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p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) Antibody

RRID:AB_330744

Antibody ID

AB_330744

Target Antigen

p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) h, m, r, hm, mk, mi, z, b, pg, sc, human, mouse, non-human primate, rat, porcine, yeast/fungi, zebrafish/fish, bovine, hamster, other mammalian

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 9102, RRID:AB_330744)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IHC-P. Consolidation on 9/2016: AB_823494, AB_10695746.

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Cat Num

9102 also 9102L, 9102S

Publications that use this research resource

BRET-based RAS biosensors that show a novel small molecule is an inhibitor of RAS-effector protein-protein interactions.

  • Bery N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RAS family of proteins is amongst the most highly mutated in human cancers and has so far eluded drug therapy. Currently, much effort is being made to discover mutant RAS inhibitors and in vitro screening for RAS-binding drugs must be followed by cell-based assays. Here, we have developed a robust set of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based RAS biosensors that enable monitoring of RAS-effector interaction inhibition in living cells. These include KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and a variety of different mutations that mirror those found in human cancers with the major RAS effectors such as CRAF, PI3K and RALGDS. We highlighted the utility of these RAS biosensors by showing a RAS-binding compound is a potent pan-RAS-effector interactions inhibitor in cells. The RAS biosensors represent a useful tool to investigate and characterize the potency of anti-RAS inhibitors in cells and more generally any RAS protein-protein interaction (PPI) in cells.

Funding information:
  • Bloodwise - 12051()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/J000612/1()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)
  • Wellcome - 099246/Z/12/Z()
  • Wellcome - 100842/Z/12/Z()

Angiotensin II triggers peripheral macrophage-to-sensory neuron redox crosstalk to elicit pain.

  • Shepherd AJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Injury, inflammation and nerve damage initiate a wide variety of cellular and molecular processes that culminate in hyperexcitation of sensory nerves, which underlies chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Using behavioral readouts of pain hypersensitivity induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) injection into mouse hindpaws, our study shows that activation of the type 2 Ang II receptor (AT2R) and the cell damage-sensing ion channel TRPA1 are required for peripheral mechanical pain sensitization induced by Ang II in male and female mice. However, we show that AT2R is not expressed in mouse and human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, expression/activation of AT2R on peripheral/skin macrophages (MΦs) constitutes a critical trigger of mouse and human DRG sensory neuron excitation. Ang II-induced peripheral mechanical pain hypersensitivity can be attenuated by chemogenetic depletion of peripheral MΦs. Furthermore, AT2R activation in MΦs triggers production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which trans-activate TRPA1 on mouse and human DRG sensory neurons, via cysteine-modification of the channel. Our study thus identifies a translatable immune cell-to-sensory neuron signaling crosstalk underlying peripheral nociceptor sensitization. This form of cell-to-cell signaling represents a critical peripheral mechanism for chronic pain, and thus identifies multiple druggable analgesic targets.Significance Statement: Pain is a widespread problem that is under-managed by currently available analgesics. Findings from a recent clinical trial on a type-II angiotensin II receptor (AT2R) antagonist showed effective analgesia for neuropathic pain. AT2R antagonists have been shown to reduce neuropathy-, inflammation- and bone cancer-associated pain in rodents. We report that activation of AT2R in macrophages that infiltrate the site of injury, but not in sensory neurons, triggers an intercellular redox communication with sensory neurons via activation of the cell damage/pain-sensing ion channel TRPA1. This macrophage-to-sensory neuron crosstalk results in peripheral pain sensitization. Our findings provide an evidence-based mechanism underlying the analgesic action of AT2R antagonists, which could accelerate the development of efficacious non-opioid analgesic drugs for multiple pain conditions.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS077521(United States)

An ERK-Dependent Feedback Mechanism Prevents Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion.

  • Baumgartner C
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) sustain hematopoiesis throughout life. HSCs exit dormancy to restore hemostasis in response to stressful events, such as acute blood loss, and must return to a quiescent state to prevent their exhaustion and resulting bone marrow failure. HSC activation is driven in part through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTORC1 signaling pathway, but less is known about the cell-intrinsic pathways that control HSC dormancy. Here, we delineate an ERK-dependent, rate-limiting feedback mechanism that controls HSC fitness and their re-entry into quiescence. We show that the MEK/ERK and PI3K pathways are synchronously activated in HSCs during emergency hematopoiesis and that feedback phosphorylation of MEK1 by activated ERK counterbalances AKT/mTORC1 activation. Genetic or chemical ablation of this feedback loop tilts the balance between HSC dormancy and activation, increasing differentiated cell output and accelerating HSC exhaustion. These results suggest that MEK inhibitors developed for cancer therapy may find additional utility in controlling HSC activation.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - K08 AG024816-05(United States)

Arctic Aβ40 blocks the nicotine-induced neuroprotective effect of CHRNA7 by inhibiting the ERK1/2 pathway in human neuroblastoma cells.

  • Ju Y
  • Neurochem. Int.
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Point mutations in the Aβ sequence, which cluster around the central hydrophobic core of the peptide, are associated with familial AD (FAD). Several mutations have been identified, with the Arctic mutation exhibiting a purely cognitive phenotype that is typical of AD. Our previous findings suggest that Arctic Aβ40 binds to and aggregates with CHRNA7, thereby inhibiting the calcium response and signaling pathways downstream of the receptor. Activation of CHRNA7 is neuroprotective both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether Arctic Aβ40 affects neuronal survival and/or death via CHRNA7. Using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we found that the neuroprotective function of CHRNA7 is blocked by CHRNA7 knockdown using RNA interference. Furthermore, Arctic Aβ40 blocked the neuroprotective effect of nicotine by inhibiting the ERK1/2 pathway downstream of CHRNA7. Moreover, we show that ERK1/2 activation mediates the neuroprotective effect of nicotine against oxidative stress. Collectively, our findings further our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Arctic FAD.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0801983(United Kingdom)

Maternal separation stress reduced prenatal-ethanol-induced increase in exploratory behaviour and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity.

  • Swart PC
  • Behav. Brain Res.
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress. Therefore, these kinases may also contribute to the behavioural changes observed after the combination of both developmental insults. In this study, ethanol-dams voluntarily consumed a 0.066% saccharin-sweetened 10% ethanol (EtOH) solution for 10 days prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation while control-dams had ad libitumaccess to a 0.066% saccharin (sacc) solution. Whole litters were randomly assigned to undergo maternal separation (MS) for 3 h/day from P2 to P14 while the remaining litters were left undisturbed (nMS). This resulted in 4 experimental groups: control (sacc + nMS), MS (sacc + MS), EtOH (EtOH + nMS) and EtOH + MS. Throughout development, EtOH-rats weighed less than control rats. However, subsequent maternal separation stress caused EtOH + MS-rats to weigh more than EtOH-rats. In adulthood both MS- and EtOH-rats were hyperactive but the combination produced activity levels similar to that of control rats. All treated animals (MS-, EtOH- and EtOH + MS-rats) demonstrated a negative affective state shown by increased number and duration of 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations compared to control rats. Prenatal-ethanol exposure increased the P-GSK3β/GSK3β ratio in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and maternal separation decreased the P-GSK3β/GSK3β ratio in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of adult rats. However, maternal separation stress decreased the effect of prenatal-ethanol exposure on the P-ERK/ERK ratio in the PFC and DH and reduced prenatal-ethanol-induced hyperactivity. Therefore, indicating a significant interaction between prenatal-ethanol exposure and early-life stress on behaviour and the brain and may implicate P-ERK1/2 signalling in exploratory behaviour.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI048562-07(United States)

Cancer Cells Co-opt the Neuronal Redox-Sensing Channel TRPA1 to Promote Oxidative-Stress Tolerance.

  • Takahashi N
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancer cell survival is dependent on oxidative-stress defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS) that accumulate during tumorigenesis. Here, we show a non-canonical oxidative-stress defense mechanism through TRPA1, a neuronal redox-sensing Ca2+-influx channel. In TRPA1-enriched breast and lung cancer spheroids, TRPA1 is critical for survival of inner cells that exhibit ROS accumulation. Moreover, TRPA1 promotes resistance to ROS-producing chemotherapies, and TRPA1 inhibition suppresses xenograft tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity. TRPA1 does not affect redox status but upregulates Ca2+-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways. NRF2, an oxidant-defense transcription factor, directly controls TRPA1 expression, thus providing an orthogonal mechanism for protection against oxidative stress together with canonical ROS-neutralizing mechanisms. These findings reveal an oxidative-stress defense program involving TRPA1 that could be exploited for targeted cancer therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - C06 RR030414(United States)

Inhibition of A-Type K+ Channels by Urotensin-II Induces Sensory Neuronal Hyperexcitability Through the PKCα-ERK Pathway.

  • Zhang Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous studies have implicated urotensin-II in the nociception of sensory neurons. However, to date the relevant mechanisms remain unknown. In the current study we determined the role of urotensin-II in the regulation of transient outward A-type potassium currents (IA) and neuronal excitability in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. We found that application of urotensin-II to small-diameter TG neurons decreased IA in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the delayed rectifier potassium current was unaffected. The IA decrease induced by urotensin-II depended on the urotensin-II receptor (UT-R) and was associated with a hyperpolarizing shift in the steady-state inactivation curve. Exposure of TG cells to urotensin-II markedly increased protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and PKC inhibition eliminated the UT-R-mediated IA decrease. Antagonism of PKCα, either pharmacologically or genetically, but not of PKCβ prevented the decrease in IA induced by urotensin-II. Analysis of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) revealed that urotensin-II significantly increased the expression level of p-ERK, whereas p-p38 and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase remained unchanged. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling by the kinase antagonist U0126 and PD98059 completely abolished the UT-R-mediated IA decrease. Moreover, urotensin-II significantly increased the action potential firing rate of small TG neurons; pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine prevented this effect. In summary, our findings suggest that urotensin-II selectively attenuated IA through stimulation of the PKCα-dependent ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This UT-R-dependent mechanism might contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in TG neurons.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01CA130818(United States)

mTORC1 Is Transiently Reactivated in Injured Nerves to Promote c-Jun Elevation and Schwann Cell Dedifferentiation.

  • Norrmén C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cells (SCs) are endowed with a remarkable plasticity. When peripheral nerves are injured, SCs dedifferentiate and acquire new functions to coordinate nerve repair as so-called repair SCs. Subsequently, SCs redifferentiate to remyelinate regenerated axons. Given the similarities between SC dedifferentiation/redifferentiation in injured nerves and in demyelinating neuropathies, elucidating the signals involved in SC plasticity after nerve injury has potentially wider implications. c-Jun has emerged as a key transcription factor regulating SC dedifferentiation and the acquisition of repair SC features. However, the upstream pathways that control c-Jun activity after nerve injury are largely unknown. We report that the mTORC1 pathway is transiently but robustly reactivated in dedifferentiating SCs. By inducible genetic deletion of the functionally crucial mTORC1-subunit Raptor in mouse SCs (including male and female animals), we found that mTORC1 reactivation is necessary for proper myelin clearance, SC dedifferentiation, and consequently remyelination, without major alterations in the inflammatory response. In the absence of mTORC1 signaling, c-Jun failed to be upregulated correctly. Accordingly, a c-Jun binding motif was found to be enriched in promoters of genes with reduced expression in injured mutants. Furthermore, using cultured SCs, we found that mTORC1 is involved in c-Jun regulation by promoting its translation, possibly via the eIF4F-subunit eIF4A. These results provide evidence that proper c-Jun elevation after nerve injury involves also mTORC1-dependent post-transcriptional regulation to ensure timely dedifferentiation of SCs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A crucial evolutionary acquisition of vertebrates is the envelopment of axons in myelin sheaths produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells (SCs) in the PNS. When myelin is damaged, conduction of action potentials along axons slows down or is blocked, leading to debilitating diseases. Unlike oligodendrocytes, SCs have a high regenerative potential, granted by their remarkable plasticity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying SC plasticity may uncover new therapeutic targets in nerve regeneration and demyelinating diseases. Our work reveals that reactivation of the mTORC1 pathway in SCs is essential for efficient SC dedifferentiation after nerve injury. Accordingly, modulating this signaling pathway might be of therapeutic relevance in peripheral nerve injury and other diseases.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U120081321(United Kingdom)

R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Survival for Correct Myelination in the Central Nervous System.

  • Sanz-Rodriguez M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid and effective neural transmission of information requires correct axonal myelination. Modifications in myelination alter axonal capacity to transmit electric impulses and enable pathological conditions. In the CNS, oligodendrocytes (OLs) myelinate axons, a complex process involving various cellular interactions. However, we know little about the mechanisms that orchestrate correct myelination. Here, we demonstrate that OLs express R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Using female and male mutant mice to delete these proteins, we found that activation of the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways was weaker in mice lacking one or both of these GTPases, suggesting that both proteins coordinate the activity of these two pathways. Loss of R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 diminishes the number of OLs in major myelinated CNS tracts and increases the proportion of immature OLs. In R-Ras1-/- and R-Ras2-/--null mice, OLs show aberrant morphologies and fail to differentiate correctly into myelin-forming phenotypes. The smaller OL population and abnormal OL maturation induce severe hypomyelination, with shorter nodes of Ranvier in R-Ras1-/- and/or R-Ras2-/- mice. These defects explain the slower conduction velocity of myelinated axons that we observed in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Together, these results suggest that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are upstream elements that regulate the survival and differentiation of progenitors into OLs through the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways for proper myelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 play essential roles in regulating myelination in vivo and control fundamental aspects of oligodendrocyte (OL) survival and differentiation through synergistic activation of PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK signaling. Mice lacking R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 show a diminished OL population with a higher proportion of immature OLs, explaining the observed hypomyelination in main CNS tracts. In vivo electrophysiology recordings demonstrate a slower conduction velocity of nerve impulses in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Therefore, R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are essential for proper axonal myelination and accurate neural transmission.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC011010-06(United States)

Palladin Is a Neuron-Specific Translational Target of mTOR Signaling That Regulates Axon Morphogenesis.

  • Umegaki Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mTOR signaling pathway regulates protein synthesis and diverse aspects of neuronal morphology that are important for brain development and function. To identify proteins controlled translationally by mTOR signaling, we performed ribosome profiling analyses in mouse cortical neurons and embryonic stem cells upon acute mTOR inhibition. Among proteins whose translation was significantly affected by mTOR inhibition selectively in neurons, we identified the cytoskeletal regulator protein palladin, which is localized within the cell body and axons in hippocampal neurons. Knockdown of palladin eliminated supernumerary axons induced by suppression of the tuberous sclerosis complex protein TSC1 in neurons, demonstrating that palladin regulates neuronal morphogenesis downstream of mTOR signaling. Our findings provide novel insights into an mTOR-dependent mechanism that controls neuronal morphogenesis through translational regulation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reports the discovery of neuron-specific protein translational responses to alterations of mTOR activity. By using ribosome profiling analysis, which can reveal the location and quantity of translating ribosomes on mRNAs, multiple aspects of protein translation were quantitatively analyzed in mouse embryonic stem cells and cortical neurons upon acute mTOR inhibition. Neurons displayed distinct patterns of ribosome occupancy for each codon and ribosome stalling during translation at specific positions of mRNAs. Importantly, the cytoskeletal regulator palladin was identified as a translational target protein of mTOR signaling in neurons. Palladin operates downstream of mTOR to modulate axon morphogenesis. This study identifies a novel mechanism of neuronal morphogenesis regulated by mTOR signaling through control of translation of the key protein palladin.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS051255()

BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  • Zhang XY
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA068458(United States)

Pan-RAF and MEK vertical inhibition enhances therapeutic response in non-V600 BRAF mutant cells.

