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Akt Antibody

RRID:AB_329827

Antibody ID

AB_329827

Target Antigen

Akt h, m, r, hm, mk, c, dm, b, pg, gp, chicken/bird, guinea pig, bovine, drosophila/arthropod, hamster, human, mouse, non-human primate, rat, porcine

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 9272, RRID:AB_329827)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IF-IC, F

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Cat Num

9272 also 9272S

Publications that use this research resource

Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates the Function and Viability of Enteroendocrine L Cells In Vitro.

  • Wang D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Enteroendocrine L cells secrete the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and they also express the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) that might regulate GLP-1 secretion. Here, GTS-21, a selective α7nAChR agonist, was used to examine the impact of α7nAChR activation in L-cell lines, mouse intestinal primary cell cultures, and C57BL/6 mice. GTS-21 stimulated GLP-1 secretion in vitro and this effect was attenuated by an α7nAChR antagonist or by α7nAChR-specific siRNA. Under in vitro cell culture conditions of glucotoxicity, GTS-21 restored GLP-1 secretion and improved L-cell viability, while also acting in vivo to raise levels of circulating GLP-1 in mice. To assess potential signaling mechanisms underlying these actions of GTS-21, we first monitored Ca2+, cAMP, and PI3K activity. As expected for a GLP-1 secretagogue promoting Ca2+ influx through α7nAChR cation channels, [Ca2+]i increased in response to GTS-21, but [cAMP]i was unchanged. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of growth factor signaling pathways revealed that GTS-21 also acts on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway to promote L-cell viability. Moreover, the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM counteracted GTS-21-stimulated PI3K activity, thereby indicating unexpected crosstalk of L-cell Ca2+ and growth factor signaling pathways. Collectively, these data demonstrate that α7nAChR activation enhances GLP-1 secretion by increasing levels of cytosolic Ca2+, while also revealing novel Ca2+ and PI3K dependent processes of α7nAChR activation that promote L-cell survival.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R33 CA95300(United States)

Calorie Restriction-Induced Increase in Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Is Not Prevented by Overexpression of the p55α Subunit of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase.

  • Martins VF
  • Front Physiol
  • 2018 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Introduction: The Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. While whole-body and tissue specific knockout (KO) of individual or combinations of the regulatory subunits of PI3K (p85α, p55α, and p50α or p85β); increase insulin sensitivity, no study has examined whether increasing the expression of the individual regulatory subunits would inhibit insulin action in vivo. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the p55α regulatory subunit of PI3K impairs skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, or prevents its enhancement by caloric restriction. Methods: We developed a novel "floxed" mouse that, through the Cre-LoxP approach, allows for tamoxifen (TMX)-inducible and skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the p55α subunit of PI3K (referred to as, 'p55α-mOX'). Beginning at 10 weeks of age, p55α-mOX mice and their floxed littermates (referred to as wildtype [WT]) either continued with free access to food (ad libitum; AL), or were switched to a calorie restricted diet (CR; 60% of AL intake) for 20 days. We measured body composition, whole-body energy expenditure, oral glucose tolerance and ex vivo skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles using the 2-deoxy-glucose (2DOG) uptake method. Results: p55α mRNA and protein expression was increased ∼2 fold in muscle from p55α-mOX versus WT mice. There were no differences in energy expenditure, total activity, or food intake of AL-fed mice between genotypes. Body weight, fat and lean mass, tissue weights, and fasting glucose and insulin were comparable between p55α-mOX and WT mice on AL, and were decreased equally by CR. Interestingly, overexpression of p55α did not impair oral glucose tolerance or skeletal muscle insulin signaling or sensitivity, nor did it impact the ability of CR to enhance these parameters. Conclusion: Skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of p55α does not impact skeletal muscle insulin action, suggesting that p85α and/or p50α may be more important regulators of skeletal muscle insulin signaling and sensitivity.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U105359875(United Kingdom)

Hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α results in insulin resistance despite sustained IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

  • Chaudhari A
  • F1000Res
  • 2018 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Background: Class IA phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) is an integral mediator of insulin signaling. The p110 catalytic and p85 regulatory subunits of PI3K are the products of separate genes, and while they come together to make the active heterodimer, they have opposing roles in insulin signaling and action. Deletion of hepatic p110α results in an impaired insulin signal and severe insulin resistance, whereas deletion of hepatic p85α results in improved insulin sensitivity due to sustained levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Here, we created mice with combined hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α (L-DKO) to study the impact on insulin signaling and whole body glucose homeostasis. Methods: Six-week old male flox control and L-DKO mice were studied over a period of 18 weeks, during which weight and glucose levels were monitored, and glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance test and pyruvate tolerance test were performed. Fasting insulin, insulin signaling mediators, PI3K activity and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity were examined at 10 weeks. Liver, muscle and white adipose tissue weight was recorded at 10 weeks and 25 weeks. Results: The L-DKO mice showed a blunted insulin signal downstream of PI3K, developed markedly impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and had decreased liver and adipose tissue weights. Surprisingly, however, these mice displayed normal hepatic glucose production, normal insulin tolerance, and intact IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity without compensatory upregulated signaling of other classes of PI3K. Conclusions: The data demonstrate an unexpectedly overall mild metabolic phenotype of the L-DKO mice, suggesting that lipid kinases other than PI3Ks might partially compensate for the loss of p110α/p85α by signaling through other nodes than Akt/Protein Kinase B.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM084279(United States)

BRET-based RAS biosensors that show a novel small molecule is an inhibitor of RAS-effector protein-protein interactions.

  • Bery N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RAS family of proteins is amongst the most highly mutated in human cancers and has so far eluded drug therapy. Currently, much effort is being made to discover mutant RAS inhibitors and in vitro screening for RAS-binding drugs must be followed by cell-based assays. Here, we have developed a robust set of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based RAS biosensors that enable monitoring of RAS-effector interaction inhibition in living cells. These include KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and a variety of different mutations that mirror those found in human cancers with the major RAS effectors such as CRAF, PI3K and RALGDS. We highlighted the utility of these RAS biosensors by showing a RAS-binding compound is a potent pan-RAS-effector interactions inhibitor in cells. The RAS biosensors represent a useful tool to investigate and characterize the potency of anti-RAS inhibitors in cells and more generally any RAS protein-protein interaction (PPI) in cells.

Funding information:
  • Bloodwise - 12051()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/J000612/1()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)
  • Wellcome - 099246/Z/12/Z()
  • Wellcome - 100842/Z/12/Z()

An ERK-Dependent Feedback Mechanism Prevents Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion.

  • Baumgartner C
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) sustain hematopoiesis throughout life. HSCs exit dormancy to restore hemostasis in response to stressful events, such as acute blood loss, and must return to a quiescent state to prevent their exhaustion and resulting bone marrow failure. HSC activation is driven in part through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTORC1 signaling pathway, but less is known about the cell-intrinsic pathways that control HSC dormancy. Here, we delineate an ERK-dependent, rate-limiting feedback mechanism that controls HSC fitness and their re-entry into quiescence. We show that the MEK/ERK and PI3K pathways are synchronously activated in HSCs during emergency hematopoiesis and that feedback phosphorylation of MEK1 by activated ERK counterbalances AKT/mTORC1 activation. Genetic or chemical ablation of this feedback loop tilts the balance between HSC dormancy and activation, increasing differentiated cell output and accelerating HSC exhaustion. These results suggest that MEK inhibitors developed for cancer therapy may find additional utility in controlling HSC activation.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - K08 AG024816-05(United States)

The cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway promotes genome stability and prevents tumor initiation.

  • Girnius N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. Analysis of breast cancer genomic DNA indicates frequent loss-of-function mutations in components of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Since JNK signaling can promote cell proliferation by activating the AP1 transcription factor, this apparent association of reduced JNK signaling with tumor development was unexpected. We examined the effect of JNK deficiency in the murine breast epithelium. Loss of JNK signaling caused genomic instability and the development of breast cancer. Moreover, JNK deficiency caused widespread early neoplasia and rapid tumor formation in a murine model of breast cancer. This tumor suppressive function was not mediated by a role of JNK in the growth of established tumors, but by a requirement of JNK to prevent tumor initiation. Together, these data identify JNK pathway defects as 'driver' mutations that promote genome instability and tumor initiation.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - Investigator()
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases - DK107220()
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases - DK112698()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK092062(United States)

Reintroducing testosterone in the db/db mouse partially restores normal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in a leptin-independent manner.

  • Yabiku K
  • BMC Endocr Disord
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Testosterone signals through the androgen receptor (AR) and AR knockout mice develop obesity, suggesting a functional association between AR and leptin signaling. Furthermore, physiological blood concentrations of testosterone have been found to inhibit the development of arteriosclerosis, obesity and diabetes. However, these findings have not been verified by testosterone replacement in animal models and whether or not testosterone acts directly by activating AR to enhance leptin signaling, or indirectly by its conversion into estrogen remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenously supplemented testosterone on glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Four-week-old male leptin receptor-knockout db/db mice were used as controls for a model of obesity retaining low testosterone. Mice were divided into sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and testosterone-supplemented groups and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks from 5 weeks of age. Testosterone concentrations, blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were measured. At 7 weeks, triglyceride and glycogen content were measured in the liver and muscle. Lipid accumulation in the liver and soleus muscle was determined by immunohistochemistry with Oil Red O. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student's t-test or ANOVA where applicable. RESULTS: Lower testosterone levels in db/db mice compared with wild type (WT) db/+ mice were associated with glucose intolerance and fatty liver. Furthermore, castrated male db/db mice at 4 weeks of age progressively developed glucose intolerance accompanying a 15% increase in liver fat. Male mice fed a HFD had lower levels of testosterone compared with those fed a normal diet. We found that exogenous testosterone replacement injected subcutaneously into castrated male db/db mice alleviated the exacerbation of fatty liver and glucose intolerance, suggesting a leptin-independent mechanism. This mechanism is most likely mediated through gonadal axis suppression in this mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, testosterone may use a novel pathway to complement leptin signaling to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, and thus offers a new therapeutic target to treat metabolic disorders.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA060419(United States)

EF24 (a Curcumin Analog) and ZSTK474 Emphasize the Effect of Cabozantinib in Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

  • Bertazza L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

XL184 is a small-molecule kinase inhibitor recently included in first-line systemic therapy for patients with advanced, progressive medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). EF24 is a curcumin analog with a high bioavailability, and ZSTK474 is an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway. We investigated the effect of these compounds, alone and in combination, in two rearranged during transfection (RET)-mutated TT and MZ-CRC-1 MTC cell lines and in six mostly RET wild-type human MTC primary cultures. Low IC50 values demonstrated the efficacy of the drugs, whereas the combination index revealed an important synergistic effect of combinations of XL184 + ZSTK474 and XL184 + EF24. Cell-cycle changes and the induction of apoptosis or necrosis were modulated by single compounds or combinations thereof. Both XL184 and EF24, alone or combined, were effective in reducing calcitonin secretion. Western blot and in-cell Western analysis showed that the compounds prompted a decrease in general reactivity to phosphorylated antibodies. Our data confirm XL184 alone as the reference drug for RET-mutated MTC, but we also demonstrated that EF24 alone is effective in inhibiting MTC cell viability. We tested the combinations XL184 + ZSTK474 and XL184 + EF24 too, finding that they act synergistically, irrespective of RET mutation status.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - P20RR16455-07(United States)

Knockout of USP19 Deubiquitinating Enzyme Prevents Muscle Wasting by Modulating Insulin and Glucocorticoid Signaling.

  • Coyne ES
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Muscle atrophy arises as a consequence of many chronic illnesses, as well as from prolonged glucocorticoid treatment and nutrient deprivation. We previously demonstrated that the USP19 deubiquitinating enzyme plays an important role in chronic glucocorticoid and denervation induced muscle wasting. However, the mechanisms by which USP19 exerts its effects remain unknown. To explore this further, we fasted mice for 48 hours to try to identify early differences in the response of WT and USP19 KO mice that could yield insights into the mechanisms of USP19 action. USP19 KO mice manifested less myofiber atrophy in response to fasting due to increased rates of protein synthesis. Insulin signaling was enhanced in the KO mice as revealed by lower circulating insulin levels, increased insulin stimulated glucose disposal and phosphorylation of pAkt and pS6K in muscle and improved overall glucose tolerance. Glucocorticoid signaling, which is essential in many conditions of atrophy, was decreased in KO muscle as revealed by decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) target genes upon both fasting and glucocorticoid treatment. This decreased GR signaling was associated with lower GR protein levels in the USP19 KO muscle. Restoring the GR levels in USP19 deficient muscle was sufficient to abolish the protection from myofiber atrophy. Expression of GR target genes also correlated with that of USP19 in human muscle samples. Thus, USP19 modulates GR levels and in so doing may modulate both insulin and glucocorticoid signaling, two critical pathways that control protein turnover in muscle and overall glucose homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BBS/E/B/000C0419(United Kingdom)

Evidence of altered depression and dementia-related proteins in the brains of young rats after ovariectomy.

  • Fang YY
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Menopause, a risk factor for brain dysfunction in women, is characterized by neuropsychological symptoms including depression and dementia, which are closely related to alterations in different brain regions after menopause. However, little is known about the variability of pathophysiologic changes associated with menopause in the brain. Here, we observed that menopause in rats induced by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) showed depressive and dementia-related behaviors along with neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP), hypothalamus (HYP) and amygdala (AMY) by Nissl staining. Meanwhile, by immunohistochemical staining, increased microglia in the HIP and AMY and increased astrocytes in the PFC, HYP and AMY were shown. By using quantitative proteomics, we identified 146 differentially expressed proteins in the brains of OVX rats, e.g., 20 in the PFC, 41 in the HIP, 17 in the HYP and 79 in the AMY, and performed further detection by Western blotting. A link between neuronal loss and apoptosis was suggested, as evidenced by increases in adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated p53 and decreases in Huntingtin-interacting protein K (HYPK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphorylated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and apoptosis might be triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress (probed by increased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), cleaved caspase-12, phosphorylated protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)) and mitochondrial dysfunction (probed by increased cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 and decreased sideroflexin-1 (SFXN1) and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex 11 (NDUFA11)). Activation of autophagy was also indicated by increased autophagy-related 7 (ATG7), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-associated protein-like 2 (GABARAPL2) and oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1 (ORP1) and confirmed by increased microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3II/I), autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), and Beclin1 in the HIP and AMY. In the AMY, which is important in emotion, higher GABA transporter 3 (GAT3) and lower vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VgluT1) levels indicated an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and the increased calretinin and decreased calbindin levels suggested an adjustment of GABAergic transmission after OVX. In addition, cytoskeletal abnormalities including tau hyperphosphorylation, dysregulated Ca²+ signals and glutamic synaptic impairments were observed in the brains of OVX rats. Collectively, our study showed the changes in different brain regions related to depression and dementia during menopause. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 1K08AI097238-01(United States)

The Drosophila Immune Deficiency Pathway Modulates Enteroendocrine Function and Host Metabolism.

  • Kamareddine L
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are interspersed between enterocytes and stem cells in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium. Like enterocytes, EEs express components of the immune deficiency (IMD) innate immune pathway, which activates transcription of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides. The discovery of large lipid droplets in intestines of IMD pathway mutants prompted us to investigate the role of the IMD pathway in the host metabolic response to its intestinal microbiota. Here we provide evidence that the short-chain fatty acid acetate is a microbial metabolic signal that activates signaling through the enteroendocrine IMD pathway in a PGRP-LC-dependent manner. This, in turn, increases transcription of the gene encoding the endocrine peptide Tachykinin (Tk), which is essential for timely larval development and optimal lipid metabolism and insulin signaling. Our findings suggest innate immune pathways not only provide the first line of defense against infection but also afford the intestinal microbiota control over host development and metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI019018(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI071147()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI109436()

ACC2 Deletion Enhances IMCL Reduction along with Acetyl-CoA Metabolism and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Male Mice.

  • Takagi H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle greatly contributes to lipid-induced insulin resistance. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) negatively modulates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in skeletal muscle, ACC2 inhibition is expected to reduce IMCL via elevation of FAO and to attenuate insulin resistance. However, the concept of substrate competition suggests that enhanced FAO results in reduced glucose utilization because of an excessive acetyl-CoA pool in mitochondria. To identify how ACC2-regulated FAO affects IMCL accumulation and glucose metabolism, we generated ACC2 knockout (ACC2-/-) mice and investigated skeletal muscle metabolites associated with fatty acid and glucose metabolism, as well as whole-body glucose metabolism. ACC2-/- mice displayed higher capacity of glucose disposal at the whole-body levels. In skeletal muscle, ACC2-/- mice exhibited enhanced acylcarnitine formation and reduced IMCL levels without alteration in glycolytic intermediate levels. Notably, these changes were accompanied by decreased acetyl-CoA content and enhanced mitochondrial pathways related to acetyl-CoA metabolism, such as the acetylcarnitine production and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Furthermore, ACC2-/- mice exhibited lower levels of IMCL and acetyl-CoA even under HFD conditions and showed protection against HFD-induced insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that ACC2 deletion leads to IMCL reduction without suppressing glucose utilization via an elevation in acetyl-CoA metabolism even under HFD conditions and offer new mechanistic insight into the therapeutic potential of ACC2 inhibition on insulin resistance.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - KG081694(United States)

The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor 75 Signaling is Activated by the Chemokine CCL5.

  • Dedoni S
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The chemokine CCL5 prevents neuronal cell death mediated both by amyloid β, as well as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral proteins gp120 and Tat. Because CCL5 binds to CCR5, CCR3 and/or CCR1 receptors, it is unclear which of these receptors plays a role in neuroprotection. Indeed, CCL5 also has neuroprotective activity in cells lacking these receptors. CCL5 may bind to a G protein-coupled receptor 75 (GPR75), which encodes for a 540 amino-acid orphan receptor of the Gqα family. In this study, we have used SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to characterize whether CCL5 could activate a Gq signaling through GPR75. Both qPCR and flow cytometry show that these cells express GPR75 but do not express CCR5, CCR3 or CCR1 receptors. SY-SY5Y cells were then used to examine CCL5-mediated signaling. We report that CCL5 promotes a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Specific antagonists of CCR5, CCR3 and CCR1 did not prevent CCL5 from increasing phosphorylated AKT or ERK. Moreover, CCL5 promotes a time-dependent internalization of GPR75. Lastly, knocking down GPR75 expression by a CRISPR-Cas9 approach inhibited the ability of CCL5 to activate pERK in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, we propose that GPR75 is a novel receptor for CCL5 that could explain some of the pharmacological action of this chemokine. These findings may help in the development of small molecule GPR75 agonists that mimic CCL5. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15GM055885(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS089446()

BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  • Zhang XY
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA068458(United States)

Astrocyte truncated-TrkB mediates BDNF antiapoptotic effect leading to neuroprotection.

  • Saba J
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes are glial cells that help maintain brain homeostasis and become reactive in neurodegenerative processes releasing both harmful and beneficial factors. We have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is induced by melanocortins in astrocytes but BDNF actions in astrocytes are largely unknown. We hypothesize that BDNF may prevent astrocyte death resulting in neuroprotection. We found that BDNF increased astrocyte viability, preventing apoptosis induced by serum deprivation by decreasing active caspase-3 and p53 expression. The antiapoptotic action of BDNF was abolished by ANA-12 (a specific TrkB antagonist) and by K252a (a general Trk antagonist). Astrocytes only express the BDNF receptor TrkB truncated isoform 1, TrkB-T1. BDNF induced ERK, Akt and Src (a non-receptor tyrosine kinase) activation in astrocytes. Blocking ERK and Akt pathways abolished BDNF protection in serum deprivation-induced cell death. Moreover, BDNF protected astrocytes from death by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an effect also blocked by ANA-12, K252a, and inhibitors of ERK, calcium and Src. BDNF reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels induced in astrocytes by 3-NP and increased xCT expression and glutathione levels. Astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) from untreated astrocytes partially protected PC12 neurons whereas ACM from BDNF-treated astrocytes completely protected PC12 neurons from 3-NP-induced apoptosis. Both ACM from control and BDNF-treated astrocytes markedly reduced ROS levels induced by 3-NP in PC12 cells. Our results demonstrate that BDNF protects astrocytes from cell death through TrkB-T1 signaling, exerts an antioxidant action, and induces release of neuroprotective factors from astrocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA084967-05(United States)

Pan-RAF and MEK vertical inhibition enhances therapeutic response in non-V600 BRAF mutant cells.

  • Molnár E
  • BMC Cancer
  • 2018 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no available targeted therapy options for non-V600 BRAF mutated tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RAF and MEK concurrent inhibition on tumor growth, migration, signaling and apoptosis induction in preclinical models of non-V600 BRAF mutant tumor cell lines. METHODS: Six BRAF mutated human tumor cell lines CRL5885 (G466 V), WM3629 (D594G), WM3670 (G469E), MDAMB231 (G464 V), CRL5922 (L597 V) and A375 (V600E as control) were investigated. Pan-RAF inhibitor (sorafenib or AZ628) and MEK inhibitor (selumetinib) or their combination were used in in vitro viability, video microscopy, immunoblot, cell cycle and TUNEL assays. The in vivo effects of the drugs were assessed in an orthotopic NSG mouse breast cancer model. RESULTS: All cell lines showed a significant growth inhibition with synergism in the sorafenib/AZ628 and selumetinib combination. Combination treatment resulted in higher Erk1/2 inhibition and in increased induction of apoptosis when compared to single agent treatments. However, single selumetinib treatment could cause adverse therapeutic effects, like increased cell migration in certain cells, selumetinib and sorafenib combination treatment lowered migratory capacity in all the cell lines. Importantly, combination resulted in significantly increased tumor growth inhibition in orthotropic xenografts of MDAMB231 cells when compared to sorafenib - but not to selumetinib - treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that combined blocking of RAF and MEK may achieve increased therapeutic response in non-V600 BRAF mutant tumors.

Funding information:
  • Ernst Mach Fellowship - ICM-2015-02193()
  • HAS Postdoctoral Fellowship Program - 450071()
  • Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office - K109626 and KNN121510()
  • Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office - MOB80325()
  • New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities - ÚNKP-16-3-IV()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE13118(United States)

R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Survival for Correct Myelination in the Central Nervous System.

  • Sanz-Rodriguez M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid and effective neural transmission of information requires correct axonal myelination. Modifications in myelination alter axonal capacity to transmit electric impulses and enable pathological conditions. In the CNS, oligodendrocytes (OLs) myelinate axons, a complex process involving various cellular interactions. However, we know little about the mechanisms that orchestrate correct myelination. Here, we demonstrate that OLs express R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Using female and male mutant mice to delete these proteins, we found that activation of the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways was weaker in mice lacking one or both of these GTPases, suggesting that both proteins coordinate the activity of these two pathways. Loss of R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 diminishes the number of OLs in major myelinated CNS tracts and increases the proportion of immature OLs. In R-Ras1-/- and R-Ras2-/--null mice, OLs show aberrant morphologies and fail to differentiate correctly into myelin-forming phenotypes. The smaller OL population and abnormal OL maturation induce severe hypomyelination, with shorter nodes of Ranvier in R-Ras1-/- and/or R-Ras2-/- mice. These defects explain the slower conduction velocity of myelinated axons that we observed in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Together, these results suggest that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are upstream elements that regulate the survival and differentiation of progenitors into OLs through the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK pathways for proper myelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 play essential roles in regulating myelination in vivo and control fundamental aspects of oligodendrocyte (OL) survival and differentiation through synergistic activation of PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2-MAPK signaling. Mice lacking R-Ras1 and/or R-Ras2 show a diminished OL population with a higher proportion of immature OLs, explaining the observed hypomyelination in main CNS tracts. In vivo electrophysiology recordings demonstrate a slower conduction velocity of nerve impulses in the absence of R-Ras1 and R-Ras2. Therefore, R-Ras1 and R-Ras2 are essential for proper axonal myelination and accurate neural transmission.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC011010-06(United States)

mTORC1 Is Transiently Reactivated in Injured Nerves to Promote c-Jun Elevation and Schwann Cell Dedifferentiation.

