Wellcome - 099246/Z/12/Z()
  • Wellcome - 100842/Z/12/Z()

Evidence of altered depression and dementia-related proteins in the brains of young rats after ovariectomy.

  • Fang YY
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Menopause, a risk factor for brain dysfunction in women, is characterized by neuropsychological symptoms including depression and dementia, which are closely related to alterations in different brain regions after menopause. However, little is known about the variability of pathophysiologic changes associated with menopause in the brain. Here, we observed that menopause in rats induced by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) showed depressive and dementia-related behaviors along with neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP), hypothalamus (HYP) and amygdala (AMY) by Nissl staining. Meanwhile, by immunohistochemical staining, increased microglia in the HIP and AMY and increased astrocytes in the PFC, HYP and AMY were shown. By using quantitative proteomics, we identified 146 differentially expressed proteins in the brains of OVX rats, e.g., 20 in the PFC, 41 in the HIP, 17 in the HYP and 79 in the AMY, and performed further detection by Western blotting. A link between neuronal loss and apoptosis was suggested, as evidenced by increases in adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated p53 and decreases in Huntingtin-interacting protein K (HYPK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphorylated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and apoptosis might be triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress (probed by increased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), cleaved caspase-12, phosphorylated protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)) and mitochondrial dysfunction (probed by increased cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 and decreased sideroflexin-1 (SFXN1) and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex 11 (NDUFA11)). Activation of autophagy was also indicated by increased autophagy-related 7 (ATG7), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-associated protein-like 2 (GABARAPL2) and oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1 (ORP1) and confirmed by increased microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3II/I), autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), and Beclin1 in the HIP and AMY. In the AMY, which is important in emotion, higher GABA transporter 3 (GAT3) and lower vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VgluT1) levels indicated an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and the increased calretinin and decreased calbindin levels suggested an adjustment of GABAergic transmission after OVX. In addition, cytoskeletal abnormalities including tau hyperphosphorylation, dysregulated Ca²+ signals and glutamic synaptic impairments were observed in the brains of OVX rats. Collectively, our study showed the changes in different brain regions related to depression and dementia during menopause. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 1K08AI097238-01(United States)

In Vivo Decoding Mechanisms of the Temporal Patterns of Blood Insulin by the Insulin-AKT Pathway in the Liver.

  • Kubota H
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells respond to various extracellular stimuli through a limited number of signaling pathways. One strategy to process such stimuli is to code the information into the temporal patterns of molecules. Although we showed that insulin selectively regulated molecules depending on its temporal patterns using Fao cells, the in vivo mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show how the insulin-AKT pathway processes the information encoded into the temporal patterns of blood insulin. We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiments and found that, in the liver, all temporal patterns of insulin are encoded into the insulin receptor, and downstream molecules selectively decode them through AKT. S6K selectively decodes the additional secretion information. G6Pase interprets the basal secretion information through FoxO1, while GSK3β decodes all secretion pattern information. Mathematical modeling revealed the mechanism via differences in network structures and from sensitivity and time constants. Given that almost all hormones exhibit distinct temporal patterns, temporal coding may be a general principle of system homeostasis by hormones.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD 37760-S1(United States)

Protease activated receptor 2 controls myelin development, resiliency and repair.

  • Yoon H
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocytes are essential regulators of axonal energy homeostasis and electrical conduction and emerging target cells for restoration of neurological function. Here we investigate the role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a unique protease activated G protein-coupled receptor, in myelin development and repair using the spinal cord as a model. Results demonstrate that genetic deletion of PAR2 accelerates myelin production, including higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels in the spinal cord at birth and higher levels of myelin basic protein and thickened myelin sheaths in adulthood. Enhancements in spinal cord myelin with PAR2 loss-of-function were accompanied by increased numbers of Olig2- and CC1-positive oligodendrocytes, as well as in levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Parallel promyelinating effects were observed after blocking PAR2 expression in purified oligodendrocyte cultures, whereas inhibiting adenylate cyclase reversed these effects. Conversely, PAR2 activation reduced PLP expression and this effect was prevented by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a promyelinating growth factor that signals through cAMP. PAR2 knockout mice also showed improved myelin resiliency after traumatic spinal cord injury and an accelerated pattern of myelin regeneration after focal demyelination. These findings suggest that PAR2 is an important controller of myelin production and regeneration, both in the developing and adult spinal cord.