  • Molnár E
  • BMC Cancer
  • 2018 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no available targeted therapy options for non-V600 BRAF mutated tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RAF and MEK concurrent inhibition on tumor growth, migration, signaling and apoptosis induction in preclinical models of non-V600 BRAF mutant tumor cell lines. METHODS: Six BRAF mutated human tumor cell lines CRL5885 (G466 V), WM3629 (D594G), WM3670 (G469E), MDAMB231 (G464 V), CRL5922 (L597 V) and A375 (V600E as control) were investigated. Pan-RAF inhibitor (sorafenib or AZ628) and MEK inhibitor (selumetinib) or their combination were used in in vitro viability, video microscopy, immunoblot, cell cycle and TUNEL assays. The in vivo effects of the drugs were assessed in an orthotopic NSG mouse breast cancer model. RESULTS: All cell lines showed a significant growth inhibition with synergism in the sorafenib/AZ628 and selumetinib combination. Combination treatment resulted in higher Erk1/2 inhibition and in increased induction of apoptosis when compared to single agent treatments. However, single selumetinib treatment could cause adverse therapeutic effects, like increased cell migration in certain cells, selumetinib and sorafenib combination treatment lowered migratory capacity in all the cell lines. Importantly, combination resulted in significantly increased tumor growth inhibition in orthotropic xenografts of MDAMB231 cells when compared to sorafenib - but not to selumetinib - treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that combined blocking of RAF and MEK may achieve increased therapeutic response in non-V600 BRAF mutant tumors.

Funding information:
  • Ernst Mach Fellowship - ICM-2015-02193()
  • HAS Postdoctoral Fellowship Program - 450071()
  • Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office - K109626 and KNN121510()
  • Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office - MOB80325()
  • New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities - ÚNKP-16-3-IV()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE13118(United States)

miR-4725-3p targeting Stim1 signaling is involved in xanthohumol inhibition of glioma cell invasion.

  • Ho KH
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain tumor in adults. Due to its highly invasive nature, it is not easy to treat, resulting in high mortality rates. Stromal interacting molecule 1 (Stim1) plays important roles in regulating store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and controls invasion by cancer cells. However, the mechanisms and functions of Stim1 in glioma progression are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of targeting Stim1 expression on glioma cell invasion. By analyzing profiles of GBM patients from RNA-sequencing data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), higher expression levels of STIM1 were correlated with the poor survival. Furthermore, signaling pathways associated with tumor malignancy, including the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), were activated in patients with high STIM1 expression according to gene set enrichment analyses. Higher Stim1 levels were found in glioma cells compared to human astrocytes, and these higher levels enhanced glioma cell invasion. Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid extracted from the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), significantly reduced cell invasion through inhibiting Stim1 expression. From an micro(mi)RNA array analysis, miR-4725-3p was upregulated by XN treatment. Overexpression of miR-4725-3p inhibited glioma cell invasion via directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of STIM1. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Fos pathway was also validated to participate in XN-upregulated miR-4725-3p expression according to promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These results emphasize that miR-4725-3p-inhibited STIM1 signaling is involved in XN-attenuated glioma cell invasion. These findings may provide insights into novel therapeutic strategies for future glioblastoma therapy and drug development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440(United States)

The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor 75 Signaling is Activated by the Chemokine CCL5.

  • Dedoni S
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The chemokine CCL5 prevents neuronal cell death mediated both by amyloid β, as well as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral proteins gp120 and Tat. Because CCL5 binds to CCR5, CCR3 and/or CCR1 receptors, it is unclear which of these receptors plays a role in neuroprotection. Indeed, CCL5 also has neuroprotective activity in cells lacking these receptors. CCL5 may bind to a G protein-coupled receptor 75 (GPR75), which encodes for a 540 amino-acid orphan receptor of the Gqα family. In this study, we have used SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to characterize whether CCL5 could activate a Gq signaling through GPR75. Both qPCR and flow cytometry show that these cells express GPR75 but do not express CCR5, CCR3 or CCR1 receptors. SY-SY5Y cells were then used to examine CCL5-mediated signaling. We report that CCL5 promotes a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Specific antagonists of CCR5, CCR3 and CCR1 did not prevent CCL5 from increasing phosphorylated AKT or ERK. Moreover, CCL5 promotes a time-dependent internalization of GPR75. Lastly, knocking down GPR75 expression by a CRISPR-Cas9 approach inhibited the ability of CCL5 to activate pERK in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, we propose that GPR75 is a novel receptor for CCL5 that could explain some of the pharmacological action of this chemokine. These findings may help in the development of small molecule GPR75 agonists that mimic CCL5. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15GM055885(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS089446()

FFAR4 is involved in regulation of neurotensin release from neuroendocrine cells and male C57BL/6 mice.

  • Li J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

NT, a 13-amino acid peptide, is predominantly released from enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel in response to fat ingestion. Free fatty acid receptors, FFAR1 and FFAR4, regulate secretion of gut hormones and insulin. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, has the most dramatic effect on NT release. FFAR1 agonists slightly whereas FFAR4 agonists dramaticly stimulate and amplify NT secretion. Double knockdown of FFAR1 and FFAR4 decreases, but overexpression of FFAR4 but not FFAR1 increases, NT release. Administration of cpdA, the FFAR4 agonist, but not TAK-875, a selective FFAR1 agonist, increases plasma NT and further increases olive oil-stimulated plasma NT levels. Inhibition of MEK/ERK1/2 decreased FA-stimulated NT release but increased AMPK phosphorylation. In contrast, inhibition of AMPK further increased NT secretion and ERK1/2 phosphorylation mediated by FFAR1 or 4. Our results indicate that FFAR4 plays more critical role vs. FFAR1 in mediation of fat-regulated NT release and an inhibitory crosstalk between MEK/ERK1/2 and AMPK in the control of NT release downstream of FFAR1/4.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R44 HD057744(United States)

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator S42 Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation.

  • Kawanami T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously identified the selective androgen receptor (AR) modulator S42, which does not stimulate prostate growth but has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. In the prostate cancer (PC) cell line LNCaP, S42 did not induce AR transactivation but antagonized 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)‒induced AR activation. Next, we investigated whether S42 suppresses the growth of PC cell lines. Basal growth of LNCaP cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with S42 compared with vehicle, as determined by cell counting and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assays. The suppressive effect of S42 on cell growth was evident in the AR-positive PC cells LNCaP and 22Rv1 and was slightly observed even in the AR-negative PC-3 cells. However, S42 did not induce apoptosis as determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. S42 had an even greater suppressive effect on DHT-dependent LNCaP cell proliferation than on basal proliferation (P < 0.05). DHT treatment increased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a major signaling molecule for PC proliferation, and this was significantly inhibited by S42. DHT also significantly upregulated AR, insulinlike growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and insulin receptor (IR)-β protein levels, which were similarly reduced by S42 treatment. Importantly, S42 administration to mice attenuated the growth of LNCaP tumors and reduced tumor expression of the prostate-specific antigen, P504S, Ki67, and phosphorylated ERK-MAPK. These data suggest that S42 attenuates LNCaP tumor growth not by inducing apoptosis but by inhibiting the expression of proliferation-related receptors, including IGF-1R, IR, and AR, and by suppressing ERK-MAPK activation. S42 may thus be a feasible candidate for PC treatment.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL32262-25(United States)

Mammalian Oocytes Locally Remodel Follicular Architecture to Provide the Foundation for Germline-Soma Communication.

  • El-Hayek S
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Apr 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Germ cells develop in a microenvironment created by the somatic cells of the gonad [1-3]. Although in males, the germ and somatic support cells lie in direct contact, in females, a thick extracellular coat surrounds the oocyte, physically separating it from the somatic follicle cells [4]. To bypass this barrier to communication, narrow cytoplasmic extensions of the follicle cells traverse the extracellular coat to reach the oocyte plasma membrane [5-9]. These delicate structures provide the sole platform for the contact-mediated communication between the oocyte and its follicular environment that is indispensable for production of a fertilizable egg [8, 10-15]. Identifying the mechanisms underlying their formation should uncover conserved regulators of fertility. We show here in mice that these structures, termed transzonal projections (TZPs), are specialized filopodia whose number amplifies enormously as oocytes grow, enabling increased germ-soma communication. By creating chimeric complexes of genetically tagged oocytes and follicle cells, we demonstrate that follicle cells elaborate new TZPs that push through the extracellular coat to reach the oocyte surface. We further show that growth-differentiation factor 9, produced by the oocyte, drives the formation of new TZPs, uncovering a key yet unanticipated role for the germ cell in building these essential bridges of communication. Moreover, TZP number and germline-soma communication are strikingly reduced in reproductively aged females. Thus, the growing oocyte locally remodels follicular architecture to ensure that its developmental needs are met, and an inability of somatic follicle cells to respond appropriately to oocyte-derived cues may contribute to human infertility.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R21 HD086407()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK059499-04(United States)

An Integrated Genome-wide CRISPRa Approach to Functionalize lncRNAs in Drug Resistance.

  • Bester AC
  • Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Resistance to chemotherapy plays a significant role in cancer mortality. To identify genetic units affecting sensitivity to cytarabine, the mainstay of treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we developed a comprehensive and integrated genome-wide platform based on a dual protein-coding and non-coding integrated CRISPRa screening (DICaS). Putative resistance genes were initially identified using pharmacogenetic data from 760 human pan-cancer cell lines. Subsequently, genome scale functional characterization of both coding and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes by CRISPR activation was performed. For lncRNA functional assessment, we developed a CRISPR activation of lncRNA (CaLR) strategy, targeting 14,701 lncRNA genes. Computational and functional analysis identified novel cell-cycle, survival/apoptosis, and cancer signaling genes. Furthermore, transcriptional activation of the GAS6-AS2 lncRNA, identified in our analysis, leads to hyperactivation of the GAS6/TAM pathway, a resistance mechanism in multiple cancers including AML. Thus, DICaS represents a novel and powerful approach to identify integrated coding and non-coding pathways of therapeutic relevance.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - AR49737(United States)

GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

  • Nagahara Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH64547(United States)

CD69 partially inhibits apoptosis and erythroid differentiation via CD24, and their knockdown increase imatinib sensitivity in BCR-ABL-positive cells.

  • Huang SY
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by a constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib and its derivatives represent a breakthrough for CML therapy, but the use of TKI alone is ineffective for many CML patients. CD69, an early activation marker of lymphocytes, participates in immune and inflammatory responses. Previous studies revealed that BCR-ABL upregulates CD69 expression; however, the role of CD69 in CML cells is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BCR-ABL induced CD69 promoter activity and mRNA and protein expression via the NF-κB pathway. CD69 knockdown partially increased apoptosis and expression of erythroid differentiation markers, α-globin, ζ-globin, and glycophorin A, and increased imatinib sensitivity in K562 and KU812 CML cells. Gene microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR verified that CD24, an oncogenic gene, downregulated in K562 cells upon CD69 knockdown. CD69 overexpression increased, whereas CD69 knockdown inhibited CD24 promoter activity and mRNA and protein levels. CD24 knockdown also partially increased apoptosis, erythroid differentiation, and imatinib sensitivity in K562 cells, whereas its overexpression inhibited the effects of CD69 knockdown on apoptosis, erythroid differentiation, and imatinib sensitivity in K562 cells. Imatinib-induced apoptosis and erythroid differentiation were also inhibited by CD69 or CD24 overexpression in BCR-ABL-expressing CML cell lines and CD34+ cells. Taken together, CD24 is a downstream effector of CD69. CD69 and CD24 partially inhibit apoptosis and erythroid differentiation in CML cells; thus, they may be potential targets to increase imatinib sensitivity.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - UO1CA153086(United States)

Swedish Nerve Growth Factor Mutation (NGFR100W) Defines a Role for TrkA and p75NTR in Nociception.

  • Sung K
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts multiple functions on target neurons throughout development. The recent discovery of a point mutation leading to a change from arginine to tryptophan at residue 100 in the mature NGFβ sequence (NGFR100W) in patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) made it possible to distinguish the signaling mechanisms that lead to two functionally different outcomes of NGF: trophic versus nociceptive. We performed extensive biochemical, cellular, and live-imaging experiments to examine the binding and signaling properties of NGFR100W Our results show that, similar to the wild-type NGF (wtNGF), the naturally occurring NGFR100W mutant was capable of binding to and activating the TrkA receptor and its downstream signaling pathways to support neuronal survival and differentiation. However, NGFR100W failed to bind and stimulate the 75 kDa neurotrophic factor receptor (p75NTR)-mediated signaling cascades (i.e., the RhoA-Cofilin pathway). Intraplantar injection of NGFR100W into adult rats induced neither TrkA-mediated thermal nor mechanical acute hyperalgesia, but retained the ability to induce chronic hyperalgesia based on agonism for TrkA signaling. Together, our studies provide evidence that NGFR100W retains trophic support capability through TrkA and one aspect of its nociceptive signaling, but fails to engage p75NTR signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that wtNGF acts via TrkA to regulate the delayed priming of nociceptive responses. The integration of both TrkA and p75NTR signaling thus appears to regulate neuroplastic effects of NGF in peripheral nociception.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the present study, we characterized the naturally occurring nerve growth factor NGFR100W mutant that is associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V. We have demonstrated for the first time that NGFR100W retains trophic support capability through TrkA, but fails to engage p75NTR signaling pathways. Furthermore, after intraplantar injection into adult rats, NGFR100W induced neither thermal nor mechanical acute hyperalgesia, but retained the ability to induce chronic hyperalgesia. We have also provided evidence that the integration of both TrkA- and p75NTR-mediated signaling appears to regulate neuroplastic effects of NGF in peripheral nociception. Our study with NGFR100W suggests that it is possible to uncouple trophic effect from nociceptive function, both induced by wild-type NGF.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - PN2 EY016525()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - L30 AI062141(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS084545()

EGFR-Phosphorylated Platelet Isoform of Phosphofructokinase 1 Promotes PI3K Activation.

  • Lee JH
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

EGFR activates phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), but the mechanism underlying this activation is not completely understood. We demonstrated here that EGFR activation resulted in lysine acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5)-mediated K395 acetylation of the platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKP) and subsequent translocation of PFKP to the plasma membrane, where the PFKP was phosphorylated at Y64 by EGFR. Phosphorylated PFKP binds to the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, which is distinct from binding of Gab1 to the C-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, and recruited p85α to the plasma membrane resulting in PI3K activation. PI3K-dependent AKT activation results in enhanced phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) phosphorylation and production of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which in turn promotes PFK1 activation. PFKP Y64 phosphorylation-enhanced PI3K/AKT-dependent PFK1 activation and GLUT1 expression promoted the Warburg effect, tumor cell proliferation, and brain tumorigenesis. These findings underscore the instrumental role of PFKP in PI3K activation and enhanced glycolysis through PI3K/AKT-dependent positive-feedback regulation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA121938(United States)

The Dietary Supplement Chondroitin-4-Sulfate Exhibits Oncogene-Specific Pro-tumor Effects on BRAF V600E Melanoma Cells.

  • Lin R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mechanistically, chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T) signals through its product CHSA to enhance casein kinase 2 (CK2)-PTEN binding and consequent phosphorylation and inhibition of PTEN, which requires CHSA chains and is essential to sustain AKT activation in BRAF V600E-expressing melanoma cells. However, this CHSA-dependent PTEN inhibition is dispensable in cancer cells expressing mutant NRAS or PI3KCA, which directly activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. These results suggest that dietary supplements may exhibit oncogene-dependent pro-tumor effects.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140515()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA174786()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183594()
  • Wellcome Trust - 090532(United Kingdom)

Human Pancreatic Tumor Organoids Reveal Loss of Stem Cell Niche Factor Dependence during Disease Progression.

  • Seino T
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite recent efforts to dissect the inter-tumor heterogeneity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by determining prognosis-predictive gene expression signatures for specific subtypes, their functional differences remain elusive. Here, we established a pancreatic tumor organoid library encompassing 39 patient-derived PDACs and identified 3 functional subtypes based on their stem cell niche factor dependencies on Wnt and R-spondin. A Wnt-non-producing subtype required Wnt from cancer-associated fibroblasts, whereas a Wnt-producing subtype autonomously secreted Wnt ligands and an R-spondin-independent subtype grew in the absence of Wnt and R-spondin. Transcriptome analysis of PDAC organoids revealed gene-expression signatures that associated Wnt niche subtypes with GATA6-dependent gene expression subtypes, which were functionally supported by genetic perturbation of GATA6. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing of PDAC driver genes (KRAS, CDKN2A, SMAD4, and TP53) demonstrated non-genetic acquisition of Wnt niche independence during pancreas tumorigenesis. Collectively, our results reveal functional heterogeneity of Wnt niche independency in PDAC that is non-genetically formed through tumor progression.

Interleukin-10 Directly Inhibits CD8+ T Cell Function by Enhancing N-Glycan Branching to Decrease Antigen Sensitivity.