  • Norrmén C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cells (SCs) are endowed with a remarkable plasticity. When peripheral nerves are injured, SCs dedifferentiate and acquire new functions to coordinate nerve repair as so-called repair SCs. Subsequently, SCs redifferentiate to remyelinate regenerated axons. Given the similarities between SC dedifferentiation/redifferentiation in injured nerves and in demyelinating neuropathies, elucidating the signals involved in SC plasticity after nerve injury has potentially wider implications. c-Jun has emerged as a key transcription factor regulating SC dedifferentiation and the acquisition of repair SC features. However, the upstream pathways that control c-Jun activity after nerve injury are largely unknown. We report that the mTORC1 pathway is transiently but robustly reactivated in dedifferentiating SCs. By inducible genetic deletion of the functionally crucial mTORC1-subunit Raptor in mouse SCs (including male and female animals), we found that mTORC1 reactivation is necessary for proper myelin clearance, SC dedifferentiation, and consequently remyelination, without major alterations in the inflammatory response. In the absence of mTORC1 signaling, c-Jun failed to be upregulated correctly. Accordingly, a c-Jun binding motif was found to be enriched in promoters of genes with reduced expression in injured mutants. Furthermore, using cultured SCs, we found that mTORC1 is involved in c-Jun regulation by promoting its translation, possibly via the eIF4F-subunit eIF4A. These results provide evidence that proper c-Jun elevation after nerve injury involves also mTORC1-dependent post-transcriptional regulation to ensure timely dedifferentiation of SCs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A crucial evolutionary acquisition of vertebrates is the envelopment of axons in myelin sheaths produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells (SCs) in the PNS. When myelin is damaged, conduction of action potentials along axons slows down or is blocked, leading to debilitating diseases. Unlike oligodendrocytes, SCs have a high regenerative potential, granted by their remarkable plasticity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying SC plasticity may uncover new therapeutic targets in nerve regeneration and demyelinating diseases. Our work reveals that reactivation of the mTORC1 pathway in SCs is essential for efficient SC dedifferentiation after nerve injury. Accordingly, modulating this signaling pathway might be of therapeutic relevance in peripheral nerve injury and other diseases.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U120081321(United Kingdom)

Induction of the Immunoproteasome Subunit Lmp7 Links Proteostasis and Immunity in α-Synuclein Aggregation Disorders.

  • Ugras S
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein into Lewy bodies is thought to contribute to the onset and progression of dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. Although protein aggregation is associated with perturbation of proteostasis, how α-synuclein aggregation affects the brain proteome and signaling remains uncertain. In a mouse model of α-synuclein aggregation, 6% of 6215 proteins and 1.6% of 8183 phosphopeptides changed in abundance, indicating conservation of proteostasis and phosphorylation signaling. The proteomic analysis confirmed changes in abundance of proteins that regulate dopamine synthesis and transport, synaptic activity and integrity, and unearthed changes in mRNA binding, processing and protein translation. Phosphorylation signaling changes centered on axonal and synaptic cytoskeletal organization and structural integrity. Proteostatic responses included a significant increase in the levels of Lmp7, a component of the immunoproteasome. Increased Lmp7 levels and activity were also quantified in postmortem human brains with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies. Functionally, the immunoproteasome degrades α-synuclein aggregates and generates potentially antigenic peptides. Expression and activity of the immunoproteasome may represent testable targets to induce adaptive responses that maintain proteome integrity and modulate immune responses in protein aggregation disorders.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG013966()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD086984()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS088322()

Tyrosine kinase receptor c-ros-oncogene 1 inhibition alleviates aberrant bone formation of TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells from Saethre-Chotzen syndrome patients.

  • Camp E
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), associated with TWIST-1 mutations, is characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures. TWIST-1 haploinsufficiency, leads to alterations in suture mesenchyme cellular gene expression patterns, resulting in aberrant osteogenesis and craniosynostosis. We analyzed the expression of the TWIST-1 target, Tyrosine kinase receptor c-ros-oncogene 1 (C-ROS-1) in TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells derived from SCS patients and calvaria of Twist-1del/+ mutant mice and found it to be highly expressed when compared to TWIST-1 wild-type controls. Knock-down of C-ROS-1 expression in TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial cells derived from SCS patients was associated with decreased capacity for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, treatment of human SCS calvarial cells with the tyrosine kinase chemical inhibitor, Crizotinib, resulted in reduced C-ROS-1 activity and the osteogenic potential of human SCS calvarial cells with minor effects on cell viability or proliferation. Cultured human SCS calvarial cells treated with Crizotinib exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition, with an associated decrease in expression levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 and OSTEOPONTIN, with reduced PI3K/Akt signalling in vitro. Furthermore, Crizotinib treatment resulted in reduced BMP-2 mediated bone formation potential of whole Twist-1del/+ mutant mouse calvaria organotypic cultures. Collectively, these results suggest that C-ROS-1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of TWIST-1 haploinsufficient calvarial osteogenic progenitor cells. Furthermore, the aberrant osteogenic potential of these cells is inhibited by the reduction of C-ROS-1. Therefore, targeting C-ROS-1 with a pharmacological agent, such as Crizotinib, may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate craniosynostosis associated with aberrant TWIST-1 function.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01-EY12975(United States)

Catch-Up Growth in Zebrafish Embryo Requires Neural Crest Cells Sustained by Irs1 Signaling.

  • Kamei H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most animals display retarded growth in adverse conditions; however, upon the removal of unfavorable factors, they often show quick growth restoration, which is known as "catch-up" growth. In zebrafish embryos, hypoxia causes growth arrest, but subsequent reoxygenation induces catch-up growth. Here, we report the role of insulin receptor substrate (Irs)1-mediated insulin/insulinlike growth factor signaling (IIS) and the involvement of stem cells in catch-up growth in reoxygenated zebrafish embryos. Disturbed irs1 expression attenuated IIS, resulting in greater inhibition in catch-up growth than in normal growth and forced IIS activation‒restored catch-up growth. The irs1 knockdown induced noticeable cell death in neural crest cells (NCCs; multipotent stem cells) under hypoxia, and the pharmacological/genetic ablation of NCCs hindered catch-up growth. Furthermore, inhibition of the apoptotic pathway by pan-caspase inhibition or forced activation of Akt signaling in irs1 knocked-down embryos blocked NCC cell death and rescued catch-up growth. Our data indicate that this multipotent stem cell is indispensable for embryonic catch-up growth and that Irs1-mediated IIS is a prerequisite for its survival under severe adverse environments such as prolonged hypoxia.

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator S42 Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation.

  • Kawanami T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously identified the selective androgen receptor (AR) modulator S42, which does not stimulate prostate growth but has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. In the prostate cancer (PC) cell line LNCaP, S42 did not induce AR transactivation but antagonized 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)‒induced AR activation. Next, we investigated whether S42 suppresses the growth of PC cell lines. Basal growth of LNCaP cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with S42 compared with vehicle, as determined by cell counting and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assays. The suppressive effect of S42 on cell growth was evident in the AR-positive PC cells LNCaP and 22Rv1 and was slightly observed even in the AR-negative PC-3 cells. However, S42 did not induce apoptosis as determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. S42 had an even greater suppressive effect on DHT-dependent LNCaP cell proliferation than on basal proliferation (P < 0.05). DHT treatment increased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a major signaling molecule for PC proliferation, and this was significantly inhibited by S42. DHT also significantly upregulated AR, insulinlike growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and insulin receptor (IR)-β protein levels, which were similarly reduced by S42 treatment. Importantly, S42 administration to mice attenuated the growth of LNCaP tumors and reduced tumor expression of the prostate-specific antigen, P504S, Ki67, and phosphorylated ERK-MAPK. These data suggest that S42 attenuates LNCaP tumor growth not by inducing apoptosis but by inhibiting the expression of proliferation-related receptors, including IGF-1R, IR, and AR, and by suppressing ERK-MAPK activation. S42 may thus be a feasible candidate for PC treatment.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL32262-25(United States)

Elevated Levels of the Reactive Metabolite Methylglyoxal Recapitulate Progression of Type 2 Diabetes.

  • Moraru A
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The molecular causes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well understood. Both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D are characterized by impaired insulin signaling and hyperglycemia. From analogy to T1D, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are thought to also play causal roles in T2D. Recent clinical studies, however, found that T2D patients treated to maintain glycemia below the diabetes definition threshold (HbA1c < 6.5%) still develop diabetic complications. This suggests additional insulin- and glucose-independent mechanisms could be involved in T2D progression and/or initiation. T2D patients have elevated levels of the metabolite methylglyoxal (MG). We show here, using Drosophila glyoxalase 1 knockouts, that animals with elevated methylglyoxal recapitulate several core aspects of T2D: insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. Thus elevated MG could constitute one root cause of T2D, suggesting that the molecular causes of elevated MG warrant further study.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI100934(United States)

IRS-1 acts as an endocytic regulator of IGF-I receptor to facilitate sustained IGF signaling.

  • Yoneyama Y
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) preferentially regulates the long-term IGF activities including growth and metabolism. Kinetics of ligand-dependent IGF-IR endocytosis determines how IGF induces such downstream signaling outputs. Here, we find that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 modulates how long ligand-activated IGF-IR remains at the cell surface before undergoing endocytosis in mammalian cells. IRS-1 interacts with the clathrin adaptor complex AP2. IRS-1, but not an AP2-binding-deficient mutant, delays AP2-mediated IGF-IR endocytosis after the ligand stimulation. Mechanistically, IRS-1 inhibits the recruitment of IGF-IR into clathrin-coated structures; for this reason, IGF-IR avoids rapid endocytosis and prolongs its activity on the cell surface. Accelerating IGF-IR endocytosis via IRS-1 depletion induces the shift from sustained to transient Akt activation and augments FoxO-mediated transcription. Our study establishes a new role for IRS-1 as an endocytic regulator of IGF-IR that ensures sustained IGF bioactivity, independent of its classic role as an adaptor in IGF-IR signaling.

Funding information:
  • Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) - 850681()
  • Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - Platform Project for Supporting in Drug Discovery and Life Scien()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - 15K18766()
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - The Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP)()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 2T32GM008646(United States)
  • University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria and the Center for Technological Innovation in Medicine (TIMed Center) - Project GlucoSTAR()

Coordinated Control of mRNA and rRNA Processing Controls Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Differentiation.

  • Corsini NS
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cell-specific transcriptional networks are well known to control pluripotency, but constitutive cellular processes such as mRNA splicing and protein synthesis can add complex layers of regulation with poorly understood effects on cell-fate decisions. Here, we show that the RNA binding protein HTATSF1 controls embryonic stem cell differentiation by regulating multiple aspects of RNA processing during ribosome biogenesis. HTATSF1, in a complex with splicing factor SF3B1, controls intron removal from ribosomal protein transcripts and regulates ribosomal RNA transcription and processing, thereby controlling 60S ribosomal abundance and protein synthesis. HTATSF1-dependent protein synthesis is essential for naive pre-implantation epiblast to transition into post-implantation epiblast, a stage with transiently low protein synthesis, and further differentiation toward neuroectoderm. Together, these results identify coordinated regulation of ribosomal RNA and protein synthesis by HTATSF1 and show that this essential mechanism controls protein synthesis during early mammalian embryogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM077403(United States)

Clotrimazole is effective for the regression of endometriotic implants in a Wistar rat experimental model of endometriosis.

  • Machado DE
  • Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • 2018 Apr 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present work aimed to evaluate molecular, angiogenic and inflammatory changes induced by clotrimazole (CTZ) on endometriosis lesions. For this, thirty female Wistar rats with surgically implanted autologous endometrium were treated with CTZ or vehicle (200 mg/kg) via esophageal gavage for 15 consecutive days. CTZ treatment significantly decreased the growth and the size of the implants, and histological examination indicated regression and atrophy, with no toxicity to the animals. The levels of the angiogenic markers VEGF and VEGFR-2 were significantly decreased in CTZ group. The treatment also promotes a reduction on PGE2 and TNF-α levels. All these effects involve the amelioration of ERK1/2, Akt, AMPK and PERK signaling upon CTZ treatment. In conclusion, CTZ promoted an overall amelioration of endometriosis in a rat model due to the anti-angiogenic properties of the drug. Therefore, our results support the proposal of a clinical trial using CTZ for the treatment of endometriosis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL097085(United States)

EGFR-Phosphorylated Platelet Isoform of Phosphofructokinase 1 Promotes PI3K Activation.

  • Lee JH
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

EGFR activates phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), but the mechanism underlying this activation is not completely understood. We demonstrated here that EGFR activation resulted in lysine acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5)-mediated K395 acetylation of the platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKP) and subsequent translocation of PFKP to the plasma membrane, where the PFKP was phosphorylated at Y64 by EGFR. Phosphorylated PFKP binds to the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, which is distinct from binding of Gab1 to the C-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, and recruited p85α to the plasma membrane resulting in PI3K activation. PI3K-dependent AKT activation results in enhanced phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) phosphorylation and production of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which in turn promotes PFK1 activation. PFKP Y64 phosphorylation-enhanced PI3K/AKT-dependent PFK1 activation and GLUT1 expression promoted the Warburg effect, tumor cell proliferation, and brain tumorigenesis. These findings underscore the instrumental role of PFKP in PI3K activation and enhanced glycolysis through PI3K/AKT-dependent positive-feedback regulation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA121938(United States)

Erythropoietin regulates the expression of dimeric form of acetylcholinesterase during differentiation of erythroblast.

  • Xu ML
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) is known to hydrolyze acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. In mammalian erythrocyte, AChE exists as a dimer (G2 ) and is proposed to play role in erythropoiesis. To reveal the regulation of AChE during differentiation of erythroblast, erythroblast-like cells (TF-1) were induced to differentiate by application of erythropoietin (EPO). The expression of AChE was increased in parallel to the stages of differentiation. Application of EPO in cultured TF-1 cells induced transcriptional activity of ACHE gene, as well as its protein product. This EPO-induced event was in parallel with erythrocytic proteins, e.g. α- and β-globins. The EPO-induced AChE expression was mediated by phosphorylations of Akt and GATA-1; because the application of Akt kinase inhibitor blocked the gene activation. Erythroid transcription factor also known as GATA-1, a downstream transcription factor of EPO signaling, was proposed here to account for regulation of AChE in TF-1 cell. A binding sequence of GATA-1 was identified in ACHE gene promoter, which was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Over expression of GATA-1 in TF-1 cultures induced AChE expression, as well as activity of ACHE promoter tagged with luciferase gene (pAChE-Luc). The deletion of GATA-1 sequence on the ACHE promoter, pAChEΔGATA-1 -Luc, reduced the promoter activity during erythroblastic differentiation. On the contrary, the knock-down of AChE in TF-1 cultures could lead to a reduction of EPO-induced expression of erythrocytic proteins. These findings indicated specific regulation of AChE during maturation of erythroblast, which provided an insight in elucidating possible mechanisms in regulating erythropoiesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30-CA008748(United States)

Angiogenin/Ribonuclease 5 Is an EGFR Ligand and a Serum Biomarker for Erlotinib Sensitivity in Pancreatic Cancer.

  • Wang YN
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase) is a secreted enzyme critical for host defense. We discover an intrinsic RNase function, serving as a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The closely related bovine RNase A and human RNase 5 (angiogenin [ANG]) can trigger oncogenic transformation independently of their catalytic activities via direct association with EGFR. Notably, high plasma ANG level in PDAC patients is positively associated with response to EGFR inhibitor erlotinib treatment. These results identify a role of ANG as a serum biomarker that may be used to stratify patients for EGFR-targeted therapies, and offer insights into the ligand-receptor relationship between RNase and RTK families.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211615()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA186892()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA201777()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM098294(United States)

Visceral Adipose Tissue Immune Homeostasis Is Regulated by the Crosstalk between Adipocytes and Dendritic Cell Subsets.

  • Macdougall CE
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has multiple roles in orchestrating whole-body energy homeostasis. In addition, VAT is now considered an immune site harboring an array of innate and adaptive immune cells with a direct role in immune surveillance and host defense. We report that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in VAT acquire a tolerogenic phenotype through upregulation of pathways involved in adipocyte differentiation. While activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cDC1 DCs induces IL-10 production, upregulation of the PPARγ pathway in cDC2 DCs directly suppresses their activation. Combined, they promote an anti-inflammatory milieu in vivo delaying the onset of obesity-induced chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Under long-term over-nutrition, changes in adipocyte biology curtail β-catenin and PPARγ activation, contributing to VAT inflammation.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - R01-54044(United States)

The Atypical Kinase RIOK1 Promotes Tumor Growth and Invasive Behavior.

  • Weinberg F
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite being overexpressed in different tumor entities, RIO kinases are hardly characterized in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of these atypical kinases in different cancer cells. Using isogenic colon-, breast- and lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that knockdown of RIOK1, but not of RIOK2 or RIOK3, strongly impairs proliferation and invasiveness in conventional and 3D culture systems. Interestingly, these effects were mainly observed in RAS mutant cancer cells. In contrast, growth of RAS wildtype Caco-2 and Bcr-Abl-driven K562 cells is not affected by RIOK1 knockdown, suggesting a specific requirement for RIOK1 in the context of oncogenic RAS signaling. Furthermore, we show that RIOK1 activates NF-κB signaling and promotes cell cycle progression. Using proteomics, we identified the pro-invasive proteins Metadherin and Stathmin1 to be regulated by RIOK1. Additionally, we demonstrate that RIOK1 promotes lung colonization in vivo and that RIOK1 is overexpressed in different subtypes of human lung- and breast cancer. Altogether, our data suggest RIOK1 as a potential therapeutic target, especially in RAS-driven cancers.

KRAS Dimerization Impacts MEK Inhibitor Sensitivity and Oncogenic Activity of Mutant KRAS.

  • Ambrogio C
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanism by which the wild-type KRAS allele imparts a growth inhibitory effect to oncogenic KRAS in various cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), is poorly understood. Here, using a genetically inducible model of KRAS loss of heterozygosity (LOH), we show that KRAS dimerization mediates wild-type KRAS-dependent fitness of human and murine KRAS mutant LUAD tumor cells and underlies resistance to MEK inhibition. These effects are abrogated when wild-type KRAS is replaced by KRASD154Q, a mutant that disrupts dimerization at the α4-α5 KRAS dimer interface without changing other fundamental biochemical properties of KRAS, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, dimerization has a critical role in the oncogenic activity of mutant KRAS. Our studies provide mechanistic and biological insights into the role of KRAS dimerization and highlight a role for disruption of dimerization as a therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant cancers.

Interleukin-10 Directly Inhibits CD8+ T Cell Function by Enhancing N-Glycan Branching to Decrease Antigen Sensitivity.

  • Smith LK
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic viral infections remain a global health concern. The early events that facilitate viral persistence have been linked to the activity of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. However, the mechanisms by which IL-10 facilitates the establishment of chronic infection are not fully understood. Herein, we demonstrated that the antigen sensitivity of CD8+ T cells was decreased during chronic infection and that this was directly mediated by IL-10. Mechanistically, we showed that IL-10 induced the expression of Mgat5, a glycosyltransferase that enhances N-glycan branching on surface glycoproteins. Increased N-glycan branching on CD8+ T cells promoted the formation of a galectin 3-mediated membrane lattice, which restricted the interaction of key glycoproteins, ultimately increasing the antigenic threshold required for T cell activation. Our study identified a regulatory loop in which IL-10 directly restricts CD8+ T cell activation and function through modification of cell surface glycosylation allowing the establishment of chronic infection.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1R01GM090293-0109(United States)

Direct Activation of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptors Enhances Muscle Microvascular Perfusion, Oxygenation, and Insulin Delivery in Male Rats.

  • Yan F
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Angiotensin II receptors regulate muscle microvascular recruitment and the delivery of nutrients, oxygen, and insulin to muscle. Although angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonism increases muscle microvascular perfusion and insulin action, angiotensin type 2 receptor blockade markedly restricts muscle microvascular blood volume and decreases muscle delivery of insulin. To examine the effects of direct type 2 receptor stimulation using Compound 21 (C21) on microvascular perfusion, insulin delivery and action, and tissue oxygenation in muscle, overnight-fasted adult male rats were infused with C21 systemically. C21 potently increased microvascular blood volume without altering microvascular flow velocity or blood pressure, resulting in a net increase in microvascular blood flow in muscle. This was associated with a substantial increase in muscle interstitial oxygen saturation and insulin delivery into the skeletal and cardiac muscle. These effects were neutralized by coinfusion of the type 2 receptor antagonist or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Superimposing C21 infusion on insulin infusion increased insulin-mediated whole body glucose disposal by 50%. C21 significantly relaxed the preconstricted distal saphenous artery ex vivo. We have concluded that direct type 2 receptor stimulation markedly increases muscle microvascular perfusion through nitric oxide biosynthesis and enhances insulin delivery and action in muscle. These findings provide a physiologic mechanistic insight into type 2 receptor modulation of insulin action and suggest that type 2 receptor agonists might have therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes and its associated complications.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL094722()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD052668(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK102359()

mTOR-dependent alterations of Kv1.1 subunit expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout mouse model of cortical dysplasia with epilepsy.

  • Nguyen LH
  • Sci Rep
  • 2018 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause for intractable epilepsy. Hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in CD; however, the mechanisms by which mTOR hyperactivation contribute to the epilepsy phenotype remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether constitutive mTOR hyperactivation in the hippocampus is associated with altered voltage-gated ion channel expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout (NS-Pten KO) mouse model of CD with epilepsy. We found that the protein levels of Kv1.1, but not Kv1.2, Kv1.4, or Kvβ2, potassium channel subunits were increased, along with altered Kv1.1 distribution, within the hippocampus of NS-Pten KO mice. The aberrant Kv1.1 protein levels were present in young adult (≥postnatal week 6) but not juvenile (≤postnatal week 4) NS-Pten KO mice. No changes in hippocampal Kv1.1 mRNA levels were found between NS-Pten KO and WT mice. Interestingly, mTOR inhibition with rapamycin treatment at early and late stages of the pathology normalized Kv1.1 protein levels in NS-Pten KO mice to WT levels. Together, these studies demonstrate altered Kv1.1 protein expression in association with mTOR hyperactivation in NS-Pten KO mice and suggest a role for mTOR signaling in the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel expression in this model.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI067979(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081053()

c-RAF Ablation Induces Regression of Advanced Kras/Trp53 Mutant Lung Adenocarcinomas by a Mechanism Independent of MAPK Signaling.

  • Sanclemente M
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

A quarter of all solid tumors harbor KRAS oncogenes. Yet, no selective drugs have been approved to treat these malignancies. Genetic interrogation of the MAPK pathway revealed that systemic ablation of MEK or ERK kinases in adult mice prevent tumor development but are unacceptably toxic. Here, we demonstrate that ablation of c-RAF expression in advanced tumors driven by KrasG12V/Trp53 mutations leads to significant tumor regression with no detectable appearance of resistance mechanisms. Tumor regression results from massive apoptosis. Importantly, systemic abrogation of c-RAF expression does not inhibit canonical MAPK signaling, hence, resulting in limited toxicities. These results are of significant relevance for the design of therapeutic strategies to treat K-RAS mutant cancers.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL076604(United States)

Insulinlike Growth Factor-Binding Protein-1 Improves Vascular Endothelial Repair in Male Mice in the Setting of Insulin Resistance.

  • Aziz A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin resistance is associated with impaired endothelial regeneration in response to mechanical injury. We recently demonstrated that insulinlike growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP1) ameliorated insulin resistance and increased nitric oxide generation in the endothelium. In this study, we hypothesized that IGFBP1 would improve endothelial regeneration and restore endothelial reparative functions in the setting of insulin resistance. In male mice heterozygous for deletion of insulin receptors, endothelial regeneration after femoral artery wire injury was enhanced by transgenic expression of human IGFBP1 (hIGFBP1). This was not explained by altered abundance of circulating myeloid angiogenic cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with hIGFBP1 increased integrin expression and enhanced their ability to adhere to and repopulate denuded human saphenous vein ex vivo. In vitro, induction of insulin resistance by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Coincubation with hIGFBP1 restored endothelial migratory and proliferative capacity. At the molecular level, hIGFBP1 induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, activated RhoA and modulated TNFα-induced actin fiber anisotropy. Collectively, the effects of hIGFBP1 on endothelial cell responses and acceleration of endothelial regeneration in mice indicate that manipulating IGFBP1 could be exploited as a putative strategy to improve endothelial repair in the setting of insulin resistance.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM076990(United States)

Male Brown Fat-Specific Double Knockout of IGFIR/IR: Atrophy, Mitochondrial Fission Failure, Impaired Thermogenesis, and Obesity.

  • Viana-Huete V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is unknown how the lack of insulin receptor (IR)/insulinlike growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) in a tissue-specific manner affects brown fat development and mitochondrial integrity and function, as well as its effect on the redistribution of the adipose organ and the metabolic status. To address this important issue, we developed IR/IGFIR double-knockout (DKO) in a brown adipose tissue-specific manner. Lack of those receptors caused severe brown fat atrophy, enhanced beige cell clusters in inguinal fat; loss of mitochondrial mass; mitochondrial damage related to cristae disruption; and the loss of proteins involved in autophagosome formation, mitophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and dynamics and thermogenesis. More important, DKO mice showed an impaired thermogenesis upon cold exposure, based on a failure in the mitochondrial fission mechanisms and a much lower uncoupling protein 1 transcription rate and content. As a result, DKO mice under normal conditions showed an obesity susceptibility, revealed by increased body fat mass and insulin resistance. Upon consumption of a high-fat diet, DKO mice displayed frank obesity, as shown by increased body weight, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, all consistent with a metabolic syndrome. Collectively, our data suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between failure in brown fat thermogenesis and increased adiposity and obesity.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK036836()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK031036()

IL-10 Signaling Remodels Adipose Chromatin Architecture to Limit Thermogenesis and Energy Expenditure.