Pan-RAF and MEK vertical inhibition enhances therapeutic response in non-V600 BRAF mutant cells.

  • Molnár E
  • BMC Cancer
  • 2018 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no available targeted therapy options for non-V600 BRAF mutated tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RAF and MEK concurrent inhibition on tumor growth, migration, signaling and apoptosis induction in preclinical models of non-V600 BRAF mutant tumor cell lines. METHODS: Six BRAF mutated human tumor cell lines CRL5885 (G466 V), WM3629 (D594G), WM3670 (G469E), MDAMB231 (G464 V), CRL5922 (L597 V) and A375 (V600E as control) were investigated. Pan-RAF inhibitor (sorafenib or AZ628) and MEK inhibitor (selumetinib) or their combination were used in in vitro viability, video microscopy, immunoblot, cell cycle and TUNEL assays. The in vivo effects of the drugs were assessed in an orthotopic NSG mouse breast cancer model. RESULTS: All cell lines showed a significant growth inhibition with synergism in the sorafenib/AZ628 and selumetinib combination. Combination treatment resulted in higher Erk1/2 inhibition and in increased induction of apoptosis when compared to single agent treatments. However, single selumetinib treatment could cause adverse therapeutic effects, like increased cell migration in certain cells, selumetinib and sorafenib combination treatment lowered migratory capacity in all the cell lines. Importantly, combination resulted in significantly increased tumor growth inhibition in orthotropic xenografts of MDAMB231 cells when compared to sorafenib - but not to selumetinib - treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that combined blocking of RAF and MEK may achieve increased therapeutic response in non-V600 BRAF mutant tumors.

Funding information:
  • Ernst Mach Fellowship - ICM-2015-02193()
  • HAS Postdoctoral Fellowship Program - 450071()
  • Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office - K109626 and KNN121510()
  • Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office - MOB80325()
  • New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities - ÚNKP-16-3-IV()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE13118(United States)

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator S42 Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation.

  • Kawanami T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously identified the selective androgen receptor (AR) modulator S42, which does not stimulate prostate growth but has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. In the prostate cancer (PC) cell line LNCaP, S42 did not induce AR transactivation but antagonized 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)‒induced AR activation. Next, we investigated whether S42 suppresses the growth of PC cell lines. Basal growth of LNCaP cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with S42 compared with vehicle, as determined by cell counting and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assays. The suppressive effect of S42 on cell growth was evident in the AR-positive PC cells LNCaP and 22Rv1 and was slightly observed even in the AR-negative PC-3 cells. However, S42 did not induce apoptosis as determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. S42 had an even greater suppressive effect on DHT-dependent LNCaP cell proliferation than on basal proliferation (P < 0.05). DHT treatment increased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a major signaling molecule for PC proliferation, and this was significantly inhibited by S42. DHT also significantly upregulated AR, insulinlike growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and insulin receptor (IR)-β protein levels, which were similarly reduced by S42 treatment. Importantly, S42 administration to mice attenuated the growth of LNCaP tumors and reduced tumor expression of the prostate-specific antigen, P504S, Ki67, and phosphorylated ERK-MAPK. These data suggest that S42 attenuates LNCaP tumor growth not by inducing apoptosis but by inhibiting the expression of proliferation-related receptors, including IGF-1R, IR, and AR, and by suppressing ERK-MAPK activation. S42 may thus be a feasible candidate for PC treatment.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL32262-25(United States)

GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

  • Nagahara Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH64547(United States)

Visceral Adipose Tissue Immune Homeostasis Is Regulated by the Crosstalk between Adipocytes and Dendritic Cell Subsets.