  • Smith LK
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic viral infections remain a global health concern. The early events that facilitate viral persistence have been linked to the activity of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. However, the mechanisms by which IL-10 facilitates the establishment of chronic infection are not fully understood. Herein, we demonstrated that the antigen sensitivity of CD8+ T cells was decreased during chronic infection and that this was directly mediated by IL-10. Mechanistically, we showed that IL-10 induced the expression of Mgat5, a glycosyltransferase that enhances N-glycan branching on surface glycoproteins. Increased N-glycan branching on CD8+ T cells promoted the formation of a galectin 3-mediated membrane lattice, which restricted the interaction of key glycoproteins, ultimately increasing the antigenic threshold required for T cell activation. Our study identified a regulatory loop in which IL-10 directly restricts CD8+ T cell activation and function through modification of cell surface glycosylation allowing the establishment of chronic infection.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1R01GM090293-0109(United States)

Exposure to far-infrared ray attenuates methamphetamine-induced impairment in recognition memory through inhibition of protein kinase C δ in male mice: Comparison with the antipsychotic clozapine.

  • Mai HN
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Feb 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously demonstrated that repeated treatment with methamphetamine (MA) results in a recognition memory impairment via upregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ and downregulation of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1)-dependent antioxidant system. We also demonstrated that far-infrared ray (FIR) attenuates acute restraint stress via induction of the GPx-1 gene. Herein, we investigated whether exposure to FIR modulates MA-induced recognition memory impairment in male mice, and whether cognitive potentials mediated by FIR require modulation of the PKCδ gene, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and glutathione-dependent system. Repeated treatment with MA significantly increased PKCδ expression and its phosphorylation out of PKC isoenzymes (i.e., PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, PKCζ, and PKCδ expression) in the prefrontal cortex of mice. Exposure to FIR significantly attenuated MA-induced increase in phospho-PKCδ and decrease in phospho-ERK 1/2. In addition, FIR further facilitated the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent glutathione synthetic system. Moreover, L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, counteracted the FIR-mediated phospho-ERK 1/2 induction and memory-enhancing activity against MA insult. More important, positive effects of FIR are comparable to those of genetic depletion of PKCδ or the antipsychotic clozapine. Our results indicate that FIR protects against MA-induced memory impairment via activations of the Nrf2-dependent glutathione synthetic system, and ERK 1/2 signaling by inhibition of the PKCδ gene.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32-GM007288(United States)

The Neuroprotective Effect of Thalidomide against Ischemia through the Cereblon-mediated Repression of AMPK Activity.

  • Sawamura N
  • Sci Rep
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thalidomide was originally used as a sedative and found to be a teratogen, but now thalidomide and its derivatives are widely used to treat haematologic malignancies. Accumulated evidence suggests that thalidomide suppresses nerve cell death in neurologic model mice. However, detailed molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we examined the molecular mechanism of thalidomide's neuroprotective effects, focusing on its target protein, cereblon (CRBN), and its binding protein, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which plays an important role in maintaining intracellular energy homeostasis in the brain. We used a cerebral ischemia rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). Thalidomide treatment significantly decreased the infarct volume and neurological deficits of MCAO/R rats. AMPK was the key signalling protein in this mechanism. Furthermore, we considered that the AMPK-CRBN interaction was altered when neuroprotective action by thalidomide occurred in cells under ischemic conditions. Binding was strong between AMPK and CRBN in normal SH-SY5Y cells, but was weakened by the addition of H2O2. However, when thalidomide was administered at the same time as H2O2, the binding of AMPK and CRBN was partly restored. These results suggest that thalidomide inhibits the activity of AMPK via CRBN under oxidative stress and suppresses nerve cell death.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - HHSN261200800001E(United States)

Inactivation of NMDA Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area during Cocaine Self-Administration Prevents GluA1 Upregulation but with Paradoxical Increases in Cocaine-Seeking Behavior.

  • Guzman D
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced long-term potentiation in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats. We found that dnGluN1 expression in the VTA limited to the 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration prevents the subsequent increase in tissue GluA1 levels when compared with control infusions of HSV-LacZ. Surprisingly, dnGluN1 expression led to an enhancement in the motivation to self-administer cocaine as measured using a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule and to enhanced cocaine seeking measured in extinction/reinstatement tests following an extended 3 week withdrawal period. Despite blocking tissue GluA1 increases in cocaine self-administering animals, the HSV-dnGluN1 treatment resulted in increased membrane levels of GluA1 and GluN2B, along with markedly higher locomotor responses to intra-VTA infusions of AMPA, suggesting a paradoxical increase in VTA AMPA receptor responsiveness. Together, these data suggest that NMDARs mediate cocaine-induced increases in VTA GluA1 expression, but such transient NMDAR inactivation also leads to compensatory scaling of synaptic AMPA receptors that enhance the motivational for cocaine.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are critical substrates of drug rewards. Animal models indicate that chronic cocaine use enhances excitatory glutamatergic input to these neurons, making them more susceptible to environmental stimuli that trigger drug craving and relapse. We previously found that self-administration of cocaine increases AMPA glutamate receptors in the VTA, and this effect enhances motivation for cocaine. Here we report that the mechanism for this upregulation involves NMDA receptor activity during cocaine use. While interference with NMDA receptor function blocks AMPA receptor upregulation, it also produces a paradoxical enhancement in membrane AMPA receptor subunits, AMPA responsiveness, and the motivation for cocaine. Thus, pharmacotherapy targeting NMDA receptors may inadvertently produce substantial adverse consequences for cocaine addiction.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA022445()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - F31 DA035073()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA018743()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA032708()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA007290()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1R01GM100768-01A1(United States)

Cooperative Epigenetic Remodeling by TET2 Loss and NRAS Mutation Drives Myeloid Transformation and MEK Inhibitor Sensitivity.

  • Kunimoto H
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in epigenetic modifiers and signaling factors often co-occur in myeloid malignancies, including TET2 and NRAS mutations. Concurrent Tet2 loss and NrasG12D expression in hematopoietic cells induced myeloid transformation, with a fully penetrant, lethal chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), which was serially transplantable. Tet2 loss and Nras mutation cooperatively led to decrease in negative regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, including Spry2, thereby causing synergistic activation of MAPK signaling by epigenetic silencing. Tet2/Nras double-mutant leukemia showed preferential sensitivity to MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibition in both mouse model and patient samples. These data provide insights into how epigenetic and signaling mutations cooperate in myeloid transformation and provide a rationale for mechanism-based therapy in CMML patients with these high-risk genetic lesions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA169055()
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA181507()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA173636()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA198089()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197594()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009156(United States)
  • NIH HHS - U54 OD020355()

Tuning of in vivo cognate B-T cell interactions by Intersectin 2 is required for effective anti-viral B cell immunity.

  • Burbage M
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an immune pathology associated with mutations in WAS protein (WASp) or in WASp interacting protein (WIP). Together with the small GTPase Cdc42 and other effectors, these proteins participate in the remodelling of the actin network downstream of BCR engagement. Here we show that mice lacking the adaptor protein ITSN2, a G-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42 that also interacts with WASp and WIP, exhibited increased mortality during primary infection, incomplete protection after Flu vaccination, reduced germinal centre formation and impaired antibody responses to vaccination. These defects were found, at least in part, to be intrinsic to the B cell compartment. In vivo, ITSN2 deficient B cells show a reduction in the expression of SLAM, CD84 or ICOSL that correlates with a diminished ability to form long term conjugates with T cells, to proliferate in vivo, and to differentiate into germinal centre cells. In conclusion, our study not only revealed a key role for ITSN2 as an important regulator of adaptive immune-response during vaccination and viral infection but it is also likely to contribute to a better understanding of human immune pathologies.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - FC001035 ()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - UM1 AI100663()
  • Wellcome Trust - 085448/Z/08/Z(United Kingdom)
  • Wellcome Trust - DP2 GM119419()

Stress-Activated NRF2-MDM2 Cascade Controls Neoplastic Progression in Pancreas.

  • Todoric J
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite expression of oncogenic KRAS, premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (PanIN1) lesions rarely become fully malignant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The molecular mechanisms through which established risk factors, such as chronic pancreatitis, acinar cell damage, and/or defective autophagy increase the likelihood of PDAC development are poorly understood. We show that accumulation of the autophagy substrate p62/SQSTM1 in stressed KrasG12D acinar cells is associated with PDAC development and maintenance of malignancy in human cells and mice. p62 accumulation promotes neoplastic progression by controlling the NRF2-mediated induction of MDM2, which acts through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms to abrogate checkpoints that prevent conversion of differentiated acinar cells to proliferative ductal progenitors. MDM2 targeting may be useful for preventing PDAC development in high-risk individuals.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY020535(United States)

Oncogenic Role of THOR, a Conserved Cancer/Testis Long Non-coding RNA.

  • Hosono Y
  • Cell
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Large-scale transcriptome sequencing efforts have vastly expanded the catalog of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with varying evolutionary conservation, lineage expression, and cancer specificity. Here, we functionally characterize a novel ultraconserved lncRNA, THOR (ENSG00000226856), which exhibits expression exclusively in testis and a broad range of human cancers. THOR knockdown and overexpression in multiple cell lines and animal models alters cell or tumor growth supporting an oncogenic role. We discovered a conserved interaction of THOR with IGF2BP1 and show that THOR contributes to the mRNA stabilization activities of IGF2BP1. Notably, transgenic THOR knockout produced fertilization defects in zebrafish and also conferred a resistance to melanoma onset. Likewise, ectopic expression of human THOR in zebrafish accelerated the onset of melanoma. THOR represents a novel class of functionally important cancer/testis lncRNAs whose structure and function have undergone positive evolutionary selection.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - P30 DK081943()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA154365()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA214170()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F30 CA200328()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K99 DK091405()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R00 DK091405()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM62317(United States)

MST4 Phosphorylation of ATG4B Regulates Autophagic Activity, Tumorigenicity, and Radioresistance in Glioblastoma.

  • Huang T
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

ATG4B stimulates autophagy by promoting autophagosome formation through reversible modification of ATG8. We identify ATG4B as a substrate of mammalian sterile20-like kinase (STK) 26/MST4. MST4 phosphorylates ATG4B at serine residue 383, which stimulates ATG4B activity and increases autophagic flux. Inhibition of MST4 or ATG4B activities using genetic approaches or an inhibitor of ATG4B suppresses autophagy and the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Furthermore, radiation induces MST4 expression, ATG4B phosphorylation, and autophagy. Inhibiting ATG4B in combination with radiotherapy in treating mice with intracranial GBM xenograft markedly slows tumor growth and provides a significant survival benefit. Our work describes an MST4-ATG4B signaling axis that influences GBM autophagy and malignancy, and whose therapeutic targeting enhances the anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA163205()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA159467()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA175875()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA070085()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA021751()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM038660(United States)
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - L32 MD010147()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS081774()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080619()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083767()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS093843()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095634()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS102669()
  • NLM NIH HHS - K99 LM011673()
  • NLM NIH HHS - R00 LM011673()
  • NLM NIH HHS - R01 LM012011()

Extracellular Lactate Dehydrogenase A Release From Damaged Neurons Drives Central Nervous System Angiogenesis.

  • Lin H
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Angiogenesis, a prominent feature of pathology, is known to be guided by factors secreted by living cells around a lesion. Although many cells are disrupted in a response to injury, the relevance of degenerating cells in pathological angiogenesis is unclear. Here, we show that the release of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) from degenerating neurons drives central nervous system (CNS) angiogenesis. Silencing neuronal LDHA expression suppressed angiogenesis around experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- and controlled cortical impact-induced lesions. Extracellular LDHA-mediated angiogenesis was dependent on surface vimentin expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells. Silencing vimentin expression in vascular endothelial cells prevented angiogenesis around EAE lesions and improved survival in a mouse model of glioblastoma. These results elucidate novel mechanisms that may mediate pathologic angiogenesis and identify a potential molecular target for the treatment of CNS diseases involving angiogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AR041159-05(United States)

Long-Fiber Carbon Nanotubes Replicate Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma with Disruption of the Tumor Suppressor Gene Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf).

  • Chernova T
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mesothelioma is a fatal tumor of the pleura and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. The molecular mechanisms underlying the long latency period of mesothelioma and driving carcinogenesis are unknown. Moreover, late diagnosis means that mesothelioma research is commonly focused on end-stage disease. Although disruption of the CDKN2A (INK4A/ARF) locus has been reported in end-stage disease, information is lacking on the status of this key tumor suppressor gene in pleural lesions preceding mesothelioma. Manufactured carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are similar to asbestos in terms of their fibrous shape and biopersistent properties and thus may pose an asbestos-like inhalation hazard. Here we show that instillation of either long CNTs or long asbestos fibers into the pleural cavity of mice induces mesothelioma that exhibits common key pro-oncogenic molecular events throughout the latency period of disease progression. Sustained activation of pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, increased proliferation, and oxidative DNA damage form a common molecular signature of long-CNT- and long-asbestos-fiber-induced pathology. We show that hypermethylation of p16/Ink4a and p19/Arf in CNT- and asbestos-induced inflammatory lesions precedes mesothelioma; this results in silencing of Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf) and loss of p16 and p19 protein, consistent with epigenetic alterations playing a gatekeeper role in cancer. In end-stage mesothelioma, silencing of p16/Ink4a is sustained and deletion of p19/Arf is detected, recapitulating human disease. This study addresses the long-standing question of which early molecular changes drive carcinogenesis during the long latency period of mesothelioma development and shows that CNT and asbestos pose a similar health hazard.

Tumor-Suppressor Inactivation of GDF11 Occurs by Precursor Sequestration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

  • Bajikar SS
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself. GDF11 bioactivity is instead lost because of deficiencies in its convertase, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), causing inactive GDF11 precursor to accumulate intracellularly. PCSK5 reconstitution mobilizes the latent TNBC reservoir of GDF11 in vitro and suppresses triple-negative mammary cancer metastasis to the lung of syngeneic hosts. Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC011184(United States)

FGF19, FGF21, and an FGFR1/β-Klotho-Activating Antibody Act on the Nervous System to Regulate Body Weight and Glycemia.

  • Lan T
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the different physiologic functions of FGF19 and FGF21 as hormonal regulators of fed and fasted metabolism, their pharmacologic administration causes similar increases in energy expenditure, weight loss, and enhanced insulin sensitivity in obese animals. Here, in genetic loss-of-function studies of the shared co-receptor β-Klotho, we show that these pharmacologic effects are mediated through a common, tissue-specific pathway. Surprisingly, FGF19 and FGF21 actions in liver and adipose tissue are not required for their longer-term weight loss and glycemic effects. In contrast, β-Klotho in neurons is essential for both FGF19 and FGF21 to cause weight loss and lower glucose and insulin levels. We further show an FGF21 mimetic antibody that activates the FGF receptor 1/β-Klotho complex also requires neuronal β-Klotho for its metabolic effects. These studies highlight the importance of the nervous system in mediating the beneficial weight loss and glycemic effects of endocrine FGF drugs.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK067158()

AKT isoforms have distinct hippocampal expression and roles in synaptic plasticity.

  • Levenga J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

AKT is a kinase regulating numerous cellular processes in the brain, and mutations in AKT are known to affect brain function. AKT is indirectly implicated in synaptic plasticity, but its direct role has not been studied. Moreover, three highly related AKT isoforms are expressed in the brain, but their individual roles are poorly understood. We find in Mus musculus, each AKT isoform has a unique expression pattern in the hippocampus, with AKT1 and AKT3 primarily in neurons but displaying local differences, while AKT2 is in astrocytes. We also find isoform-specific roles for AKT in multiple paradigms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in area CA1. AKT1, but not AKT2 or AKT3, is required for L-LTP through regulating activity-induced protein synthesis. Interestingly, AKT activity inhibits mGluR-LTD, with overlapping functions for AKT1 and AKT3. In summary, our studies identify distinct expression patterns and roles in synaptic plasticity for AKT isoforms in the hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA106456(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH019524()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS083277()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS086933()

Carbon Black Nanoparticles Inhibit Aromatase Expression and Estradiol Secretion in Human Granulosa Cells Through the ERK1/2 Pathway.

