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APC anti-mouse CD4 antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

CD4 See NCBI gene mouse

Proper Citation

(BioLegend Cat# 100412, RRID:AB_312697)


monoclonal antibody


Applications: FC

Clone ID

Clone GK1.5

Host Organism


Th9 Cells Represent a Unique Subset of CD4+ T Cells Endowed with the Ability to Eradicate Advanced Tumors.

  • Lu Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


The antitumor effector T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells represent two T cell paradigms: short-lived cytolytic Th1 cells and "stem cell-like" memory Th17 cells. We report that Th9 cells represent a third paradigm-they are less-exhausted, fully cytolytic, and hyperproliferative. Only tumor-specific Th9 cells completely eradicated advanced tumors, maintained a mature effector cell signature with cytolytic activity as strong as Th1 cells, and persisted as long as Th17 cells in vivo. Th9 cells displayed a unique Pu.1-Traf6-NF-κB activation-driven hyperproliferative feature, suggesting a persistence mechanism rather than an antiapoptotic strategy. Th9 antitumor efficacy depended on interleukin-9 and upregulated expression of Eomes and Traf6. Thus, tumor-specific Th9 cells are a more effective CD4+ T cell subset for adoptive cancer therapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K99 CA190910()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA190910()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003523-03(United States)

Dietary Fiber Confers Protection against Flu by Shaping Ly6c- Patrolling Monocyte Hematopoiesis and CD8+ T Cell Metabolism.

  • Trompette A
  • Immunity
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Dietary fiber protects against chronic inflammatory diseases by dampening immune responses through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here we examined the effect of dietary fiber in viral infection, where the anti-inflammatory properties of SCFAs in principle could prevent protective immunity. Instead, we found that fermentable dietary fiber increased survival of influenza-infected mice through two complementary mechanisms. High-fiber diet (HFD)-fed mice exhibited altered bone marrow hematopoiesis, characterized by enhanced generation of Ly6c- patrolling monocytes, which led to increased numbers of alternatively activated macrophages with a limited capacity to produce the chemokine CXCL1 in the airways. Blunted CXCL1 production reduced neutrophil recruitment to the airways, thus limiting tissue immunopathology during infection. In parallel, diet-derived SCFAs boosted CD8+ T cell effector function by enhancing cellular metabolism. Hence, dietary fermentable fiber and SCFAs set an immune equilibrium, balancing innate and adaptive immunity so as to promote the resolution of influenza infection while preventing immune-associated pathology.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - N01-CO-12400(United States)

CD150high Bone Marrow Tregs Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Quiescence and Immune Privilege via Adenosine.

  • Hirata Y
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


A crucial player in immune regulation, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are drawing attention for their heterogeneity and noncanonical functions. Here, we describe a Treg subpopulation that controls hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and engraftment. These Tregs highly expressed an HSC marker, CD150, and localized within the HSC niche in the bone marrow (BM). Specific reduction of BM Tregs achieved by conditional deletion of CXCR4 in Tregs increased HSC numbers in the BM. Adenosine generated via the CD39 cell surface ectoenzyme on niche Tregs protected HSCs from oxidative stress and maintained HSC quiescence. In transplantation settings, niche Tregs prevented allogeneic (allo-) HSC rejection through adenosine and facilitated allo-HSC engraftment. Furthermore, transfer of niche Tregs promoted allo-HSC engraftment to a much greater extent than transfer of other Tregs. These results identify a unique niche-associated Treg subset and adenosine as regulators of HSC quiescence, abundance, and engraftment, further highlighting their therapeutic utility.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK051665(United States)

CD38-NAD+Axis Regulates Immunotherapeutic Anti-Tumor T Cell Response.

  • Chatterjee S
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Heightened effector function and prolonged persistence, the key attributes of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively, are key features of potent anti-tumor T cells. Here, we established ex vivo culture conditions to generate hybrid Th1/17 cells, which persisted long-term in vivo while maintaining their effector function. Using transcriptomics and metabolic profiling approaches, we showed that the enhanced anti-tumor property of Th1/17 cells was dependent on the increased NAD+-dependent activity of the histone deacetylase Sirt1. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Sirt1 activity impaired the anti-tumor potential of Th1/17 cells. Importantly, T cells with reduced surface expression of the NADase CD38 exhibited intrinsically higher NAD+, enhanced oxidative phosphorylation, higher glutaminolysis, and altered mitochondrial dynamics that vastly improved tumor control. Lastly, blocking CD38 expression improved tumor control even when using Th0 anti-tumor T cells. Thus, strategies targeting the CD38-NAD+ axis could increase the efficacy of anti-tumor adoptive T cell therapy.

Initiation of Antiviral B Cell Immunity Relies on Innate Signals from Spatially Positioned NKT Cells.

