Literature context: ThermoFisher ScientificÂ MA1-045Â AB_325399Â AntigenÂ ConcentrationÂ SourceÂ Ca
Endocannabinoids (ECBs) depress transmitter release at sites throughout the brain. Here, we describe another form of ECB signaling that triggers a novel form of long-term potentiation (LTP) localized to the lateral perforant path (LPP) which conveys semantic information from cortex to hippocampus. Two cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling cascades were identified in hippocampus. The first is pregnenolone sensitive, targets vesicular protein Munc18-1 and depresses transmitter release; this cascade is engaged by CB1Rs in Schaffer-Commissural afferents to CA1 but not in the LPP, and it does not contribute to LTP. The second cascade is pregnenolone insensitive and LPP specific; it entails co-operative CB1R/β1-integrin signaling to effect synaptic potentiation via stable enhancement of transmitter release. The latter cascade is engaged during LPP-dependent learning. These results link atypical ECB signaling to the encoding of a fundamental component of episodic memory and suggest a novel route whereby endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids affect cognition.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific CAT# MA1-045; RRID:AB_325399 Rabbit polyclonal anti-PSD95 Li
The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor neuronal pentraxin 1 from presynaptic terminals by signaling through presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor δ. Pentraxin then accumulates AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic terminal forming functional synapses. Our findings reveal a signaling pathway that regulates synaptic activity during central nervous system development and demonstrates a role for astrocytes as organizers of active synaptic connections by coordinating both pre and post synaptic neurons. As mutations in glypicans are associated with neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, this signaling cascade offers new avenues to modulate synaptic function in disease.
Literature context: body Thermo Fisher Cat#AB_1543; RRID:AB_325399 Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Synapsin
Compelling evidence links amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with the emergence of learning and memory deficits, yet a clear understanding of the events that drive this synaptic pathology are lacking. We present evidence that neurons exposed to Aβ are unable to form new synapses, resulting in learning deficits in vivo. We demonstrate the Nogo receptor family (NgR1-3) acts as Aβ receptors mediating an inhibition of synapse assembly, plasticity, and learning. Live imaging studies reveal Aβ activates NgRs on the dendritic shaft of neurons, triggering an inhibition of calcium signaling. We define T-type calcium channels as a target of Aβ-NgR signaling, mediating Aβ's inhibitory effects on calcium, synapse assembly, plasticity, and learning. These studies highlight deficits in new synapse assembly as a potential initiator of cognitive pathology in AD, and pinpoint calcium dysregulation mediated by NgRs and T-type channels as key components. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Literature context: SA, MA1-045; Antibody Registry: RRID:AB_325399; WB dilution 1:3000; ICC diluti
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) is implicated as a master regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation in mammalian brain. Arc acts at synapses and within the nucleus, but the mechanisms controlling Arc localization and function are little known. As Arc transcription and translation are regulated by extracellularsignal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, we asked whether Arc protein itself is phosphorylated by ERK. GST-fused Arc of rat origin was able to pull down endogenous ERK2 from rat hippocampal lysates. Using a peptide array, we show that ERK binds a non-canonical docking (D) motif in the C-terminal domain of Arc, and this interaction is abolished by phosphorylation of Tyr309. Activated ERK2 phosphorylated bacterially expressed Arc in vitro at all five predicted sites, as confirmed by phospho-specific protein staining and LC-MS/MS analysis. In neuroblastoma cells expressing epitope tagged-Arc, we demonstrate ERK-dependent phosphorylation of Arc in response to activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors with carbachol. Using phosphosite-specific antibodies, this stimulus-evoked phosphorylation was shown to occur on Ser206 located within the central hinge region of Arc. In cultured hippocampal neurons expressing phosphomutant Arc under control of the activity-dependent promoter, we show that Ser206 phosphorylation regulates the nuclear:cytosolic localization of Arc. Thus, the neuronal activity-induced phosphomimic exhibits enhanced cytosolic localization relative to phosphodeficient and wild-type Arc. Furthermore, enhanced Ser206 phosphorylation of endogenous Arc was detected in the dentate gyrus cytoskeletal fraction after induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in live rats. Taken together, this work demonstrates stimulus-evoked ERK-dependent phosphorylation and regulation of Arc protein.