  • Macdougall CE
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has multiple roles in orchestrating whole-body energy homeostasis. In addition, VAT is now considered an immune site harboring an array of innate and adaptive immune cells with a direct role in immune surveillance and host defense. We report that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in VAT acquire a tolerogenic phenotype through upregulation of pathways involved in adipocyte differentiation. While activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cDC1 DCs induces IL-10 production, upregulation of the PPARγ pathway in cDC2 DCs directly suppresses their activation. Combined, they promote an anti-inflammatory milieu in vivo delaying the onset of obesity-induced chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Under long-term over-nutrition, changes in adipocyte biology curtail β-catenin and PPARγ activation, contributing to VAT inflammation.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - R01-54044(United States)

Pharmacological targeting of GSK-3 and NRF2 provides neuroprotection in a preclinical model of tauopathy.

  • Cuadrado A
  • Redox Biol
  • 2017 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders where TAU protein is presented as aggregates or is abnormally phosphorylated, leading to alterations of axonal transport, neuronal death and neuroinflammation. Currently, there is no treatment to slow progression of these diseases. Here, we have investigated whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an inducer of the transcription factor NRF2, could mitigate tauopathy in a mouse model. The signaling pathways modulated by DMF were also studied in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) from wild type or KEAP1-deficient mice. The effect of DMF on neurodegeneration, astrocyte and microglial activation was examined in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2-/- mice stereotaxically injected in the right hippocampus with an adeno-associated vector expressing human TAUP301L and treated daily with DMF (100mg/kg, i.g) during three weeks. DMF induces the NRF2 transcriptional through a mechanism that involves KEAP1 but also PI3K/AKT/GSK-3-dependent pathways. DMF modulates GSK-3β activity in mouse hippocampi. Furthermore, DMF modulates TAU phosphorylation, neuronal impairment measured by calbindin-D28K and BDNF expression, and inflammatory processes involved in astrogliosis, microgliosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. This study reveals neuroprotective effects of DMF beyond disruption of the KEAP1/NRF2 axis by inhibiting GSK3 in a mouse model of tauopathy. Our results support repurposing of this drug for treatment of these diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR16462(United States)

Long-Fiber Carbon Nanotubes Replicate Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma with Disruption of the Tumor Suppressor Gene Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf).

  • Chernova T
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mesothelioma is a fatal tumor of the pleura and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. The molecular mechanisms underlying the long latency period of mesothelioma and driving carcinogenesis are unknown. Moreover, late diagnosis means that mesothelioma research is commonly focused on end-stage disease. Although disruption of the CDKN2A (INK4A/ARF) locus has been reported in end-stage disease, information is lacking on the status of this key tumor suppressor gene in pleural lesions preceding mesothelioma. Manufactured carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are similar to asbestos in terms of their fibrous shape and biopersistent properties and thus may pose an asbestos-like inhalation hazard. Here we show that instillation of either long CNTs or long asbestos fibers into the pleural cavity of mice induces mesothelioma that exhibits common key pro-oncogenic molecular events throughout the latency period of disease progression. Sustained activation of pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, increased proliferation, and oxidative DNA damage form a common molecular signature of long-CNT- and long-asbestos-fiber-induced pathology. We show that hypermethylation of p16/Ink4a and p19/Arf in CNT- and asbestos-induced inflammatory lesions precedes mesothelioma; this results in silencing of Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf) and loss of p16 and p19 protein, consistent with epigenetic alterations playing a gatekeeper role in cancer. In end-stage mesothelioma, silencing of p16/Ink4a is sustained and deletion of p19/Arf is detected, recapitulating human disease. This study addresses the long-standing question of which early molecular changes drive carcinogenesis during the long latency period of mesothelioma development and shows that CNT and asbestos pose a similar health hazard.

Renal Metabolic Programming Is Linked to the Dynamic Regulation of a Leptin-Klf15 Axis and Akt/AMPKα Signaling in Male Offspring of Obese Dams.

  • Kasper P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard diet (SD; control group) prior to mating, during gestation, and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac). After weaning at postnatal day (P)21, offspring of all groups received SD. Clinically, HFD offspring were overweight and insulin resistant at P21. Although no metabolic changes were detected at P70, renal sodium excretion was reduced by 40%, and renal matrix deposition increased in the HFD group. Mechanistically, two stages were differentiated. In the early stage (P21), compared with the control group, HFD showed threefold increased white adipose tissue, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Renal leptin/Stat3-signaling was activated. In contrast, the Akt/ AMPKα cascade and Krüppel-like factor 15 expression were decreased. In the late stage (P70), although no metabolic differences were detected in HFD when compared with the control group, leptin/Stat3-signaling was reduced, and Akt/AMPKα was activated in the kidneys. This effect was linked to an increase of proliferative (cyclinD1/D2) and profibrotic (ctgf/collagen IIIα1) markers, similar to leptin-deficient mice. HFD-Lac mice exhibited metabolic changes at P21 similar to HFD, but no other persistent changes. This study shows a link between maternal obesity and metabolic programming of renal structure and function and intrinsic-renal Stat3/Akt/AMPKα signaling in the offspring.