  • Simon V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Secretion of 17-β-estradiol (E2) by human granulosa cells can be disrupted by various environmental toxicants. In the current study, we investigated whether carbon black nanoparticles (CB NPs) affect the steroidogenic activity of cultured human granulosa cells. The human granulosa cell line KGN and granulosa cells from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were treated with increasing concentrations of CB NPs (1 to 100 µg/mL) together or not with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). We observed that CB NPs are internalized in KGN cells without affecting cell viability. CB NPs could be localized in the cytoplasm, within mitochondria and in association with the outer face of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. In both cell types, CB NPs reduced in a dose-dependent manner the activity of aromatase enzyme, as reflected by a decrease in E2 secretion. A significant decrease was observed in response to CB NPs concentrations from 25 and 50 µg/mL in KGN cell line and primary cultures, respectively. Furthermore, CB NPs decreased aromatase protein levels in both cells and reduced aromatase transcript levels in KGN cells. CB NPs rapidly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in KGN cells and pharmacological inhibition of this signaling pathway using PD 98059 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of CB NPs on CYP19A1 gene expression and aromatase activity. CB NPs also inhibited the stimulatory effect of FSH on aromatase expression and activity. Altogether, our study on cultured ovarian granulosa cells reveals that CB NPs decrease estrogens production and highlights possible detrimental effect of these common NPs on female reproductive health.

Activation of Ras-ERK Signaling and GSK-3 by Amyloid Precursor Protein and Amyloid Beta Facilitates Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Kirouac L
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely accepted that amyloid β (Aβ) generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) oligomerizes and fibrillizes to form neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little is known about the contribution of APP to intracellular signaling events preceding AD pathogenesis. The data presented here demonstrate that APP expression and neuronal exposure to oligomeric Aβ42 enhance Ras/ERK signaling cascade and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activation. We find that RNA interference (RNAi)-directed knockdown of APP in B103 rat neuroblastoma cells expressing APP inhibits Ras-ERK signaling and GSK-3 activation, indicating that APP acts upstream of these signal transduction events. Both ERK and GSK-3 are known to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau and APP at Thr668, and our findings suggest that aberrant signaling by APP facilitates these events. Supporting this notion, analysis of human AD brain samples showed increased expression of Ras, activation of GSK-3, and phosphorylation of APP and tau, which correlated with Aβ levels in the AD brains. Furthermore, treatment of primary rat neurons with Aβ recapitulated these events and showed enhanced Ras-ERK signaling, GSK-3 activation, upregulation of cyclin D1, and phosphorylation of APP and tau. The finding that Aβ induces Thr668 phosphorylation on APP, which enhances APP proteolysis and Aβ generation, denotes a vicious feedforward mechanism by which APP and Aβ promote tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration in AD. Based on these results, we hypothesize that aberrant proliferative signaling by APP plays a fundamental role in AD neurodegeneration and that inhibition of this would impede cell cycle deregulation and neurodegeneration observed in AD.

Reactive Neutrophil Responses Dependent on the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-MET Limit Cancer Immunotherapy.

  • Glodde N
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Oct 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET are currently used in the clinic to target oncogenic signaling in tumor cells. We found that concomitant c-MET inhibition promoted adoptive T cell transfer and checkpoint immunotherapies in murine cancer models by increasing effector T cell infiltration in tumors. This therapeutic effect was independent of tumor cell-intrinsic c-MET dependence. Mechanistically, c-MET inhibition impaired the reactive mobilization and recruitment of neutrophils into tumors and draining lymph nodes in response to cytotoxic immunotherapies. In the absence of c-MET inhibition, neutrophils recruited to T cell-inflamed microenvironments rapidly acquired immunosuppressive properties, restraining T cell expansion and effector functions. In cancer patients, high serum levels of the c-MET ligand HGF correlated with increasing neutrophil counts and poor responses to checkpoint blockade therapies. Our findings reveal a role for the HGF/c-MET pathway in neutrophil recruitment and function and suggest that c-MET inhibitor co-treatment may improve responses to cancer immunotherapy in settings beyond c-MET-dependent tumors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 2-U54-AI-057153(United States)

Inhibition of FGFR Signaling Partially Rescues Hypophosphatemic Rickets in HMWFGF2 Tg Male Mice.

  • Xiao L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transgenic mice harboring high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 isoforms (HMWTg) in osteoblast lineage cells phenocopy human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) and Hyp murine model of XLH demonstrating increased FGF23/FGF receptor signaling and hypophosphatemic rickets. Because HMWFGF2 was upregulated in bones of Hyp mice and abnormal FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling is important in XLH, HMWTg mice were used to examine the effect of the FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, now in clinical trials for cancer therapy, on hypophosphatemic rickets. Short-term treatment with NVP-BGJ398 rescued abnormal FGFR signaling and hypophosphatemia in HMWTg. Long-term treatment with NVP-BGJ398 normalized tail, tibia, and femur length. Four weeks NVP-BGJ398 treatment significantly increased total body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in HMWTg mice; however, at 8 weeks, total body BMD and BMC was indistinguishable among groups. Micro-computed tomography revealed decreased vertebral bone volume, trabecular number, and increased trabecular spacing, whereas femur trabecular tissue density was increased; however, NVP-BGJ398 rescued defective cortical bone mineralization, increased thickness, reduced porosity, and increased endosteal perimeter and cortical tissue density in HMWTg. NVP-BGJ398 improved femur cancellous bone, cortical bone structure, growth plate, and double labeling in cortical bone and also increased femur trabeculae double labeled surface, mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoclast number and surface in HMWTg. The decreased NPT2a protein that is important for renal phosphate excretion was rescued by NVP-BGJ398 treatment. We conclude that NVP-BGJ398 partially rescued hypophosphatemic rickets in HMWTg. However, long-term treatment with NVP-BGJ398 further increased serum FGF23 that could exacerbate the mineralization defect.

Heme Binding Biguanides Target Cytochrome P450-Dependent Cancer Cell Mitochondria.

  • Guo Z
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanisms by which cancer cell-intrinsic CYP monooxygenases promote tumor progression are largely unknown. CYP3A4 was unexpectedly associated with breast cancer mitochondria and synthesized arachidonic acid (AA)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which promoted the electron transport chain/respiration and inhibited AMPKα. CYP3A4 knockdown activated AMPKα, promoted autophagy, and prevented mammary tumor formation. The diabetes drug metformin inhibited CYP3A4-mediated EET biosynthesis and depleted cancer cell-intrinsic EETs. Metformin bound to the active-site heme of CYP3A4 in a co-crystal structure, establishing CYP3A4 as a biguanide target. Structure-based design led to discovery of N1-hexyl-N5-benzyl-biguanide (HBB), which bound to the CYP3A4 heme with higher affinity than metformin. HBB potently and specifically inhibited CYP3A4 AA epoxygenase activity. HBB also inhibited growth of established ER+ mammary tumors and suppressed intratumoral mTOR. CYP3A4 AA epoxygenase inhibition by biguanides thus demonstrates convergence between eicosanoid activity in mitochondria and biguanide action in cancer, opening a new avenue for cancer drug discovery.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA177119()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016520()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA077598()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA113570()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA157971()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R25 HL088728()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U01 HL117664()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P01 DK038226()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P30 ES013508()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES025767()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM037922()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM057353()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110790()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118030()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118145()

Lithium Chloride Increases COX-2 Expression and PGE2 Production in a Human Granulosa-Lutein SVOG Cell Line Via a GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

  • Bai L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lithium chloride (LiCl) is widely prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorders and is associated with a higher incidence of reproductive adverse effects. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its derivative, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play regulatory roles in the human ovulatory process. Whether LiCl affects ovulation by regulating COX2 expression and PGE2 production in the human ovary is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LiCl on the expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2 in human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells, as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect. Both immortalized and primary hGL cells were used as research models. Using dual inhibition approaches, our results show that LiCl initiates the hGL cellular action by inhibiting the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β [GSK-3β (phosphorylation of GSK-3β)] and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not by affecting protein kinase B or cAMP response element binding protein signaling. Additionally, the phosphorylation of GSK-3β, but not ERK1/2, resulted in the stabilization and nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, knockdown of either β-catenin or GSK-3β reversed the LiCl-induced upregulation of COX-2 expression. These results indicate that LiCl upregulates the expression of COX-2 and the subsequent production of PGE2 through the canonical GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in hGL cells.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG005085-02(United States)
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES023316(United States)

Dual function of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis in myelination of the peripheral nervous system.

  • Figlia G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelination is a biosynthetically demanding process in which mTORC1, the gatekeeper of anabolism, occupies a privileged regulatory position. We have shown previously that loss of mTORC1 function in Schwann cells (SCs) hampers myelination. Here, we genetically disrupted key inhibitory components upstream of mTORC1, TSC1 or PTEN, in mouse SC development, adult homeostasis, and nerve injury. Surprisingly, the resulting mTORC1 hyperactivity led to markedly delayed onset of both developmental myelination and remyelination after injury. However, if mTORC1 was hyperactivated after myelination onset, radial hypermyelination was observed. At early developmental stages, physiologically high PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling suppresses expression of Krox20 (Egr2), the master regulator of PNS myelination. This effect is mediated by S6K and contributes to control mechanisms that keep SCs in a not-fully differentiated state to ensure proper timing of myelination initiation. An ensuing decline in mTORC1 activity is crucial to allow myelination to start, while remaining mTORC1 activity drives myelin growth.

Membrane Androgen Receptor ZIP9 Induces Croaker Ovarian Cell Apoptosis via Stimulatory G Protein Alpha Subunit and MAP Kinase Signaling.

  • Converse A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies show that androgen-induced apoptosis in Atlantic croaker primary granulosa and theca (G/T) cells and in human breast and prostate cancer cell lines is mediated by the membrane androgen receptor ZIP9, which belongs to the SLC39A zinc transporter family. However, the apoptotic signaling pathways remain unclear because ZIP9 activates an inhibitory G protein in human cancer cells, whereas recombinant croaker ZIP9 activates a stimulatory G protein (Gs) in transfected cancer cells. We investigated androgen-dependent apoptotic pathways to identify the signaling pathways regulated through wild-type croaker ZIP9 in ovarian follicle cells. We show that the ZIP9-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in croaker G/T cells shares several proapoptotic members with those in human cancer cells, but is activated through a Gsα subunit-dependent pathway. Testosterone treatment of croaker G/T cells increased intracellular zinc levels, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity, caspase 3 activity, messenger RNA levels of proapoptotic members Bax, p53, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and the incidence of apoptosis, similar to findings in mammalian cancer cells, but also increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations. Transfection with small interfering RNA targeting croaker ZIP9 blocked testosterone-induced increase in bax, p53, and jnk expression. Testosterone-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 activation depended on the presence of extracellular zinc and were effectively blocked with cotreatment of inhibitors of the Gsα subunit, adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A, and MAP kinase (Erk1/2) activation. These results indicate that ZIP9-mediated testosterone signaling in croaker G/T cells involves multiple pathways, some of which differ from those activated through ZIP9 in human cancer cells even though a similar apoptotic response is observed.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - HHSN273200700046U(United States)

YAP/TAZ Orchestrate VEGF Signaling during Developmental Angiogenesis.

  • Wang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF activates YAP/TAZ via its effects on actin cytoskeleton and that activated YAP/TAZ induce a transcriptional program to further control cytoskeleton dynamics and thus establish a feedforward loop that ensures a proper angiogenic response. Lack of YAP/TAZ also results in altered cellular distribution of VEGFR2 due to trafficking defects from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Altogether, our study identifies YAP/TAZ as central mediators of VEGF signaling and therefore as important regulators of angiogenesis.

Heparan sulfate alterations in extracellular matrix structures and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling impairment in the aged neurogenic niche.

  • Yamada T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle decreases with age. In the subventricular zone, the specialized extracellular matrix structures, known as fractones, contact neural stem cells and regulate neurogenesis. Fractones are composed of extracellular matrix components, such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We previously found that fractones capture and store fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) via heparan sulfate binding, and may deliver FGF-2 to neural stem cells in a timely manner. The heparan sulfate (HS) chains in the fractones of the aged subventricular zone are modified based on immunohistochemistry. However, how aging affects fractone composition and subsequent FGF-2 signaling and neurogenesis remains unknown. The formation of the FGF-fibroblast growth factor receptor-HS complex is necessary to activate FGF-2 signaling and induce the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). In this study, we observed a reduction in HS 6-O-sulfation, which is critical for FGF-2 signal transduction, and failure of the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in the aged subventricular zone. In addition, we observed increased HS 6-O-endo-sulfatase, an enzyme that may be responsible for the HS modifications in aged fractones. In conclusion, the data revealed that heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfation is reduced and FGF-2-dependent Erk1/2 signaling is impaired in the aged subventricular zone. HS modifications in fractones might play a role in the reduced neurogenic activity in aging brains.

Focal Adhesion- and IGF1R-Dependent Survival and Migratory Pathways Mediate Tumor Resistance to mTORC1/2 Inhibition.

  • Yoon SO
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aberrant signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) contributes to the devastating features of cancer cells. Thus, mTOR is a critical therapeutic target and catalytic inhibitors are being investigated as anti-cancer drugs. Although mTOR inhibitors initially block cell proliferation, cell viability and migration in some cancer cells are quickly restored. Despite sustained inhibition of mTORC1/2 signaling, Akt, a kinase regulating cell survival and migration, regains phosphorylation at its regulatory sites. Mechanistically, mTORC1/2 inhibition promotes reorganization of integrin/focal adhesion kinase-mediated adhesomes, induction of IGFR/IR-dependent PI3K activation, and Akt phosphorylation via an integrin/FAK/IGFR-dependent process. This resistance mechanism contributes to xenograft tumor cell growth, which is prevented with mTOR plus IGFR inhibitors, supporting this combination as a therapeutic approach for cancers.

A chemical screen in zebrafish embryonic cells establishes that Akt activation is required for neural crest development.

  • Ciarlo C
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neural crest is a dynamic progenitor cell population that arises at the border of neural and non-neural ectoderm. The inductive roles of FGF, Wnt, and BMP at the neural plate border are well established, but the signals required for subsequent neural crest development remain poorly characterized. Here, we conducted a screen in primary zebrafish embryo cultures for chemicals that disrupt neural crest development, as read out by crestin:EGFP expression. We found that the natural product caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) disrupts neural crest gene expression, migration, and melanocytic differentiation by reducing Sox10 activity. CAPE inhibits FGF-stimulated PI3K/Akt signaling, and neural crest defects in CAPE-treated embryos are suppressed by constitutively active Akt1. Inhibition of Akt activity by constitutively active PTEN similarly decreases crestin expression and Sox10 activity. Our study has identified Akt as a novel intracellular pathway required for neural crest differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM069593(United States)

Reduced Expression of Foxp1 as a Contributing Factor in Huntington's Disease.

  • Louis Sam Titus ASC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntington protein (htt). The neuropathological hallmark of HD is the loss of neurons in the striatum and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex. Foxp1 is a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors expressed selectively in the striatum and the cortex. In the brain, three major Foxp1 isoforms are expressed: isoform-A (∼90 kDa), isoform-D (∼70 kDa), and isoform-C (∼50 kDa). We find that expression of Foxp1 isoform-A and -D is selectively reduced in the striatum and cortex of R6/2 HD mice as well as in the striatum of HD patients. Furthermore, expression of mutant htt in neurons results in the downregulation of Foxp1 Elevating expression of isoform-A or -D protects cortical neurons from death caused by the expression of mutant htt On the other hand, knockdown of Foxp1 promotes death in otherwise healthy neurons. Neuroprotection by Foxp1 is likely to be mediated by the transcriptional stimulation of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p21Waf1/Cip1 Consistently, Foxp1 activates transcription of the p21Waf1/Cip1 gene promoter, and overexpression of Foxp1 in neurons results in the elevation of p21 expression. Moreover, knocking down of p21Waf1/Cip1 blocks the ability of Foxp1 to protect neurons from mut-Htt-induced neurotoxicity. We propose that the selective vulnerability of neurons of the striatum and cortex in HD is related to the loss of expression of Foxp1, a protein that is highly expressed in these neurons and required for their survival.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the mutant huntingtin gene is expressed widely, neurons of the striatum and cortex are selectively affected in Huntington's disease (HD). Our results suggest that this selectivity is attributable to the reduced expression of Foxp1, a protein expressed selectively in striatal and cortical neurons that plays a neuroprotective role in these cells. We show that protection by Foxp1 involves stimulation of the p21Waf1/Cip1 (Cdkn1a) gene. Although three major Foxp1 isoforms (A, C, and D) are expressed in the brain, only isoform-A has been studied in the nervous system. We show that isoform-D is also expressed selectively, neuroprotective and downregulated in HD mice and patients. Our results suggest that Foxp1 might be an attractive therapeutic target for HD.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS040408()

Purinergic receptor P2Y6 contributes to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced oxidative stress and cell death in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells.

