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Anti-beta-Tubulin, clone AA2 antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

beta-Tubulin clone AA2 h, r, m, b

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# 05-661, RRID:AB_309885)


monoclonal antibody


seller recommendations: IgG1; IgG1 WB; Western Blot

Host Organism




Inactivation of NMDA Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area during Cocaine Self-Administration Prevents GluA1 Upregulation but with Paradoxical Increases in Cocaine-Seeking Behavior.

  • Guzman D
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced long-term potentiation in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats. We found that dnGluN1 expression in the VTA limited to the 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration prevents the subsequent increase in tissue GluA1 levels when compared with control infusions of HSV-LacZ. Surprisingly, dnGluN1 expression led to an enhancement in the motivation to self-administer cocaine as measured using a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule and to enhanced cocaine seeking measured in extinction/reinstatement tests following an extended 3 week withdrawal period. Despite blocking tissue GluA1 increases in cocaine self-administering animals, the HSV-dnGluN1 treatment resulted in increased membrane levels of GluA1 and GluN2B, along with markedly higher locomotor responses to intra-VTA infusions of AMPA, suggesting a paradoxical increase in VTA AMPA receptor responsiveness. Together, these data suggest that NMDARs mediate cocaine-induced increases in VTA GluA1 expression, but such transient NMDAR inactivation also leads to compensatory scaling of synaptic AMPA receptors that enhance the motivational for cocaine.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are critical substrates of drug rewards. Animal models indicate that chronic cocaine use enhances excitatory glutamatergic input to these neurons, making them more susceptible to environmental stimuli that trigger drug craving and relapse. We previously found that self-administration of cocaine increases AMPA glutamate receptors in the VTA, and this effect enhances motivation for cocaine. Here we report that the mechanism for this upregulation involves NMDA receptor activity during cocaine use. While interference with NMDA receptor function blocks AMPA receptor upregulation, it also produces a paradoxical enhancement in membrane AMPA receptor subunits, AMPA responsiveness, and the motivation for cocaine. Thus, pharmacotherapy targeting NMDA receptors may inadvertently produce substantial adverse consequences for cocaine addiction.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA022445()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - F31 DA035073()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA018743()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA032708()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA007290()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1R01GM100768-01A1(United States)

Loss of SynDIG1 Reduces Excitatory Synapse Maturation But Not Formation In Vivo.

  • Chenaux G
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 31

Literature context:


Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Ultrastructural analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region shows a decrease in the average PSD length of synapses and a decrease in the number of synapses with a mature phenotype. Intriguingly, the total synapse number appears to be increased in SynDIG1 mutant mice. Electrophysiological analyses show a decrease in AMPA and NMDA receptor function in SynDIG1-deficient hippocampal neurons. Glutamate stimulation of individual dendritic spines in hippocampal slices from SynDIG1-deficient mice reveals increased short-term structural plasticity. Notably, the overall levels of PSD-95 or glutamate receptors enriched in postsynaptic biochemical fractions remain unaltered; however, activity-dependent synapse development is strongly compromised upon the loss of SynDIG1, supporting its importance for excitatory synapse maturation. Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104638(United States)

Selective Chemical Inhibition of PGC-1α Gluconeogenic Activity Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes.

  • Sharabi K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic with a medical need for additional targeted therapies. Suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) effectively ameliorates diabetes and can be exploited for its treatment. We hypothesized that targeting PGC-1α acetylation in the liver, a chemical modification known to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, could be potentially used for treatment of T2D. Thus, we designed a high-throughput chemical screen platform to quantify PGC-1α acetylation in cells and identified small molecules that increase PGC-1α acetylation, suppress gluconeogenic gene expression, and reduce glucose production in hepatocytes. On the basis of potency and bioavailability, we selected a small molecule, SR-18292, that reduces blood glucose, strongly increases hepatic insulin sensitivity, and improves glucose homeostasis in dietary and genetic mouse models of T2D. These studies have important implications for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism and treatment of T2D.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG005032()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R03 DA032468()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK102293()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK040936()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK069966()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK080261()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U2C DK059635()

Fasting-Mimicking Diet Promotes Ngn3-Driven β-Cell Regeneration to Reverse Diabetes.