Androgen Receptor Pathway-Independent Prostate Cancer Is Sustained through FGF Signaling.

  • Bluemn EG
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a distinctive feature of prostate carcinoma (PC) and represents the major therapeutic target for treating metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). Though highly effective, AR antagonism can produce tumors that bypass a functional requirement for AR, often through neuroendocrine (NE) transdifferentiation. Through the molecular assessment of mPCs over two decades, we find a phenotypic shift has occurred in mPC with the emergence of an AR-null NE-null phenotype. These "double-negative" PCs are notable for elevated FGF and MAPK pathway activity, which can bypass AR dependence. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK or FGFR repressed the growth of double-negative PCs in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that FGF/MAPK blockade may be particularly efficacious against mPCs with an AR-null phenotype.

Integrin α7 Is a Functional Marker and Potential Therapeutic Target in Glioblastoma.

  • Haas TL
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Functionally relevant markers of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) have potential for therapeutic targeting to treat this aggressive disease. Here we used generation and screening of thousands of monoclonal antibodies to search for receptors and signaling pathways preferentially enriched in GSCs. We identified integrin α7 (ITGA7) as a major laminin receptor in GSCs and in primary high-grade glioma specimens. Analyses of mRNA profiles in comprehensive datasets revealed that high ITGA7 expression negatively correlated with survival of patients with both low- and high-grade glioma. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that ITGA7 plays a key functional role in growth and invasiveness of GSCs. We also found that targeting of ITGA7 by RNAi or blocking mAbs impaired laminin-induced signaling, and it led to a significant delay in tumor engraftment plus a strong reduction in tumor size and invasion. Our data, therefore, highlight ITGA7 as a glioblastoma biomarker and candidate therapeutic target.

Reg2 Expression Is Required for Pancreatic Islet Compensation in Response to Aging and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

  • Li Q
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maintaining pancreatic β-cell mass and function is essential for normal insulin production and glucose homeostasis. Regenerating islet-derived 2 (Reg2, Reg II, human ortholog Reg1B) gene is normally expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and is significantly induced in response to diabetes, pancreatitis, and high-fat diet (HFD) and during pancreatic regeneration. To evaluate the role of endogenous Reg2 production in normal β-cell function, we characterized Reg2 gene-deficient (Reg2-/-) mice under normal conditions and when subjected to several pathological challenges. At a young age, Reg2 gene deficiency caused no obvious change in normal islet morphology or glucose tolerance. There was no change in the severity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes or caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in the Reg2-/- mice, indicating that the increased Reg2 expression under those conditions was not essential to protect the islet or acinar cells. However, 13- to 14-month-old Reg2-/- mice developed glucose intolerance associated with significantly decreased islet β-cell ratio and serum insulin level. Similarly, after young mice were fed an HFD for 19 weeks, diminished islet mass expansion and serum insulin level were observed in Reg2-/- vs wild-type mice. This was associated with a decline in the rate of individual β-cell proliferation measured by Ki67 labeling. In both conditions, the β-cells were smaller in gene-deficient vs wild-type mice. Our results indicate that normal expression of Reg2 gene is required for appropriate compensations in pancreatic islet proliferation and expansion in response to obesity and aging.

CLOCK and BMAL1 Regulate Muscle Insulin Sensitivity via SIRT1 in Male Mice.