  • Qian Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Jul 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxidative stress and neural degeneration have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The P2Y6 purinergic receptor (P2Y6R) has been shown to participate in the activation of microglia and the production of pro-inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide to cause neuronal loss. However, the function of P2Y6R during oxidative stress in neurons is unclear. In the present study, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) treatment increased the level of UDP/P2Y6R on neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of P2Y6R or knockdown of P2Y6R using a siRNA exerted an increased protective effect by preventing MPP+ -induced increases in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide anion, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) expression. UDP, an agonist of P2Y6R, enhanced the effects of MPP+ , which was also inhibited by apyrase or MRS2578. Additionally, P2Y6R knockdown also significantly reversed both the loss of cell viability and the increase in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK1/2) and p38 (p-p38) caused by MPP+ stimulation. However, the inhibition of the ERK1/2 and p38 kinase signaling pathways had no effect on P2Y6R expression. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that P2Y6R expressed on neuronal SH-SY5Y cell is associated with the progression of oxidative stress and cell death induced by MPP+ , suggesting that P2Y6R may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD.

Long-Term Exposure of Pancreatic β-Cells to Palmitate Results in SREBP-1C-Dependent Decreases in GLP-1 Receptor Signaling via CREB and AKT and Insulin Secretory Response.

  • Natalicchio A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The effects of prolonged exposure of pancreatic β-cells to high saturated fatty acids on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) action were investigated. Murine islets, human pancreatic 1.1B4 cells, and rat INS-1E cells were exposed to palmitate for 24 hours. mRNA and protein expression/phosphorylation were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Specific short interfering RNAs were used to knockdown expression of the GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r) and Srebf1. Insulin release was assessed with a specific ELISA. Exposure of murine islets, as well as of human and INS-1E β-cells, to palmitate reduced the ability of exendin-4 to augment insulin mRNA levels, protein content, and release. In addition, palmitate blocked exendin-4-stimulated cAMP-response element-binding protein and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog phosphorylation, whereas phosphorylation of MAPK-ERK kinase-1/2 and ERK-1/2 was not altered. Similarly, RNA interference-mediated suppression of Glp1r expression prevented exendin-4-induced cAMP-response element-binding protein and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog phosphorylation, but did not impair exendin-4 stimulation of MAPK-ERK kinase-1/2 and ERK-1/2. Both islets from mice fed a high fat diet and human and INS-1E β-cells exposed to palmitate showed reduced GLP-1 receptor and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and increased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1C) mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, suppression of SREBP-1C protein expression prevented the reduction of PDX-1 and GLP-1 receptor levels and restored exendin-4 signaling and action. Finally, treatment of INS-1E cells with metformin for 24 h resulted in inhibition of SREBP-1C expression, increased PDX-1 and GLP-1 receptor levels, consequently, enhancement of exendin-4-induced insulin release. Palmitate impairs exendin-4 effects on β-cells by reducing PDX-1 and GLP-1 receptor expression and signaling in a SREBP-1C-dependent manner. Metformin counteracts the impairment of GLP-1 receptor signaling induced by palmitate.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH066332(United States)

Characterization of Ovarian Responses to Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin of Aromatase-Deficient Mice With or Without 17β-Estradiol Supplementation.

  • Toda K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aromatase is an enzyme catalyzing the final step of 17β-estradiol (E2) biosynthesis. Aromatase-deficient (ArKO) mice displayed vital roles of E2 at various tissue sites, including ovary. Here, we report attenuated responses of ArKO ovary to equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), an alternative to FSH. Ovarian contents of cAMP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), putative factors reducing sensitivity to gonadotropins, were significantly elevated in ArKO mice compared with those in wild type (WT) mice in the basal state. Accordingly, eCG-induced ovarian alterations in cAMP contents, phosphorylation levels of signaling molecules, and mRNA expression of eCG-targeted genes were blunted in ArKO mice compared with those in WT mice. Treatment of ArKO mice with E2 decreased ovarian cAMP and AMH contents to the WT levels but did not restore the sensitivity. Microarray analysis coupled with quantitative RT-PCR analysis identified 7 genes of which the mRNA expression levels in ArKO ovaries were significantly different from those in the WT ovaries in the basal state and were not normalized by E2 supplementation, indicating possible involvement of these gene products in the determination of ovarian sensitivity to eCG. Thus, present analyses revealed that estrogen deficiency attenuates sensitivity of the ovary to gonadotropin, which might be associated with alterations in the ovarian contents of multiple molecules including cAMP and AMH. Given the importance of the ovarian responses to gonadotropins in reproductive function, detailed knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of abnormalities in the ArKO ovary might help to develop potential targets for infertility treatments.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD073179(United States)

Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (GPR120) Stimulates Bone Formation and Suppresses Bone Resorption in the Presence of Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels.

  • Ahn SH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) has been reported to be a receptor for n-3 fatty acids (FAs). Although n-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, a role of FFA4 in bone metabolism has been rarely investigated. We noted that FFA4 was more abundantly expressed in both mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts than their respective precursors and that it was activated by docosahexaenoic acid. FFA4 knockout (Ffar4(-/-)) and wild-type mice exhibited similar bone masses when fed a normal diet. Because fat-1 transgenic (fat-1(Tg+)) mice endogenously converting n-6 to n-3 FAs contain high n-3 FA levels, we crossed Ffar4(-/-) and fat-1(Tg+) mice over two generations to generate four genotypes of mice littermates: Ffar4(+/+);fat-1(Tg-), Ffar4(+/+);fat-1(Tg+), Ffar4(-/-);fat-1(Tg-), and Ffar4(-/-);fat-1(Tg+). Female and male littermates were included in ovariectomy- and high-fat diet-induced bone loss models, respectively. Female fat-1(Tg+) mice decreased bone loss after ovariectomy both by promoting osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption than their wild-type littermates, only when they had the Ffar4(+/+) background, but not the Ffar4(-/-) background. In a high-fat diet-fed model, male fat-1(Tg+) mice had higher bone mass resulting from stimulated bone formation and reduced bone resorption than their wild-type littermates, only when they had the Ffar4(+/+) background, but not the Ffar4(-/-) background. In vitro studies supported the role of FFA4 as n-3 FA receptor in bone metabolism. In conclusion, FFA4 is a dual-acting factor that increases osteoblastic bone formation and decreases osteoclastic bone resorption, suggesting that it may be an ideal target for modulating metabolic bone diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F32 DC000210(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007315(United States)

Reg2 Expression Is Required for Pancreatic Islet Compensation in Response to Aging and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

  • Li Q
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maintaining pancreatic β-cell mass and function is essential for normal insulin production and glucose homeostasis. Regenerating islet-derived 2 (Reg2, Reg II, human ortholog Reg1B) gene is normally expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and is significantly induced in response to diabetes, pancreatitis, and high-fat diet (HFD) and during pancreatic regeneration. To evaluate the role of endogenous Reg2 production in normal β-cell function, we characterized Reg2 gene-deficient (Reg2-/-) mice under normal conditions and when subjected to several pathological challenges. At a young age, Reg2 gene deficiency caused no obvious change in normal islet morphology or glucose tolerance. There was no change in the severity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes or caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in the Reg2-/- mice, indicating that the increased Reg2 expression under those conditions was not essential to protect the islet or acinar cells. However, 13- to 14-month-old Reg2-/- mice developed glucose intolerance associated with significantly decreased islet β-cell ratio and serum insulin level. Similarly, after young mice were fed an HFD for 19 weeks, diminished islet mass expansion and serum insulin level were observed in Reg2-/- vs wild-type mice. This was associated with a decline in the rate of individual β-cell proliferation measured by Ki67 labeling. In both conditions, the β-cells were smaller in gene-deficient vs wild-type mice. Our results indicate that normal expression of Reg2 gene is required for appropriate compensations in pancreatic islet proliferation and expansion in response to obesity and aging.

Complement C5aR1 Signaling Promotes Polarization and Proliferation of Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells through PKCζ.

  • Coulthard LG
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The complement system, typically associated with innate immunity, is emerging as a key controller of nonimmune systems including in development, with recent studies linking complement mutations with neurodevelopmental disease. A key effector of the complement response is the activation fragment C5a, which, through its receptor C5aR1, is a potent driver of inflammation. Surprisingly, C5aR1 is also expressed during early mammalian embryogenesis; however, no clearly defined function is ascribed to C5aR1 in development. Here we demonstrate polarized expression of C5aR1 on the apical surface of mouse embryonic neural progenitor cells in vivo and on human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors. We also show that signaling of endogenous C5a during mouse embryogenesis drives proliferation of neural progenitor cells within the ventricular zone and is required for normal brain histogenesis. C5aR1 signaling in neural progenitors was dependent on atypical protein kinase C ζ, a mediator of stem cell polarity, with C5aR1 inhibition reducing proliferation and symmetric division of apical neural progenitors in human and mouse models. C5aR1 signaling was shown to promote the maintenance of cell polarity, with exogenous C5a increasing the retention of polarized rosette architecture in human neural progenitors after physical or chemical disruption. Transient inhibition of C5aR1 during neurogenesis in developing mice led to behavioral abnormalities in both sexes and MRI-detected brain microstructural alterations, in studied males, demonstrating a requirement of C5aR1 signaling for appropriate brain development. This study thus identifies a functional role for C5a-C5aR1 signaling in mammalian neurogenesis and provides mechanistic insight into recently identified complement gene mutations and brain disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The complement system, traditionally known as a controller of innate immunity, now stands as a multifaceted signaling family with a broad range of physiological actions. These include roles in the brain, where complement activation is associated with diseases, including epilepsy and schizophrenia. This study has explored complement regulation of neurogenesis, identifying a novel relationship between the complement activation peptide C5a and the neural progenitor proliferation underpinning formation of the mammalian brain. C5a was identified as a regulator of cell polarity, with inhibition of C5a receptors during embryogenesis leading to abnormal brain development and behavioral deficits. This work demonstrates mechanisms through which dysregulation of complement causes developmental disease and highlights the potential risk of complement inhibition for therapeutic purposes in pregnancy.

Follistatin Targets Distinct Pathways To Promote Brown Adipocyte Characteristics in Brown and White Adipose Tissues.

  • Singh R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously demonstrated that Fst expression is highest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle, but is also present at substantial levels in epididymal and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (WATs). Fst promotes mouse brown preadipocyte differentiation and promotes browning during differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Fst-transgenic (Fst-Tg) mice show substantial increases in circulating Fst levels and increased brown adipose mass. BAT of Fst-Tg mice had increased expression of brown adipose-associated markers including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PRDM16, PGC-1α, and Glut4. WATs from Fst-Tg mice show upregulation of brown/beige adipose markers and significantly increased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK/ERK1/2 proteins compared with the wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition of pp38 MAPK/pERK1/2 pathway of recombinant mouse Fst (rFst) treated differentiating 3T3-L1 cells led to significant blockade of Fst-induced UCP1 protein expression. On the other hand, BAT from Fst-Tg mice or differentiating mouse BAT cells treated with rFst show dramatic increase in Myf5 protein levels as well as upregulation of Zic1 and Lhx8 gene expression. Myf5 levels were significantly downregulated in Fst knock-out embryos and small inhibitory RNA-mediated inhibition of Myf5 led to significant inhibition of UCP1, Lhx8, and Zic1 gene expression and significant blockade of Fst-induced induction of UCP1 protein expression in mouse BAT cells. Both interscapular BAT and WAT tissues from Fst-Tg mice display enhanced response to CL316,243 treatment and decreased expression of pSmad3 compared with the WT mice. Therefore, our results indicate that Fst promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in both WAT and BAT depots in vivo through distinct mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - SC1 AG049682()
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - S21 MD000103()
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - U54 MD007598()

Cardiac Tissue Injury and Remodeling Is Dependent Upon MR Regulation of Activation Pathways in Cardiac Tissue Macrophages.

  • Shen JZ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Macrophage mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling is an important mediator of cardiac tissue inflammation and fibrosis. The goal of the present study was to determine the cellular mechanisms of MR signaling in macrophages that promote cardiac tissue injury and remodeling. We sought to identify specific markers of MR signaling in isolated tissue macrophages (cardiac, aortic) vs splenic mononuclear cells from wild-type and myeloid MR-null mice given vehicle/salt or deoxycorticosterone (DOC)/salt for 8 weeks. Cardiac tissue fibrosis in response to 8 weeks of DOC/salt treatment was found in the hearts from wild-type but not myeloid MR-null mice. This was associated with an increased expression of the profibrotic markers TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase-12 and type 1 inflammatory markers TNFα and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-9 in cardiac macrophages. Differential expression of immunomodulatory M2-like markers (eg, arginase-1, macrophage scavenger receptor 1) was dependent on the tissue location of wild-type and MR-null macrophages. Finally, intact MR signaling is required for the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in response to a proinflammatory stimulus in bone marrow monocytes/macrophages in culture. These data suggest that the activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway in macrophages after a tissue injury and inflammatory stimuli in the DOC/salt model is MR dependent and regulates the transcription of downstream profibrotic factors, which may represent potential therapeutic targets in heart failure patients.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA163640(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG009975(United States)

Insulin Inhibits Nrf2 Gene Expression via Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F/K in Diabetic Mice.

  • Ghosh A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxidative stress induces endogenous antioxidants via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), potentially preventing tissue injury. We investigated whether insulin affects renal Nrf2 expression in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and studied its underlying mechanism. Insulin normalized hyperglycemia, hypertension, oxidative stress, and renal injury; inhibited renal Nrf2 and angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression; and upregulated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F and K (hnRNP F and hnRNP K) expression in Akita mice with T1D. In immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells, insulin suppressed Nrf2 and Agt but stimulated hnRNP F and hnRNP K gene transcription in high glucose via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Transfection with small interfering RNAs of p44/42 MAPK, hnRNP F, or hnRNP K blocked insulin inhibition of Nrf2 gene transcription. Insulin curbed Nrf2 promoter activity via a specific DNA-responsive element that binds hnRNP F/K, and hnRNP F/K overexpression curtailed Nrf2 promoter activity. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic mice, renal Nrf2 and Agt expression was downregulated, whereas hnRNP F/K expression was upregulated. Thus, the beneficial actions of insulin in diabetic nephropathy appear to be mediated, in part, by suppressing renal Nrf2 and Agt gene transcription and preventing Nrf2 stimulation of Agt expression via hnRNP F/K. These findings identify hnRNP F/K and Nrf2 as potential therapeutic targets in diabetes.

Insulin Signaling Regulates the FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A Pathway to Promote Adaptive Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation.

  • Shirakawa J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Investigation of cell-cycle kinetics in mammalian pancreatic β cells has mostly focused on transition from the quiescent (G0) to G1 phase. Here, we report that centromere protein A (CENP-A), which is required for chromosome segregation during the M-phase, is necessary for adaptive β cell proliferation. Receptor-mediated insulin signaling promotes DNA-binding activity of FoxM1 to regulate expression of CENP-A and polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) by modulating cyclin-dependent kinase-1/2. CENP-A deposition at the centromere is augmented by PLK1 to promote mitosis, while knocking down CENP-A limits β cell proliferation and survival. CENP-A deficiency in β cells leads to impaired adaptive proliferation in response to pregnancy, acute and chronic insulin resistance, and aging in mice. Insulin-stimulated CENP-A/PLK1 protein expression is blunted in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. These data implicate the insulin-FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A pathway-regulated mitotic cell-cycle progression as an essential component in the β cell adaptation to delay and/or prevent progression to diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK036836()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK055523()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK067536()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103215()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK104167()

FGF21 Regulates Metabolism Through Adipose-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

  • BonDurant LD
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

FGF21 is an endocrine hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. The mechanism of FGF21 action and the tissues responsible for these effects have been controversial, with both adipose tissues and the central nervous system having been identified as the target site mediating FGF21-dependent increases in insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, and weight loss. Here we show that, while FGF21 signaling to adipose tissue is required for the acute insulin-sensitizing effects of FGF21, FGF21 signaling to adipose tissue is not required for its chronic effects to increase energy expenditure and lower body weight. Also, in contrast to previous studies, we found that adiponectin is dispensable for the metabolic effects of FGF21 in increasing insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. Instead, FGF21 acutely enhances insulin sensitivity through actions on brown adipose tissue. Our data reveal that the acute and chronic effects of FGF21 can be dissociated through adipose-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL111190()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK111758()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK106104()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM067795()

The PERK arm of the unfolded protein response regulates satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration.