  • Rajbhandari P
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signaling pathways that promote adipose tissue thermogenesis are well characterized, but the limiters of energy expenditure are largely unknown. Here, we show that ablation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 improves insulin sensitivity, protects against diet-induced obesity, and elicits the browning of white adipose tissue. Mechanistic studies define bone marrow cells as the source of the IL-10 signal and adipocytes as the target cell type mediating these effects. IL-10 receptor alpha is highly enriched in mature adipocytes and is induced in response to differentiation, obesity, and aging. Assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq), ChIP-seq, and RNA-seq reveal that IL-10 represses the transcription of thermogenic genes in adipocytes by altering chromatin accessibility and inhibiting ATF and C/EBPβ recruitment to key enhancer regions. These findings expand our understanding of the relationship between inflammatory signaling pathways and adipose tissue function and provide insight into the physiological control of thermogenesis that could inform future therapy.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL128822()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL090553()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32 AI007323()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK104484()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK109601()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK063491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM086372()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008042()

β-Catenin Directs Long-Chain Fatty Acid Catabolism in the Osteoblasts of Male Mice.

  • Frey JL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnt-initiated signaling through a frizzled receptor and the low-density lipoprotein-related receptor-5 coreceptor instructs key anabolic events during skeletal development, homeostasis, and repair. Recent studies indicate that Wnt signaling also regulates the intermediary metabolism of osteoblastic cells, inducing glucose consumption in osteoprogenitors and fatty acid utilization in mature osteoblasts. In this study, we examined the role of the canonical Wnt-signaling target, β-catenin, in the control of osteoblast metabolism. In vitro, Wnt ligands and agonists that stimulated β-catenin activation in osteoblasts enhanced fatty acid catabolism, whereas genetic ablation of β-catenin dramatically reduced oleate oxidation concomitant with reduced osteoblast maturation and increased glycolytic metabolism. Temporal ablation of β-catenin expression in osteoblasts in vivo produced the expected low-bone-mass phenotype and also led to an increase in white adipose tissue mass, dyslipidemia, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Because the expression levels of enzymatic mediators of fatty acid β-oxidation are reduced in the skeleton of β-catenin mutants, these results further confirm the role of the osteoblast in lipid metabolism and indicate that the influence of Wnt signaling on fatty acid utilization proceeds via its canonical signaling pathway.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK099134()

Iron promotes α-synuclein aggregation and transmission by inhibiting TFEB-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  • Xiao Y
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have strongly shown that cell-to-cell transmission of neuropathogenic proteins is a common mechanism for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying cause is complex and little is known. Although distinct processes are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, they all share the common feature of iron accumulation, an attribute that is particularly prominent in synucleinopathies. However, whether iron is a cofactor in facilitating the spread of α-synuclein remains unclear. Here, we constructed a cell-to-cell transmission model of α-synuclein using SN4741 cell line based on adenovirus vectors. Cells were treated with FeCl2, and α-synuclein aggregation and transmission were then evaluated. In addition, the possible mechanisms were investigated through gene knockdown or over-expression. Our results demonstrated that iron promoted α-synuclein aggregation and transmission by inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, iron decreased the expression of nuclear transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcriptional regulator of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and inhibited its nuclear translocation through activating AKT/mTORC1 signaling. After silencing TFEB, ratios of α-synuclein aggregation and transmission were not significantly altered by the presence of iron; on the other hand, when TFEB was over-expressed, the transmission of α-synuclein induced by iron was obviously reversed; suggesting the mechanism by which iron promotes α-synuclein transmission may be mediated by TFEB. Taken together, our data reveal a previously unknown relationship between iron and α-synuclein, and identify TFEB as not only a potential target for preventing α-synuclein transmission, but also a critical factor for iron-induced α-synuclein aggregation and transmission. Indeed, this newly discovered role of iron and TFEB in synucleinopathies may provide novel targets for developing therapeutic strategies to prevent α-synuclein transmission in Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078283(United States)

Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Amino Acid Homeostasis and Asparagine Biosynthesis via ATF4 and Alters Sensitivity to L-Asparaginase.

  • Gwinn DM
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

KRAS is a regulator of the nutrient stress response in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Induction of the ATF4 pathway during nutrient depletion requires AKT and NRF2 downstream of KRAS. The tumor suppressor KEAP1 strongly influences the outcome of activation of this pathway during nutrient stress; loss of KEAP1 in KRAS mutant cells leads to apoptosis. Through ATF4 regulation, KRAS alters amino acid uptake and asparagine biosynthesis. The ATF4 target asparagine synthetase (ASNS) contributes to apoptotic suppression, protein biosynthesis, and mTORC1 activation. Inhibition of AKT suppressed ASNS expression and, combined with depletion of extracellular asparagine, decreased tumor growth. Therefore, KRAS is important for the cellular response to nutrient stress, and ASNS represents a promising therapeutic target in KRAS mutant NSCLC.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA129562()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009302()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089868()

Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling Impairs Protein Turnover Regulation in Hypoxia-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Male Mice.

  • de Theije CC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypoxemia may contribute to muscle wasting in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Muscle wasting develops when muscle proteolysis exceeds protein synthesis. Hypoxia induces skeletal muscle atrophy in mice, which can in part be attributed to reduced food intake. We hypothesized that hypoxia elevates circulating corticosterone concentrations by reduced food intake and enhances glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in muscle, which causes elevated protein degradation signaling and dysregulates protein synthesis signaling during hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy. Muscle-specific GR knockout and control mice were subjected to normoxia, normobaric hypoxia (8% oxygen), or pair-feeding to the hypoxia group for 4 days. Plasma corticosterone and muscle GR signaling increased after hypoxia and pair-feeding. GR deficiency prevented muscle atrophy by pair-feeding but not by hypoxia. GR deficiency differentially affected activation of ubiquitin 26S-proteasome and autophagy proteolytic systems by pair-feeding and hypoxia. Reduced food intake suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity under normoxic but not hypoxic conditions, and this retained mTORC1 activity was mediated by GR. We conclude that GR signaling is required for muscle atrophy and increased expression of proteolysis-associated genes induced by decreased food intake under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, muscle atrophy and elevated gene expression of the ubiquitin proteasomal system-associated E3 ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1 are mostly independent of GR signaling. Furthermore, impaired inhibition of mTORC1 activity is GR-dependent in hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy.

Paracrine Wnt5a-β-Catenin Signaling Triggers a Metabolic Program that Drives Dendritic Cell Tolerization.

  • Zhao F
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite recent advances, many cancers remain refractory to available immunotherapeutic strategies. Emerging evidence indicates that the tolerization of local dendritic cells (DCs) within the tumor microenvironment promotes immune evasion. Here, we have described a mechanism by which melanomas establish a site of immune privilege via a paracrine Wnt5a-β-catenin-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) signaling pathway that drives fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in DCs by upregulating the expression of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A) fatty acid transporter. This FAO shift increased the protoporphyrin IX prosthetic group of indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase-1 (IDO) while suppressing interleukin(IL)-6 and IL-12 cytokine expression, culminating in enhanced IDO activity and the generation of regulatory T cells. We demonstrated that blockade of this pathway augmented anti-melanoma immunity, enhanced the activity of anti-PD-1 antibody immunotherapy, and suppressed disease progression in a transgenic melanoma model. This work implicates a role for tumor-mediated metabolic reprogramming of local DCs in immune evasion and immunotherapy resistance.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA191063()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA168997()
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Impaired AMPA receptor trafficking by a double knockout of zebrafish olfactomedin1a/b.

  • Nakaya N
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The olfm1a and olfm1b genes in zebrafish encode conserved secreted glycoproteins. These genes are preferentially expressed in the brain and retina starting from 16 h post-fertilization until adulthood. Functions of the Olfm1 gene is still unclear. Here, we produced and analyzed a null zebrafish mutant of both olfm1a and olfm1b genes (olfm1 null). olfm1 null fish were born at a normal Mendelian ratio and showed normal body shape and fertility as well as no visible defects from larval stages to adult. Olfm1 proteins were preferentially localized in the synaptosomes of the adult brain. Olfm1 co-immunoprecipitated with GluR2 and soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complexes indicating participation of Olfm1 in both pre- and post-synaptic events. Phosphorylation of GluR2 was not changed while palmitoylation of GluR2 was decreased in the brain synaptosomal membrane fraction of olfm1 null compared with wt fish. The levels of GluR2, SNAP25, flotillin1, and VAMP2 were markedly reduced in the synaptic microdomain of olfm1 null brain compared with wt. The internalization of GluR2 in retinal cells and the localization of VAMP2 in brain synaptosome were modified by olfm1 null mutation. This indicates that Olfm1 may regulate receptor trafficking from the intracellular compartments to the synaptic membrane microdomain, partly through the alteration of post-translational GluR2 modifications such as palmitoylation. Olfm1 may be considered a novel regulator of the composition and function of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor complex.

Adropin preserves the blood-brain barrier through a Notch1/Hes1 pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

  • Yu L
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adropin is expressed in the CNS and plays a crucial role in the development of stroke. However, little is currently known about the effects of adropin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, the role of adropin in collagenase-induced ICH was investigated in mice. At 1-h post-ICH, mice were administered with recombinant human adropin by intranasal. Brain water +content, BBB permeability, and neurological function were measured at different time intervals. Proteins were quantified using western blot analysis, and the localizations of adropin and Notch1 were visualized via immunofluorescence staining. It is shown that adropin reduced brain water content and improved neurological functions. Adropin preserved the functionality of BBB by increasing N-cadherin expression and reducing extravasation of albumin. Moreover, in vivo knockdown of Notch1 and Hes1 both abolished the protective effects of adropin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that adropin constitutes a potential treatment value for ICH by preserving BBB and improving functional outcomes through the Notch1 signaling pathway.

Exendin-4, a Glucagonlike Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, Attenuates Breast Cancer Growth by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

  • Iwaya C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Incretin therapies have received much attention because of their tissue-protective effects, which extend beyond those associated with glycemic control. Cancer is a primary cause of death in patients who have diabetes mellitus. We previously reported antiprostate cancer effects of the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4). Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in female patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Thus, we examined whether GLP-1 action could attenuate breast cancer. GLP-1R was expressed in human breast cancer tissue and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and KPL-1 cell lines. We found that 0.1 to 10 nM Ex-4 significantly decreased the number of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Although Ex-4 did not induce apoptosis, it attenuated breast cancer cell proliferation significantly and dose-dependently. However, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin did not affect breast cancer cell proliferation. When MCF-7 cells were transplanted into athymic mice, Ex-4 decreased MCF-7 tumor size in vivo. Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed that breast cancer cell proliferation was significantly reduced in tumors extracted from Ex-4-treated mice. In MCF-7 cells, Ex-4 significantly inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB ) nuclear translocation and target gene expression. Furthermore, Ex-4 decreased both Akt and IκB phosphorylation. These results suggest that GLP-1 could attenuate breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of GLP-1R and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB activation.

Funding information:
  • The Dunhill Medical Trust - R302/0713(United Kingdom)

Maternal exercise modifies body composition and energy substrates handling in male offspring fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.

  • Quiclet C
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

KEY POINTS: Maternal training during gestation enhances offspring body composition and energy substrates handling in early adulthood. Offspring nutrition also plays a role as some beneficial effects of maternal training during gestation disappear after consumption of a high-fat diet. ABSTRACT: Maternal exercise during gestation has been reported to modify offspring metabolism and health. Whether these effects are exacerbated when offspring are receiving a high-fat diet remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of maternal exercise before and during gestation on the offspring fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF) by assessing its body composition, pancreatic function and energy substrates handling by two major glucose-utilizing tissues: liver and muscle. Fifteen-week-old nulliparous female Wistar rats exercised 4 weeks before as well as during gestation at a constant submaximal intensity (TR) or remained sedentary (CT). At weaning, pups from each group were fed either a standard diet (TRCD or CTCD) or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (TRHF or CTHF) for 10 weeks. Offspring from TR dams gained less weight compared to those from CT dams. Selected fat depots were larger with the HF diet compared to control diet (CD) but significantly smaller in TRHF compared to CTHF. Surprisingly, the insulin secretion index was higher in islets from HF offspring compared to CD. TR offspring showed a higher muscle insulin sensitivity estimated by the ratio of phosphorylated protein kinase B to total protein kinase B compared with CT offspring (+48%, P < 0.05). With CD, permeabilized isolated muscle fibres from TR rats displayed a lower apparent affinity constant (Km ) for pyruvate and palmitoyl coenzyme A as substrates compared to the CT group (-46% and -58%, respectively, P < 0.05). These results suggest that maternal exercise has positive effects on young adult offspring body composition and on muscle carbohydrate and lipid metabolism depending on the nutritional status.

Roquin Suppresses the PI3K-mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit T Helper Cell Differentiation and Conversion of Treg to Tfr Cells.

  • Essig K
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Roquin proteins preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here we showed that deletion of Roquin-encoding alleles specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells also caused the activation of conventional T cells. Roquin-deficient Treg cells downregulated CD25, acquired a follicular Treg (Tfr) cell phenotype, and suppressed germinal center reactions but could not protect from colitis. Roquin inhibited the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway by upregulation of Pten through interfering with miR-17∼92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR, and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced Akt-mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, whereas inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient T cells corrected enhanced Tfh and Th17 or reduced iTreg cell differentiation. Thereby, Roquin-mediated control of PI3K-mTOR signaling prevents autoimmunity by restraining activation and differentiation of conventional T cells and specialization of Treg cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R37 HL036982(United States)

MST4 Phosphorylation of ATG4B Regulates Autophagic Activity, Tumorigenicity, and Radioresistance in Glioblastoma.

  • Huang T
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

ATG4B stimulates autophagy by promoting autophagosome formation through reversible modification of ATG8. We identify ATG4B as a substrate of mammalian sterile20-like kinase (STK) 26/MST4. MST4 phosphorylates ATG4B at serine residue 383, which stimulates ATG4B activity and increases autophagic flux. Inhibition of MST4 or ATG4B activities using genetic approaches or an inhibitor of ATG4B suppresses autophagy and the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Furthermore, radiation induces MST4 expression, ATG4B phosphorylation, and autophagy. Inhibiting ATG4B in combination with radiotherapy in treating mice with intracranial GBM xenograft markedly slows tumor growth and provides a significant survival benefit. Our work describes an MST4-ATG4B signaling axis that influences GBM autophagy and malignancy, and whose therapeutic targeting enhances the anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA163205()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA159467()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA175875()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA070085()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA021751()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM038660(United States)
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - L32 MD010147()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS081774()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080619()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083767()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS093843()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095634()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS102669()
  • NLM NIH HHS - K99 LM011673()
  • NLM NIH HHS - R00 LM011673()
  • NLM NIH HHS - R01 LM012011()

Myeloid Cell-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Induce Epithelial Mutagenesis.

  • Canli Ö
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to initiate and promote tumorigenesis by inducing DNA damage and to suppress tumor development by triggering apoptosis and senescence. The contribution of individual cell types in the tumor microenvironment to these contrasting effects remains poorly understood. We provide evidence that during intestinal tumorigenesis, myeloid cell-derived H2O2 triggers genome-wide DNA mutations in intestinal epithelial cells to stimulate invasive growth. Moreover, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in myeloid cells initiates tumor growth in various organs also in the absence of a carcinogen challenge in a paracrine manner. Our data identify an intricate crosstalk between myeloid cell-derived ROS molecules, oxidative DNA damage, and tumor necrosis factor α-mediated signaling to orchestrate a tumor-promoting microenvironment causing invasive cancer.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA100426-0141(United States)

JNK Promotes Epithelial Cell Anoikis by Transcriptional and Post-translational Regulation of BH3-Only Proteins.

  • Girnius N
  • Cell Rep
  • 2017 Nov 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis). While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, JNK-promoted anoikis required pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of proteins. We show that JNK acts through a BAK/BAX-dependent apoptotic pathway by increasing BIM expression and phosphorylating BMF, leading to death of detached epithelial cells.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS069861(United States)

Calreticulin Is Involved in Invasion of Human Extravillous Trophoblasts Through Functional Regulation of Integrin β1.

  • Yamamoto M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calreticulin (CRT), a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a variety of roles in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, immunity, and cancer biology. It has been reported that CRT is expressed in the human placenta, although its function in placental development is poorly understood. Appropriate invasion of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) into the maternal decidua is necessary for successful pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression and functional role of CRT in EVTs using the human EVT cell line HTR8/SVneo, in which CRT gene expression was knocked down. We found that CRT was highly expressed in the human placenta in the early stage of pregnancy and localized to the EVTs. CRT knockdown markedly suppressed the invasion ability of HTR8/SVneo cells. Furthermore, the adhesion to fibronectin was suppressed in the CRT-knockdown cells via the dysfunction of integrin α5β1. In the CRT-knockdown cells, terminal sialylation and fucosylation were decreased, and the core galactose-containing structure was increased in the N-glycans of integrin β1. In addition, the expression levels of several critical glycosyltransferases were changed in the CRT-knockdown cells, consistent with the changes in the N-glycans. These results showed that CRT regulates the function of integrin β1 by affecting the synthesis of N-glycans in HTR8/SVneo cells. Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrate that the ER chaperone CRT plays a regulatory role in the invasion of EVTs, suggesting the importance of CRT expression in placental development during early pregnancy.

Sex- and Tissue-Specific Role of Estrogen Sulfotransferase in Energy Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity.

  • Garbacz WG
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Estrogen sulfotransferase catalyzes the sulfoconjugation and deactivation of estrogens. Previously, we showed that loss of Est in male ob/ob mice, but not in female ob/ob mice, exacerbated the diabetic phenotype, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. In this study, we show that transgenic reconstitution of Est in the adipose tissue, but not in the liver, attenuated diabetic phenotype in Est-deficient ob/ob mice (obe mice). Mechanistically, adipose reconstitution of Est in obe mice (oae mice) resulted in reduced local and systemic inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure. At the molecular level, adipose induction of lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) in oae males may have contributed to the inhibition of inflammation because the level of Lcn2 was negatively associated with tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) α expression, and treatment of differentiated adipocytes with Lcn2 antagonized Tnfα-responsive inhibition of insulin signaling. The metabolic benefit of adipose reconstitution of Est was sex specific, because adipose reconstitution of Est in obe females had little effect. Interestingly, despite their improved metabolic functions, obe male mice with reconstituted Est in their adipose tissue failed to ameliorate the impairment of the structure and function of the pancreatic islets. In summary, our study uncovers a crucial adipose- and male-specific role of Est in maintaining the whole-body energy homeostasis.

Lack of Lrp5 Signaling in Osteoblasts Sensitizes Male Mice to Diet-Induced Disturbances in Glucose Metabolism.

  • Kim SP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnt signaling through the low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 5 (Lrp5) coreceptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Mice rendered deficient for this coreceptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we challenged Lrp5-mutant mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to determine whether they were more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. The HFD-fed Lrp5 mutant mice maintained a low bone mass phenotype with an increase in adipose tissue mass and hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Examination of glucose metabolism revealed that Lrp5 deficiency in the osteoblast also resulted in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, with reductions in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin. The results from in vivo genetic epistasis and in vitro studies suggest that this phenotype proceeds via the accumulation of diacylglycerol species and impaired insulin signaling in Lrp5-deficient osteoblasts. In turn, glucose uptake and osteocalcin production are diminished in mutant osteoblasts. Taken together, these data identify a link between Wnt-Lrp5 signaling and insulin signaling in the osteoblast that has the potential to influence energy balance and compound the detrimental effects of a HFD on whole-body metabolism.

Long-Fiber Carbon Nanotubes Replicate Asbestos-Induced Mesothelioma with Disruption of the Tumor Suppressor Gene Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf).

  • Chernova T
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mesothelioma is a fatal tumor of the pleura and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. The molecular mechanisms underlying the long latency period of mesothelioma and driving carcinogenesis are unknown. Moreover, late diagnosis means that mesothelioma research is commonly focused on end-stage disease. Although disruption of the CDKN2A (INK4A/ARF) locus has been reported in end-stage disease, information is lacking on the status of this key tumor suppressor gene in pleural lesions preceding mesothelioma. Manufactured carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are similar to asbestos in terms of their fibrous shape and biopersistent properties and thus may pose an asbestos-like inhalation hazard. Here we show that instillation of either long CNTs or long asbestos fibers into the pleural cavity of mice induces mesothelioma that exhibits common key pro-oncogenic molecular events throughout the latency period of disease progression. Sustained activation of pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, increased proliferation, and oxidative DNA damage form a common molecular signature of long-CNT- and long-asbestos-fiber-induced pathology. We show that hypermethylation of p16/Ink4a and p19/Arf in CNT- and asbestos-induced inflammatory lesions precedes mesothelioma; this results in silencing of Cdkn2a (Ink4a/Arf) and loss of p16 and p19 protein, consistent with epigenetic alterations playing a gatekeeper role in cancer. In end-stage mesothelioma, silencing of p16/Ink4a is sustained and deletion of p19/Arf is detected, recapitulating human disease. This study addresses the long-standing question of which early molecular changes drive carcinogenesis during the long latency period of mesothelioma development and shows that CNT and asbestos pose a similar health hazard.

IGFBP4 Is Required for Adipogenesis and Influences the Distribution of Adipose Depots.

  • Maridas DE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulinlike growth factor (IGF) I induces adipogenesis in vitro. IGF-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) is highly expressed in adipocytes and osteoblasts and is inhibitory of IGFs in vitro. We previously reported that Igfbp4 null mice (Igfbp4-/-) had decreased fat proportions at 8 and 16 weeks of age. However, the mechanism leading to the reduced adiposity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how IGFBP4 mediates adipose tissue development in vivo. Our results showed that inguinal and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from Igfbp4-/- mice had decreased weights and Pparγ expression. Cultures of primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and ear mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) from mutant mice showed reduced adipogenesis. Both BMSCs and eMSC had a strong induction of Igfbp4 expression during adipogenesis. Furthermore, the increase in phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), a downstream target of IGF-I signaling, in wild-type cells, was blunted in mutant eMSCs. On a high-fat diet (HFD) there were sexual differences in adipocyte expansion of Igfbp4-/- mice. Mutant males gained weight by expanding their white fat depots. However, Igfbp4-/- female mice were protected against diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized Igfbp4-/- female mice gained weight in a manner similar to that seen in ovariectomized controls. Thus, Igfbp4 is required for inguinal fat expansion in female mice but not in male mice. However, gWAT expansion, which is prevented by estrogen during HFD, does not require Igfbp4.

Gonadotropin-Dependent Neuregulin-1 Signaling Regulates Female Rat Ovarian Granulosa Cell Survival.

  • Chowdhury I
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mammalian ovarian follicular development and maturation of an oocyte competent to be fertilized and develop into an embryo depends on tightly regulated, spatiotemporally orchestrated crosstalk among cell death, survival, and differentiation signals through extra- and intraovarian signals, as well as on a permissive ovarian follicular microenvironment. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like factor family that mediates its effects by binding to a member of the erythroblastoma (ErbB) family. Our experimental results suggest gonadotropins promote differential expression of NRG1 and erbB receptors in granulosa cells (GCs), and NRG1 in theca cells during follicular development, and promote NRG1 secretions in the follicular fluid (FF) of rat ovaries. During the estrous cycle of rat, NRG1 and erbB receptors are differentially expressed in GCs and correlate positively with serum gonadotropins and steroid hormones. Moreover, in vitro experimental studies suggest that the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (STS) causes the physical destruction of GCs by the activation of caspase-3. Exogenous NRG1 treatment of GCs delayed onset of STS-induced apoptosis and inhibited cleaved caspase-3 expressions. Moreover, exogenous NRG1 treatment of GCs alters STS-induced death by maintaining the expression of ErbB2, ErbB3, pAkt, Bcl2, and BclxL proteins. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that NRG1 is gonadotropin dependent, differentially regulated in GCs and theca cells, and secreted in ovarian FF as an intracellular survival factor that may govern follicular maturation.

Renal Metabolic Programming Is Linked to the Dynamic Regulation of a Leptin-Klf15 Axis and Akt/AMPKα Signaling in Male Offspring of Obese Dams.