  • Gaya M
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


B cells constitute an essential line of defense from pathogenic infections through the generation of class-switched antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in germinal centers. Although this process is known to be regulated by follicular helper T (TfH) cells, the mechanism by which B cells initially seed germinal center reactions remains elusive. We found that NKT cells, a population of innate-like T lymphocytes, are critical for the induction of B cell immunity upon viral infection. The positioning of NKT cells at the interfollicular areas of lymph nodes facilitates both their direct priming by resident macrophages and the localized delivery of innate signals to antigen-experienced B cells. Indeed, NKT cells secrete an early wave of IL-4 and constitute up to 70% of the total IL-4-producing cells during the initial stages of infection. Importantly, the requirement of this innate immunity arm appears to be evolutionarily conserved because early NKT and IL-4 gene signatures also positively correlate with the levels of neutralizing antibodies in Zika-virus-infected macaques. In conclusion, our data support a model wherein a pre-TfH wave of IL-4 secreted by interfollicular NKT cells triggers the seeding of germinal center cells and serves as an innate link between viral infection and B cell immunity.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD049808(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - UM1 AI100663()

Autophagy-Dependent Generation of Free Fatty Acids Is Critical for Normal Neutrophil Differentiation.

  • Riffelmacher T
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Sep 19

Literature context:


Neutrophils are critical and short-lived mediators of innate immunity that require constant replenishment. Their differentiation in the bone marrow requires extensive cytoplasmic and nuclear remodeling, but the processes governing these energy-consuming changes are unknown. While previous studies show that autophagy is required for differentiation of other blood cell lineages, its function during granulopoiesis has remained elusive. Here, we have shown that metabolism and autophagy are developmentally programmed and essential for neutrophil differentiation in vivo. Atg7-deficient neutrophil precursors had increased glycolytic activity but impaired mitochondrial respiration, decreased ATP production, and accumulated lipid droplets. Inhibiting autophagy-mediated lipid degradation or fatty acid oxidation alone was sufficient to cause defective differentiation, while administration of fatty acids or pyruvate for mitochondrial respiration rescued differentiation in autophagy-deficient neutrophil precursors. Together, we show that autophagy-mediated lipolysis provides free fatty acids to support a mitochondrial respiration pathway essential to neutrophil differentiation.

CTCF-Mediated Enhancer-Promoter Interaction Is a Critical Regulator of Cell-to-Cell Variation of Gene Expression.

  • Ren G
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Recent studies indicate that even a homogeneous population of cells display heterogeneity in gene expression and response to environmental stimuli. Although promoter structure critically influences the cell-to-cell variation of gene expression in bacteria and lower eukaryotes, it remains unclear what controls the gene expression noise in mammals. Here we report that CTCF decreases cell-to-cell variation of expression by stabilizing enhancer-promoter interaction. We show that CTCF binding sites are interwoven with enhancers within topologically associated domains (TADs) and a positive correlation is found between CTCF binding and the activity of the associated enhancers. Deletion of CTCF sites compromises enhancer-promoter interactions. Using single-cell flow cytometry and single-molecule RNA-FISH assays, we demonstrate that knocking down of CTCF or deletion of a CTCF binding site results in increased cell-to-cell variation of gene expression, indicating that long-range promoter-enhancer interaction mediated by CTCF plays important roles in controlling the cell-to-cell variation of gene expression in mammalian cells.

The DNA Methylcytosine Dioxygenase Tet2 Sustains Immunosuppressive Function of Tumor-Infiltrating Myeloid Cells to Promote Melanoma Progression.

  • Pan W
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Ten-Eleven-Translocation-2 (Tet2) is a DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase that functions as a tumor suppressor in hematopoietic malignancies. We examined the role of Tet2 in tumor-tissue myeloid cells and found that Tet2 sustains the immunosuppressive function of these cells. We found that Tet2 expression is increased in intratumoral myeloid cells both in mouse models of melanoma and in melanoma patients and that this increased expression is dependent on an IL-1R-MyD88 pathway. Ablation of Tet2 in myeloid cells suppressed melanoma growth in vivo and shifted the immunosuppressive gene expression program in tumor-associated macrophages to a proinflammatory one, with a concomitant reduction of the immunosuppressive function. This resulted in increased numbers of effector T cells in the tumor, and T cell depletion abolished the reduced tumor growth observed upon myeloid-specific deletion of Tet2. Our findings reveal a non-cell-intrinsic, tumor-promoting function for Tet2 and suggest that Tet2 may present a therapeutic target for the treatment of non-hematologic malignancies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA149109()

Long-term intravital imaging of the multicolor-coded tumor microenvironment during combination immunotherapy.

  • Qi S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 18

Literature context:


The combined-immunotherapy of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) is one of the most efficient treatments for melanoma patients. However, no synergistic effects of CTX and ACT on the spatio-temporal dynamics of immunocytes in vivo have been described. Here, we visualized key cell events in immunotherapy-elicited immunoreactions in a multicolor-coded tumor microenvironment, and then established an optimal strategy of metronomic combined-immunotherapy to enhance anti-tumor efficacy. Intravital imaging data indicated that regulatory T cells formed an 'immunosuppressive ring' around a solid tumor. The CTX-ACT combined-treatment elicited synergistic immunoreactions in tumor areas, which included relieving the immune suppression, triggering the transient activation of endogenous tumor-infiltrating immunocytes, increasing the accumulation of adoptive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and accelerating the infiltration of dendritic cells. These insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics of immunocytes are beneficial for optimizing immunotherapy and provide new approaches for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the involvement of immunocytes in cancer immunotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - P51 OD011133(United States)