  • Xiong G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults is mediated by satellite stem cells. Accumulation of misfolded proteins triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress that leads to unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is relayed to the cell through the activation of PERK, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6. Here, we demonstrate that levels of PERK and IRE1 are increased in satellite cells upon muscle injury. Inhibition of PERK, but not the IRE1 arm of the UPR in satellite cells inhibits myofiber regeneration in adult mice. PERK is essential for the survival and differentiation of activated satellite cells into the myogenic lineage. Deletion of PERK causes hyper-activation of p38 MAPK during myogenesis. Blocking p38 MAPK activity improves the survival and differentiation of PERK-deficient satellite cells in vitro and muscle formation in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that the PERK arm of the UPR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of satellite cell homeostasis during regenerative myogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG029623()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR059810()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR068313()

Intra-prelimbic cortical inhibition of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase suppresses cocaine seeking in rats.

  • Siemsen BM
  • Addict Biol
  • 2017 Mar 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cocaine self-administration in rats results in dysfunctional neuroadaptations in the prelimbic (PrL) cortex during early abstinence. Central to these adaptations is decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), which plays a key role in cocaine seeking. Normalizing ERK phosphorylation in the PrL cortex immediately after cocaine self-administration decreases subsequent cocaine seeking. The disturbance in ERK phosphorylation is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), indicating increased STEP activity. STEP is a well-recognized ERK phosphatase but whether STEP activation during early abstinence mediates the decrease in p-ERK and is involved in relapse is unknown. Here, we show that a single intra-PrL cortical microinfusion of the selective STEP inhibitor, TC-2153, immediately after self-administration suppressed post-abstinence context-induced relapse under extinction conditions and cue-induced reinstatement, but not cocaine prime-induced drug seeking or sucrose seeking. Moreover, an intra-PrL cortical TC-2153 microinfusion immediately after self-administration prevented the cocaine-induced decrease in p-ERK within the PrL cortex during early abstinence. Interestingly, a systemic TC-2153 injection at the same timepoint failed to suppress post-abstinence context-induced relapse or cue-induced reinstatement, but did suppress cocaine prime-induced reinstatement. These data indicate that the STEP-induced ERK dephosphorylation in the PrL cortex during early abstinence is a critical neuroadaptation that promotes relapse to cocaine seeking and that systemic versus intra-PrL cortical inhibition of STEP during early abstinence differentially suppresses cocaine seeking.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA033479()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA007288()

Phosphorylation of β-arrestin2 at Thr383 by MEK underlies β-arrestin-dependent activation of Erk1/2 by GPCRs.

  • Cassier E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

In addition to their role in desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), β-arrestins are essential scaffolds linking GPCRs to Erk1/2 signaling. However, their role in GPCR-operated Erk1/2 activation differs between GPCRs and the underlying mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors, which engage Erk1/2 pathway via a β-arrestin-dependent mechanism, promotes MEK-dependent β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383, a necessary step for Erk recruitment to the receptor/β-arrestin complex and Erk activation. Likewise, Thr383 phosphorylation is involved in β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 stimulation elicited by other GPCRs such as β2-adrenergic, FSH and CXCR4 receptors, but does not affect the β-arrestin-independent Erk1/2 activation by 5-HT4 receptor. Collectively, these data show that β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383 underlies β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 activation by GPCRs.

Pharmacological Rescue of Long-Term Potentiation in Alzheimer Diseased Synapses.

  • Prieto GA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent and persistent increase in synaptic transmission. Currently available techniques to measure LTP are time-intensive and require highly specialized expertise and equipment, and thus are not well suited for screening of multiple candidate treatments, even in animal models. To expand and facilitate the analysis of LTP, here we use a flow cytometry-based method to track chemically induced LTP by detecting surface AMPA receptors in isolated synaptosomes: fluorescence analysis of single-synapse long-term potentiation (FASS-LTP). First, we demonstrate that FASS-LTP is simple, sensitive, and models electrically induced LTP recorded in intact circuitries. Second, we conducted FASS-LTP analysis in two well-characterized Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models (3xTg and Tg2576) and, importantly, in cryopreserved human AD brain samples. By profiling hundreds of synaptosomes, our data provide the first direct evidence to support the idea that synapses from AD brain are intrinsically defective in LTP. Third, we used FASS-LTP for drug evaluation in human synaptosomes. Testing a panel of modulators of cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways, FASS-LTP identified vardenafil and Bay-73-6691 (phosphodiesterase-5 and -9 inhibitors, respectively) as potent enhancers of LTP in synaptosomes from AD cases. These results indicate that our approach could provide the basis for protocols to study LTP in both healthy and diseased human brains, a previously unattainable goal. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Learning and memory depend on the ability of synapses to strengthen in response to activity. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a rapid and persistent increase in synaptic transmission that is thought to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, direct evidence of LTP deficits in human AD brain has been elusive, primarily due to methodological limitations. Here, we analyze LTP in isolated synapses from AD brain using a novel approach that allows testing LTP in cryopreserved brain. Our analysis of hundreds of synapses supports the idea that AD-diseased synapses are intrinsically defective in LTP. Further, we identified pharmacological agents that rescue LTP in AD, thus opening up a new avenue for drug screening and evaluation of strategies for alleviating memory impairments.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG000538()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG016573()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG034667()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG048506()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS045260()

TREM2 Promotes Microglial Survival by Activating Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

  • Zheng H
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which is expressed on myeloid cells including microglia in the CNS, has recently been identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 transmits intracellular signals through its transmembrane binding partner DNAX-activating protein 12 (DAP12). Homozygous mutations inactivating TREM2 or DAP12 lead to Nasu-Hakola disease; however, how AD risk-conferring variants increase AD risk is not clear. To elucidate the signaling pathways underlying reduced TREM2 expression or loss of function in microglia, we respectively knocked down and knocked out the expression of TREM2 in in vitro and in vivo models. We found that TREM2 deficiency reduced the viability and proliferation of primary microglia, reduced microgliosis in Trem2-/- mouse brains, induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S checkpoint, and decreased the stability of β-catenin, a key component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway responsible for maintaining many biological processes, including cell survival. TREM2 stabilized β-catenin by inhibiting its degradation via the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. More importantly, treatment with Wnt3a, LiCl, or TDZD-8, which activates the β-catenin-mediated Wnt signaling pathway, rescued microglia survival and microgliosis in Trem2-/- microglia and/or in Trem2-/- mouse brain. Together, our studies demonstrate a critical role of TREM2-mediated Wnt/β-catenin pathway in microglial viability and suggest that modulating this pathway therapeutically may help to combat the impaired microglial survival and microgliosis associated with AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mutations in the TREM2 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2) gene are associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) with effective sizes comparable to that of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, making it imperative to understand the molecular pathway(s) underlying TREM2 function in microglia. Our findings shed new light on the relationship between TREM2/DNAX-activating protein 12 (DAP12) signaling and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and provide clues as to how reduced TREM2 function might impair microglial survival in AD pathogenesis. We demonstrate that TREM2 promotes microglial survival by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and that it is possible to restore Wnt/β-catenin signaling when TREM2 activity is disrupted or reduced. Therefore, we demonstrate the potential for manipulating the TREM2/β-catenin signaling pathway for the treatment of AD.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG016574()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG027924()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG035355()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046205()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS074969()

Multivalent Small-Molecule Pan-RAS Inhibitors.

  • Welsch ME
  • Cell
  • 2017 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Design of small molecules that disrupt protein-protein interactions, including the interaction of RAS proteins and their effectors, may provide chemical probes and therapeutic agents. We describe here the synthesis and testing of potential small-molecule pan-RAS ligands, which were designed to interact with adjacent sites on the surface of oncogenic KRAS. One compound, termed 3144, was found to bind to RAS proteins using microscale thermophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry and to exhibit lethality in cells partially dependent on expression of RAS proteins. This compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes and displayed anti-tumor activity in xenograft mouse cancer models. These findings suggest that pan-RAS inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for some cancers and that structure-based design of small molecules targeting multiple adjacent sites to create multivalent inhibitors may be effective for some proteins.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA097061()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA161061()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025431()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM111244()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM085081()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008281()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD012018()

Caspase-8 Acts in a Non-enzymatic Role as a Scaffold for Assembly of a Pro-inflammatory "FADDosome" Complex upon TRAIL Stimulation.

  • Henry CM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis and has been studied almost exclusively in this context. However, TRAIL can also induce NFκB-dependent expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Surprisingly, whereas inhibition of caspase activity blocked TRAIL-induced apoptosis, but not cytokine production, knock down or deletion of caspase-8 suppressed both outcomes, suggesting that caspase-8 participates in TRAIL-induced inflammatory signaling in a scaffold role. Consistent with this, introduction of a catalytically inactive caspase-8 mutant into CASP-8 null cells restored TRAIL-induced cytokine production, but not cell death. Furthermore, affinity precipitation of the native TRAIL receptor complex revealed that pro-caspase-8 was required for recruitment of RIPK1, via FADD, to promote NFκB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production downstream. Thus, caspase-8 can serve in two distinct roles in response to TRAIL receptor engagement, as a scaffold for assembly of a Caspase-8-FADD-RIPK1 "FADDosome" complex, leading to NFκB-dependent inflammation, or as a protease that promotes apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • Worldwide Cancer Research - 14-0323()

A Potential Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Progesterone Deficiency in Obese Women.

  • Takahashi N
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity in reproductive-aged women is associated with a shorter luteal phase and lower progesterone levels. Lipid accumulation in follicles of obese women compromises endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, activating ER stress in granulosa cells. We hypothesized that ER stress activation in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs) would modulate progesterone production and contribute to obesity-associated progesterone deficiency. Pretreatment with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin or thapsigargin, inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone production in cultured human GLCs. Pretreatment of human GLCs with tunicamycin inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) without affecting expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment with tunicamycin also inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of StAR protein and 3β-HSD enzyme activity in cultured human GLCs, as determined by Western blot analysis and an enzyme immunoassay, respectively, but did not affect hCG-induced intracellular 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation. Furthermore, tunicamycin attenuated hCG-induced protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. In vivo administration of tunicamycin to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-treated immature mice prior to hCG treatment inhibited the hCG-stimulated increase in serum progesterone levels and hCG-induced expression of StAR and 3β-HSD mRNA in the ovary without affecting serum estradiol levels or the number of corpora lutea. Our findings indicate that ER stress in the follicles of obese women contributes to progesterone deficiency by inhibiting hCG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK027627(United States)

Autophagy inhibition overcomes multiple mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibition in brain tumors.

  • Mulcahy Levy JM
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kinase inhibitors are effective cancer therapies, but tumors frequently develop resistance. Current strategies to circumvent resistance target the same or parallel pathways. We report here that targeting a completely different process, autophagy, can overcome multiple BRAF inhibitor resistance mechanisms in brain tumors. BRAFV600Emutations occur in many pediatric brain tumors. We previously reported that these tumors are autophagy-dependent and a patient was successfully treated with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine after failure of the BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib, suggesting autophagy inhibition overcame the kinase inhibitor resistance. We tested this hypothesis in vemurafenib-resistant brain tumors. Genetic and pharmacological autophagy inhibition overcame molecularly distinct resistance mechanisms, inhibited tumor cell growth, and increased cell death. Patients with resistance had favorable clinical responses when chloroquine was added to vemurafenib. This provides a fundamentally different strategy to circumvent multiple mechanisms of kinase inhibitor resistance that could be rapidly tested in clinical trials in patients with BRAFV600E brain tumors.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA193982()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA150925()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA190170()

TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations produce separation of function isoforms with pro-tumorigenic functions.

  • Shirole NH
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

TP53 truncating mutations are common in human tumors and are thought to give rise to p53-null alleles. Here, we show that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations occur at higher than expected frequencies and produce proteins that lack canonical p53 tumor suppressor activities but promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. Functionally and molecularly, these p53 mutants resemble the naturally occurring alternative p53 splice variant, p53-psi. Accordingly, these mutants can localize to the mitochondria where they promote tumor phenotypes by binding and activating the mitochondria inner pore permeability regulator, Cyclophilin D (CypD). Together, our studies reveal that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations, contrary to current beliefs, act beyond p53 loss to promote tumorigenesis, and could inform the development of strategies to target cancers driven by these prevalent mutations.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY006069(United States)

The Golgi apparatus acts as a platform for TBK1 activation after viral RNA sensing.

  • Pourcelot M
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2016 Aug 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activated TBK1 induces type I interferon production by phosphorylating the transcription factor IRF3, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying TBK1 activation remain unclear. RESULTS: We report here the localization of the ubiquitinated and phosphorylated active form of TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus after the stimulation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) or Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), due to TBK1 K63-linked ubiquitination on lysine residues 30 and 401. The ubiquitin-binding protein optineurin (OPTN) recruits ubiquitinated TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus, leading to the formation of complexes in which TBK1 is activated by trans-autophosphorylation. Indeed, OPTN deficiency in various cell lines and primary cells impairs TBK1 targeting to the Golgi apparatus and its activation following RLR or TLR3 stimulation. Interestingly, the Bluetongue virus NS3 protein binds OPTN at the Golgi apparatus, neutralizing its activity and thereby decreasing TBK1 activation and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight an unexpected role of the Golgi apparatus in innate immunity as a key subcellular gateway for TBK1 activation after RNA virus infection.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - NIH P30 HD003352(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007184(United States)

Leptin-Induced CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) Is a Novel Intraovarian Mediator of Obesity-Related Infertility in Females.

  • Ma X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity is considered detrimental to women's reproductive health. Although most of the attention has been focused on the effects of obesity on hypothalamic function, studies suggest a multifactorial impact. In fact, obesity is associated with reduced fecundity even in women with regular cycles, indicating that there may be local ovarian effects modulating fertility. Here we describe a novel mechanism for leptin actions directly in the ovary that may account for some of the negative effects of obesity on ovarian function. We find that normal cycling, obese, hyperleptinemic mice fed with a high-fat diet are subfertile and ovulate fewer oocytes compared with animals fed with a normal diet. Importantly, we show that leptin induces expression of the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the granulosa cells (GCs) of ovarian follicles both in vitro and in vivo. CART then negatively affects intracellular cAMP levels, MAPK signaling, and aromatase mRNA expression, which leads to lower estradiol synthesis in GCs and altered ovarian folliculogenesis. Finally, in human samples from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, we show a significant positive correlation between patient body mass index, CART mRNA expression in GCs, and CART peptide levels in follicular fluid. These observations suggest that, under obese conditions, CART acts as a local mediator of leptin in the ovary to cause ovarian dysfunction and reduced fertility.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-07718(United States)

Low Oxygen Tension Modulates the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 or -2 Signaling via Both Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Insulin Receptor to Maintain Stem Cell Identity in Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

  • Youssef A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) are readily available multipotent stem cells for potential use in regenerative therapies. For this purpose, PMSCs must be maintained in culture conditions that mimic the in vivo microenvironment. IGFs (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and oxygen tension are low in the placenta in early gestation and increase as pregnancy progresses. IGFs bind to two receptor tyrosine kinases, the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the insulin receptor (IR), and their hybrid receptors. We hypothesized that IGF-1 and IGF-2 signal via distinct signaling pathways under low-oxygen tension to maintain PMSC multipotency. In preterm PMSCs, low-oxygen tension increased the expression of IGF-2 and reduced IGF-1. IGF-1 stimulated higher phosphorylation of IGF-1Rβ, ERK1/2, and AKT, which was maintained at steady lower levels by low oxygen tension. PMSC proliferation was increased by IGF-1 more than IGF-2,and was potentiated by low-oxygen tension. This IGF/low oxygen tension-mediated proliferation was receptor dependent because neutralization of the IGF-1R inhibited PMSC proliferation in the presence of IGF-1 and the IR in presence of IGF-2. These findings suggest that both IGF-1R and the IR can participate in mediating IGF signaling in maintaining PMSCs multipotency. We conclude that low-oxygen tension can modify the IGF-1 or IGF-2 signaling via the IGF-1R and IR in PMSCs.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01HL110737-01(United States)

Registered report: Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF.