  • Kasper P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard diet (SD; control group) prior to mating, during gestation, and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac). After weaning at postnatal day (P)21, offspring of all groups received SD. Clinically, HFD offspring were overweight and insulin resistant at P21. Although no metabolic changes were detected at P70, renal sodium excretion was reduced by 40%, and renal matrix deposition increased in the HFD group. Mechanistically, two stages were differentiated. In the early stage (P21), compared with the control group, HFD showed threefold increased white adipose tissue, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Renal leptin/Stat3-signaling was activated. In contrast, the Akt/ AMPKα cascade and Krüppel-like factor 15 expression were decreased. In the late stage (P70), although no metabolic differences were detected in HFD when compared with the control group, leptin/Stat3-signaling was reduced, and Akt/AMPKα was activated in the kidneys. This effect was linked to an increase of proliferative (cyclinD1/D2) and profibrotic (ctgf/collagen IIIα1) markers, similar to leptin-deficient mice. HFD-Lac mice exhibited metabolic changes at P21 similar to HFD, but no other persistent changes. This study shows a link between maternal obesity and metabolic programming of renal structure and function and intrinsic-renal Stat3/Akt/AMPKα signaling in the offspring.

Adipokines and Their Receptors Are Widely Expressed and Distinctly Regulated by the Metabolic Environment in the Prostate of Male Mice: Direct Role Under Normal and Tumoral Conditions.

  • Sarmento-Cabral A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adipose tissue-derived adipokines (i.e., leptin/adiponectin/resistin) play important roles in the regulation of several pathophysiologic processes through the activation of specific receptors. However, although adipokines and their receptors are widely distributed in many tissues and exhibit a clear modulation according to particular metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity and/or fasting), their expression, regulation, and putative action on normal prostate glands (PGs; a hormone-dependent organ tightly regulated by the endocrine-metabolic milieu) are still to be defined. Different in vivo/in vitro models were used to comprehensively characterize the expression pattern and actions of different adipokine systems (i.e., leptin/adiponectin/resistin/receptors) in mouse PGs. Adiponectin, resistin, and adiponectin receptors (1 and 2) and leptin receptor are coexpressed at different levels in PG cells, wherein they are finely regulated under fasting and/or obesity conditions. Furthermore, treatment with different adipokines exerted both homologous and heterologous regulation of specific adipokines/receptor-synthesis and altered the expression of key proliferation and oncogenesis markers (i.e., Ki67/c-Myc/p53) in mouse PG cell cultures, wherein some of these actions might be elicited through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Moreover, treatment with leptin, adiponectin, and resistin differentially regulated key functional parameters [i.e., proliferation and migration capacity and/or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion] in human normal and/or tumoral prostate cell lines. Altogether, our data show that various adipokine and receptor systems are differentially expressed in normal PG cells; that their expression is under a complex ligand- and receptor-selective regulation under extreme metabolic conditions; and that they mediate distinctive and common direct actions in normal and tumoral PG cells (i.e., homologous and heterologous regulation of ligand and receptor synthesis, ERK signaling activation, modulation of proliferation markers, proliferation and migration capacity, and PSA secretion), suggesting a relevant role of these systems in the regulation of PG pathophysiology.

Androgen Receptor Pathway-Independent Prostate Cancer Is Sustained through FGF Signaling.

  • Bluemn EG
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a distinctive feature of prostate carcinoma (PC) and represents the major therapeutic target for treating metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). Though highly effective, AR antagonism can produce tumors that bypass a functional requirement for AR, often through neuroendocrine (NE) transdifferentiation. Through the molecular assessment of mPCs over two decades, we find a phenotypic shift has occurred in mPC with the emergence of an AR-null NE-null phenotype. These "double-negative" PCs are notable for elevated FGF and MAPK pathway activity, which can bypass AR dependence. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK or FGFR repressed the growth of double-negative PCs in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that FGF/MAPK blockade may be particularly efficacious against mPCs with an AR-null phenotype.

Lithium Chloride Increases COX-2 Expression and PGE2 Production in a Human Granulosa-Lutein SVOG Cell Line Via a GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

  • Bai L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lithium chloride (LiCl) is widely prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorders and is associated with a higher incidence of reproductive adverse effects. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its derivative, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), play regulatory roles in the human ovulatory process. Whether LiCl affects ovulation by regulating COX2 expression and PGE2 production in the human ovary is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LiCl on the expression of COX-2 and production of PGE2 in human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells, as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect. Both immortalized and primary hGL cells were used as research models. Using dual inhibition approaches, our results show that LiCl initiates the hGL cellular action by inhibiting the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β [GSK-3β (phosphorylation of GSK-3β)] and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not by affecting protein kinase B or cAMP response element binding protein signaling. Additionally, the phosphorylation of GSK-3β, but not ERK1/2, resulted in the stabilization and nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, knockdown of either β-catenin or GSK-3β reversed the LiCl-induced upregulation of COX-2 expression. These results indicate that LiCl upregulates the expression of COX-2 and the subsequent production of PGE2 through the canonical GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in hGL cells.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG005085-02(United States)
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES023316(United States)

Dual function of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis in myelination of the peripheral nervous system.

  • Figlia G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelination is a biosynthetically demanding process in which mTORC1, the gatekeeper of anabolism, occupies a privileged regulatory position. We have shown previously that loss of mTORC1 function in Schwann cells (SCs) hampers myelination. Here, we genetically disrupted key inhibitory components upstream of mTORC1, TSC1 or PTEN, in mouse SC development, adult homeostasis, and nerve injury. Surprisingly, the resulting mTORC1 hyperactivity led to markedly delayed onset of both developmental myelination and remyelination after injury. However, if mTORC1 was hyperactivated after myelination onset, radial hypermyelination was observed. At early developmental stages, physiologically high PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling suppresses expression of Krox20 (Egr2), the master regulator of PNS myelination. This effect is mediated by S6K and contributes to control mechanisms that keep SCs in a not-fully differentiated state to ensure proper timing of myelination initiation. An ensuing decline in mTORC1 activity is crucial to allow myelination to start, while remaining mTORC1 activity drives myelin growth.

Apolipoprotein E4 Impairs Neuronal Insulin Signaling by Trapping Insulin Receptor in the Endosomes.

  • Zhao N
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diabetes and impaired brain insulin signaling are linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The association between diabetes and AD-associated amyloid pathology is stronger among carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene allele, the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Here we report that apoE4 impairs neuronal insulin signaling in human apoE-targeted replacement (TR) mice in an age-dependent manner. High-fat diet (HFD) accelerates these effects in apoE4-TR mice at middle age. In primary neurons, apoE4 interacts with insulin receptor and impairs its trafficking by trapping it in the endosomes, leading to impaired insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. In aging brains, the increased apoE4 aggregation and compromised endosomal function further exacerbate the inhibitory effects of apoE4 on insulin signaling and related functions. Together, our study provides novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of apoE4 and insulin resistance in AD.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG016574()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG027924()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG035355()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046205()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG027924()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG051504()

Androgens Regulate Ovarian Gene Expression Through Modulation of Ezh2 Expression and Activity.

  • Ma X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A substantial amount of evidence suggests that androgen signaling through classical androgen receptors is critical for both normal and pathologic ovarian physiology. Specifically, we and others have shown that, in mouse granulosa cells, androgen actions through both extranuclear and nuclear androgen receptor signaling are critical for normal follicle development and ovulation. Here, we show that androgens through the PI3K/Akt pathway rapidly (within minutes) phosphorylate and inhibit activity of the Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2). Over the course of 24 to 48 hours, androgens then induce expression of the microRNA miR-101, which targets Ezh2 messenger RNA (mRNA), leading to a nearly complete loss of Ezh2 protein expression. This long-term androgen-induced loss of Ezh2 actions ultimately results in sustained reduction of the H3K27me3-repressive mark in the promoter region of the Runt-related transcription factor-1 (Runx1) gene, a luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced transcription factor essential for ovulation, leading to increased Runx1 mRNA expression. Accordingly, blocking androgen-induced inhibition of Ezh2 in vivo adversely affects LH-induced Runx1 mRNA expression and subsequent ovulation. Importantly, although estrogen treatment of granulosa cells similarly causes rapid activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and short-term phosphorylation of Ezh2, it does not induce miR-101 expression and thereby does not reduce overall Ezh2 expression, demonstrating the androgen specificity of long-term Ezh2 suppression. Thus, this study provides insight regarding how androgen-induced extranuclear kinase signaling and intranuclear transcription through Ezh2 modifications may influence the expression pattern of genes, ultimately affecting various downstream physiological processes.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BBF0143921(United Kingdom)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD086062(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM101709(United States)

YAP/TAZ Orchestrate VEGF Signaling during Developmental Angiogenesis.

  • Wang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF activates YAP/TAZ via its effects on actin cytoskeleton and that activated YAP/TAZ induce a transcriptional program to further control cytoskeleton dynamics and thus establish a feedforward loop that ensures a proper angiogenic response. Lack of YAP/TAZ also results in altered cellular distribution of VEGFR2 due to trafficking defects from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Altogether, our study identifies YAP/TAZ as central mediators of VEGF signaling and therefore as important regulators of angiogenesis.

Protective Role of Complement C3 Against Cytokine-Mediated β-Cell Apoptosis.

  • Dos Santos RS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators. Based on RNA sequencing and protein-protein interaction analyses of human islets exposed to proinflammatory cytokines, we identified complement C3 as a hub for some of the effects of cytokines. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β plus interferon-γ increase C3 expression in rodent and human pancreatic β-cells, and C3 is detected by histology in and around the islets of diabetic patients. Surprisingly, C3 silencing exacerbates apoptosis under both basal condition and following exposure to cytokines, and it increases chemokine expression upon cytokine treatment. C3 exerts its prosurvival effects via AKT activation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Exogenously added C3 also protects against cytokine-induced β-cell death and partially rescues the deleterious effects of inhibition of endogenous C3. These data suggest that locally produced C3 is an important prosurvival mechanism in pancreatic β-cells under a proinflammatory assault.

Brief isoflurane anesthesia regulates striatal AKT-GSK3β signaling and ameliorates motor deficits in a rat model of early-stage Parkinson's disease.

  • Leikas JV
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The link between heightened activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and neurodegene-rative processes has encouraged investigation into the potential disease-modifying effects of novel GSK3β inhibitors in experimental models of PD. Therefore, the intriguing ability of several anesthetics to readily inhibit GSK3β within the cortex and hippocampus led us to investigate the effects of brief isoflurane anesthesia on striatal GSK3β signaling in naïve rats and in a rat model of early-stage PD. Deep but brief (20-min) isoflurane anesthesia exposure increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at the inhibitory Ser9 residue, and induced phosphorylation of AKTThr308 (protein kinase B; negative regulator of GSK3β) in the striatum of naïve rats and rats with unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. The 6-OHDA protocol produced gradual functional deficiency within the nigrostriatal pathway, reflected as a preference for using the limb ipsilateral to the lesioned striatum at 2 weeks post 6-OHDA. Interestingly, such motor impairment was not observed in animals exposed to four consecutive isoflurane treatments (20-min anesthesia every 48 h; treatments started 7 days after 6-OHDA delivery). However, isoflurane had no effect on striatal or nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopaminergic neurons) protein levels. This brief report provides promising results regarding the therapeutic potential and neurobiological mechanisms of anesthetics in experimental models of PD and guides development of novel disease-modifying therapies.

Heparan sulfate alterations in extracellular matrix structures and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling impairment in the aged neurogenic niche.

  • Yamada T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle decreases with age. In the subventricular zone, the specialized extracellular matrix structures, known as fractones, contact neural stem cells and regulate neurogenesis. Fractones are composed of extracellular matrix components, such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We previously found that fractones capture and store fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) via heparan sulfate binding, and may deliver FGF-2 to neural stem cells in a timely manner. The heparan sulfate (HS) chains in the fractones of the aged subventricular zone are modified based on immunohistochemistry. However, how aging affects fractone composition and subsequent FGF-2 signaling and neurogenesis remains unknown. The formation of the FGF-fibroblast growth factor receptor-HS complex is necessary to activate FGF-2 signaling and induce the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). In this study, we observed a reduction in HS 6-O-sulfation, which is critical for FGF-2 signal transduction, and failure of the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in the aged subventricular zone. In addition, we observed increased HS 6-O-endo-sulfatase, an enzyme that may be responsible for the HS modifications in aged fractones. In conclusion, the data revealed that heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfation is reduced and FGF-2-dependent Erk1/2 signaling is impaired in the aged subventricular zone. HS modifications in fractones might play a role in the reduced neurogenic activity in aging brains.

A Hypothalamic Phosphatase Switch Coordinates Energy Expenditure with Feeding.

  • Dodd GT
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Beige adipocytes can interconvert between white and brown-like states and switch between energy storage versus expenditure. Here we report that beige adipocyte plasticity is important for feeding-associated changes in energy expenditure and is coordinated by the hypothalamus and the phosphatase TCPTP. A fasting-induced and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of TCPTP, inhibited insulin signaling in AgRP/NPY neurons, repressed the browning of white fat and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely feeding reduced hypothalamic TCPTP, to increase AgRP/NPY neuronal insulin signaling, white adipose tissue browning and energy expenditure. The feeding-induced repression of hypothalamic TCPTP was defective in obesity. Mice lacking TCPTP in AgRP/NPY neurons were resistant to diet-induced obesity and had increased beige fat activity and energy expenditure. The deletion of hypothalamic TCPTP in obesity restored feeding-induced browning and increased energy expenditure to promote weight loss. Our studies define a hypothalamic switch that coordinates energy expenditure with feeding for the maintenance of energy balance.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY017097(United States)

TREM2 Maintains Microglial Metabolic Fitness in Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Ulland TK
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with hypomorphic variants of TREM2, a surface receptor required for microglial responses to neurodegeneration, including proliferation, survival, clustering, and phagocytosis. How TREM2 promotes such diverse responses is unknown. Here, we find that microglia in AD patients carrying TREM2 risk variants and TREM2-deficient mice with AD-like pathology have abundant autophagic vesicles, as do TREM2-deficient macrophages under growth-factor limitation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Combined metabolomics and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) linked this anomalous autophagy to defective mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which affects ATP levels and biosynthetic pathways. Metabolic derailment and autophagy were offset in vitro through Dectin-1, a receptor that elicits TREM2-like intracellular signals, and cyclocreatine, a creatine analog that can supply ATP. Dietary cyclocreatine tempered autophagy, restored microglial clustering around plaques, and decreased plaque-adjacent neuronal dystrophy in TREM2-deficient mice with amyloid-β pathology. Thus, TREM2 enables microglial responses during AD by sustaining cellular energetic and biosynthetic metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009547()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG003991()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG026276()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005681()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG051485()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK058177()

IL-6/Stat3-Dependent Induction of a Distinct, Obesity-Associated NK Cell Subpopulation Deteriorates Energy and Glucose Homeostasis.

  • Theurich S
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We demonstrate that in mice obesity promotes expansion of a distinct, interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R)a-expressing NK subpopulation, which also expresses a number of other myeloid lineage genes such as the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (Csf1r). Selective ablation of this Csf1r-expressing NK cell population prevents obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, conditional inactivation of IL6Ra or Stat3 in NK cells limits obesity-associated formation of these myeloid signature NK cells, protecting from obesity, insulin resistance, and obesity-associated inflammation. Also in humans IL6Ra+ NK cells increase in obesity and correlate with markers of systemic low-grade inflammation, and their gene expression profile overlaps with characteristic gene sets of NK cells in obese mice. Collectively, we demonstrate that obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disturbances depend on interleukin-6/Stat3-dependent formation of a distinct NK population, which may provide a target for the treatment of obesity, metaflammation-associated pathologies, and diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL096571(United States)
  • PHS HHS - HHSN268201100037C(United States)

MLKL, the Protein that Mediates Necroptosis, Also Regulates Endosomal Trafficking and Extracellular Vesicle Generation.

  • Yoon S
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Jul 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activation of the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) upon its phosphorylation by the protein kinase RIPK3 triggers necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death in which rupture of cellular membranes yields release of intracellular components. We report that MLKL also associated with endosomes and controlled the transport of endocytosed proteins, thereby enhancing degradation of receptors and ligands, modulating their induced signaling and facilitating the generation of extracellular vesicles. This role was exerted on two quantitative grades: a constitutive one independent of RIPK3, and an enhanced one, triggered by RIPK3, where the association of MLKL with the endosomes was enhanced, and it was found to bind endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins and the flotillins and to be excluded, together with them, from cells within vesicles. We suggest that release of phosphorylated MLKL within extracellular vesicles serves as a mechanism for self-restricting the necroptotic activity of this protein.

mTORC2 Regulates Amino Acid Metabolism in Cancer by Phosphorylation of the Cystine-Glutamate Antiporter xCT.

  • Gu Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in cancer reprogram amino acid metabolism to drive tumor growth, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified mTORC2 as a critical regulator of amino acid metabolism in cancer via phosphorylation of the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT. mTORC2 phosphorylates serine 26 at the cytosolic N terminus of xCT, inhibiting its activity. Genetic inhibition of mTORC2, or pharmacologic inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, promotes glutamate secretion, cystine uptake, and incorporation into glutathione, linking growth factor receptor signaling with amino acid uptake and utilization. These results identify an unanticipated mechanism regulating amino acid metabolism in cancer, enabling tumor cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA186668()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM116897()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073831()

IGF1R Expression in Ovarian Granulosa Cells Is Essential for Steroidogenesis, Follicle Survival, and Fertility in Female Mice.

  • Baumgarten SC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Folliculogenesis is a lengthy process that requires the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells (GCs) for preovulatory follicle formation. The most crucial endocrine factor involved in this process is follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Interestingly, previous in vitro studies indicated that FSH does not stimulate GC proliferation in the absence of the insulinlike growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). To determine the role of the IGF1R in vivo, female mice with a conditional knockdown of the IGF1R in the GCs were produced and had undetectable levels of IGF1R mRNA and protein in the GCs. These animals were sterile, and their ovaries were smaller than those of control animals and contained no antral follicles even after gonadotropin stimulation. The lack of antral follicles correlated with a 90% decrease in serum estradiol levels. In addition, under a superovulation protocol no oocytes were found in the oviducts of these animals. Accordingly, the GCs of the mutant females expressed significantly lower levels of preovulatory markers including aromatase, luteinizing hormone receptor, and inhibin α. In contrast, no alterations in FSH receptor expression were observed in GCs lacking IGF1R. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that ovaries lacking IGF1R had higher levels of apoptosis in follicles from the primary to the large secondary stages. Finally, molecular studies determined that protein kinase B activation was significantly impaired in mutant females when compared with controls. These in vivo findings demonstrate that IGF1R has a crucial role in GC function and, consequently, in female fertility.

Hypoxia-Sensitive COMMD1 Integrates Signaling and Cellular Metabolism in Human Macrophages and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis.

  • Murata K
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Jul 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypoxia augments inflammatory responses and osteoclastogenesis by incompletely understood mechanisms. We identified COMMD1 as a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis that is suppressed by hypoxia. In human macrophages, COMMD1 restrained induction of NF-κB signaling and a transcription factor E2F1-dependent metabolic pathway by the cytokine RANKL. Downregulation of COMMD1 protein expression by hypoxia augmented RANKL-induced expression of inflammatory and E2F1 target genes and downstream osteoclastogenesis. E2F1 targets included glycolysis and metabolic genes including CKB that enabled cells to meet metabolic demands in challenging environments, as well as inflammatory cytokine-driven target genes. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis linked increased COMMD1 expression with decreased bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis. Myeloid deletion of Commd1 resulted in increased osteoclastogenesis in arthritis and inflammatory osteolysis models. These results identify COMMD1 and an E2F-metabolic pathway as key regulators of osteoclastogenic responses under pathological inflammatory conditions and provide a mechanism by which hypoxia augments inflammation and bone destruction.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI044938()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R00 AR061430()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR050401()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR069562()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE019420()

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

Characterization of Ovarian Responses to Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin of Aromatase-Deficient Mice With or Without 17β-Estradiol Supplementation.

  • Toda K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aromatase is an enzyme catalyzing the final step of 17β-estradiol (E2) biosynthesis. Aromatase-deficient (ArKO) mice displayed vital roles of E2 at various tissue sites, including ovary. Here, we report attenuated responses of ArKO ovary to equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), an alternative to FSH. Ovarian contents of cAMP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), putative factors reducing sensitivity to gonadotropins, were significantly elevated in ArKO mice compared with those in wild type (WT) mice in the basal state. Accordingly, eCG-induced ovarian alterations in cAMP contents, phosphorylation levels of signaling molecules, and mRNA expression of eCG-targeted genes were blunted in ArKO mice compared with those in WT mice. Treatment of ArKO mice with E2 decreased ovarian cAMP and AMH contents to the WT levels but did not restore the sensitivity. Microarray analysis coupled with quantitative RT-PCR analysis identified 7 genes of which the mRNA expression levels in ArKO ovaries were significantly different from those in the WT ovaries in the basal state and were not normalized by E2 supplementation, indicating possible involvement of these gene products in the determination of ovarian sensitivity to eCG. Thus, present analyses revealed that estrogen deficiency attenuates sensitivity of the ovary to gonadotropin, which might be associated with alterations in the ovarian contents of multiple molecules including cAMP and AMH. Given the importance of the ovarian responses to gonadotropins in reproductive function, detailed knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of abnormalities in the ArKO ovary might help to develop potential targets for infertility treatments.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD073179(United States)

Ywhaz/14-3-3ζ Deletion Improves Glucose Tolerance Through a GLP-1-Dependent Mechanism.

  • Lim GE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple signaling pathways mediate the actions of metabolic hormones to control glucose homeostasis, but the proteins that coordinate such networks are poorly understood. We previously identified the molecular scaffold protein, 14-3-3ζ, as a critical regulator of in vitro β-cell survival and adipogenesis, but its metabolic roles in glucose homeostasis have not been studied in depth. Herein, we report that Ywhaz gene knockout mice (14-3-3ζKO) exhibited elevated fasting insulin levels while maintaining normal β-cell responsiveness to glucose when compared with wild-type littermate controls. In contrast with our observations after an ip glucose bolus, glucose tolerance was significantly improved in 14-3-3ζKO mice after an oral glucose gavage. This improvement in glucose tolerance was associated with significantly elevated fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. 14-3-3ζ knockdown in GLUTag L cells elevated GLP-1 synthesis and increased GLP-1 release. Systemic inhibition of the GLP-1 receptor attenuated the improvement in oral glucose tolerance that was seen in 14-3-3ζKO mice. When taken together these findings demonstrate novel roles of 14-3-3ζ in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and suggest that modulating 14-3-3ζ levels in intestinal L cells may have beneficial metabolic effects through GLP-1-dependent mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI118985(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK43140(United States)

Chronic Hyperinsulinemia Increases Myoblast Proliferation in Fetal Sheep Skeletal Muscle.

  • Brown LD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin is an important fetal growth factor. However, chronic experimental hyperinsulinemia in the fetus fails to accelerate linear and lean mass growth beyond normal rates. Mechanisms preventing accelerated lean mass accretion during hyperinsulinemia are unknown. To address potential mechanisms, late-gestation fetal sheep were infused with iv insulin and glucose to produce euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (INS) or saline for 7-9 days. Fetal substrate uptake and protein metabolic rates were measured. INS fetuses had 1.5-fold higher insulin concentrations (P < .0001) and equivalent glucose concentrations. INS fetuses had 20% more Pax7(+) nuclei in the biceps femoris, which indicates the potential for hyperinsulinemia to increase the number of myoblasts within late-gestation fetal skeletal muscle. Additionally, the percentage of Pax7(+) myoblasts that expressed Ki-67 was 1.3-fold higher and expression of myogenic regulatory factors was 50% lower in INS fetuses (MYF5 and MYOG [myogenin], P < .005), which indicates a shift toward myoblast proliferation over differentiation. There were no differences for fetal body, organ, or muscle weights, although INS placentas weighed 28% less (P < .05). Protein synthesis and accretion rates did not change in INS fetuses, nor did fiber muscle size. Essential amino acid concentrations were lower in the INS group (P < .05) except for tryptophan. Umbilical blood flow, net total amino acids, and O2 uptakes rates did not differ between groups. Arterial O2 content was 33% lower (P < .005) and norepinephrine was 100% higher in the INS fetuses (P < .01), all of which are factors that may counteract fetal protein accretion during hyperinsulinemia despite an increase in myoblast proliferation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007377(United States)

Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of GLUT by T3 and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in Rat Granulosa Cells.