  • Liu J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Circadian misalignment induces insulin resistance in both human and animal models, and skeletal muscle is the largest organ response to insulin. However, how circadian clock regulates muscle insulin sensitivity and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here we show circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (BMAL)-1, two core circadian transcription factors, are down-regulated in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle. Furthermore, insulin signaling is attenuated in the skeletal muscle of Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mice, and knockdown of CLOCK or BMAL1 by small interfering RNAs induces insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes. Consistently, ectopic expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 improves insulin sensitivity in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, CLOCK and BMAL1 regulate the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an important regulator of insulin sensitivity, in C2C12 myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle, and two E-box elements in Sirt1 promoter are responsible for its CLOCK- and BMAL1-dependent transcription in muscle cells. Further studies show that CLOCK and BMAL1 regulate muscle insulin sensitivity through SIRT1. In addition, we find that BMAL1 and SIRT1 are decreased in the muscle of mice maintained in constant darkness, and resveratrol supplementation activates SIRT1 and improves insulin sensitivity. All these data demonstrate that CLOCK and BMAL1 regulate muscle insulin sensitivity via SIRT1, and activation of SIRT1 might be a potential valuable strategy to attenuate muscle insulin resistance related to circadian misalignment.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA130807(United States)

Cardiac-Specific Disruption of GH Receptor Alters Glucose Homeostasis While Maintaining Normal Cardiac Performance in Adult Male Mice.

  • Jara A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

GH is considered necessary for the proper development and maintenance of several tissues, including the heart. Studies conducted in both GH receptor null and bovine GH transgenic mice have demonstrated specific cardiac structural and functional changes. In each of these mouse lines, however, GH-induced signaling is altered systemically, being decreased in GH receptor null mice and increased in bovine GH transgenic mice. Therefore, to clarify the direct effects GH has on cardiac tissue, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible, cardiac-specific GHR disrupted (iC-GHRKO) mouse line. Cardiac GH receptor was disrupted in 4-month-old iC-GHRKO mice to avoid developmental effects due to perinatal GHR gene disruption. Surprisingly, iC-GHRKO mice showed no difference vs controls in baseline or postdobutamine stress test echocardiography measurements, nor did iC-GHRKO mice show differences in longitudinal systolic blood pressure measurements. Interestingly, iC-GHRKO mice had decreased fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity at 6.5 months of age. By 12.5 months of age, however, iC-GHRKO mice no longer had significant decreases in fat mass and had developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, investigation via immunoblot analysis demonstrated that iC-GHRKO mice had appreciably decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, specifically in heart and liver, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels in 12.5-month-old iC-GHRKO mice. These data indicate that whereas the disruption of cardiomyocyte GH-induced signaling in adult mice does not affect cardiac function, it does play a role in systemic glucose homeostasis, in part through modulation of circulating IGF-1.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY026065(United States)

PI(3,4,5)P3 Engagement Restricts Akt Activity to Cellular Membranes.

  • Ebner M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein kinase B/Akt regulates cellular metabolism, survival, and proliferation in response to hormones and growth factors. Hyperactivation of Akt is frequently observed in cancer, while Akt inactivation is associated with severe diabetes. Here, we investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms that maintain Akt activity proportional to the activating stimulus. We show that binding of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) or PI(3,4)P2 to the PH domain allosterically activates Akt by promoting high-affinity substrate binding. Conversely, dissociation from PIP3 was rate limiting for Akt dephosphorylation, dependent on the presence of the PH domain. In cells, active Akt associated primarily with cellular membranes. In contrast, a transforming mutation that uncouples kinase activation from PIP3 resulted in the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, active Akt in the cytosol. Our results suggest that intramolecular allosteric and cellular mechanisms cooperate to restrict Akt activity to cellular membranes, thereby enhancing the fidelity of Akt signaling and the specificity of downstream substrate phosphorylation.

Role of VGF-derived carboxy-terminal peptides in energy balance and reproduction: analysis of "humanized" knockin mice expressing full-length or truncated VGF.