Literature context: , MA, USA], mAb PSD95 [MA1-045 (RRID:AB_325399); Thermo], mAb PSD93 [Neuromab,
PSD95 is an abundant postsynaptic scaffold protein in glutamatergic synapses that assembles into supercomplexes composed of over 80 proteins including neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels and adhesion proteins. How these diverse constituents are organized into PSD95 supercomplexes in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we dissected the supercomplexes in mice combining endogenous gene-tagging, targeted mutations and quantitative biochemical assays. Generating compound heterozygous mice with two different gene-tags, one on each Psd95 allele, showed that each ~1.5 MDa PSD95-containing supercomplex contains on average two PSD95 molecules. Gene-tagging the endogenous GluN1 and PSD95 with identical Flag tags revealed N-methyl D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) containing supercomplexes that represent only 3% of the total population of PSD95 supercomplexes, suggesting there are many other subtypes. To determine whether this extended population of different PSD95 supercomplexes use genetically defined mechanisms to specify their assembly, we tested the effect of five targeted mouse mutations on the assembly of known PSD95 interactors, Kir2.3, Arc, IQsec2/BRAG1 and Adam22. Unexpectedly, some mutations were highly selective, whereas others caused widespread disruption, indicating that PSD95 interacting proteins are organized hierarchically into distinct subfamilies of ~1.5 MDa supercomplexes, including a subpopulation of Kir2.3-NMDAR ion channel-channel supercomplexes. Kir2.3-NMDAR ion channel-channel supercomplexes were found to be anatomically restricted to particular brain regions. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that govern the constituents of postsynaptic supercomplexes and the diversity of synapse types. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 500. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13811.
Literature context: hermoFisher Scientific MA1-045, RRID:AB_325399 Mouse, monoclonal
In chemical synapses, neurotransmitter molecules released from presynaptic vesicles activate populations of postsynaptic receptors that vary in functional properties depending on their subunit composition. Differential expression and localization of specific receptor subunits are thought to play fundamental roles in signal processing, but our understanding of how that expression is adapted to the signal processing in individual synapses and microcircuits is limited. At ribbon synapses, glutamate release is independent of action potentials and characterized by a high and rapidly changing rate of release. Adequately translating such presynaptic signals into postsynaptic electrical signals poses a considerable challenge for the receptor channels in these synapses. Here, we investigated the functional properties of AMPA receptors of AII amacrine cells in rat retina that receive input at spatially segregated ribbon synapses from OFF-cone and rod bipolar cells. Using patch-clamp recording from outside-out patches, we measured the concentration dependence of response amplitude and steady-state desensitization, the single-channel conductance and the maximum open probability. The GluA4 subunit seems critical for the functional properties of AMPA receptors in AII amacrines and immunocytochemical labeling suggested that GluA4 is located at synapses made by both OFF-cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells. Finally, we used a series of experimental observables to develop kinetic models for AII amacrine AMPA receptors and subsequently used the models to explore the behavior of the receptors and responses generated by glutamate concentration profiles mimicking those occurring in synapses. These models will facilitate future in silico modeling of synaptic signaling and processing in AII amacrine cells.
Literature context: -95 (1: 150, ThermoÂ Scientific,Â AB_325399); rabbit polyclonal antibodies
Beyond its role in parturition and lactation, oxytocin influences higher brain processes that control social behavior of mammals, and perturbed oxytocin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how oxytocin exactly regulates neuronal function. We show that early, transient oxytocin exposure in vitro inhibits the development of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, leading to reduced dendrite complexity, synapse density, and excitatory transmission, while sparing GABAergic neurons. Conversely, genetic elimination of oxytocin receptors increases the expression of protein components of excitatory synapses and excitatory synaptic transmission in vitro. In vivo, oxytocin-receptor-deficient hippocampal pyramidal neurons develop more complex dendrites, which leads to increased spine number and reduced γ-oscillations. These results indicate that oxytocin controls the development of hippocampal excitatory neurons and contributes to the maintenance of a physiological excitation/inhibition balance, whose disruption can cause neurobehavioral disturbances.