  • Tian Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thyroid hormones are important for normal reproductive function. Although 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) enhances follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced preantral follicle growth and granulosa cells development in vitro, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating ovarian development via glucose. In this study, we investigated whether and how T3 combines with FSH to regulate glucose transporter protein (GLUT) expression and glucose uptake in granulosa cells. In this study, we present evidence that T3 and FSH cotreatment significantly increased GLUT-1/GLUT-4 expression, and translocation in cells, as well as glucose uptake. These changes were accompanied by upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)3 expression, total NOS and NOS3 activity, and NO content in granulosa cells. Furthermore, we found that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is required for the regulation of GLUT expression, translocation, and glucose uptake by hormones. We also found that l-arginine upregulated GLUT-1/GLUT-4 expression and translocation, which were related to increased glucose uptake; however, these responses were significantly blocked by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester. In addition, inhibiting NO production attenuated T3- and FSH-induced GLUT expression, translocation, and glucose uptake in granulosa cells. Our data demonstrate that T3 and FSH cotreatment potentiates cellular glucose uptake via GLUT upregulation and translocation, which are mediated through the activation of the mTOR/PI3K/Akt pathway. Meanwhile, NOS3/NO are also involved in this regulatory system. These findings suggest that GLUT is a mediator of T3- and FSH-induced follicular development.

Thermoregulatory and Cardiovascular Consequences of a Transient Thyrotoxicosis and Recovery in Male Mice.

  • Hoefig CS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thyroid hormones play a major role in body homeostasis, regulating energy expenditure and cardiovascular function. Given that obese people or athletes might consider rapid weight loss as beneficial, voluntary intoxication with T4 preparations is a growing cause for thyrotoxicosis. However, the long-lasting effects of transient thyrotoxicosis are poorly understood. Here we examined metabolic, thermoregulatory, and cardiovascular function upon induction and recovery from a 2-week thyrotoxicosis in male C57BL/6J mice. Our results showed that T4 treatment caused tachycardia, decreased hepatic glycogen stores, and higher body temperature as expected; however, we did not observe an increase in brown fat thermogenesis or decreased tail heat loss, suggesting that these tissues do not contribute to the hyperthermia induced by thyroid hormone. Most interestingly, when the T4 treatment was ended, a pronounced bradycardia was observed in the animals, which was likely caused by a rapid decline of T3 even below baseline levels. On the molecular level, this was accompanied by an overexpression of cardiac phospholamban and Serca2a mRNA, supporting the hypothesis that the heart depends more on T3 than T4. Our findings therefore demonstrate that a transient thyrotoxicosis can have pathological effects that even persist beyond the recovery of serum T4 levels, and in particular the observed bradycardia could be of clinical relevance when treating hyperthyroid patients.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG024372(United States)

Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (GPR120) Stimulates Bone Formation and Suppresses Bone Resorption in the Presence of Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels.

  • Ahn SH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) has been reported to be a receptor for n-3 fatty acids (FAs). Although n-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, a role of FFA4 in bone metabolism has been rarely investigated. We noted that FFA4 was more abundantly expressed in both mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts than their respective precursors and that it was activated by docosahexaenoic acid. FFA4 knockout (Ffar4(-/-)) and wild-type mice exhibited similar bone masses when fed a normal diet. Because fat-1 transgenic (fat-1(Tg+)) mice endogenously converting n-6 to n-3 FAs contain high n-3 FA levels, we crossed Ffar4(-/-) and fat-1(Tg+) mice over two generations to generate four genotypes of mice littermates: Ffar4(+/+);fat-1(Tg-), Ffar4(+/+);fat-1(Tg+), Ffar4(-/-);fat-1(Tg-), and Ffar4(-/-);fat-1(Tg+). Female and male littermates were included in ovariectomy- and high-fat diet-induced bone loss models, respectively. Female fat-1(Tg+) mice decreased bone loss after ovariectomy both by promoting osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption than their wild-type littermates, only when they had the Ffar4(+/+) background, but not the Ffar4(-/-) background. In a high-fat diet-fed model, male fat-1(Tg+) mice had higher bone mass resulting from stimulated bone formation and reduced bone resorption than their wild-type littermates, only when they had the Ffar4(+/+) background, but not the Ffar4(-/-) background. In vitro studies supported the role of FFA4 as n-3 FA receptor in bone metabolism. In conclusion, FFA4 is a dual-acting factor that increases osteoblastic bone formation and decreases osteoclastic bone resorption, suggesting that it may be an ideal target for modulating metabolic bone diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F32 DC000210(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007315(United States)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Effector ExoS Inhibits ROS Production in Human Neutrophils.

  • Vareechon C
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neutrophils are the first line of defense against bacterial infections, and the generation of reactive oxygen species is a key part of their arsenal. Pathogens use detoxification systems to avoid the bactericidal effects of reactive oxygen species. Here we demonstrate that the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is susceptible to reactive oxygen species but actively blocks the reactive oxygen species burst using two type III secreted effector proteins, ExoS and ExoT. ExoS ADP-ribosylates Ras and prevents it from interacting with and activating phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which is required to stimulate the phagocytic NADPH-oxidase that generates reactive oxygen species. ExoT also affects PI3K signaling via its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity but does not act directly on Ras. A non-ribosylatable version of Ras restores reactive oxygen species production and results in increased bacterial killing. These findings demonstrate that subversion of the host innate immune response requires ExoS-mediated ADP-ribosylation of Ras in neutrophils.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY011373()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY014362()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022052()
  • NEI NIH HHS - T32 EY007157()

Hippo Signaling Suppresses Cell Ploidy and Tumorigenesis through Skp2.

  • Zhang S
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polyploidy can lead to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo pathway effector Yap promotes the diploid-polyploid conversion and polyploid cell growth through the Akt-Skp2 axis. Yap strongly induces the acetyltransferase p300-mediated acetylation of the E3 ligase Skp2 via Akt signaling. Acetylated Skp2 is exclusively localized to the cytosol, which causes hyper-accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27, leading to mitotic arrest and subsequently cell polyploidy. In addition, the pro-apoptotic factors FoxO1/3 are overly degraded by acetylated Skp2, resulting in polyploid cell division, genomic instability, and oncogenesis. Importantly, the depletion or inactivation of Akt or Skp2 abrogated Hippo signal deficiency-induced liver tumorigenesis, indicating their epistatic interaction. Thus, we conclude that Hippo-Yap signaling suppresses cell polyploidy and oncogenesis through Skp2.

Enhancement of brain plasticity and recovery of locomotive function after lumbar spinal cord stimulation in combination with gait training with partial weight support in rats with cerebral ischemia.

  • Choi YH
  • Brain Res.
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lumbar spinal cord stimulation (LSCS) is reportedly effective for the recovery of locomotive intraspinal neural network, motor cortex and basal ganglia in animals with complete spinal cord injury and parkinsonism. We evaluated the effect of LSCS in combination with gait training on the recovery of locomotive function and brain plasticity using a rat model of brain ischemia. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats with ischemia were randomly assigned into one of four groups: sham treatment (group 1), LSCS only (group 2), LSCS with gait training and 50% (group 3) and 80% (group 4) of body weight support. Evaluations before randomization and 4weeks after intervention included motor scoring index, real-time PCR and Western blot. Motor scoring index was significantly improved after the intervention in groups 2 and 3. The ratio of phospho-protein kinase C (PKC) to PKC measured in the infarcted area tended to be higher in groups 3 and 4. Protein expression of mGluR2 and mRNA expression of mGluR1 measured in the contralateral cortex were lower in groups 3 and 4. The ratio of phospho-Akt to Akt and mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor measured in the ischemic border zone were higher in group 2. The mRNA expression of MAP1b measured in the infarcted area was significantly higher in group 2. The findings suggest that LSCS and gait training with an adequate amount of body weight support may promote brain plasticity and facilitate the functional recovery.

Aging Triggers Cytoplasmic Depletion and Nuclear Translocation of the E3 Ligase Mahogunin: A Function for Ubiquitin in Neuronal Survival.

  • Benvegnù S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

A decline in proteasome function is causally connected to neuronal aging and aging-associated neuropathologies. By using hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo, we show that aging triggers a reduction and a cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of the E3 ubiquitin ligase mahogunin (MGRN1). Proteasome impairment induces MGRN1 monoubiquitination, the key post-translational modification for its nuclear entry. One potential mechanism for MGRN1 monoubiquitination is via progressive deubiquitination at the proteasome of polyubiquitinated MGRN1. Once in the nucleus, MGRN1 potentiates the transcriptional cellular response to proteotoxic stress. Inhibition of MGRN1 impairs ATF3-mediated neuronal responsiveness to proteosomal stress and increases neuronal stress, while increasing MGRN1 ameliorates signs of neuronal aging, including cognitive performance in old animals. Our results imply that, among others, the strength of neuronal survival in a proteasomal deterioration background, like during aging, depends on the fine-tuning of ubiquitination-deubiquitination.

Insulin Signaling Regulates the FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A Pathway to Promote Adaptive Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation.

  • Shirakawa J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Investigation of cell-cycle kinetics in mammalian pancreatic β cells has mostly focused on transition from the quiescent (G0) to G1 phase. Here, we report that centromere protein A (CENP-A), which is required for chromosome segregation during the M-phase, is necessary for adaptive β cell proliferation. Receptor-mediated insulin signaling promotes DNA-binding activity of FoxM1 to regulate expression of CENP-A and polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) by modulating cyclin-dependent kinase-1/2. CENP-A deposition at the centromere is augmented by PLK1 to promote mitosis, while knocking down CENP-A limits β cell proliferation and survival. CENP-A deficiency in β cells leads to impaired adaptive proliferation in response to pregnancy, acute and chronic insulin resistance, and aging in mice. Insulin-stimulated CENP-A/PLK1 protein expression is blunted in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. These data implicate the insulin-FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A pathway-regulated mitotic cell-cycle progression as an essential component in the β cell adaptation to delay and/or prevent progression to diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK036836()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK055523()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK067536()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103215()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK104167()

The Glycoside Oleandrin Reduces Glioma Growth with Direct and Indirect Effects on Tumor Cells.

  • Garofalo S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oleandrin is a glycoside that inhibits the ubiquitous enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase. In addition to its known effects on cardiac muscle, recent in vitro and in vivo evidence highlighted its potential for anticancer properties. Here, we evaluated for the first time the effect of oleandrin on brain tumors. To this aim, mice were transplanted with human or murine glioma and analyzed for tumor progression upon oleandrin treatment. In both systems, oleandrin impaired glioma development, reduced tumor size, and inhibited cell proliferation. We demonstrated that oleandrin does the following: (1) enhances the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in the brain; (2) reduces both microglia/macrophage infiltration and CD68 immunoreactivity in the tumor mass; (3) decreases astrogliosis in peritumoral area; and (4) reduces glioma cell infiltration in healthy parenchyma. In BDNF-deficient mice (bdnftm1Jae/J) and in glioma cells silenced for TrkB receptor expression, oleandrin was not effective, indicating a crucial role for BDNF in oleandrin's protective and antitumor functions. In addition, we found that oleandrin increases survival of temozolomide-treated mice. These results encourage the development of oleandrin as possible coadjuvant agent in clinical trials of glioma treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we paved the road for a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of brain tumors, demonstrating the potential of using the cardioactive glycoside oleandrin as a coadjuvant drug to standard chemotherapeutics such as temozolomide. In murine models of glioma, we demonstrated that oleandrin significantly increased mouse survival and reduced tumor growth both directly on tumor cells and indirectly by promoting an antitumor brain microenvironment with a key protective role played by the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

The Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Integrates Proteostasis and Aging by Regulation of Insulin Receptor Turnover.

  • Tawo R
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is attended by a progressive decline in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), aggravating the risk for protein aggregation diseases. To understand the coordination between proteome imbalance and longevity, we addressed the mechanistic role of the quality-control ubiquitin ligase CHIP, which is a key regulator of proteostasis. We observed that CHIP deficiency leads to increased levels of the insulin receptor (INSR) and reduced lifespan of worms and flies. The membrane-bound INSR regulates the insulin and IGF1 signaling (IIS) pathway and thereby defines metabolism and aging. INSR is a direct target of CHIP, which triggers receptor monoubiquitylation and endocytic-lysosomal turnover to promote longevity. However, upon proteotoxic stress conditions and during aging, CHIP is recruited toward disposal of misfolded proteins, reducing its capacity to degrade the INSR. Our study indicates a competitive relationship between proteostasis and longevity regulation through CHIP-assisted proteolysis, providing a mechanistic concept for understanding the impact of proteome imbalance on aging.

Dual Role of Insulin in Spexin Regulation: Functional Link Between Food Intake and Spexin Expression in a Fish Model.

  • Ma A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spexin (SPX), a neuropeptide discovered by the bioinformatics approach, has been recently identified as a satiety factor in a fish model. However, the functional link between feeding and SPX expression as well as the signal transduction for SPX regulation are totally unknown. In this study, we used goldfish as a model to examine the functional role of insulin as a postprandial signal for SPX regulation in bony fish. In goldfish, feeding could elevate plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and SPX with concurrent rises in insulin and SPX messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the liver. Similar elevation in SPX mRNA level was also observed in the liver and brain areas involved in appetite control in goldfish after intraperitoneal injection of glucose and insulin, respectively. In parallel experiments with goldfish hepatocytes and brain cell culture, insulin signal induced by glucose was shown to exert a dual role in SPX regulation, namely (1) acting as an autocrine/paracrine signal to trigger SPX mRNA expression in the liver and (2) serving as an endocrine signal to induce SPX gene expression in the brain. Apparently, the peripheral (in the liver) and central actions of insulin (in the brain) on SPX gene expression were mediated by insulin receptor (to a lesser extent by insulin-like growth factor I receptor) coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin but not mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 cascades. Our findings indicate that an insulin component inducible by glucose is present in the liver of the fish model and may serve as the postprandial signal linking food intake with SPX expression both in the central as well as at the hepatic level.

Selective Chemical Inhibition of PGC-1α Gluconeogenic Activity Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes.

  • Sharabi K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic with a medical need for additional targeted therapies. Suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) effectively ameliorates diabetes and can be exploited for its treatment. We hypothesized that targeting PGC-1α acetylation in the liver, a chemical modification known to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, could be potentially used for treatment of T2D. Thus, we designed a high-throughput chemical screen platform to quantify PGC-1α acetylation in cells and identified small molecules that increase PGC-1α acetylation, suppress gluconeogenic gene expression, and reduce glucose production in hepatocytes. On the basis of potency and bioavailability, we selected a small molecule, SR-18292, that reduces blood glucose, strongly increases hepatic insulin sensitivity, and improves glucose homeostasis in dietary and genetic mouse models of T2D. These studies have important implications for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism and treatment of T2D.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG005032()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R03 DA032468()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK102293()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK040936()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK069966()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK080261()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U2C DK059635()

The PERK arm of the unfolded protein response regulates satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration.

  • Xiong G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults is mediated by satellite stem cells. Accumulation of misfolded proteins triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress that leads to unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is relayed to the cell through the activation of PERK, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6. Here, we demonstrate that levels of PERK and IRE1 are increased in satellite cells upon muscle injury. Inhibition of PERK, but not the IRE1 arm of the UPR in satellite cells inhibits myofiber regeneration in adult mice. PERK is essential for the survival and differentiation of activated satellite cells into the myogenic lineage. Deletion of PERK causes hyper-activation of p38 MAPK during myogenesis. Blocking p38 MAPK activity improves the survival and differentiation of PERK-deficient satellite cells in vitro and muscle formation in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that the PERK arm of the UPR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of satellite cell homeostasis during regenerative myogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG029623()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR059810()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR068313()

Crosstalk between CLCb/Dyn1-Mediated Adaptive Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Increases Metastasis.

  • Chen PH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signaling receptors are internalized and regulated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Two clathrin light chain isoforms, CLCa and CLCb, are integral components of the endocytic machinery whose differential functions remain unknown. We report that CLCb is specifically upregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Engineered single CLCb-expressing NSCLC cells, as well as "switched" cells that predominantly express CLCb, exhibit increased rates of CME and altered clathrin-coated pit dynamics. This "adaptive CME" resulted from upregulation of dynamin-1 (Dyn1) and its activation through a positive feedback loop involving enhanced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent Akt/GSK3β phosphorylation. CLCb/Dyn1-dependent adaptive CME selectively altered EGF receptor trafficking, enhanced cell migration in vitro, and increased the metastatic efficiency of NSCLC cells in vivo. We define molecular mechanisms for adaptive CME in cancer cells and a role for the reciprocal crosstalk between signaling and CME in cancer progression.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM042455()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM073165()

Multivalent Small-Molecule Pan-RAS Inhibitors.

  • Welsch ME
  • Cell
  • 2017 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Design of small molecules that disrupt protein-protein interactions, including the interaction of RAS proteins and their effectors, may provide chemical probes and therapeutic agents. We describe here the synthesis and testing of potential small-molecule pan-RAS ligands, which were designed to interact with adjacent sites on the surface of oncogenic KRAS. One compound, termed 3144, was found to bind to RAS proteins using microscale thermophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry and to exhibit lethality in cells partially dependent on expression of RAS proteins. This compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes and displayed anti-tumor activity in xenograft mouse cancer models. These findings suggest that pan-RAS inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for some cancers and that structure-based design of small molecules targeting multiple adjacent sites to create multivalent inhibitors may be effective for some proteins.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA097061()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA161061()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025431()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM111244()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM085081()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008281()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD012018()

Loss of MyoD Promotes Fate Transdifferentiation of Myoblasts Into Brown Adipocytes.

  • Wang C
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2017 Feb 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a promising agent to ameliorate obesity and other metabolic disorders. However, the abundance of BAT decreases with age and BAT paucity is a common feature of obese subjects. As brown adipocytes and myoblasts share a common Myf5 lineage origin, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the fate choices of brown adipocytes versus myoblasts may lead to novel approaches to expand BAT mass. Here we identify MyoD as a key negative regulator of brown adipocyte development. CRISPR/CAS9-mediated deletion of MyoD in C2C12 myoblasts facilitates their adipogenic transdifferentiation. MyoD knockout downregulates miR-133 and upregulates the miR-133 target Igf1r, leading to amplification of PI3K-Akt signaling. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K or Akt abolishes the adipogenic gene expression of MyoD null myoblasts. Strikingly, loss of MyoD converts satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts to brown adipocytes through upregulation of Prdm16, a target of miR-133 and key determinant of brown adipocyte fate. Conversely, forced expression of MyoD in brown preadipocytes blocks brown adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of myogenic genes. Importantly, miR-133a knockout significantly blunts the inhibitory effect of MyoD on brown adipogenesis. Our results establish MyoD as a negative regulator of brown adipocyte development by upregulating miR-133 to suppress Akt signaling and Prdm16.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR060652()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR062142()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R21 AR070319()

Diet Polyphenol Curcumin Stimulates Hepatic Fgf21 Production and Restores Its Sensitivity in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Male Mice.

  • Zeng K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We found previously that short-term curcumin gavage stimulated mouse hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) expression. Here we conducted mechanistic exploration and investigated the potential pathophysiological relevance on this regulation. Fgf21 stimulation was observed at messenger RNA and protein levels in mice with daily curcumin gavage for 4 or 8 days and in primary hepatocytes with curcumin treatment. Using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist and antagonist, along with luciferase reporter and chromatin immune-precipitation approaches, we determined that curcumin stimulates Fgf21 transcription in a mechanism involving PPARα activation. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding also increased mouse hepatic and serum Fgf21 levels, whereas dietary curcumin intervention attenuated these increases. We found that HFD feeding reduced hepatic expression levels of genes that encode FGFR1 and βKlotho, PGC1α, and the targets of the PPARα-PGC1α axis, whereas concomitant curcumin intervention restored or partially restored their expression levels. Importantly, hepatocytes from HFD-fed mice showed a loss of response to FGF21 treatment on Erk phosphorylation and the expression of Egr1 and cFos; this response was restored in hepatocytes from HFD-fed mice with curcumin intervention. This investigation expanded our mechanistic understanding of the metabolic beneficial effects of dietary curcumin intervention involving the regulation of Fgf21 production and the attenuation of HFD-induced Fgf21 resistance.

Context Specificity in Causal Signaling Networks Revealed by Phosphoprotein Profiling.

  • Hill SM
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Signaling networks downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases are among the most extensively studied biological networks, but new approaches are needed to elucidate causal relationships between network components and understand how such relationships are influenced by biological context and disease. Here, we investigate the context specificity of signaling networks within a causal conceptual framework using reverse-phase protein array time-course assays and network analysis approaches. We focus on a well-defined set of signaling proteins profiled under inhibition with five kinase inhibitors in 32 contexts: four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, UACC812, BT20, and BT549) under eight stimulus conditions. The data, spanning multiple pathways and comprising ∼70,000 phosphoprotein and ∼260,000 protein measurements, provide a wealth of testable, context-specific hypotheses, several of which we experimentally validate. Furthermore, the data provide a unique resource for computational methods development, permitting empirical assessment of causal network learning in a complex, mammalian setting.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_0801/1()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UP_1302/3()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA112970()

Angiopoietin receptor Tie2 is required for vein specification and maintenance via regulating COUP-TFII.

  • Chu M
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanisms underlying the vein development remain largely unknown. Tie2 signaling mediates endothelial cell (EC) survival and vascular maturation and its activating mutations are linked to venous malformations. Here we show that vein formation are disrupted in mouse skin and mesentery when Tie2 signals are diminished by targeted deletion of Tek either ubiquitously or specifically in embryonic ECs. Postnatal Tie2 attenuation resulted in the degeneration of newly formed veins followed by the formation of haemangioma-like vascular tufts in retina and venous tortuosity. Mechanistically, Tie2 insufficiency compromised venous EC identity, as indicated by a significant decrease of COUP-TFII protein level, a key regulator in venogenesis. Consistently, angiopoietin-1 stimulation increased COUP-TFII in cultured ECs, while Tie2 knockdown or blockade of Tie2 downstream PI3K/Akt pathway reduced COUP-TFII which could be reverted by the proteasome inhibition. Together, our results imply that Tie2 is essential for venous specification and maintenance via Akt mediated stabilization of COUP-TFII.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS062736(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065020(United States)

Nervous System Expression of PPARγ and Mutant PPARγ Has Profound Effects on Metabolic Regulation and Brain Development.

  • Stump M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. Recent studies suggest PPARγ may mediate some of its metabolic effects through actions in the brain. We used a Cre-recombinase-dependent (using NestinCre) conditionally activatable transgene expressing either wild-type (WT) or dominant-negative (P467L) PPARγ to examine mechanisms by which PPARγ in the nervous system controls energy balance. Inducible expression of PPARγ was evident throughout the brain. Expression of 2 PPARγ target genes, aP2 and CD36, was induced by WT but not P467L PPARγ in the brain. Surprisingly, NesCre/PPARγ-WT mice exhibited severe microcephaly and brain malformation, suggesting that PPARγ can modulate brain development. On the contrary, NesCre/PPARγ-P467L mice exhibited blunted weight gain to high-fat diet, which correlated with a decrease in lean mass and tissue masses, accompanied by elevated plasma GH, and depressed plasma IGF-1, indicative of GH resistance. There was no expression of the transgene in the pancreas but both fasting plasma glucose, and fed and fasted plasma insulin levels were markedly decreased. NesCre/PPARγ-P467L mice fed either control diet or high-fat diet displayed impaired glucose tolerance yet exhibited increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin and increased insulin receptor signaling in white adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. These observations support the concept that alterations in PPARγ-driven mechanisms in the nervous system play a role in the regulation of growth and glucose metabolic homeostasis.

Hematopoietic-Derived Galectin-3 Causes Cellular and Systemic Insulin Resistance.

  • Li P
  • Cell
  • 2016 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

In obesity, macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in insulin target tissues, promoting a chronic inflammatory state and insulin resistance. Galectin-3 (Gal3), a lectin mainly secreted by macrophages, is elevated in both obese subjects and mice. Administration of Gal3 to mice causes insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, whereas inhibition of Gal3, through either genetic or pharmacologic loss of function, improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice. In vitro treatment with Gal3 directly enhanced macrophage chemotaxis, reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in myocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes and impaired insulin-mediated suppression of glucose output in primary mouse hepatocytes. Importantly, we found that Gal3 can bind directly to the insulin receptor (IR) and inhibit downstream IR signaling. These observations elucidate a novel role for Gal3 in hepatocyte, adipocyte, and myocyte insulin resistance, suggesting that Gal3 can link inflammation to decreased insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of Gal3 could be a new approach to treat insulin resistance.

Epigenetic Activation of WNT5A Drives Glioblastoma Stem Cell Differentiation and Invasive Growth.