  • Bhargava A
  • Elife
  • 2016 Feb 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF" by Heidorn and colleagues, published in Cell in 2010 (Heidorn et al., 2010). The experiments to be replicated are those reported in Figures 1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, and 4D. Heidorn and colleagues report that paradoxical activation of the RAF-RAS-MEK-ERK pathway by BRAF inhibitors when applied to BRAF(WT) cells is a result of BRAF/CRAF heterodimer formation upon inactivation of BRAF kinase activity, and occurs only in the context of active RAS. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F31 MH101956(United States)

Growth Differentiation Factor-8 Decreases StAR Expression Through ALK5-Mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Luteinized Human Granulosa Cells.

  • Fang L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) has been recently shown to be expressed in human granulosa cells, and the mature form of GDF-8 protein can be detected in the follicular fluid. However, the biological function and significance of this growth factor in the human ovary remains to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF-8 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and the potential mechanisms of action in luteinized human granulosa cells. We demonstrated that treatment with GDF-8 did not affect the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, whereas it significantly down-regulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effect of GDF-8 on StAR expression was abolished by the inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with GDF-8 activated both Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 5 reversed the effects of GDF-8 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation and StAR expression. The inhibition of Smad3 or ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the GDF-8-induced down-regulation of StAR and production of progesterone. Interestingly, the concentrations of GDF-8 were negatively correlated with those of progesterone in human follicular fluid. These results indicate a novel autocrine function of GDF-8 to down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in luteinized human granulosa cells, most likely through activin receptor-like kinase 5-mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that granulosa cells might play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone production to prevent premature luteinization during the final stage of folliculogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA151827(United States)

The Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene Regulates Arginine-Vasopressin Gene Expression in Human Female Neuroblastoma Cells Through G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and ERK Signaling.

  • Grassi D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene reduces blood pressure in hypertensive postmenopausal women. In the present study we have explored whether raloxifene regulates gene expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The effect of raloxifene was assessed in human female SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which have been recently identified as a suitable cellular model to study the estrogenic regulation of AVP. Raloxifene, within a concentration ranging from 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M, decreased the mRNA levels of AVP in SH-SY5Y cells with maximal effect at 10(-7) M. This effect of raloxifene was imitated by an agonist (±)-1-[(3aR*,4S*,9bS*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) and blocked by an antagonist (3aS*,4R*,9bR*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline of GPER and by GPER silencing. Raloxifene induced a time-dependent increase in the level of phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, by a mechanism blocked by the GPER antagonist. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with either a MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2-specific inhibitor (1,4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadine) or a protein kinase C inhibitor (sotrastaurin) blocked the effects of raloxifene on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the regulation of AVP mRNA levels. These results reveal a mechanism mediating the regulation of AVP expression by raloxifene, involving the activation of GPER, which in turn activates protein kinase C, MAPK/ERK kinase, and ERK. The regulation of AVP by raloxifene and GPER may have implications for the treatment of blood hypertension(.).

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA035756(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH091258(United States)

Regulation of synaptic MAPK/ERK phosphorylation in the rat striatum and medial prefrontal cortex by dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

  • Xue B
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopamine and acetylcholine are two principal transmitters in the striatum and are usually balanced to modulate local neural activity and to maintain striatal homeostasis. This study investigates the role of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of a central signaling protein, i.e., the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We focus on the synaptic pool of MAPKs because of the fact that these kinases reside in peripheral synaptic structures in addition to their somatic locations. We show that a systemic injection of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) agonist SKF81297 enhances phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), a prototypic subclass of MAPKs, in the adult rat striatum. Similar results were observed in another dopamine-responsive region, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole had no such effects. Pretreatment with a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptors (M4Rs), VU0152100, attenuated the D1R agonist-stimulated ERK phosphorylation in the two regions, whereas the PAM itself did not alter basal ERK phosphorylation. All drug treatments had no effect on phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), another MAPK subclass, in the striatum and mPFC. These results demonstrate that dopamine and acetylcholine are integrated to control synaptic ERK but not JNK activation in striatal and mPFC neurons in vivo. Activation of M4Rs exerts an inhibitory effect on the D1R-mediated upregulation of synaptic ERK phosphorylation.

TNF-α Suppressed FSH-Induced LH Receptor Expression Through Transcriptional Regulation in Rat Granulosa Cells.

  • Nakao K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several inflammatory cytokines regulate ovarian function. TNF-α is produced in granulosa cells under physiological conditions and has a reciprocal action on follicle development. In contrast, in pelvic inflammatory diseases, TNF-α is excessively produced in the pelvic cavity and has an adverse effect on reproductive functions. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of TNF-α on the expression of LH receptor (LHR) in immature rat granulosa cells. TNF-α suppressed FSH-induced LHR mRNA and protein expression and was not associated with cAMP accumulation. By using a luciferase assay, the construct containing base pairs -1389 to -1 of the rat Lhcgr promoter revealed that TNF-α decreased FSH-induced promoter activity. In response to TNF-α, nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 was translocated to the nucleus, and the suppressive effect of TNF-α on LHR mRNA expression was abrogated by an NF-κB inhibitor. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TNF-α induced the association of NF-κB p65 with the rat Lhcgr transcriptional promoter region. NF-κB p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) interact to mediate expression of several genes at a transcriptional level. HDAC activity is thought to induce tight connections within local chromatin structures and repress gene transcription. Furthermore, the TNF-α-induced suppression of LHR mRNA expression was blocked by an HDAC inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction of NF-κB p65 with HDAC in the promoter region of rat Lhcgr might be responsible for TNF-α action on the regulation of LHR.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078214(United States)

Protein kinase A directly phosphorylates metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 to modulate its function.

  • Uematsu K
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2015 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) regulates excitatory post-synaptic signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) and is implicated in various CNS disorders. Protein kinase A (PKA) signaling is known to play a critical role in neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction. Dopamine signaling is known to modulate the properties of mGluR5 in a cAMP- and PKA-dependent manner, suggesting that mGluR5 may be a direct target for PKA. Our study identifies mGluR5 at Ser870 as a direct substrate for PKA phosphorylation and demonstrates that this phosphorylation plays a critical role in the PKA-mediated modulation of mGluR5 functions such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. The identification of the molecular mechanism by which PKA signaling modulates mGluR5-mediated cellular responses contributes to the understanding of the interaction between dopaminergic and glutamatergic neuronal signaling. We identified serine residue 870 (S870) in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) as a direct substrate for protein kinase A (PKA). The phosphorylation of this site regulates the ability of mGluR5 to induce extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. This study provides a direct molecular mechanism by which PKA signaling interacts with glutamate neurotransmission.

Registered report: Widespread potential for growth factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.

  • Greenfield E
  • Elife
  • 2014 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors" by Wilson and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Wilson et al., 2012). The experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figure 2B and C. In these experiments, Wilson and colleagues show that sensitivity to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors can be bypassed by various ligands through reactivation of downstream signaling pathways (Figure 2A; Wilson et al., 2012), and that blocking the receptors for these bypassing ligands abrogates their ability to block sensitivity to the original RTK inhibitor (Figure 2C; Wilson et al., 2012). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007250(United States)

Regulation of neuronal gene expression and survival by basal NMDA receptor activity: a role for histone deacetylase 4.

  • Chen Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Nov 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal gene expression is modulated by activity via calcium-permeable receptors such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs). While gene expression changes downstream of evoked NMDAR activity have been well studied, much less is known about gene expression changes that occur under conditions of basal neuronal activity. In mouse dissociated hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found that a broad NMDAR antagonist, AP5, induced robust gene expression changes under basal activity, but subtype-specific antagonists did not. While some of the gene expression changes are also known to be downstream of stimulated NMDAR activity, others appear specific to basal NMDAR activity. The genes altered by AP5 treatment of basal cultures were enriched for pathways related to class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), apoptosis, and synapse-related signaling. Specifically, AP5 altered the expression of all three class IIa HDACs that are highly expressed in the brain, HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC9, and also induced nuclear accumulation of HDAC4. HDAC4 knockdown abolished a subset of the gene expression changes induced by AP5, and led to neuronal death under long-term tetrodotoxin or AP5 treatment in rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. These data suggest that basal, but not evoked, NMDAR activity regulates gene expression in part through HDAC4, and, that HDAC4 has neuroprotective functions under conditions of low NMDAR activity.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - AG012609(United States)

Phosphate interacts with PTHrP to regulate endochondral bone formation.

  • Liu ES
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Phosphate and parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) are required for normal growth plate maturation. Hypophosphatemia impairs hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis leading to rachitic expansion of the growth plate; however, the effect of phosphate restriction on chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone formation has not been examined. Investigations were, therefore, undertaken to address whether phosphate restriction alters the maturation of embryonic d15.5 murine metatarsal elements. Metatarsals cultured in low phosphate media exhibited impaired chondrocyte differentiation, analogous to that seen with PTHrP-treatment of metatarsals cultured in control media. Because phosphate restriction acutely increases PTHrP expression in cultured metatarsals, studies were undertaken to determine if this increase in PTHrP plays a pathogenic role in the impaired chondrocyte differentiation observed under low phosphate conditions. In contrast to what was observed with wild-type metatarsal elements, phosphate restriction did not impair the differentiation of metatarsals isolated from PTHrP heterozygous or PTHrP knockout mice. In vivo studies in postnatal mice demonstrated that PTHrP haploinsufficiency also prevents the impaired hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis observed with phosphate restriction. To determine how signaling through the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonizes the pro-apoptotic effects of phosphate, investigations were performed in primary murine hypertrophic chondrocytes. Receptor activation impaired phosphate-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation specifically in the mitochondrial fraction and decreased levels of mitochondrial Bad, while increasing cytosolic phospho-Bad. Thus, these data demonstrate that phosphate restriction attenuates chondrocyte differentiation as well as impairing hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis and implicate a functional role for the PTH/PTHrP signaling pathway in the abnormalities in chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis observed under phosphate restricted conditions.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK046367(United States)

Substance P exacerbates dopaminergic neurodegeneration through neurokinin-1 receptor-independent activation of microglial NADPH oxidase.

  • Wang Q
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1(-/-)), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose-response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91(phox) and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5R01NS039444(United States)

Facilitation of the HPA axis to a novel acute stress following chronic stress exposure modulates histone acetylation and the ERK/MAPK pathway in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

  • Ferland CL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Evidence suggests that when presented with novel acute stress, animals previously exposed to chronic homotypic or heterotypic stressors exhibit normal or enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response compared with animals exposed solely to that acute stressor. The molecular mechanisms involved in this effect remain unknown. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the key pathways regulated in the hippocampus in both acute and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of prior chronic stress, using the chronic variable stress model (CVS), with exposure to a novel acute stressor (2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethyl thiazoline; TMT) on ERK activation, expression of the downstream protein BCL-2, and the glucocorticoid receptor co-chaperone BAG-1 in control and chronically stressed male rats. TMT exposure after chronic stress resulted in a significant interaction of chronic and acute stress in all 3 hippocampus subregions on ERK activation and BCL-2 expression. Significantly, acute stress increased ERK activation, BCL-2 and BAG-1 protein expression in the dentate gyrus (DG) of CVS-treated rats compared with control, CVS-treated alone, and TMT-only animals. Furthermore, CVS significantly increased ERK activation in medial prefrontal cortex, but acute stress had no significant effect. Inhibition of corticosterone synthesis with metyrapone had no significant effect on ERK activation in the hippocampus; therefore, glucocorticoids alone do not mediate the molecular effects. Finally, because post-translational modifications of histones are believed to play an important role in the stress response, we examined changes in histone acetylation. We found that, in general, chronic stress decreased K12H4 acetylation, whereas acute stress increased acetylation. These results indicate a molecular mechanism by which chronic stress-induced HPA axis plasticity can lead to neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus that influence reactivity to subsequent stress exposure. This may represent an important site of dysfunction that contributes to stress-induced pathology such as depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS084706(United States)

Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase type 5 prevents L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  • Park HY
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Aug 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is widely used as a therapeutic choice for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the long-term use of L-DOPA leads to the development of debilitating involuntary movements, called L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in the striatum is known to play a role in LID. However, from among the nine known adenylyl cyclases (ACs) present in the striatum, the AC that mediates LID remains unknown. To address this issue, we prepared an animal model with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the substantia nigra in wild-type and AC5-knock-out (KO) mice, and examined behavioral responses to short-term or long-term treatment with L-DOPA. Compared with the behavioral responses of wild-type mice, LID was profoundly reduced in AC5-KO mice. The behavioral protection of long-term treatment with L-DOPA in AC5-KO mice was preceded by a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of PKA substrates ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2, MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1), and histone H3, levels of which were all increased in the lesioned striatum of wild-type mice. Consistently, FosB/ΔFosB expression, which was induced by long-term L-DOPA treatment in the lesioned striatum, was also decreased in AC5-KO mice. Moreover, suppression of AC5 in the dorsal striatum with lentivirus-shRNA-AC5 was sufficient to attenuate LID, suggesting that the AC5-regulated signaling cascade in the striatum mediates LID. These results identify the AC5/cAMP system in the dorsal striatum as a therapeutic target for the treatment of LID in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Repetitive hypoglycemia increases circulating adrenaline level with resultant worsening of intimal thickening after vascular injury in male Goto-Kakizaki rat carotid artery.

  • Yasunari E
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypoglycemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of hypoglycemic episodes including a surge of sympathetic activity on the progression of neointima formation after vascular injury remains largely unknown. In this study, insulin was injected intraperitoneally into nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, once every 3 days for 4 weeks after balloon injury of carotid artery to induce hypoglycemia. Then, we evaluated balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Insulin treatment enhanced neointima formation and increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the carotid artery. Injection of glucose with insulin prevented hypoglycemia and abrogated intimal thickening. Also, bunazosin, an α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prevented intimal thickening and accumulation of PCNA-positive cells induced by insulin treatment despite the presence of concomitant hypoglycemia and high adrenaline levels. Incubation of cultured smooth muscle cells with adrenaline resulted in a significant increase in their proliferation and G0/G1 to S phase progression, which was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, enhanced expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, and cyclin E, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These adrenaline-induced effects were abrogated by bunazosin. Our data indicated that increased adrenaline induced by repetitive hypoglycemia promotes intimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after endothelial denudation in GK rats.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01DK098437(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM098151-01(United States)

IGF-I stimulates CCN5/WISP2 gene expression in pancreatic β-cells, which promotes cell proliferation and survival against streptozotocin.

  • Chowdhury S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

IGF-I is normally produced from hepatocytes and other sources, stimulates protein synthesis, cell survival, and proliferation through receptor-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAPK, and targets specific molecules within the pancreatic islet cells. The current study was designed to identify novel targets that may mediate its pro-islet actions. Whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis in IGF-I-overexpressing islets identified 82 genes specifically up- or down-regulated. Prominent among them was CCN5/WISP2 whose expression was increased 3- and 2-fold at the mRNA and protein levels. Dual-labeled immunofluorescence revealed that CCN5 expression was low in the β-cells of wild-type islets but was significantly induced in response to IGF-I overexpression. In vitro treatment of mouse islets with IGF-I increased both CCN5 mRNA and protein levels significantly. To define the role of CCN5 in islet cell biology, we stably overexpressed its cDNA in insulinoma MIN6 cells and detected a 2-fold increase in the proliferation of MIN6-CCN5 compared with that in control cells, which correlated with significant elevations in the levels of cyclin D1 and the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk2. Moreover, MIN6-CCN5 cells were found to be resistant to streptozotocin-induced cell death. Using confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, we found that overexpressed CCN5 exhibited cytoplasmic accumulation upon stimulation by high glucose. Our results indicate that CCN5, which is minimally expressed in islet β-cells, is strongly and directly induced by IGF-I. CCN5 overexpression stimulates the proliferation of insulinoma cells, activates Akt kinase, and inhibits streptozotocin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that increased CCN5 expression contributes to IGF-I-stimulated islet cell growth and/or survival.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH067631(United States)

Effect of bisphosphonates on the rapidly growing male murine skeleton.