Protein interacting specifically with Tc10, PIST, is a Golgi-associated sorting protein involved in regulating cell-surface targeting of plasma membrane receptors. The present study provides the first comprehensive description of PIST distribution in the mammalian central nervous system and of its subcellular localization by immunocytochemistry. PIST is distributed widely throughout the neuraxis, predominantly associated with neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. In hippocampal neurons, in vitro and in situ, PIST displayed a patchy subcellular distribution in an area surrounding the nucleus and extending into one of the major dendrites. By colocalization with the trans-Golgi marker TGN38, we were able to show that PIST is associated largely but not exclusively with the trans-Golgi network in central neurons. High or moderate to high levels of PIST-like immunoreactivity were found in cortical areas, in particular in layer V of the neocortex. The motor cortex was most strongly labeled. Also, the piriform and insular cortices displayed strong PIST labeling. In the hippocampus, CA2 but not CA1 or CA3 pyramidal cells displayed strong PIST-labeling, extending into their apical dendrites. In the thalamus, ventrolateral and laterodorsal nuclei were most strongly stained, whereas in the hypothalamus the supraoptic nucleus stood out with strong immunoreactivity. Strikingly, in the brainstem all cranial nerve motor nuclei were PIST-positive at varying levels, which is in keeping with the prominent expression of PIST in forebrain motor areas. This selective distribution of PIST suggests that the protein serves distinctive roles in specific neuronal populations, establishing functionally distinct zones, for instance, in the hippocampus.
Literature context: synapsin I (1:2000; Millipore), anti-PSD-95 family (IgG2a; 1:500; clone 6G6-1C9; Affinity Bioreagents; recognizes PSD-95, PSD-93, SAP102 and SAP97), and anti-gephyrin (IgG1; 1:100
Delineating the molecular basis of synapse development is crucial for understanding brain function. Cocultures of neurons with transfected fibroblasts have demonstrated the synapse-promoting activity of candidate molecules. Here, we performed an unbiased expression screen for synaptogenic proteins in the coculture assay using custom-made cDNA libraries. Reisolation of NGL-3/LRRC4B and neuroligin-2 accounts for a minority of positive clones, indicating that current understanding of mammalian synaptogenic proteins is incomplete. We identify LRRTM1 as a transmembrane protein that induces presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. All four LRRTM family members exhibit synaptogenic activity, LRRTMs localize to excitatory synapses, and artificially induced clustering of LRRTMs mediates postsynaptic differentiation. We generate LRRTM1(-/-) mice and reveal altered distribution of the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1, confirming an in vivo synaptic function. These results suggest a prevalence of LRR domain proteins in trans-synaptic signaling and provide a cellular basis for the reported linkage of LRRTM1 to handedness and schizophrenia.
Orexin/hypocretin (Orx) neurons are critical for the maintenance of waking in association with behavioral arousal and postural muscle tone, since with their loss narcolepsy with cataplexy occurs. Given that basal forebrain (BF) neurons project to the hypothalamus and play important diverse roles in sleep/wake states, we sought to determine whether acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate (Glu), and/or GABA-releasing BF neurons innervate and could thereby differentially regulate the Orx neurons. From discrete injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, 10,000 MW) into the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (MCPO) and substantia innominata (SI) in the rat, BDA-labeled fibers projected to the lateral hypothalamus (LH), perifornical area (PF), and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), where approximately 41%, approximately 11%, and 9% of Orx-positive (+) neurons were respectively contacted in each region. Employing triple fluorescent staining for Orx, BDA, and presynaptic vesicular (V) transporters (T), we found that only 4% of the innervated Orx+ neurons in the LH were contacted by BDA+[VAChT+] terminals, whereas approximately 31% and approximately 67% were respectively contacted by BDA+[VGluT2+] and BDA+[VGAT+] terminals. In 3D-rendered and rotated confocal images, we confirmed the latter contacts and examined staining for postsynaptic proteins PSD-95, a marker for glutamatergic synapses, and gephyrin, a marker for GABAergic synapses, that were located on Orx+ neurons facing BDA-labeled terminals in approximately 20% and approximately 50% of contacts, respectively. With such synaptic input, BF glutamatergic neurons can excite Orx neurons and thus act to maintain behavioral arousal with muscle tone, whereas GABAergic neurons can inhibit Orx neurons and thus promote behavioral quiescence and sleep along with muscle atonia.