  • Hu B
  • Cell
  • 2016 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. To illuminate mechanisms governing these hallmark features, we developed a de novo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model derived from immortalized human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) to enable precise system-level comparisons of pre-malignant and oncogene-induced malignant states of NSCs. Integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses uncovered a PAX6/DLX5 transcriptional program driving WNT5A-mediated GSC differentiation into endothelial-like cells (GdECs). GdECs recruit existing endothelial cells to promote peritumoral satellite lesions, which serve as a niche supporting the growth of invasive glioma cells away from the primary tumor. Clinical data reveal higher WNT5A and GdECs expression in peritumoral and recurrent GBMs relative to matched intratumoral and primary GBMs, respectively, supporting WNT5A-mediated GSC differentiation and invasive growth in disease recurrence. Thus, the PAX6/DLX5-WNT5A axis governs the diffuse spread of glioma cells throughout the brain parenchyma, contributing to the lethality of GBM.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS094589(United States)

Regulation of mTORC1 by lysosomal calcium and calmodulin.

  • Li RJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Blockade of lysosomal calcium release due to lysosomal lipid accumulation has been shown to inhibit mTORC1 signaling. However, the mechanism by which lysosomal calcium regulates mTORC1 has remained undefined. Herein we report that proper lysosomal calcium release through the calcium channel TRPML1 is required for mTORC1 activation. TRPML1 depletion inhibits mTORC1 activity, while overexpression or pharmacologic activation of TRPML1 has the opposite effect. Lysosomal calcium activates mTORC1 by inducing association of calmodulin (CaM) with mTOR. Blocking the interaction between mTOR and CaM by antagonists of CaM significantly inhibits mTORC1 activity. Moreover, CaM is capable of stimulating the kinase activity of mTORC1 in a calcium-dependent manner in vitro. These results reveal that mTOR is a new type of CaM-dependent kinase, and TRPML1, lysosomal calcium and CaM play essential regulatory roles in the mTORC1 signaling pathway.

Obesity-Dependent Increases in Oocyte mRNAs Are Associated With Increases in Proinflammatory Signaling and Gut Microbial Abundance of Lachnospiraceae in Female Mice.

  • Xie F
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

RNAs stored in the metaphase II-arrested oocyte play important roles in successful embryonic development. Their abundance is defined by transcriptional activity during oocyte growth and selective degradation of transcripts during LH-induced oocyte maturation. Our previous studies demonstrated that mRNA abundance is increased in mature ovulated oocytes collected from obese humans and mice and therefore may contribute to reduced oocyte developmental competence associated with metabolic dysfunction. In the current study mouse models of diet-induced obesity were used to determine whether obesity-dependent increases in proinflammatory signaling regulate ovarian abundance of oocyte-specific mRNAs. The abundance of oocyte-specific Bnc1, Dppa3, and Pou5f1 mRNAs as well as markers of proinflammatory signaling were significantly increased in ovaries of obese compared with lean mice which were depleted of fully grown preovulatory follicles. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses also demonstrated increased association of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 with the Pou5f1 promoter in ovaries of obese mice suggesting that proinflammatory signaling regulates transcription of this gene in the oocyte. The cecum microbial content of lean and obese female mice was subsequently examined to identify potential relationships between microbial composition and proinflammatory signaling in the ovary. Multivariate Association with Linear Models identified significant positive correlations between cecum abundance of the bacterial family Lachnospiraceae and ovarian abundance of Tnfa as well as Dppa3, Bnc1, and Pou5f1 mRNAs. Together, these data suggest that diet-induced changes in gut microbial composition may be contributing to ovarian inflammation which in turn alters ovarian gene expression and ultimately contributes to obesity-dependent reduction in oocyte quality and development of infertility in obese patients.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY018660(United States)

Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery.

  • Mahoney RE
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP). A critical target of this regulatory mechanism is Complexin, a synaptic protein known to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that the amounts of Complexin protein observed at the synapse is regulated by insulin and genetic manipulations of Complexin levels support the model that increased synaptic Complexin reduces neurotransmission in response to insulin signaling.

Essential Role of IGFIR in the Onset of Male Brown Fat Thermogenic Function: Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by Differential Organ-Specific Insulin Sensitivity.

  • Viana-Huete V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brown fat is a thermogenic tissue that generates heat to maintain body temperature in cold environments and dissipate excess energy in response to overfeeding. We have addressed the role of the IGFIR in the brown fat development and function. Mice lacking IGFIR exhibited normal brown adipose tissue/body weight in knockout (KO) vs control mice. However, lack of IGFIR decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression in interscapular brown fat and beige cells in inguinal fat. More importantly, the lack of IGFIR resulted in an impaired cold acclimation. No differences in the total fat volume were found in the KO vs control mice. Epididymal fat showed larger adipocytes but with a lower number of adipocytes in KO vs control mice at age 12 months. In addition, KO mice showed a sustained moderate hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia upon time and hepatic insulin insensitivity associated with lipid accumulation, with the outcome of a global insulin resistance. In addition, we found that the expression of uncoupling protein 3 in the skeletal muscle was decreased and its expression was increased in the heart in parallel with the expression of beta-2 adrenergic receptors. Upon nonobesogenic high-fat diet, we found a severe insulin resistance in the liver and in the skeletal muscle, but unchanged insulin sensitivity in the heart. In conclusion, our data suggest that IGFIR it is not an essential growth factor in the brown fat development in the presence of the IR and very high plasma levels of IGF-I, but it is indispensable for full brown fat functionality.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5K01NS085071-03(United States)

The ERα-PI3K Cascade in Proopiomelanocortin Progenitor Neurons Regulates Feeding and Glucose Balance in Female Mice.

  • Zhu L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Estrogens act upon estrogen receptor (ER)α to inhibit feeding and improve glucose homeostasis in female animals. However, the intracellular signals that mediate these estrogenic actions remain unknown. Here, we report that anorexigenic effects of estrogens are blunted in female mice that lack ERα specifically in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) progenitor neurons. These mutant mice also develop insulin resistance and are insensitive to the glucose-regulatory effects of estrogens. Moreover, we showed that propyl pyrazole triol (an ERα agonist) stimulates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway specifically in POMC progenitor neurons, and that blockade of PI3K attenuates propyl pyrazole triol-induced activation of POMC neurons. Finally, we show that effects of estrogens to inhibit food intake and to improve insulin sensitivity are significantly attenuated in female mice with PI3K genetically inhibited in POMC progenitor neurons. Together, our results indicate that an ERα-PI3K cascade in POMC progenitor neurons mediates estrogenic actions to suppress food intake and improve insulin sensitivity.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA033150(United States)

Tofogliflozin Improves Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle and Accelerates Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice.

  • Obata A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have attracted attention as they exert antidiabetic and antiobesity effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tofogliflozin on glucose homeostasis and its metabolic consequences and clarified the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 20 weeks or a high-fat diet containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 8 weeks ad libitum. In addition, the animals were pair-fed in relation to controls to exclude the influence of increased food intake. Tofogliflozin reduced the body weight gain, mainly because of fat mass reduction associated with a diminished adipocyte size. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were ameliorated. The serum levels of nonesterified fatty acid and ketone bodies were increased and the respiratory quotient was decreased in the tofogliflozin-treated mice, suggesting the acceleration of lipolysis in the white adipose tissue and hepatic β-oxidation. In fact, the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the adipose triglyceride lipase protein levels in the white adipose tissue as well as the gene expressions related to β-oxidation, such as Cpt1α in the liver, were significantly increased. The hepatic triglyceride contents and the expression levels of lipogenic genes were decreased. Pair-fed mice exhibited almost the same results as mice fed an high-fat diet ad libitum. Moreover, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed that tofogliflozin improved insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake, especially in the skeletal muscle, in pair-fed mice. Taken together, these results suggest tofogliflozin ameliorates insulin resistance and obesity by increasing glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P50 HD071836(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01-NS082266(United States)

Low Oxygen Tension Modulates the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 or -2 Signaling via Both Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Insulin Receptor to Maintain Stem Cell Identity in Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

  • Youssef A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) are readily available multipotent stem cells for potential use in regenerative therapies. For this purpose, PMSCs must be maintained in culture conditions that mimic the in vivo microenvironment. IGFs (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and oxygen tension are low in the placenta in early gestation and increase as pregnancy progresses. IGFs bind to two receptor tyrosine kinases, the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the insulin receptor (IR), and their hybrid receptors. We hypothesized that IGF-1 and IGF-2 signal via distinct signaling pathways under low-oxygen tension to maintain PMSC multipotency. In preterm PMSCs, low-oxygen tension increased the expression of IGF-2 and reduced IGF-1. IGF-1 stimulated higher phosphorylation of IGF-1Rβ, ERK1/2, and AKT, which was maintained at steady lower levels by low oxygen tension. PMSC proliferation was increased by IGF-1 more than IGF-2,and was potentiated by low-oxygen tension. This IGF/low oxygen tension-mediated proliferation was receptor dependent because neutralization of the IGF-1R inhibited PMSC proliferation in the presence of IGF-1 and the IR in presence of IGF-2. These findings suggest that both IGF-1R and the IR can participate in mediating IGF signaling in maintaining PMSCs multipotency. We conclude that low-oxygen tension can modify the IGF-1 or IGF-2 signaling via the IGF-1R and IR in PMSCs.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01HL110737-01(United States)

Phenotypic Characterization of Mice Carrying Homozygous Deletion of KLF11, a Gene in Which Mutations Cause Human Neonatal and MODY VII Diabetes.

  • Mathison A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously shown that amino acid changes in the human Kruppel-Like Factor (KLF) 11 protein is associated with the development of maturity onset diabetes of the young VII, whereas complete inactivation of this pathway by the -331 human insulin mutation causes neonatal diabetes mellitus. Here, we report that Klf11-/- mice have decreased circulating insulin levels, alterations in the control of blood glucose and body weight, as well as serum dyslipidemia, but do not develop diabetes. Functional assays using ex vivo liver tissue sections demonstrate that Klf11-/- mice display increased insulin sensitivity. Genome-wide experiments validated by pathway-specific quantitative PCR arrays reveal that the Klf11-/- phenotype associates to alterations in the regulation of gene networks involved in lipid metabolism, in particular those regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Combined, these results demonstrate that the major phenotype given by the whole-body deletion of Klf11 in mouse is not diabetes but increased insulin sensitivity, likely due to altered transcriptional regulation in target tissues. The absence of diabetes in the Klf11-/- mouse either indicates an interspecies difference for the role of this transcription factor in metabolic homeostasis between mouse and humans, or potentially highlights the fact that other molecular factors can compensate for its absence. Nevertheless, the data of this study, gathered at the whole-organism level, further support a role for KLF11 in metabolic processes like insulin sensitivity, which regulation is critical in several forms of diabetes.

Funding information:
  • The Dunhill Medical Trust - R302/0713(United Kingdom)

Growth Differentiation Factor-8 Decreases StAR Expression Through ALK5-Mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Luteinized Human Granulosa Cells.

  • Fang L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) has been recently shown to be expressed in human granulosa cells, and the mature form of GDF-8 protein can be detected in the follicular fluid. However, the biological function and significance of this growth factor in the human ovary remains to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF-8 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and the potential mechanisms of action in luteinized human granulosa cells. We demonstrated that treatment with GDF-8 did not affect the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, whereas it significantly down-regulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effect of GDF-8 on StAR expression was abolished by the inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with GDF-8 activated both Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 5 reversed the effects of GDF-8 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation and StAR expression. The inhibition of Smad3 or ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the GDF-8-induced down-regulation of StAR and production of progesterone. Interestingly, the concentrations of GDF-8 were negatively correlated with those of progesterone in human follicular fluid. These results indicate a novel autocrine function of GDF-8 to down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in luteinized human granulosa cells, most likely through activin receptor-like kinase 5-mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that granulosa cells might play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone production to prevent premature luteinization during the final stage of folliculogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA151827(United States)

Type 2 Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity Is Required for Rapid Stimulation of PI3K by Thyroxine in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

  • Aoki T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thyroid hormones (THs) exert a number of physiological effects on the cardiovascular system. Some of the nongenomic actions of T3 are achieved by cross coupling the TH receptor (TR) with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase Akt (Akt) pathway. We observed that both T3 and T4 rapidly stimulated Akt phosphorylation and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) activation, which resulted in cell migration, in a PI3K-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We identified the expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2), which converts T4 to T3, and TRα1 in HUVECs. D2 activity was significantly stimulated by (Bu)2cAMP in HUVECs. The blockade of D2 activity through transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to D2 as well as by addition of iopanoic acid, a potent D2 inhibitor, abolished Akt phosphorylation, Rac activation, and cell migration induced by T4 but not by T3. The inhibition of TRα1 expression by the transfection of siRNA for TRα1 canceled Akt phosphorylation, Rac activation, and cell migration induced by T3 and T4. These findings suggest that conversion of T4 to T3 by D2 is required for TRα1/PI3K-mediated nongenomic actions of T4 in HUVECs, including stimulation of Akt phosphorylation and Rac activation, which result in cell migration.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA151881(United States)

Deficiency of FcϵR1 Increases Body Weight Gain but Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

  • Lee YJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prior studies demonstrated increased plasma IgE in diabetic patients, but the direct participation of IgE in diabetes or obesity remains unknown. This study found that plasma IgE levels correlated inversely with body weight, body mass index, and body fat mass among a population of randomly selected obese women. IgE receptor FcϵR1-deficient (Fcer1a(-/-)) mice and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice demonstrated that FcϵR1 deficiency in DIO mice increased food intake, reduced energy expenditure, and increased body weight gain but improved glucose tolerance and glucose-induced insulin secretion. White adipose tissue from Fcer1a(-/-) mice showed an increased expression of phospho-AKT, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, glucose transporter-4 (Glut4), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) but reduced uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression, tissue macrophage accumulation, and apoptosis, suggesting that IgE reduces adipogenesis and glucose uptake but induces energy expenditure, adipocyte apoptosis, and white adipose tissue inflammation. In 3T3-L1 cells, IgE inhibited the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and preadipocyte adipogenesis and induced adipocyte apoptosis. IgE reduced the 3T3-L1 cell expression of Glut4, phospho-AKT, and glucose uptake, which concurred with improved glucose tolerance in Fcer1a(-/-) mice. This study established two novel pathways of IgE in reducing body weight gain in DIO mice by suppressing adipogenesis and inducing adipocyte apoptosis while worsening glucose tolerance by reducing Glut4 expression, glucose uptake, and insulin secretion.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL096571(United States)

TNF-α Suppressed FSH-Induced LH Receptor Expression Through Transcriptional Regulation in Rat Granulosa Cells.

  • Nakao K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several inflammatory cytokines regulate ovarian function. TNF-α is produced in granulosa cells under physiological conditions and has a reciprocal action on follicle development. In contrast, in pelvic inflammatory diseases, TNF-α is excessively produced in the pelvic cavity and has an adverse effect on reproductive functions. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of TNF-α on the expression of LH receptor (LHR) in immature rat granulosa cells. TNF-α suppressed FSH-induced LHR mRNA and protein expression and was not associated with cAMP accumulation. By using a luciferase assay, the construct containing base pairs -1389 to -1 of the rat Lhcgr promoter revealed that TNF-α decreased FSH-induced promoter activity. In response to TNF-α, nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 was translocated to the nucleus, and the suppressive effect of TNF-α on LHR mRNA expression was abrogated by an NF-κB inhibitor. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TNF-α induced the association of NF-κB p65 with the rat Lhcgr transcriptional promoter region. NF-κB p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) interact to mediate expression of several genes at a transcriptional level. HDAC activity is thought to induce tight connections within local chromatin structures and repress gene transcription. Furthermore, the TNF-α-induced suppression of LHR mRNA expression was blocked by an HDAC inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction of NF-κB p65 with HDAC in the promoter region of rat Lhcgr might be responsible for TNF-α action on the regulation of LHR.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078214(United States)

Brown Adipose Tissue Transplantation Reverses Obesity in Ob/Ob Mice.

  • Liu X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Increasing evidence indicates that brown adipose tissue (BAT) transplantation enhances whole-body energy metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. However, it remains unclear whether BAT also has such beneficial effects on genetically obese mice. To address this issue, we transplanted BAT from C57/BL6 mice into the dorsal subcutaneous region of age- and sex-matched leptin deficient Ob/Ob mice. Interestingly, BAT transplantation led to a significant reduction of body weight gain with increased oxygen consumption and decreased total body fat mass, resulting in improvement of insulin resistance and liver steatosis. In addition, BAT transplantation increased the level of circulating adiponectin, whereas it reduced the levels of circulating free T3 and T4, which regulate thyroid hormone sensitivity in peripheral tissues. BAT transplantation also increased β3-adrenergic receptor and fatty acid oxidation related gene expression in subcutaneous and epididymal (EP) white adipose tissue. Accordingly, BAT transplantation increased whole-body thermogenesis. Taken together our results demonstrate that BAT transplantation may reduce obesity and its related diseases by activating endogenous BAT.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01EB8009(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK035254(United States)

miR-144/451 Promote Cell Proliferation via Targeting PTEN/AKT Pathway in Insulinomas.

  • Jiang X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulinoma is the main type of functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The functional microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating tumor growth and progression in insulinomas are still unknown. We conducted the miRNA expression profile analysis using miRNA quantitative RT-PCR array and identified 114 differentially expressed miRNAs in human insulinomas compared with normal pancreatic islets. Forty-one differentially expressed miRNAs belonged to 7 miRNA families, and 28 miRNAs in 3 of the families localized in the epigenetically regulated imprinted chromosome 14q32 region. We validated the most significant differentially expressed miRNA cluster miR-144/451 in another 8 human normal islet samples and 25 insulinomas. Our data showed that the overexpression of miR-144/451 in mouse pancreatic β-cells promoted cell proliferation by targeting the β-cell regulator phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog pathway and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D. Our findings highlight the importance of functional miRNAs in insulinomas.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/H00002X/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM08464(United States)

rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics through Arp3-mediated actin microfilament organization in rat sertoli cells. An in vitro study.

  • Mok KW
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes, preleptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment are transported across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle. This process involves redistribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins via reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells that serves as attachment site for adhesion protein complexes. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream molecule of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), participates in this process via a yet-to-be defined mechanism. Here, we constructed an rpS6 quadruple phosphomimetic mutant by converting Ser residues at 235, 236, 240, and 244 to Glu via site-directed mutagenesis, making this mutant constitutively active. When this rpS6 mutant was overexpressed in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established TJ barrier mimicking the BTB in vivo, it perturbed the TJ permeability by down-regulating and redistributing TJ proteins at the cell-cell interface. These changes are mediated by a reorganization of actin microfilaments, which was triggered by a redistribution of activated actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) as well as changes in Arp3-neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) interaction. This in turn induced reorganization of actin microfilaments, converting them from a "bundled" to an "unbundled/branched" configuration, concomitant with a reduced actin bundling activity, thereby destabilizing the TJ-barrier function. These changes were mediated by Akt (transforming oncogene of v-akt), because an Akt knockdown by RNA interference was able to mimic the phenotypes of rpS6 mutant overexpression at the Sertoli cell BTB. In summary, this study illustrates a mechanism by which mTORC1 signal complex regulates BTB function through rpS6 downstream by modulating actin organization via the Arp2/3 complex, which may be applicable to other tissue barriers.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS-23805(United States)

Oxytocin treatment prevents the cardiomyopathy observed in obese diabetic male db/db mice.

  • Plante E
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxytocin (OT) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and in the activation of cardioprotective mechanisms. We evaluated whether chronic treatment with OT could prevent the metabolic and cardiac abnormalities associated with diabetes and obesity using the db/db mice model. Four-week-old male db/db mice and their lean nondiabetic littermates (db/+) serving as controls were treated with OT (125 ng/kg · h) or saline vehicle for a period of 12 weeks. Compared with db/+ mice, the saline-treated db/db mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. These mice also exhibited a deficient cardiac OT/natriuretic system and developed systolic and diastolic dysfunction resulting from cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. These abnormalities were associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inflammation, and suppressed 5'-adenosine monophosphate kinase signaling pathway. The db/db mice displayed reduced serum levels of adiponectin and adipsin and elevated resistin. OT treatment increased circulating OT levels, significantly reduced serum resistin, body fat accumulation (19%; P<.001), fasting blood glucose levels by (23%; P<.001), and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. OT also normalized cardiac OT receptors, atrial natriuretic peptide, and brain natriuretic peptide, expressions and prevented systolic and diastolic dysfunction as well as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Furthermore, OT reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and normalized the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The complete normalization of cardiac structure and function by OT treatment in db/db mice contrasted with only partial improvement of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. These results indicate that chronic treatment with OT partially improves glucose and fat metabolism and reverses abnormal cardiac structural remodeling, preventing cardiac dysfunction in db/db mice.

Funding information:
  • Doris Duke Charitable Foundation - T32 AI007387(United States)

The role of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling in insulin regulation of food intake, body weight, and sympathetic nerve activity in male mice.

  • Muta K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin action in the brain particularly the hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve activity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the control of diverse cellular functions, including sensing nutrients and energy status. Here, we examined the role of hypothalamic mTORC1 in mediating the anorectic, weight-reducing, and sympathetic effects of central insulin action. In a mouse hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7), insulin treatment increased mTORC1 activity in a time-dependent manner. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin to mice activated mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a key site of central action of insulin. Interestingly, inhibition of hypothalamic mTORC1 with rapamycin reversed the food intake- and body weight-lowering effects of ICV insulin. Rapamycin also abolished the ability of ICV insulin to cause lumbar sympathetic nerve activation. In GT1-7 cells, we found that insulin activation of mTORC1 pathway requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Consistent with this, genetic disruption of PI3K in mice abolished insulin stimulation of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling as well as the lumbar sympathetic nerve activation evoked by insulin. These results demonstrate the importance of mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamus in mediating the action of insulin to regulate energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve traffic. Our data also highlight the key role of PI3K as a link between insulin receptor and mTORC1 signaling in the hypothalamus.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL122494(United States)

Nedd4 haploinsufficient mice display moderate insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, and protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity.

  • Li JJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (Nedd4) is the prototypical protein in the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase (E3) family, which governs ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis and/or degradation of plasma membrane proteins. Loss of Nedd4 results in embryonic or neonatal lethality in mice and reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling in embryonic fibroblasts. To delineate the roles of Nedd4 in vivo, we examined the phenotypes of heterozygous knockout mice using a high-fat diet-induced obesity (HFDIO) model. We observed that Nedd4+/- mice are moderately insulin resistant but paradoxically protected against HFDIO. After high-fat diet feeding, Nedd4+/- mice showed less body weight gain, less fat mass, and smaller adipocytes vs the wild type. Despite ameliorated HFDIO, Nedd4+/- mice did not manifest improvement in glucose tolerance vs the wild type in both genders. Nedd4+/- male, but not female, mice displayed significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels and serum insulin levels. Under obesogenic conditions, Nedd4+/- mice displayed elevated stimulated lipolytic activity, primarily through a β2-adrenergic receptor. Combined, these data support novel complex roles for Nedd4 in metabolic regulation involving altered insulin and β-adrenergic signaling pathways.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH084812(United States)

Cell autonomous phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation in oocytes disrupts normal ovarian function through promoting survival and overgrowth of ovarian follicles.

  • Kim SY
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In this study, we explored the effects of oocytic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation on folliculogensis by generating transgenic mice, in which the oocyte-specific Cre-recombinase induces the expression of constitutively active mutant PI3K during the formation of primordial follicles. The ovaries of neonatal transgenic (Cre+) mice showed significantly reduced apoptosis in follicles, which resulted in an excess number of follicles per ovary. Thus, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate levels within oocytes promotes the survival of follicles during neonatal development. Despite the increase in AKT phosphorylation, primordial follicles in neonatal Cre+ mice remained dormant demonstrating a nuclear accumulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). These primordial follicles containing a high level of nuclear PTEN persisted in postpubertal females, suggesting that PTEN is the dominant factor in the maintenance of female reproductive lifespan through the regulation of primordial follicle recruitment. Although the oocytic PI3K activity and PTEN levels were elevated, the activation of primordial follicles and the subsequent accumulation of antral follicles with developmentally competent oocytes progressed normally in prepubertal Cre+ mice. However, mature Cre+ female mice were anovulatory. Because postnatal day 50 Cre+ mice released cumulus-oocyte complexes with developmentally competent oocytes in response to super-ovulation treatment, the anovulatory phenotype was not due to follicular defects but rather endocrine abnormalities, which were likely caused by the excess number of overgrown follicles. Our current study has elucidated the critical role of oocytic PI3K activity in follicular function, as well as the presence of a PTEN-mediated mechanism in the prevention of immature follicle activation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS074430(United States)

Prevention and reversal of lipotoxicity-induced hepatic insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in mice by an antioxidant carotenoid, β-cryptoxanthin.