  • Zhu ED
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bisphosphonates are effective for preventing and treating skeletal disorders associated with hyperresorption. Their safety and efficacy has been studied in adults where the growth plate is fused and there is no longitudinal bone growth and little appositional growth. Although bisphosphonate use in the pediatric population was pioneered for compassionate use in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta, they are being increasingly used for the treatment and prevention of bone loss in children at risk of hyperresorptive bone loss. However, the effect of these agents on the growing skeleton in disorders other than osteogenesis imperfecta has not been systematically compared. Studies were, therefore, undertaken to examine the consequences of bisphosphonate administration on the growth plate and skeletal microarchitecture during a period of rapid growth. C57Bl6/J male mice were treated from 18 to 38 days of age with vehicle, alendronate, pamidronate, zoledronate, or clodronate at doses selected to replicate those used in humans. Treatment with alendronate, pamidronate, and zoledronate, but not clodronate, led to a decrease in the number of chondrocytes per column in the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer. This was not associated with altered hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis or vascular invasion at the growth plate. The effects of pamidronate on trabecular microarchitecture were less beneficial than those of alendronate and zoledronate. Pamidronate did not increase cortical thickness or cortical area/total area relative to control mice. These studies suggest that bisphosphonate administration does not adversely affect skeletal growth. Long-term investigations are required to determine whether the differences observed among the agents examined impact biomechanical integrity of the growing skeleton.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I001735/1(United Kingdom)

IL-6 up-regulates the expression of rat LH receptors during granulosa cell differentiation.

  • Imai F
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

IL-6 is produced in granulosa cells under normal physiological conditions, including during ovulation. However, the roles of IL-6 in ovarian function, including regulation of LH receptor (LHR) expression in granulosa cells, have not been explored in detail. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying the effect of IL-6 on LHR expression in the granulosa cells of female Wistar rats. Our results indicated that IL-6 clearly enhanced the FSH-induced LHR mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner and did not stimulate cAMP accumulation by itself. The membrane protein level of LHR, assessed by a binding assay, was increased by FSH and was further enhanced by association with IL-6. Results of the luciferase assay, using promoter constructs of LHR 281 bp upstream of the translational start site, revealed that IL-6 increased the promoter activity induced by FSH, but this effect was not observed with treatment by IL-6 alone. This ability of IL-6 to enhance FSH-induced LHR mRNA expression was blocked by the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) pathway inhibitor, but not by the ERK1/2 inhibitor. Thus, we speculated that this IL-6 activity might be mediated by the JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway. In addition, IL-6 augmented FSH-induced IL-6 receptor α mRNA expression and FSH elevated IL-6 production in granulosa cells, which indicates that IL-6 may positively regulate paracrine and autocrine actions in granulosa cells. These results suggest that IL-6 up-regulates FSH-induced LHR production by increasing mRNA transcription, and JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling is required for up-regulation by IL-6 in granulosa cells.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U01 MH106013(United States)

Leptin deficiency in rats results in hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose homeostasis.

  • D'souza AM
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has well-established anorexigenic effects but is also able to regulate glucose homeostasis independent of body weight. Until recently, the ob/ob mouse was the only animal model of global leptin deficiency. Here we report the effects of leptin deficiency on glucose homeostasis in male and female leptin knockout (KO) rats. Leptin KO rats developed obesity by 6 to 7 weeks of age, and lipid mass was increased by more than 2-fold compared with that of wild-type (WT) littermates at 18 weeks of age. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were evident in both males and females and were sustained with aging. Male KO rats experienced transient mild fasting hyperglycemia between 14 and 25 weeks of age, but thereafter fasting glucose levels were comparable to those of WT littermates up to 36 weeks of age. Fasting glucose levels of female KO rats were similar to those of WT littermates. Male KO rats exhibited a 3-fold increase in the proportion of β-cell area relative to total pancreas at 36 weeks of age. Islets from 12-week-old KO rats secreted more insulin when stimulated than islets from WT littermates. Leptin replacement via miniosmotic pump (100 μg/d) reduced food intake, attenuated weight gain, normalized glucose tolerance, and improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Together, these data demonstrate that the absence of leptin in rats recapitulates some of the phenotype previously observed in ob/ob mice including development of hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and insulin resistance.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY023714(United States)

Metformin inhibits androgen-induced IGF-IR up-regulation in prostate cancer cells by disrupting membrane-initiated androgen signaling.

  • Malaguarnera R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously demonstrated that, in prostate cancer cells, androgens up-regulate IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) by inducing cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation and CREB-dependent IGF-IR gene transcription through androgen receptor (AR)-dependent membrane-initiated effects. This IGF-IR up-regulation is not blocked by classical antiandrogens and sensitizes cells to IGF-I-induced biological effects. Metformin exerts complex antitumoral functions in various models and may inhibit CREB activation in hepatocytes. We, therefore, evaluated whether metformin may affect androgen-dependent IGF-IR up-regulation. In the AR(+) LNCaP prostate cancer cells, we found that metformin inhibits androgen-induced CRE activity and IGF-IR gene transcription. CRE activity requires the formation of a CREB-CREB binding protein-CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) complex, which follows Ser133-CREB phosphorylation. Metformin inhibited Ser133-CREB phosphorylation and induced nuclear exclusion of CREB cofactor CRTC2, thus dissociating the CREB-CREB binding protein-CRTC2 complex and blocking its transcriptional activity. Similarly to metformin action, CRTC2 silencing inhibited IGF-IR promoter activity. Moreover, metformin blocked membrane-initiated signals of AR to the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6Kinase pathway by inhibiting AR phosphorylation and its association with c-Src. AMPK signals were also involved to some extent. By inhibiting androgen-dependent IGF-IR up-regulation, metformin reduced IGF-I-mediated proliferation of LNCaP cells. These results indicate that, in prostate cancer cells, metformin inhibits IGF-I-mediated biological effects by disrupting membrane-initiated AR action responsible for IGF-IR up-regulation and suggest that metformin could represent a useful adjunct to the classical antiandrogen therapy.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA ES102805(United States)

Low-oxygen tension and IGF-I promote proliferation and multipotency of placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) from different gestations via distinct signaling pathways.

  • Youssef A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The microenvironment of placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) is dynamic throughout gestation and determines changes in cell fate. In vivo, PMSCs initially develop in low-oxygen tension and low IGF-I concentrations, and both increase gradually with gestation. The impact of varying concentrations of IGF-I and changing oxygen tension on PMSC signaling and multipotency was investigated in PMSCs from early (preterm) and late (term) gestation human placentae. Preterm PMSCs had greater proliferative response to IGF-I, which was further enhanced by low-oxygen tension. Low-oxygen tension alone was sufficient to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas IGF-I was required for AKT (protein kinase B) phosphorylation. Low-oxygen tension prolonged ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation with a slowed phosphorylation decay even in presence of IGF-I. Low-oxygen tension maintained higher levels of IGF-I receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 that were otherwise decreased by exposure to IGF-I and induced a differential phosphorylation pattern on IGF-I receptorβ and insulin receptor substrate 1. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT was different between the preterm and term PMSCs, and phospho-AKT, and not phospho-ERK1/2, was the major determinant of PMSC proliferation and octamer-4 levels. These studies demonstrate that low-oxygen tension regulates the fate of PMSCs from early and late gestations in response to IGF-I, both independently and dependently, via specific signal transduction mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM086197(United States)

Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor-mediated inhibition of A-type K(+) current induces sensory neuronal hyperexcitability through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways, independently of Akt.

  • Wang H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although IGF-1 has been implicated in mediating hypersensitivity to pain, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We identified a novel functional of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in regulating A-type K(+) currents (IA) as well as membrane excitability in small trigeminal ganglion neurons. Our results showed that IGF-1 reversibly decreased IA, whereas the sustained delayed rectifier K(+) current was unaffected. This IGF-1-induced IA decrease was associated with a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation and was blocked by the IGF-1R antagonist PQ-401; an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor had no such effect. An small interfering RNA targeting the IGF-1R, or pretreatment of neurons with specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors abolished the IGF-1-induced IA decrease. Surprisingly, IGF-1-induced effects on IA were not regulated by Akt, a common downstream target of PI3K. The MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126, but not its inactive analog U0124, as well as the c-Raf-specific inhibitor GW5074, blocked the IGF-1-induced IA response. Analysis of phospho-ERK (p-ERK) showed that IGF-1 significantly activated ERK1/2 whereas p-JNK and p-p38 were unaffected. Moreover, the IGF-1-induced p-ERK1/2 increase was attenuated by PI3K and c-Raf inhibition, but not by Akt blockade. Functionally, we observed a significantly increased action potential firing rate induced by IGF-1; pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine abolished this effect. Taken together, our results indicate that IGF-1 attenuates IA through sequential activation of the PI3K- and c-Raf-dependent ERK1/2 signaling cascade. This occurred via the activation of IGF-1R and might contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in small trigeminal ganglion neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - HHSN272201400048C(United States)

Notch signaling plays a critical role in motility and differentiation of human first-trimester cytotrophoblasts.

  • Haider S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Failures in human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) development could be involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly characterized. Here, we provide evidence that Notch signaling could represent a key regulatory pathway controlling trophoblast proliferation, motility, and differentiation. Immunofluorescence of first-trimester placental tissues revealed expression of Notch receptors (Notch2 and Notch3) and membrane-anchored ligands (delta-like ligand [DLL] 1 and -4 and Jagged [JAG] 1 and -2) in villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs), cell column trophoblasts (CCTs), and EVTs. Notch4 and Notch1 were exclusively expressed in vCTBs and in CCTs, respectively. Both proteins decreased in Western blot analyses of first-trimester, primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) differentiating on fibronectin. Luciferase reporter analyses suggested basal, canonical Notch activity in SGHPL-5 cells and primary cells that was increased upon seeding on DLL4-coated dishes and diminished in the presence of the Notch/γ-secretase inhibitors N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) or L-685,458. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling, cyclin D1 mRNA expression, and cell counting indicated that chemical inhibition of Notch signaling elevated proliferation in the different primary trophoblast model systems. Notch inhibition also increased motility of SGHPL-5 cells through uncoated and fibronectin-coated Transwells, motility of primary CTBs, as well as migration in villous explant cultures on collagen I. Accordingly, small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing of Notch1 also elevated SGHPL-5 cell migration. In contrast, motility of primary cultures and SGHPL-5 cells was diminished in the presence of DLL4. Moreover, DAPT increased markers of differentiated EVT, ie, human leukocyte antigen G1, integrin α5, and T-cell factor 4, whereas DLL4 provoked the opposite. In summary, the data suggest that canonical Notch signaling impairs motility and differentiation of first-trimester CTBs.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES013143(United States)
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - G12 MD007592(United States)

Ovarian cycle-specific regulation of adipose tissue lipid storage by testosterone in female nonhuman primates.

  • Varlamov O
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous studies in rodents and humans suggest that hyperandrogenemia causes white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction in females, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In light of the differences in the length of the ovarian cycle between humans and rodents, we used a nonhuman primate model to elucidate the effects of chronic hyperandrogenemia on WAT function in vivo. Female rhesus macaques implanted with testosterone capsules developed insulin resistance and altered leptin secretion on a high-fat, Western-style diet. In control visceral WAT, lipolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase expression were upregulated during the luteal phase compared with the early follicular (menses) phase of the ovarian cycle. Hyperandrogenemia attenuated elevated lipolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase activity in visceral WAT during the luteal phase but not during menses. Under control conditions, insulin-stimulated Akt and Erk activation and fatty acid uptake in WAT were not significantly affected by the ovarian cycle. In contrast, testosterone treatment preferentially increased fatty acid uptake and insulin signaling at menses. The fatty acid synthase and glucose transporter-4 genes were upregulated by testosterone during the luteal phase. In summary, this study reveals ovarian stage-specific fluctuations in adipocyte lipolysis and suggests that male sex hormones increase and female sex hormones decrease lipid storage in female WAT.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5R01NS039444(United States)

Autocrine and paracrine mechanisms of prostaglandin E₂ action on trophoblast/conceptus cells through the prostaglandin E₂ receptor (PTGER2) during implantation.

  • Waclawik A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The conceptus and endometrium secrete large amounts of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) into the porcine uterine lumen during the periimplantation period. We hypothesized that PGE₂ acts on conceptus/trophoblast cells through auto- and paracrine mechanisms. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that PGE₂ receptor (PTGER)2 mRNA was 14-fold greater in conceptuses/trophoblasts on days 14-25 (implantation and early placentation period) vs preimplantation day 10-13 conceptuses (P < .05). Similarly, expression of PTGER2 protein increased during implantation. Conceptus expression of PTGER4 mRNA and protein did not differ on days 10-19. PGE₂ stimulated PTGER2 mRNA expression in day 15 trophoblast cells through PTGER2 receptor signaling. PGE₂ elevated aromatase expression and estradiol-17β secretion by trophoblast cells. Moreover, PGE₂ and the PTGER2 agonist, butaprost, increased the adhesive capacity of both human HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast and primary porcine trophoblast cells to extracellular matrix. This PGE₂-induced alteration in trophoblast cell adhesion to extracellular matrix was abolished by incubation of these cells with AH6809 (PTGER2 antagonist), ITGAVB3-directed tetrapeptide arg-gly-asp-ser or integrin ITGAVB3 antibody. PGE₂ stimulated adhesion of porcine trophoblast cells via the estrogen receptor and MEK/MAPK signaling pathway. PGE₂ induced phosphorylation of MAPK1/MAPK3 through PTGER2 and up-regulated expression of cell adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Our study indicates that elevated PGE₂ in the periimplantation uterine lumen stimulates conceptus PTGER2 expression, which in turn promotes trophoblast adhesion via integrins, and synthesis and secretion of the porcine embryonic signal estradiol-17β. Moreover, the mechanism through which PGE₂ increases trophoblast adhesion is not species specific because it is PTGER2- and integrin-dependent in both porcine and human trophoblast cells.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 8P41GM103540(United States)

Diet-induced obesity increases tumor growth and promotes anaplastic change in thyroid cancer in a mouse model.

  • Kim WG
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent epidemiological studies provide strong evidence suggesting obesity is a risk factor in several cancers, including thyroid cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of thyroid cancer are poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of diet-induced obesity on thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model that spontaneously develops thyroid cancer (Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice). These mice harbor a mutated thyroid hormone receptor-β (denoted as PV) and haplodeficiency of the Pten gene. A high-fat diet (HFD) efficiently induced the obese phenotype in Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice after 15 weeks. Thyroid tumor growth was markedly greater and survival was significantly lower in Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice fed an HFD than in controls fed a low-fat diet (LFD). The HFD increased thyroid tumor cell proliferation by increasing the protein levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein to propel cell cycle progression. Histopathological analysis showed that the frequency of anaplasia of thyroid cancer was significantly greater (2.6-fold) in the HFD group than the LFD group. The HFD treatment led to an increase in parametrial/epididymal fat pad and elevated serum leptin levels in Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. Further molecular analyses indicated that the HFD induced more aggressive pathological changes that were mediated by increased activation of the Janus kinase 2-signaling transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and induction of STAT3 target gene expression. Our findings demonstrate that diet-induced obesity exacerbates thyroid cancer progression in Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice and suggest that the STAT3 signaling pathway could be tested as a potential target for the treatment of thyroid cancer.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 6027(Canada)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007315(United States)

Impact of divergent effects of astaxanthin on insulin signaling in L6 cells.

  • Ishiki M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Because oxidative stress promotes insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is crucial to find effective antioxidant for the purpose of decreasing this threat. In this study, we explored the effect of astaxanthin, a carotenoid antioxidant, on insulin signaling and investigated whether astaxanthin improves cytokine- and free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in vitro. We examined the effect of astaxanthin on insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, and insulin signaling in cultured rat L6 muscle cells using plasma membrane lawn assay, 2-deoxyglucose uptake, and Western blot analysis. Next, we examined the effect of astaxanthin on TNFα- and palmitate-induced insulin resistance. The amount of reactive oxygen species generated by TNFα or palmitate with or without astaxanthin was evaluated by dichlorofluorescein staining. We also compared the effect of astaxanthin on insulin signaling with that of other antioxidants, α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol. We observed astaxanthin enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake, which was associated with an increase in insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine and Akt phosphorylation and a decrease in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 phosphorylation. Furthermore, astaxanthin restored TNFα- and palmitate-induced decreases in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation or glucose uptake with a concomitant decrease in reactive oxygen species generation. α-Lipoic acid enhanced Akt phosphorylation and decreased ERK and JNK phosphorylation, whereas α-tocopherol enhanced ERK and JNK phosphorylation but had little effect on Akt phosphorylation. Collectively these findings indicate astaxanthin is a very effective antioxidant for ameliorating insulin resistance by protecting cells from oxidative stress generated by various stimuli including TNFα and palmitate.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY012857(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK085715(United States)