  • Sadahiro M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Targeted deletion of VGF, a secreted neuronal and endocrine peptide precursor, produces lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes. Previous studies suggest that VGF controls energy expenditure (EE), fat storage, and lipolysis, whereas VGF C-terminal peptides also regulate reproductive behavior and glucose homeostasis. To assess the functional equivalence of human VGF(1-615) (hVGF) and mouse VGF(1-617) (mVGF), and to elucidate the function of the VGF C-terminal region in the regulation of energy balance and susceptibility to obesity, we generated humanized VGF knockin mouse models expressing full-length hVGF or a C-terminally deleted human VGF(1-524) (hSNP), encoded by a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs35400704). We show that homozygous male and female hVGF and hSNP mice are fertile. hVGF female mice had significantly increased body weight compared with wild-type mice, whereas hSNP mice have reduced adiposity, increased activity- and nonactivity-related EE, and improved glucose tolerance, indicating that VGF C-terminal peptides are not required for reproductive function, but 1 or more specific VGF C-terminal peptides are likely to be critical regulators of EE. Taken together, our results suggest that human and mouse VGF proteins are largely functionally conserved but that species-specific differences in VGF peptide function, perhaps a result of known differences in receptor binding affinity, likely alter the metabolic phenotype of hVGF compared with mVGF mice, and in hSNP mice in which several C-terminal VGF peptides are ablated, result in significantly increased activity- and nonactivity-related EE.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - N01NS02331(United States)

Central Sirt1 regulates body weight and energy expenditure along with the POMC-derived peptide α-MSH and the processing enzyme CPE production in diet-induced obese male rats.

  • Cyr NE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the periphery, the nutrient-sensing enzyme Sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 [Sirt1]) reduces body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. However, the role of hypothalamic Sirt1 in body weight and energy balance regulation is debated. The first studies to reveal that central Sirt1 regulates body weight came from experiments in our laboratory using Sprague-Dawley rats. Central inhibition of Sirt1 decreased body weight and food intake as a result of a forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1)-mediated increase in the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and decrease in the orexigenic Agouti-related peptide in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that central inhibition of Sirt1 in DIO decreased body weight and increased energy expenditure at higher levels as compared with the lean counterpart. Brain Sirt1 inhibition in DIO increased acetylated FoxO1, which in turn increased phosphorylated FoxO1 via improved insulin/phosphorylated AKT signaling. Elevated acetylated FoxO1 and phosphorylated FoxO1 increased POMC along with the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) maturation enzyme carboxypeptidase E, which resulted in more of the bioactive POMC product α-MSH released into the paraventricular nucleus. Increased in α-MSH led to augmented TRH levels and circulating T3 levels (triiodothyronine, thyroid hormone). These results indicate that inhibiting hypothalamic Sirt1 in DIO enhances the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which stimulates energy expenditure. Because we show that blocking central Sirt1 causes physiological changes that promote a negative energy balance in an obese individual, our results support brain Sirt1 as a significant target for weight loss therapeutics.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS057674(United States)

TRα protects against atherosclerosis in male mice: identification of a novel anti-inflammatory property for TRα in mice.

  • Billon C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased occurrence of atherosclerosis, suggesting some protective role for thyroid hormones (THs). Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factor to develop this disease. Here, we show that the well-known TH cholesterol lowering effect was dependent on TH nuclear receptor (TR)β liver activity. But most importantly, TRα was also shown to contribute of slowing down atherosclerosis progression via an independent mechanism. Introduction of TRα(0/0) deletion in the ApoE(-/-) background accelerated the appearance of plaques. Earlier cholesterol accumulation was detected in aorta macrophages, likely due to impaired cholesterol efflux. The IL-1β inflammatory cytokine was elevated in serum and macrophages in correlation with an activation of the AKT/nuclear factor κB pathway in these cells. Inhibition of AKT prevented inflammation and restored normal cholesterol efflux. Similar low-grade inflammation was identified in TRα(0/0) male mice. Thus, the mere absence of TRα is associated with elevated levels of cytokines likely responsible for cholesterol accumulation and atherosclerosis. This TRα protective activity should be relevant for other inflammatory pathologies.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM072881(United States)

Central Sirt1 regulates body weight and energy expenditure along with the POMC-derived peptide α-MSH and the processing enzyme CPE production in diet-induced obese male rats.