  • Ni Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excessive hepatic lipid accumulation promotes macrophages/Kupffer cells activation, resulting in exacerbation of insulin resistance and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, few promising treatment modalities target lipotoxicity-mediated hepatic activation/polarization of macrophages for NASH. Recent epidemiological surveys showed that serum β-cryptoxanthin, an antioxidant carotenoid, was inversely associated with the risks of insulin resistance and liver dysfunction. In the present study, we first showed that β-cryptoxanthin administration ameliorated hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Next, we investigated the preventative and therapeutic effects of β-cryptoxanthin using a lipotoxic model of NASH: mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat (CL) diet. After 12 weeks of CL diet feeding, β-cryptoxanthin administration attenuated insulin resistance and excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and peroxidation, with increases in M1-type macrophages/Kupffer cells and activated stellate cells, and fibrosis in CL diet-induced NASH. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that β-cryptoxanthin down-regulated macrophage activation signal-related genes significantly without affecting most lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis revealed that, on a CL diet, β-cryptoxanthin caused a predominance of M2 over M1 macrophage populations, in addition to reducing total hepatic macrophage and T-cell contents. In parallel, β-cryptoxanthin decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 marker mRNA expression in peritoneal macrophages, whereas it augmented IL-4-induced M2 marker mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, β-cryptoxanthin reversed steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis progression in preexisting NASH in mice. In conclusion, β-cryptoxanthin prevents and reverses insulin resistance and steatohepatitis, at least in part, through an M2-dominant shift in macrophages/Kupffer cells in a lipotoxic model of NASH.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA027827(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK095359(United States)

The protective effect of FGF21 on diabetes-induced male germ cell apoptosis is associated with up-regulated testicular AKT and AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling.

  • Jiang X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator that is required for normal spermatogenesis and protects against diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. Here, we tried to define whether diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis that is predominantly due to increased oxidative stress was associated with impaired glucose and fatty acid metabolism, by examining the effects of Fgf21 gene knockout (FGF21-KO) or FGF21 treatment on the glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Western blottings revealed that protein kinase B (AKT)-mediated glucose signaling was down-regulated in diabetic testes and further decreased in FGF21-KO diabetic group both 10 days and 2 months after diabetes onset, reflected by reduced glycogen synthase (GS) kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation and increased GS phosphorylation. Deletion of the Fgf21 gene also inactivated fatty acid metabolism-related factors, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), along with exacerbating diabetes-induced testicular oxidative stress and damage. Treatment with recombinant FGF21 partially prevented these diabetic effects. In FGF21-KO nondiabetic mice, testicular AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling was down-regulated and AKT1 and murine double minute 2 were inactivated along with the increased p53 expression but not AKT2, GSK-3β, and GS. These results suggest that the role of FGF21 in maintaining spermatogenesis is associated with its activation of AKT1 and inhibition of p53. Deletion of the Fgf21gene significantly exacerbates diabetes-induced down-regulation of testicular AKT/GSK-3β/GS and AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α pathways and testicular oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG05146(United States)

CXCR4 promotes renal tubular cell survival in male diabetic rats: implications for ligand inactivation in the human kidney.

  • Siddiqi FS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Binding of the receptor CXCR4 to its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) promotes cell survival and is under the influence of a number of regulatory processes including enzymatic ligand inactivation by endopeptidases such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). In light of the pivotal role that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays in renal development and in the pathological growth of renal cells, we explored the function of this pathway in diabetic rats and in biopsies from patients with diabetic nephropathy, hypothesizing that the pro-survival effects of CXCR4 in resident cells would attenuate renal injury. Renal CXCR4 expression was observed to be increased in diabetic rats, whereas antagonism of the receptor unmasked albuminuria and accelerated tubular epithelial cell death. In cultured cells, CXCR4 blockade promoted tubular cell apoptosis, up-regulated Bcl-2-associated death promoter, and prevented high glucose/SDF-1-augmented phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinase, Akt. Although CXCR4 expression was also increased in biopsy tissue from patients with diabetic nephropathy, serine 339 phosphorylation of the receptor, indicative of ligand engagement, was unaffected. Coincident with these changes in receptor expression but not activity, MMP-9 was also up-regulated in diabetic nephropathy biopsies. Supporting a ligand-inactivating effect of the endopeptidase, exposure of cultured cells to recombinant MMP-9 abrogated SDF-1 induced Akt phosphorylation. These observations demonstrate a potentially reno-protective role for CXCR4 in diabetes that is impeded in its actions in the human kidney by the coincident up-regulation of ligand-inactivating endopeptidases. Therapeutically intervening in this interplay may limit tubulointerstitial injury, the principal determinant of renal decline in diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022030-03(United States)

Registered report: Widespread potential for growth factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.

  • Greenfield E
  • Elife
  • 2014 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors" by Wilson and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Wilson et al., 2012). The experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figure 2B and C. In these experiments, Wilson and colleagues show that sensitivity to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors can be bypassed by various ligands through reactivation of downstream signaling pathways (Figure 2A; Wilson et al., 2012), and that blocking the receptors for these bypassing ligands abrogates their ability to block sensitivity to the original RTK inhibitor (Figure 2C; Wilson et al., 2012). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007250(United States)

PTEN counteracts PIP3 upregulation in spines during NMDA-receptor-dependent long-term depression.

  • Arendt KL
  • J. Cell. Sci.
  • 2014 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and PTEN have been shown to participate in synaptic plasticity during long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), respectively. Nevertheless, the dynamics of phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and the regulation of its synthesis and degradation at synaptic compartments is far from clear. Here, we have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging to monitor changes in PIP3 levels in dendritic spines from CA1 hippocampal neurons under basal conditions and upon induction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD and LTP. We found that PIP3 undergoes constant turnover in dendritic spines. Contrary to expectations, both LTD and LTP induction trigger an increase in PIP3 synthesis, which requires NMDARs and PI3K activity. Using biochemical methods, the upregulation of PIP3 levels during LTP was estimated to be twofold. However, in the case of LTD, PTEN activity counteracts the increase in PIP3 synthesis, resulting in no net change in PIP3 levels. Therefore, both LTP and LTD signaling converge towards PIP3 upregulation, but PTEN acts as an LTD-selective switch that determines the outcome of PIP3 accumulation.

Time-dependent activation of MAPK/Erk1/2 and Akt/GSK3 cascades: modulation by agomelatine.

  • Musazzi L
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2014 Oct 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The novel antidepressant agomelatine, a melatonergic MT1/MT2 agonist combined with 5-HT2c serotonin antagonist properties, showed antidepressant action in preclinical and clinical studies. There is a general agreement that the therapeutic action of antidepressants needs the activation of slow-onset adaptations in downstream signalling pathways finally regulating neuroplasticity. In the last several years, particular attention was given to cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-related pathways, since it was shown that chronic antidepressants increase CREB phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, through the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) and mitogen activated protein kinase cascades (MAPK/Erk1/2). Aim of this work was to analyse possible effects of chronic agomelatine on time-dependent changes of different intracellular signalling pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of male rats. To this end, measurements were performed 1 h or 16 h after the last agomelatine or vehicle injection. RESULTS: We have found that in naïve rats chronic agomelatine, contrary to traditional antidepressants, did not increase CREB phosphorylation, but modulates the time-dependent regulation of MAPK/Erk1/2 and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) pathways. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the intracellular molecular mechanisms modulated by chronic agomelatine may be partly different from those of traditional antidepressants and involve the time-dependent regulation of MAPK/Erk1/2 and Akt/GSK-3 signalling pathways. This could exert a role in the antidepressant efficacy of the drug.

Protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity in Helz2-deficient male mice due to enhanced expression of hepatic leptin receptor.

  • Yoshino S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity arises from impaired energy balance, which is centrally coordinated by leptin through activation of the long form of leptin receptor (Leprb). Obesity causes central leptin resistance. However, whether enhanced peripheral leptin sensitivity could overcome central leptin resistance remains obscure. A peripheral metabolic organ targeted by leptin is the liver, with low Leprb expression. We here show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and obese patients with hepatosteatosis exhibit increased expression of hepatic helicase with zinc finger 2, a transcriptional coactivator (Helz2), which functions as a transcriptional coregulator of several nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in vitro. To explore the physiological importance of Helz2, we generated Helz2-deficient mice and analyzed their metabolic phenotypes. Helz2-deficient mice showing hyperleptinemia associated with central leptin resistance were protected against HFD-induced obesity and had significantly up-regulated hepatic Leprb expression. Helz2 deficiency and adenovirus-mediated liver-specific exogenous Leprb overexpression in wild-type mice significantly stimulated hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase on HFD, whereas Helz2-deficient db/db mice lacking functional Leprb did not. Fatty acid-β oxidation was increased in Helz2-deficeint hepatocytes, and Helz2-deficient mice revealed increased oxygen consumption and decreased respiratory quotient in calorimetry analyses. The enhanced hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase energy-sensing pathway in Helz2-deficient mice ameliorated hyperlipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance by reducing lipogenic gene expression and stimulating lipid-burning gene expression in the liver. These findings together demonstrate that Helz2 deficiency ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic abnormalities by stimulating endogenous hepatic Leprb expression, despite central leptin resistance. Hepatic HELZ2 might be a novel target molecule for the treatment of obesity with hepatosteatosis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK081546(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS037096(United States)

Rab5 activity regulates GLUT4 sorting into insulin-responsive and non-insulin-responsive endosomal compartments: a potential mechanism for development of insulin resistance.

  • Tessneer KL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) is the insulin-responsive glucose transporter mediating glucose uptake in adipose and skeletal muscle. Reduced GLUT4 translocation from intracellular storage compartments to the plasma membrane is a cause of peripheral insulin resistance. Using a chronic hyperinsulinemia (CHI)-induced cell model of insulin resistance and Rab5 mutant overexpression, we determined these manipulations altered endosomal sorting of GLUT4, thus contributing to the development of insulin resistance. We found that CHI induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by retaining GLUT4 in a Rab5-activity-dependent compartment that is unable to equilibrate with the cell surface in response to insulin. Furthermore, CHI-mediated retention of GLUT4 in this non-insulin-responsive compartment impaired filling of the transferrin receptor (TfR)-positive and TfR-negative insulin-responsive storage compartments. Our data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may inhibit GLUT4 by chronically maintaining GLUT4 in the Rab5 activity-dependent endosomal pathway and impairing formation of the TfR-negative and TfR-positive insulin-responsive GLUT4 pools. This model suggests that an early event in the development of insulin-resistant glucose transport in adipose tissue is to alter the intracellular localization of GLUT4 to a compartment that does not efficiently equilibrate with the cell surface when insulin levels are elevated for prolonged periods of time.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL60714(United States)

Liraglutide enhances insulin sensitivity by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in male Wistar rats.

  • Yamazaki S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

We investigated the effects of liraglutide on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in male Wistar rats. The rats were fed a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for a total of 4 weeks. After 3 weeks of feeding, they were injected with liraglutide once a day for 7 days. Subsequently, euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies were performed after fasting the animals for 8 hours. During the clamp studies on the NCD-fed rats, the glucose infusion rate required for euglycemia was significantly higher in the liraglutide group than in the control group. The clamp hepatic glucose output was significantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the control group, but the insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate did not change significantly in the liraglutide groups. The clamp studies on the HFD-fed rats revealed that the glucose infusion rate required to achieve euglycemia was significantly higher in the liraglutide group than in the control HFD group, and the insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate increased significantly in the liraglutide groups. The clamp hepatic glucose output decreased significantly in the liraglutide groups. Consistent with the clamp data, the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase was enhanced in the livers of the NCD- and HFD-fed rats and in the skeletal muscles of the HFD-fed rats. Oil red O staining indicated that liraglutide also improved hepatic steatosis. In summary, our studies suggest that in normal glucose tolerance states, liraglutide enhances insulin sensitivity in the liver but not in skeletal muscles. However, in insulin-resistant states, liraglutide improves insulin resistance in the liver and muscles and improves fatty liver.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK084567(United States)

A rapid cytoplasmic mechanism for PI3 kinase regulation by the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor, TRβ, and genetic evidence for its role in the maturation of mouse hippocampal synapses in vivo.

  • Martin NP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several rapid physiological effects of thyroid hormone on mammalian cells in vitro have been shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but the molecular mechanism of PI3K regulation by nuclear zinc finger receptor proteins for thyroid hormone and its relevance to brain development in vivo have not been elucidated. Here we show that, in the absence of hormone, the thyroid hormone receptor TRβ forms a cytoplasmic complex with the p85 subunit of PI3K and the Src family tyrosine kinase, Lyn, which depends on two canonical phosphotyrosine motifs in the second zinc finger of TRβ that are not conserved in TRα. When hormone is added, TRβ dissociates and moves to the nucleus, and phosphatidylinositol (3, 4, 5)-trisphosphate production goes up rapidly. Mutating either tyrosine to a phenylalanine prevents rapid signaling through PI3K but does not prevent the hormone-dependent transcription of genes with a thyroid hormone response element. When the rapid signaling mechanism was blocked chronically throughout development in mice by a targeted point mutation in both alleles of Thrb, circulating hormone levels, TRβ expression, and direct gene regulation by TRβ in the pituitary and liver were all unaffected. However, the mutation significantly impaired maturation and plasticity of the Schaffer collateral synapses on CA1 pyramidal neurons in the postnatal hippocampus. Thus, phosphotyrosine-dependent association of TRβ with PI3K provides a potential mechanism for integrating regulation of development and metabolism by thyroid hormone and receptor tyrosine kinases.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK094141(United States)

Gestational protein restriction impairs insulin-regulated glucose transport mechanisms in gastrocnemius muscles of adult male offspring.

  • Blesson CS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet-exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet-fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor substrate-1, and AS160 phosphorylation and impaired glucose transporter type 4 translocation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Loss of Ntrk2/Kiss1r signaling in oocytes causes premature ovarian failure.

  • Dorfman MD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurotrophins (NTs), once believed to be neural-specific trophic factors, are now known to also provide developmental cues to non-neural cells. In the ovary, NTs contribute to both the formation and development of follicles. Here we show that oocyte-specific deletion of the Ntrk2 gene that encodes the NTRK2 receptor (NTRK2) for neurotrophin-4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) results in post-pubertal oocyte death, loss of follicular organization, and early adulthood infertility. Oocytes lacking NTRK2 do not respond to gonadotropins with activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mediated signaling. Before puberty, oocytes only express a truncated NTRK2 form (NTRK2.T1), but at puberty full-length (NTRK2.FL) receptors are rapidly induced by the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. A cell line expressing both NTRK2.T1 and the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) responds to BDNF stimulation with activation of Ntrk2 expression only if kisspeptin is present. This suggests that BDNF and kisspeptin that are produced by granulosa cells (GCs) of periovulatory follicles act in concert to mediate the effect of gonadotropins on Ntrk2 expression in oocytes. In keeping with this finding, the oocytes of NTRK2-intact mice fail to respond to gonadotropins with increased Ntrk2 expression in the absence of KISS1R. Our results demonstrate that the preovulatory gonadotropin surge promotes oocyte survival at the onset of reproductive cyclicity by inducing oocyte expression of NTRK2.FL receptors that set in motion an AKT-mediated survival pathway. They also suggest that gonadotropins activate NTRK2.FL expression via a dual communication pathway involving BDNF and kisspeptin produced in GCs and their respective receptors NTRK2.T1 and KISS1R expressed in oocytes.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH110404(United States)

The Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) inhibitor ezetimibe improves metabolic disease via decreased liver X receptor (LXR) activity in liver of obese male mice.

  • Sugizaki T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dyslipidemic patients with diabetes mellitus, including metabolic syndrome, are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. It has been reported that ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, improves metabolic diseases in mice and humans. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Here we explored the effects of ezetimibe on lipid and glucose homeostasis. Male KK-A(y) mice were fed a high-fat diet, which is the mouse model of metabolic syndrome, with or without ezetimibe for 14 weeks. Ezetimibe improved dyslipidemia, steatosis, and insulin resistance. Ezetimibe decreased hepatic oxysterols, which are endogenous agonists of liver X receptor (LXR), to decrease hepatic lipogenic gene expressions, especially in stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), leading to a remarkable reduction of hepatic oleate content that would contribute to the improvement of steatosis by reducing triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Simultaneously, hepatic β-oxidation, NADPH oxidase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were reduced, and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines were also decreased. Consistent with these changes, ezetimibe diminished c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and improved insulin signaling in the liver. In vitro study using primary hepatocytes obtained from male SD rats, treated with oleate and LXR agonist, showed excess lipid accumulation, increased oxidative stress and impaired insulin signaling. Therefore, in obese subjects, ezetimibe reduces hepatic LXR activity by reducing hepatic oxysterols to lower hepatic oleate content. This improves steatosis and reduces oxidative stress, and this reduction improves insulin signaling in the liver. These results provide insight into pathogenesis and strategies for treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083583(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01-NS-091220(United States)

Central Sirt1 regulates body weight and energy expenditure along with the POMC-derived peptide α-MSH and the processing enzyme CPE production in diet-induced obese male rats.

  • Cyr NE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the periphery, the nutrient-sensing enzyme Sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 [Sirt1]) reduces body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. However, the role of Sirt1 in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, in body weight and energy balance regulation is debated. Among the first studies to reveal that central Sirt1 regulates body weight came from experiments in our laboratory using Sprague Dawley rats. In that study, central inhibition of Sirt1 decreased body weight and food intake as a result of a Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1)-mediated increase in the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and decrease in the orexigenic Agouti-related peptide in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we demonstrate that central inhibition of Sirt1 in DIO decreased body weight and increased energy expenditure at higher levels as compared with the lean counterpart. Brain Sirt1 inhibition in DIO increased acetylated FoxO1, which, in turn, increased phosphorylated FoxO1 via improved insulin/pAKT signaling. Elevated acetylated FoxO1 and phosphorylated FoxO1 increased POMC along with the α-MSH maturation enzyme carboxypeptidase E, which resulted in more of the bioactive POMC product α-MSH released into the paraventricular nucleus. Increased in α-MSH led to augmented TRH levels and circulating T3 levels (thyroid hormone). These results indicate that inhibiting hypothalamic Sirt1 in DIO enhances the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which stimulates energy expenditure. Because we show that blocking central Sirt1 causes physiological changes that promote a negative energy balance in an obese individual, our results support brain Sirt1 as a significant target for weight loss therapeutics.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL062571(United States)

TRα protects against atherosclerosis in male mice: identification of a novel anti-inflammatory property for TRα in mice.

  • Billon C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased occurrence of atherosclerosis, suggesting some protective role for thyroid hormones (THs). Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factor to develop this disease. Here, we show that the well-known TH cholesterol lowering effect was dependent on TH nuclear receptor (TR)β liver activity. But most importantly, TRα was also shown to contribute of slowing down atherosclerosis progression via an independent mechanism. Introduction of TRα(0/0) deletion in the ApoE(-/-) background accelerated the appearance of plaques. Earlier cholesterol accumulation was detected in aorta macrophages, likely due to impaired cholesterol efflux. The IL-1β inflammatory cytokine was elevated in serum and macrophages in correlation with an activation of the AKT/nuclear factor κB pathway in these cells. Inhibition of AKT prevented inflammation and restored normal cholesterol efflux. Similar low-grade inflammation was identified in TRα(0/0) male mice. Thus, the mere absence of TRα is associated with elevated levels of cytokines likely responsible for cholesterol accumulation and atherosclerosis. This TRα protective activity should be relevant for other inflammatory pathologies.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM072881(United States)

Effects of the antitumor drug OSI-906, a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, on the glycemic control, β-cell functions, and β-cell proliferation in male mice.

  • Shirakawa J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The IGF-1 receptor has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of OSI-906 (linstinib), a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, for solid cancers has been examined in clinical trials. The effects of OSI-906, however, on the blood glucose levels and pancreatic β-cell functions have not yet been reported. We investigated the impact of OSI-906 on glycemic control, insulin secretion, β-cell mass, and β-cell proliferation in male mice. Oral administration of OSI-906 worsened glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner in the wild-type mice. OSI-906 at a dose equivalent to the clinical daily dose (7.5 mg/kg) transiently evoked glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-deficient mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, both models of peripheral insulin resistance, exhibited more severe glucose intolerance after OSI-906 administration than glucokinase-haploinsufficient mice, a model of impaired insulin secretion. Phloridzin improved the hyperglycemia induced by OSI-906 in mice. In vitro, OSI-906 showed no effect on insulin secretion from isolated islets. After daily administration of OSI-906 for a week to mice, the β-cell mass and β-cell proliferation rate were significantly increased. The insulin signals in the β-cells were apparently unaffected in those mice. Taken together, the results suggest that OSI-906 could exacerbate diabetes, especially in patients with insulin resistance. On the other hand, the results suggest that the β-cell mass may expand in response to chemotherapy with this drug.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01ES015145(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS072202(United States)

Leptin enhances insulin sensitivity by direct and sympathetic nervous system regulation of muscle IGFBP-2 expression: evidence from nonrodent models.

  • Yau SW
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leptin is produced from white adipose tissue and acts primarily to regulate energy balance. Obesity is associated with leptin resistance and increased circulating levels of leptin. Leptin has recently been shown to influence levels of IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2), a protein that is reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Overexpression of IGFBP-2 protects against obesity and type 2 diabetes. As such, IGFBP-2 signaling may represent a novel pathway by which leptin regulates insulin sensitivity. We sought to investigate how leptin regulates skeletal muscle IGFBP-2 levels and to assess the impact of this on insulin signaling and glucose uptake. In vitro experiments were undertaken in cultured human skeletal myotubes, whereas in vivo experiments assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular leptin on peripheral skeletal muscle IGFBP-2 expression and insulin sensitivity in sheep. Leptin directly increased IGFBP-2 mRNA and protein in human skeletal muscle through both signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, in parallel with enhanced insulin signaling. Silencing IGFBP-2 lowered leptin- and insulin-stimulated protein kinase B phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In in vivo experiments, intracerebroventricular leptin significantly increased hind-limb skeletal muscle IGFBP-2, an effect completely blocked by concurrent peripheral infusion of a β-adrenergic blocking agent. Sheep receiving central leptin showed improvements in glucose tolerance and circulating insulin levels after an iv glucose load. In summary, leptin regulates skeletal muscle IGFBP-2 by both direct peripheral and central (via the sympathetic nervous system) mechanisms, and these likely impact on peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY021222(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD029990(United States)

Deficiency of clusterin exacerbates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice.

  • Kwon MJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study examined the role of clusterin in insulin resistance in high fat-fed wild-type and clusterin knockout (KO) mice. The plasma levels of glucose and C-peptide and islet size were increased in clusterin KO mice after an 8-week high-fat diet. In an ip glucose tolerance test, the area under the curve for glucose was not different, whereas the area under the curve for insulin was higher in clusterin KO mice. In a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, the clamp insulin levels were higher in clusterin KO mice after the high-fat diet. After adjusting for the clamp insulin levels, the glucose infusion rate, suppression of hepatic glucose production, and glucose uptake were lower in clusterin KO mice in the high fat-fed group. The plasma levels of clusterin and clusterin mRNA levels in the skeletal muscle and liver were increased by the high-fat diet. The mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes were lower, and the mRNA levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) 1 and cytokines and protein carbonylation were higher in the skeletal muscle and liver in clusterin KO mice after the high-fat diet. Palmitate-induced gene expressions of NOX1 and cytokines were higher in the primary cultured hepatocytes of clusterin KO mice compared with the wild-type mice. Clusterin inhibited the gene expression and reactive oxygen species generation by palmitate in the hepatocytes and C2C12. AKT phosphorylation by insulin was reduced in the hepatocytes of clusterin KO mice. These results suggest that clusterin plays a protective role against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance through the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY11379(United States)

IGF-I stimulates CCN5/WISP2 gene expression in pancreatic β-cells, which promotes cell proliferation and survival against streptozotocin.

  • Chowdhury S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

IGF-I is normally produced from hepatocytes and other sources, stimulates protein synthesis, cell survival, and proliferation through receptor-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAPK, and targets specific molecules within the pancreatic islet cells. The current study was designed to identify novel targets that may mediate its pro-islet actions. Whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis in IGF-I-overexpressing islets identified 82 genes specifically up- or down-regulated. Prominent among them was CCN5/WISP2 whose expression was increased 3- and 2-fold at the mRNA and protein levels. Dual-labeled immunofluorescence revealed that CCN5 expression was low in the β-cells of wild-type islets but was significantly induced in response to IGF-I overexpression. In vitro treatment of mouse islets with IGF-I increased both CCN5 mRNA and protein levels significantly. To define the role of CCN5 in islet cell biology, we stably overexpressed its cDNA in insulinoma MIN6 cells and detected a 2-fold increase in the proliferation of MIN6-CCN5 compared with that in control cells, which correlated with significant elevations in the levels of cyclin D1 and the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk2. Moreover, MIN6-CCN5 cells were found to be resistant to streptozotocin-induced cell death. Using confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, we found that overexpressed CCN5 exhibited cytoplasmic accumulation upon stimulation by high glucose. Our results indicate that CCN5, which is minimally expressed in islet β-cells, is strongly and directly induced by IGF-I. CCN5 overexpression stimulates the proliferation of insulinoma cells, activates Akt kinase, and inhibits streptozotocin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that increased CCN5 expression contributes to IGF-I-stimulated islet cell growth and/or survival.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH067631(United States)

Activated AKT pathway promotes establishment of endometriosis.

