Literature context: CD11b eBioscience Cat# 101208, RRID:AB_312791 CD14 Monoclonal Antibody (61D3)
N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most prevalent internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), plays critical roles in many bioprocesses. However, its functions in normal and malignant hematopoiesis remain elusive. Here, we report that METTL14, a key component of the m6A methyltransferase complex, is highly expressed in normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells carrying t(11q23), t(15;17), or t(8;21) and is downregulated during myeloid differentiation. Silencing of METTL14 promotes terminal myeloid differentiation of normal HSPCs and AML cells and inhibits AML cell survival/proliferation. METTL14 is required for development and maintenance of AML and self-renewal of leukemia stem/initiation cells (LSCs/LICs). Mechanistically, METTL14 exerts its oncogenic role by regulating its mRNA targets (e.g., MYB and MYC) through m6A modification, while the protein itself is negatively regulated by SPI1. Collectively, our results reveal the SPI1-METTL14-MYB/MYC signaling axis in myelopoiesis and leukemogenesis and highlight the critical roles of METTL14 and m6A modification in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
Literature context: RRID:AB_312791 CD11c (clone N418) BioLegend, L
Interactions between the host and its microbiota are of mutual benefit and promote health. Complex molecular pathways underlie this dialog, but the identity of microbe-derived molecules that mediate the mutualistic state remains elusive. Helicobacter hepaticus is a member of the mouse intestinal microbiota that is tolerated by the host. In the absence of an intact IL-10 signaling, H. hepaticus induces an IL-23-driven inflammatory response in the intestine. Here we investigate the interactions between H. hepaticus and host immune cells that may promote mutualism, and the microbe-derived molecule(s) involved. Our results show that H. hepaticus triggers early IL-10 induction in intestinal macrophages and produces a large soluble polysaccharide that activates a specific MSK/CREB-dependent anti-inflammatory and repair gene signature via the receptor TLR2. These data identify a host-bacterial interaction that promotes mutualistic mechanisms at the intestinal interface. Further understanding of this pathway may provide novel prevention and treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease.
Literature context: 1208; RRID:AB_312791 PE anti-CD11c BioLegend Cat# 11
Staphylococcus aureus commonly colonizes the epidermis, but the mechanisms by which the host senses virulent, but not commensal, S. aureus to trigger inflammation remain unclear. Using a murine epicutaneous infection model, we found that S. aureus-expressed phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)α, a group of secreted virulence peptides, is required to trigger cutaneous inflammation. PSMα induces the release of keratinocyte IL-1α and IL-36α, and signaling via IL-1R and IL-36R was required for induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17. The levels of released IL-1α and IL-36α, as well as IL-17 production by γδ T cells and ILC3 and neutrophil infiltration to the site of infection, were greatly reduced in mice with total or keratinocyte-specific deletion of the IL-1R and IL-36R signaling adaptor Myd88. Further, Il17a-/-f-/- mice showed blunted S. aureus-induced inflammation. Thus, keratinocyte Myd88 signaling in response to S. aureus PSMα drives an IL-17-mediated skin inflammatory response to epicutaneous S. aureus infection.
Literature context: D11b (rat monoclonal) BioLegend RRID:AB_312791; RRID:AB_755986 clone: M1/70
How tissue-resident macrophages (TRM) impact adaptive immune responses remains poorly understood. We report novel mechanisms by which TRMs regulate T cell activities at tissue sites. These mechanisms are mediated by the complement receptor of immunoglobulin family (CRIg). Using animal models for autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D), we found that CRIg+ TRMs formed a protective barrier surrounding pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of CRIg exacerbated islet inflammation and local T cell activation. CRIg exhibited a dual function of attenuating early T cell activation and promoting the differentiation of Foxp3+ regulatory (Treg) cells. More importantly, CRIg stabilized the expression of Foxp3 in Treg cells, by enhancing their responsiveness to interleukin-2. The expression of CRIg in TRMs was postnatally regulated by gut microbial signals and metabolites. Thus, environmental cues instruct TRMs to express CRIg, which functions as an immune checkpoint molecule to regulate adaptive immunity and promote immune tolerance.
Literature context: tibody, Clone M1/70BioLegendCat#101208; RRID: AB_312790APC anti-mouse/
Neutrophils are critical and short-lived mediators of innate immunity that require constant replenishment. Their differentiation in the bone marrow requires extensive cytoplasmic and nuclear remodeling, but the processes governing these energy-consuming changes are unknown. While previous studies show that autophagy is required for differentiation of other blood cell lineages, its function during granulopoiesis has remained elusive. Here, we have shown that metabolism and autophagy are developmentally programmed and essential for neutrophil differentiation in vivo. Atg7-deficient neutrophil precursors had increased glycolytic activity but impaired mitochondrial respiration, decreased ATP production, and accumulated lipid droplets. Inhibiting autophagy-mediated lipid degradation or fatty acid oxidation alone was sufficient to cause defective differentiation, while administration of fatty acids or pyruvate for mitochondrial respiration rescued differentiation in autophagy-deficient neutrophil precursors. Together, we show that autophagy-mediated lipolysis provides free fatty acids to support a mitochondrial respiration pathway essential to neutrophil differentiation.
Literature context: ody Biolegend Cat#101208; RRID:AB_312791 APC anti-mouse F4/80 Antibody e
Ten-Eleven-Translocation-2 (Tet2) is a DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase that functions as a tumor suppressor in hematopoietic malignancies. We examined the role of Tet2 in tumor-tissue myeloid cells and found that Tet2 sustains the immunosuppressive function of these cells. We found that Tet2 expression is increased in intratumoral myeloid cells both in mouse models of melanoma and in melanoma patients and that this increased expression is dependent on an IL-1R-MyD88 pathway. Ablation of Tet2 in myeloid cells suppressed melanoma growth in vivo and shifted the immunosuppressive gene expression program in tumor-associated macrophages to a proinflammatory one, with a concomitant reduction of the immunosuppressive function. This resulted in increased numbers of effector T cells in the tumor, and T cell depletion abolished the reduced tumor growth observed upon myeloid-specific deletion of Tet2. Our findings reveal a non-cell-intrinsic, tumor-promoting function for Tet2 and suggest that Tet2 may present a therapeutic target for the treatment of non-hematologic malignancies.
Literature context: 313430, BioLegend), anti-CD11b (RRID:AB_312791, BioLegend), PE-Cy7-conjugated
Impact of stress on diseases including gastrointestinal failure is well-known, but molecular mechanism is not understood. Here we show underlying molecular mechanism using EAE mice. Under stress conditions, EAE caused severe gastrointestinal failure with high-mortality. Mechanistically, autoreactive-pathogenic CD4+ T cells accumulated at specific vessels of boundary area of third-ventricle, thalamus, and dentate-gyrus to establish brain micro-inflammation via stress-gateway reflex. Importantly, induction of brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels by cytokine injection was sufficient to establish fatal gastrointestinal failure. Resulting micro-inflammation activated new neural pathway including neurons in paraventricular-nucleus, dorsomedial-nucleus-of-hypothalamus, and also vagal neurons to cause fatal gastrointestinal failure. Suppression of the brain micro-inflammation or blockage of these neural pathways inhibited the gastrointestinal failure. These results demonstrate direct link between brain micro-inflammation and fatal gastrointestinal disease via establishment of a new neural pathway under stress. They further suggest that brain micro-inflammation around specific vessels could be switch to activate new neural pathway(s) to regulate organ homeostasis.