  • Cyr NE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the periphery, the nutrient-sensing enzyme Sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 [Sirt1]) reduces body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. However, the role of Sirt1 in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, in body weight and energy balance regulation is debated. Among the first studies to reveal that central Sirt1 regulates body weight came from experiments in our laboratory using Sprague Dawley rats. In that study, central inhibition of Sirt1 decreased body weight and food intake as a result of a Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1)-mediated increase in the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and decrease in the orexigenic Agouti-related peptide in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that central inhibition of Sirt1 in DIO decreased body weight and increased energy expenditure at higher levels as compared with the lean counterpart. Brain Sirt1 inhibition in DIO increased acetylated FoxO1, which, in turn, increased phosphorylated FoxO1 via improved insulin/pAKT signaling. Elevated acetylated FoxO1 and phosphorylated FoxO1 increased POMC along with the α-MSH maturation enzyme carboxypeptidase E, which resulted in more of the bioactive POMC product α-MSH released into the paraventricular nucleus. Increased in α-MSH led to augmented TRH levels and circulating T3 levels (thyroid hormone). These results indicate that inhibiting hypothalamic Sirt1 in DIO enhances the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which stimulates energy expenditure. Because we show that blocking central Sirt1 causes physiological changes that promote a negative energy balance in an obese individual, our results support brain Sirt1 as a significant target for weight loss therapeutics.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL062571(United States)

IGF-I stimulates CCN5/WISP2 gene expression in pancreatic β-cells, which promotes cell proliferation and survival against streptozotocin.

  • Chowdhury S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

IGF-I is normally produced from hepatocytes and other sources, stimulates protein synthesis, cell survival, and proliferation through receptor-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAPK, and targets specific molecules within the pancreatic islet cells. The current study was designed to identify novel targets that may mediate its pro-islet actions. Whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis in IGF-I-overexpressing islets identified 82 genes specifically up- or down-regulated. Prominent among them was CCN5/WISP2 whose expression was increased 3- and 2-fold at the mRNA and protein levels. Dual-labeled immunofluorescence revealed that CCN5 expression was low in the β-cells of wild-type islets but was significantly induced in response to IGF-I overexpression. In vitro treatment of mouse islets with IGF-I increased both CCN5 mRNA and protein levels significantly. To define the role of CCN5 in islet cell biology, we stably overexpressed its cDNA in insulinoma MIN6 cells and detected a 2-fold increase in the proliferation of MIN6-CCN5 compared with that in control cells, which correlated with significant elevations in the levels of cyclin D1 and the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk2. Moreover, MIN6-CCN5 cells were found to be resistant to streptozotocin-induced cell death. Using confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, we found that overexpressed CCN5 exhibited cytoplasmic accumulation upon stimulation by high glucose. Our results indicate that CCN5, which is minimally expressed in islet β-cells, is strongly and directly induced by IGF-I. CCN5 overexpression stimulates the proliferation of insulinoma cells, activates Akt kinase, and inhibits streptozotocin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that increased CCN5 expression contributes to IGF-I-stimulated islet cell growth and/or survival.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH067631(United States)

Endothelin-1 stimulates resistin gene expression.

  • Tang YC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Resistin and endothelin (ET)-1 have been reported to inhibit adipogenesis and regulate adipocyte insulin resistance, respectively. Although both hormones interact with each other, the exact signaling pathway of ET-1 to act on resistin gene expression is still unknown. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in ET-1-stimulated resistin gene expression. The up-regulation of resistin mRNA expression by ET-1 depends on concentration and timing. The concentration of ET-1 that increased resistin mRNA levels by 100%-250% was approximately 100 nM for a range of 0.25-12 hours of treatment. Treatment with actinomycin D blocked ET-1-increased resistin mRNA levels, suggesting that the effect of ET-1 requires new mRNA synthesis. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ET type-A receptor, such as N-[1-Formyl-N-[N-[(hexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl)carbonyl]-L-leucyl]-D-tryptophyl]-D-tryptophan (BQ610), but not with the ET type-B receptor antagonist N-[(cis-2,6-Dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)carbonyl]-4-methyl-L-leucyl-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophyl-D-norleucine (BQ788), blocked ET-1, increased the levels of resistin mRNA, and phosphorylated levels of downstream signaling molecules, such as ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), protein kinase B (AKT), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Moreover, pretreatment of specific inhibitors of either ERK1/2 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene [U0126] and 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one [PD98059], two inhibitors of MEK1), JNKs (SP600125), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (LY294002 and Wortmannin), or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 ((E)-2-Cyano-3-(3,4-dihydrophenyl)-N-(phenylmethyl)-2-propenamide, AG490) prevented ET-1-increased levels of resistin mRNA and reduced the ET-1-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNKs, AKT, and STAT3, respectively. However, the p38 kinase antagonist 4-[5-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridine (SB203580) did not alter the effect of ET-1. These results imply that ET type-A receptor, ERK1/2, JNKs, AKT, and JAK2, but not ET type-B receptor or p38, are necessary for the ET-1 stimulation of resistin gene expression. In vivo observations that ET-1 increased resistin mRNA and protein levels in sc and epididymal adipose tissues support the in vitro findings.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL107147(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD029990(United States)