  • Kim TH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote establishment and survival of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) activity was increased in endometriosis tissues and cells from ovarian endometriomas and that this increase promoted cell survival as well as decreased levels of progesterone receptor. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a role for AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions. First, a dose-dependent inhibition of AKT in stromal cells from human ovarian endometriomas (OSIS) as well as endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients (ESC) with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 was demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)(Ser473)-AKT. Levels of the AKT target protein, p(Ser256)-forkhead box O1 were increased in OSIS cells, which decreased with MK-2206 treatment, whereas levels of p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase 3β did not change in response to MK-2206. Although MK-2206 decreased viability of both OSIS and ESC in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation of OSIS cells was differentially decreased significantly compared with ESC. Next, the role of hyperactive AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions was studied using the bigenic, PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) heterozygous mouse. Autologous implantation of uterine tissues was performed in these mice. After 4 weeks, an average of 4 ± 0.33 lesions per Pten(f/+) mouse and 7.5 ± 0.43 lesions in the PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mouse were found. Histological examination of the lesions showed endometrial tissue-like morphology, which was similar in both the Pten(f/+) and PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mice. Treatment of mice with MK-2206 resulted in a significantly decreased number of lesions established. Immunohistochemical staining of ectopic lesions revealed decreased p(Ser473)-AKT and the proliferation marker Ki67 from MK-2206-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Furthermore, levels of FOXO1 and progesterone receptor increased in lesions of mice receiving MK-2206. These results demonstrate that heightened AKT activity plays an active role in the establishment of ectopic endometrial tissues.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH097062(United States)

Metformin inhibits androgen-induced IGF-IR up-regulation in prostate cancer cells by disrupting membrane-initiated androgen signaling.

  • Malaguarnera R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously demonstrated that, in prostate cancer cells, androgens up-regulate IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) by inducing cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation and CREB-dependent IGF-IR gene transcription through androgen receptor (AR)-dependent membrane-initiated effects. This IGF-IR up-regulation is not blocked by classical antiandrogens and sensitizes cells to IGF-I-induced biological effects. Metformin exerts complex antitumoral functions in various models and may inhibit CREB activation in hepatocytes. We, therefore, evaluated whether metformin may affect androgen-dependent IGF-IR up-regulation. In the AR(+) LNCaP prostate cancer cells, we found that metformin inhibits androgen-induced CRE activity and IGF-IR gene transcription. CRE activity requires the formation of a CREB-CREB binding protein-CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) complex, which follows Ser133-CREB phosphorylation. Metformin inhibited Ser133-CREB phosphorylation and induced nuclear exclusion of CREB cofactor CRTC2, thus dissociating the CREB-CREB binding protein-CRTC2 complex and blocking its transcriptional activity. Similarly to metformin action, CRTC2 silencing inhibited IGF-IR promoter activity. Moreover, metformin blocked membrane-initiated signals of AR to the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6Kinase pathway by inhibiting AR phosphorylation and its association with c-Src. AMPK signals were also involved to some extent. By inhibiting androgen-dependent IGF-IR up-regulation, metformin reduced IGF-I-mediated proliferation of LNCaP cells. These results indicate that, in prostate cancer cells, metformin inhibits IGF-I-mediated biological effects by disrupting membrane-initiated AR action responsible for IGF-IR up-regulation and suggest that metformin could represent a useful adjunct to the classical antiandrogen therapy.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA ES102805(United States)

Leptin deficiency in rats results in hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose homeostasis.

  • D'souza AM
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has well-established anorexigenic effects but is also able to regulate glucose homeostasis independent of body weight. Until recently, the ob/ob mouse was the only animal model of global leptin deficiency. Here we report the effects of leptin deficiency on glucose homeostasis in male and female leptin knockout (KO) rats. Leptin KO rats developed obesity by 6 to 7 weeks of age, and lipid mass was increased by more than 2-fold compared with that of wild-type (WT) littermates at 18 weeks of age. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were evident in both males and females and were sustained with aging. Male KO rats experienced transient mild fasting hyperglycemia between 14 and 25 weeks of age, but thereafter fasting glucose levels were comparable to those of WT littermates up to 36 weeks of age. Fasting glucose levels of female KO rats were similar to those of WT littermates. Male KO rats exhibited a 3-fold increase in the proportion of β-cell area relative to total pancreas at 36 weeks of age. Islets from 12-week-old KO rats secreted more insulin when stimulated than islets from WT littermates. Leptin replacement via miniosmotic pump (100 μg/d) reduced food intake, attenuated weight gain, normalized glucose tolerance, and improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Together, these data demonstrate that the absence of leptin in rats recapitulates some of the phenotype previously observed in ob/ob mice including development of hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and insulin resistance.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY023714(United States)

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) suppresses IL-1β-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation to improve hepatocyte insulin signaling.

  • Gattu AK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an antiinflammatory protein that circulates at high levels in the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic studies of PEDF knockout (KO) mice were conducted to investigate the relationship between PEDF, inflammatory markers, and metabolic homeostasis. Male PEDF KO mice demonstrated a phenotype consisting of increased adiposity, glucose intolerance, and elevated serum levels of metabolites associated with the metabolic syndrome. Genome expression analysis revealed an increase in IL-1β signaling in the livers of PEDF KO mice that was accompanied by impaired IRS and Akt signaling. In human hepatocytes, PEDF blocked the effects of an IL-1β challenge by suppressing activation of the inflammatory mediator c-Jun N-terminal kinase while restoring Akt signaling. RNA interference of PEDF in human hepatocytes was permissive for c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and decreased Akt signaling. A metabolomics profile identified elevated circulating levels of tricarboxyclic acid cycle intermediates including succinate, an inducer of IL-1β, in PEDF KO mice. Succinate-dependent IL-1β expression was blocked by PEDF in PEDF KO, but not wild-type hepatocytes. In vivo, PEDF restoration reduced hyperglycemia and improved hepatic insulin signaling in PEDF KO mice. These findings identify elevated PEDF as a homeostatic mechanism in the human metabolic syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH101207(United States)

Low-oxygen tension and IGF-I promote proliferation and multipotency of placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) from different gestations via distinct signaling pathways.

  • Youssef A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The microenvironment of placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) is dynamic throughout gestation and determines changes in cell fate. In vivo, PMSCs initially develop in low-oxygen tension and low IGF-I concentrations, and both increase gradually with gestation. The impact of varying concentrations of IGF-I and changing oxygen tension on PMSC signaling and multipotency was investigated in PMSCs from early (preterm) and late (term) gestation human placentae. Preterm PMSCs had greater proliferative response to IGF-I, which was further enhanced by low-oxygen tension. Low-oxygen tension alone was sufficient to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas IGF-I was required for AKT (protein kinase B) phosphorylation. Low-oxygen tension prolonged ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation with a slowed phosphorylation decay even in presence of IGF-I. Low-oxygen tension maintained higher levels of IGF-I receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 that were otherwise decreased by exposure to IGF-I and induced a differential phosphorylation pattern on IGF-I receptorβ and insulin receptor substrate 1. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT was different between the preterm and term PMSCs, and phospho-AKT, and not phospho-ERK1/2, was the major determinant of PMSC proliferation and octamer-4 levels. These studies demonstrate that low-oxygen tension regulates the fate of PMSCs from early and late gestations in response to IGF-I, both independently and dependently, via specific signal transduction mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM086197(United States)

Liver mTOR controls IGF-I bioavailability by regulation of protein kinase CK2 and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in fetal growth restriction.

  • Abu Shehab M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes the infant to diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. No treatment for FGR is available, and the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation has been implicated as an important mechanism by which fetal growth is reduced. However, to what extent circulating IGFBP-1 is phosphorylated in FGR is unknown, and the molecular mechanisms linking FGR to IGFBP-1 phosphorylation have not been established. We used umbilical cord plasma of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and growth-restricted human fetuses and determined IGFBP-1 and IGF-I concentrations (ELISA) and site-specific IGFBP-1 phosphorylation (Western blotting using IGFBP-1 phospho-site specific antibodies). In addition, we used a baboon model of FGR produced by 30% maternal nutrient restriction and determined mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)C1 activity, CK2 expression/activity, IGFBP-1 expression and phosphorylation, and IGF-I levels in baboon fetal liver by Western blot, enzymatic assay, and ELISA. HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes were used to explore mechanistic links between mTORC1 signaling and IGFBP-1 phosphorylation. IGFBP-1 was hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in umbilical plasma of human FGR fetuses. IGFBP-1 was also hyperphosphorylated at Ser101, Ser119, and Ser169 in the liver of growth-restricted baboon fetus. mTOR signaling was markedly inhibited, whereas expression and activity of CK2 was increased in growth-restricted baboon fetal liver in vivo. Using HepG2 cells and primary fetal baboon hepatocytes, we established a mechanistic link between mTOR inhibition, CK2 activation, IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, and decreased IGF-I-induced IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation. We provide clear evidence for IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in FGR and identified an mTOR and CK2-mediated mechanism for regulation of IGF-I bioavailability. Our findings are consistent with the model that inhibition of mTOR in the fetal liver, resulting in increased CK2 activity and IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, constitutes a novel mechanistic link between nutrient deprivation and restricted fetal growth.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS036715(United States)

Implication of the Tpl2 kinase in inflammatory changes and insulin resistance induced by the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

  • Ceppo F
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adipose tissue inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance. In obese adipose tissue, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and saturated fatty acids trigger inflammatory factors that mediate a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages. However, the inflammatory signaling proteins underlying this cross talk remain to be identified. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is activated by inflammatory stimuli, including LPS, and its expression is up-regulated in obese adipose tissue, but its role in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages remains ill-defined. To assess the implication of Tpl2 in the cross talk between these 2 cell types, we used coculture system and conditioned medium (CM) from macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of Tpl2 in the coculture markedly reduced lipolysis and cytokine production and prevented the decrease in adipocyte insulin signaling. Tpl2 knockdown in cocultured adipocytes reduced lipolysis but had a weak effect on cytokine production and did not prevent the alteration of insulin signaling. By contrast, Tpl2 silencing in cocultured macrophages resulted in a marked inhibition of cytokine production and prevented the alteration of adipocyte insulin signaling. Further, when Tpl2 was inhibited in LPS-activated macrophages, the produced CM did not alter adipocyte insulin signaling and did not induce an inflammatory response in adipocytes. By contrast, Tpl2 silencing in adipocytes did not prevent the deleterious effects of a CM from LPS-activated macrophages. Together, these data establish that Tpl2, mainly in macrophages, is involved in the cross talk between adipocytes and macrophages that promotes inflammatory changes and alteration of insulin signaling in adipocytes.

Funding information:
  • RRD VA - I01 RX002133(United States)

Notch signaling plays a critical role in motility and differentiation of human first-trimester cytotrophoblasts.

  • Haider S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Failures in human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) development could be involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly characterized. Here, we provide evidence that Notch signaling could represent a key regulatory pathway controlling trophoblast proliferation, motility, and differentiation. Immunofluorescence of first-trimester placental tissues revealed expression of Notch receptors (Notch2 and Notch3) and membrane-anchored ligands (delta-like ligand [DLL] 1 and -4 and Jagged [JAG] 1 and -2) in villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs), cell column trophoblasts (CCTs), and EVTs. Notch4 and Notch1 were exclusively expressed in vCTBs and in CCTs, respectively. Both proteins decreased in Western blot analyses of first-trimester, primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) differentiating on fibronectin. Luciferase reporter analyses suggested basal, canonical Notch activity in SGHPL-5 cells and primary cells that was increased upon seeding on DLL4-coated dishes and diminished in the presence of the Notch/γ-secretase inhibitors N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) or L-685,458. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling, cyclin D1 mRNA expression, and cell counting indicated that chemical inhibition of Notch signaling elevated proliferation in the different primary trophoblast model systems. Notch inhibition also increased motility of SGHPL-5 cells through uncoated and fibronectin-coated Transwells, motility of primary CTBs, as well as migration in villous explant cultures on collagen I. Accordingly, small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing of Notch1 also elevated SGHPL-5 cell migration. In contrast, motility of primary cultures and SGHPL-5 cells was diminished in the presence of DLL4. Moreover, DAPT increased markers of differentiated EVT, ie, human leukocyte antigen G1, integrin α5, and T-cell factor 4, whereas DLL4 provoked the opposite. In summary, the data suggest that canonical Notch signaling impairs motility and differentiation of first-trimester CTBs.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES013143(United States)
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - G12 MD007592(United States)

Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period in normal-weight or obese ewes results in adrenocortical hypertrophy, an up-regulation of the JAK/STAT and down-regulation of the IGF1R signaling pathways in the adrenal of the postnatal lamb.

  • Zhang S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL-085848(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS070300(United States)

Nesfatin-1 in human and murine cardiomyocytes: synthesis, secretion, and mobilization of GLUT-4.

  • Feijóo-Bandín S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nesfatin-1, a satiety-inducing peptide identified in hypothalamic regions that regulate energy balance, is an integral regulator of energy homeostasis and a putative glucose-dependent insulin coadjuvant. We investigated its production by human cardiomyocytes and its effects on glucose uptake, in the main cardiac glucose transporter GLUT-4 and in intracellular signaling. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blots, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and ELISA of human and murine cardiomyocytes and/or cardiac tissue showed that cardiomyocytes can synthesize and secrete nesfatin-1. Confocal microscopy of cultured cardiomyocytes after GLUT-4 labeling showed that nesfatin-1 mobilizes this glucose transporter to cell peripherals. The rate of 2-deoxy-D-[(3)H]glucose incorporation demonstrated that nesfatin-1 induces glucose uptake by HL-1 cells and cultured cardiomyocytes. Nesfatin-1 induced dose- and time-dependent increases in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT, and AS160. In murine and human cardiac tissue, nesfatin-1 levels varied with diet and coronary health. In conclusion, human and murine cardiomyocytes can synthesize and secrete nesfatin-1, which is able to induce glucose uptake and the mobilization of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 in these cells. Nesfatin-1 cardiac levels are regulated by diet and coronary health.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R03HD077483(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK081545(United States)

Conventional knockout of Tbc1d1 in mice impairs insulin- and AICAR-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

  • Dokas J
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the obesity-resistant SJL mouse strain, we previously identified a naturally occurring loss-of-function mutation in the gene for Tbc1d1. Characterization of recombinant inbred mice that carried the Tbc1d1(SJL) allele on a C57BL/6J background indicated that loss of TBC1D1 protects from obesity, presumably by increasing the use of fat as energy source. To provide direct functional evidence for an involvement of TBC1D1 in energy substrate metabolism, we generated and characterized conventional Tbc1d1 knockout mice. TBC1D1-deficient mice showed moderately reduced body weight, decreased respiratory quotient, and an elevated resting metabolic rate. Ex vivo analysis of intact isolated skeletal muscle revealed a severe impairment in insulin- and AICAR-stimulated glucose uptake in glycolytic extensor digitorum longus muscle and a substantially increased rate of fatty acid oxidation in oxidative soleus muscle. Our results provide direct evidence that TBC1D1 plays a major role in glucose and lipid utilization, and energy substrate preference in skeletal muscle.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG031736(United States)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R03 DE025824(United States)

TFE3 controls lipid metabolism in adipose tissue of male mice by suppressing lipolysis and thermogenesis.

  • Fujimoto Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcription factor E3 (TFE3) is a transcription factor that binds to E-box motifs and promotes energy metabolism-related genes. We previously reported that TFE3 directly binds to the insulin receptor substrate-2 promoter in the liver, resulting in increased insulin response. However, the role of TFE3 in other tissues remains unclear. In this study, we generated adipose-specific TFE3 transgenic (aP2-TFE3 Tg) mice. These mice had a higher weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue than wild-type (WT) mice under fasting conditions. Lipase activity in the WAT in these mice was lower than that in the WT mice. The mRNA level of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for adipocyte lipolysis, was significantly decreased in aP2-TFE3 Tg mice. The expression of Foxo1, which directly activates ATGL expression, was also suppressed in transgenic mice. Promoter analysis confirmed that TFE3 suppressed promoter activities of the ATGL gene. In contrast, G0S2 and Perilipin1, which attenuate ATGL activity, were higher in transgenic mice than in WT mice. These results indicated that the decrease in lipase activity in adipose tissues was due to a decrease in ATGL expression and suppression of ATGL activity. We also showed that thermogenesis was suppressed in aP2-TFE3 Tg mice. The decrease in lipolysis in WAT of aP2-TFE3 Tg mice inhibited the supply of fatty acids to brown adipose tissue, resulting in the inhibition of the expression of thermogenesis-related genes such as UCP1. Our data provide new evidence that TFE3 regulates lipid metabolism by controlling the gene expression related to lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R21AR060966(United States)

Alteration of mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in primary mouse skeletal muscle cells isolated from transgenic and knockout mice: role of ogg1.

  • Yuzefovych LV
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent evidence has linked mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage, increased oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, and insulin resistance (IR). The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the DNA repair enzyme, human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase/apurinic/apyrimidinic lyase (hOGG1), on palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and IR in primary cultures of skeletal muscle derived from hind limb of ogg1(-/-) knockout mice and transgenic mice, which overexpress human (hOGG1) in mitochondria (transgenic [Tg]/MTS-hOGG1). Following exposure to palmitate, we evaluated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, mitochondrial function, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), mitochondrial mass, JNK activation, insulin signaling pathways, and glucose uptake. Palmitate-induced mtDNA damage, mtROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of JNK were all diminished, whereas ATP levels, mitochondrial mass, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473), and insulin sensitivity were increased in primary myotubes isolated from Tg/MTS-hOGG1 mice compared to myotubes isolated from either knockout or wild-type mice. In addition, both basal and maximal respiratory rates during mitochondrial oxidation on pyruvate showed a variable response, with some animals displaying an increased respiration in muscle fibers isolated from the transgenic mice. Our results support the model that DNA repair enzyme OGG1 plays a pivotal role in repairing mtDNA damage, and consequently, in mtROS production and regulating downstream events leading to IR in skeletal muscle.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 1K99NS087086(United States)

Impact of divergent effects of astaxanthin on insulin signaling in L6 cells.

  • Ishiki M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Because oxidative stress promotes insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is crucial to find effective antioxidant for the purpose of decreasing this threat. In this study, we explored the effect of astaxanthin, a carotenoid antioxidant, on insulin signaling and investigated whether astaxanthin improves cytokine- and free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in vitro. We examined the effect of astaxanthin on insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, and insulin signaling in cultured rat L6 muscle cells using plasma membrane lawn assay, 2-deoxyglucose uptake, and Western blot analysis. Next, we examined the effect of astaxanthin on TNFα- and palmitate-induced insulin resistance. The amount of reactive oxygen species generated by TNFα or palmitate with or without astaxanthin was evaluated by dichlorofluorescein staining. We also compared the effect of astaxanthin on insulin signaling with that of other antioxidants, α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol. We observed astaxanthin enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake, which was associated with an increase in insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine and Akt phosphorylation and a decrease in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 phosphorylation. Furthermore, astaxanthin restored TNFα- and palmitate-induced decreases in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation or glucose uptake with a concomitant decrease in reactive oxygen species generation. α-Lipoic acid enhanced Akt phosphorylation and decreased ERK and JNK phosphorylation, whereas α-tocopherol enhanced ERK and JNK phosphorylation but had little effect on Akt phosphorylation. Collectively these findings indicate astaxanthin is a very effective antioxidant for ameliorating insulin resistance by protecting cells from oxidative stress generated by various stimuli including TNFα and palmitate.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY012857(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK085715(United States)

Inducible brown adipose tissue, or beige fat, is anabolic for the skeleton.

  • Rahman S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is known that insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased fractures and that brown adipose tissue (BAT) counteracts many if not all of the symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes. By the use of FoxC2(AD)(+/Tg) mice, a well-established model for induction of BAT, or beige fat, we present data extending the beneficial action of beige fat to also include a positive effect on bone. FoxC2(AD)(+/Tg) mice are lean and insulin-sensitive and have high bone mass due to increased bone formation associated with high bone turnover. Inducible BAT is linked to activation of endosteal osteoblasts whereas osteocytes have decreased expression of the Sost transcript encoding sclerostin and elevated expression of Rankl. Conditioned media (CM) collected from forkhead box c2 (FOXC2)-induced beige adipocytes activated the osteoblast phenotype and increased levels of phospho-AKT and β-catenin in recipient cells. In osteocytes, the same media decreased Sost expression. Immunodepletion of CM with antibodies against wingless related MMTV integration site 10b (WNT10b) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) resulted in the loss of pro-osteoblastic activity, and the loss of increase in the levels of phospho-AKT and β-catenin. Conversely, CM derived from cells overexpressing IGFBP2 or WNT10b restored osteoblastic activity in recipient cells. In conclusion, beige fat secretes endocrine/paracrine activity that is beneficial for the skeleton.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - (International)

Dipeptidylpeptidase inhibition is associated with improvement in blood pressure and diastolic function in insulin-resistant male Zucker obese rats.

  • Aroor AR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diastolic dysfunction is a prognosticator for future cardiovascular events that demonstrates a strong correlation with obesity. Pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) to increase the bioavailability of glucagon-like peptide-1 is an emerging therapy for control of glycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. Accumulating evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 has insulin-independent actions in cardiovascular tissue. However, it is not known whether DPP-4 inhibition improves obesity-related diastolic dysfunction. Eight-week-old Zucker obese (ZO) and Zucker lean rats were fed normal chow diet or diet containing the DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (LGT), for 8 weeks. Plasma DPP-4 activity was 3.3-fold higher in ZO compared with Zucker lean rats and was reduced by 95% with LGT treatment. LGT improved echocardiographic and pressure volume-derived indices of diastolic function that were impaired in ZO control rats, without altering food intake or body weight gain during the study period. LGT also blunted elevated blood pressure progression in ZO rats involving improved skeletal muscle arteriolar function, without reducing left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, or oxidative stress in ZO hearts. Expression of phosphorylated- endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)(Ser1177), total eNOS, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a protein was elevated in the LGT-treated ZO heart, suggesting improved Ca(2+) handling. The ZO myocardium had an abnormal mitochondrial sarcomeric arrangement and cristae structure that were normalized by LGT. These studies suggest that LGT reduces blood pressure and improves intracellular Cai(2+) mishandling and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure, which collectively result in improvements in diastolic function in the absence of reductions in left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, or oxidative stress in insulin-resistant ZO rats.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 293549(International)

ERα-targeted therapy in ovarian cancer cells by a novel estradiol-platinum(II) hybrid.

  • Brasseur K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

As we previously showed, we have synthesized a new family of 17β-estradiol-platinum(II) hybrids. Earlier studies revealed the VP-128 hybrid to show high efficiency compared with cisplatin toward hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. In the present research, we have studied the antitumor activity of VP-128 in vitro and in vivo against ovarian cancer. In nude mice with ovarian xenografts, VP-128 displayed selective activity toward hormone-dependent tumors and showed higher efficiency than cisplatin to inhibit tumor growth. Similarly, in vitro, transient transfection of estrogen receptor (ER)-α in ERα-negative A2780 cells increased their sensitivity to VP-128-induced apoptosis, confirming the selectivity of VP-128 toward hormone-dependent tumor cells. In agreement, Western blot analysis revealed that VP-128 induced higher caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage compared with cisplatin. The activation of caspase-independent apoptosis was also observed in ERα-negative A2780 cells, in which VP-128 rapidly induced the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to the nucleus. Conversely, subcellular localization of apoptosis-inducing factor was not modified in ERα-positive Ovcar-3 cells. We also discovered that VP-128 induces autophagy in ovarian cancer cells because of the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and increase of Light Chain 3B-II protein responsible for the formation of autophagosomes; pathways related to autophagy (AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin) were also down-regulated, supporting this mechanism. Finally, the inhibition of autophagy using chloroquine increased VP-128 efficiency, indicating a possible combination therapy. Altogether these results highlight the beneficial value of VP-128 for the treatment of hormone-dependent ovarian cancers and provide preliminary proof of concept for the efficient targeting of ERα- by 17β-estradiol-Pt(II)-linked chemotherapeutic hybrids in these tumors.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK079310(United States)