Implication of the Tpl2 kinase in inflammatory changes and insulin resistance induced by the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

  • Ceppo F
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adipose tissue inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance. In obese adipose tissue, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and saturated fatty acids trigger inflammatory factors that mediate a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages. However, the inflammatory signaling proteins underlying this cross talk remain to be identified. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is activated by inflammatory stimuli, including LPS, and its expression is up-regulated in obese adipose tissue, but its role in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages remains ill-defined. To assess the implication of Tpl2 in the cross talk between these 2 cell types, we used coculture system and conditioned medium (CM) from macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of Tpl2 in the coculture markedly reduced lipolysis and cytokine production and prevented the decrease in adipocyte insulin signaling. Tpl2 knockdown in cocultured adipocytes reduced lipolysis but had a weak effect on cytokine production and did not prevent the alteration of insulin signaling. By contrast, Tpl2 silencing in cocultured macrophages resulted in a marked inhibition of cytokine production and prevented the alteration of adipocyte insulin signaling. Further, when Tpl2 was inhibited in LPS-activated macrophages, the produced CM did not alter adipocyte insulin signaling and did not induce an inflammatory response in adipocytes. By contrast, Tpl2 silencing in adipocytes did not prevent the deleterious effects of a CM from LPS-activated macrophages. Together, these data establish that Tpl2, mainly in macrophages, is involved in the cross talk between adipocytes and macrophages that promotes inflammatory changes and alteration of insulin signaling in adipocytes.

Funding information:
  • RRD VA - I01 RX002133(United States)

Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period in normal-weight or obese ewes results in adrenocortical hypertrophy, an up-regulation of the JAK/STAT and down-regulation of the IGF1R signaling pathways in the adrenal of the postnatal lamb.

  • Zhang S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL-085848(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS070300(United States)

Regulation of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) expression and phosphorylation in thyroid cells.

  • Lewy GD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human pituitary tumor transforming gene (hPTTG) is a multifunctional proto-oncogene implicated in the initiation and progression of several tumors. Phosphorylation of hPTTG is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDC2), whereas cellular expression is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1). The mechanisms underlying hPTTG propagation of aberrant thyroid cell growth have not been fully defined. We set out to investigate the interplay between hPTTG and growth factors, as well as the effects of phosphorylation and SP1 regulation on hPTTG expression and function. In our study, epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGFα, and IGF-1 induced hPTTG expression and phosphorylation in thyroid cells, which was associated with activation of MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Growth factors induced hPTTG independently of CDC2 and SP1 in thyroid carcinoma cells. Strikingly, CDC2 depletion in TPC-1 cells resulted in enhanced expression and phosphorylation of hPTTG and reduced cellular proliferation. In reciprocal experiments, hPTTG overexpression induced EGF, IGF-1, and TGFα mRNAs in primary human thyrocytes. Treatment of primary human thyrocytes with conditioned media derived from hPTTG-transfected cells resulted in autocrine upregulation of hPTTG protein, which was ameliorated by growth factor depletion or growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A transgenic murine model of thyroid targeted hPTTG overexpression (hPTTG-Tg) (FVB/N strain, both sexes) demonstrated smaller thyroids with reduced cellular proliferation and enhanced secretion of Egf. In contrast, Pttg(-/-) knockout mice (c57BL6 strain, both sexes) showed reduced thyroidal Egf mRNA expression. These results define hPTTG as having a central role in thyroid autocrine signaling mechanisms via growth factors, with profound implications for promotion of transformed cell growth.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA173903(United States)