  • Cheng CW
  • Cell
  • 2017 Feb 23

Literature context:


Stem-cell-based therapies can potentially reverse organ dysfunction and diseases, but the removal of impaired tissue and activation of a program leading to organ regeneration pose major challenges. In mice, a 4-day fasting mimicking diet (FMD) induces a stepwise expression of Sox17 and Pdx-1, followed by Ngn3-driven generation of insulin-producing β cells, resembling that observed during pancreatic development. FMD cycles restore insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in both type 2 and type 1 diabetes mouse models. In human type 1 diabetes pancreatic islets, fasting conditions reduce PKA and mTOR activity and induce Sox2 and Ngn3 expression and insulin production. The effects of the FMD are reversed by IGF-1 treatment and recapitulated by PKA and mTOR inhibition. These results indicate that a FMD promotes the reprogramming of pancreatic cells to restore insulin generation in islets from T1D patients and reverse both T1D and T2D phenotypes in mouse models. PAPERCLIP.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG034906()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG020642()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG025135()

Spatiotemporal Analysis of a Glycolytic Activity Gradient Linked to Mouse Embryo Mesoderm Development.

  • Bulusu V
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 27

Literature context:


How metabolism is rewired during embryonic development is still largely unknown, as it remains a major technical challenge to resolve metabolic activities or metabolite levels with spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we investigated metabolic changes during development of organogenesis-stage mouse embryos, focusing on the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). We measured glycolytic labeling kinetics from 13C-glucose tracing experiments and detected elevated glycolysis in the posterior, more undifferentiated PSM. We found evidence that the spatial metabolic differences are functionally relevant during PSM development. To enable real-time quantification of a glycolytic metabolite with spatiotemporal resolution, we generated a pyruvate FRET-sensor reporter mouse line. We revealed dynamic changes in cytosolic pyruvate levels as cells transit toward a more anterior PSM state. Combined, our approach identifies a gradient of glycolytic activity across the PSM, and we provide evidence that these spatiotemporal metabolic changes are intrinsically linked to PSM development and differentiation.

Distribution of the SynDIG4/proline-rich transmembrane protein 1 in rat brain.

  • Kirk LM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 1

Literature context:


The modulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) content at synapses is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism of memory and learning. AMPAR content at synapses is highly plastic and is regulated by numerous AMPAR accessory transmembrane proteins such as TARPs, cornichons, and CKAMPs. SynDIG (synapse differentiation-induced gene) defines a family of four genes (SynDIG1-4) expressed in distinct and overlapping patterns in the brain. SynDIG1 was previously identified as a novel transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates synaptic strength. The related protein SynDIG4 [also known as Prrt1 (proline-rich transmembrane protein 1)] has recently been identified as a component of AMPAR complexes. In this study, we show that SynDIG1 and SynDIG4 have distinct yet overlapping patterns of expression in the central nervous system, with SynDIG4 having especially prominent expression in the hippocampus and particularly within CA1. In contrast to SynDIG1 and other traditional AMPAR auxiliary subunits, SynDIG4 is de-enriched at the postsynaptic density and colocalizes with extrasynaptic GluA1 puncta in primary dissociated neuron culture. These results indicate that, although SynDIG4 shares sequence similarity with SynDIG1, it might act through a unique mechanism as an auxiliary factor for extrasynaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2266-2280, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The prostate cancer TMPRSS2:ERG fusion synergizes with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to induce CYP24A1 expression-limiting VDR signaling.

  • Kim JS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


A number of preclinical studies have shown that the activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) reduces prostate cancer (PCa) cell and tumor growth. The majority of human PCas express a transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2):erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) fusion gene, but most preclinical studies have been performed in PCa models lacking TMPRSS2:ETS in part due to the limited availability of model systems expressing endogenous TMPRSS2:ETS. The level of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), is controlled in part by VDR-dependent induction of cytochrome P450, family 24, subfamily 1, polypeptide1 (CYP24A1), which metabolizes 1,25D to an inactive form. Because ETS factors can cooperate with VDR to induce rat CYP24A1, we tested whether TMPRSS2:ETS would cause aberrant induction of human CYP24A1 limiting the activity of VDR. In TMPRSS2:ETS positive VCaP cells, depletion of TMPRSS2:ETS substantially reduced 1,25D-mediated CYP24A1 induction. Artificial expression of the type VI+72 TMPRSS2:ETS isoform in LNCaP cells synergized with 1,25D to greatly increase CYP24A1 expression. Thus, one of the early effects of TMPRSS2:ETS in prostate cells is likely a reduction in intracellular 1,25D, which may lead to increased proliferation. Next, we tested the net effect of VDR action in TMPRSS2:ETS containing PCa tumors in vivo. Unlike previous animal studies performed on PCa tumors lacking TMPRSS2:ETS, EB1089 (seocalcitol) (a less calcemic analog of 1,25D) did not inhibit the growth of TMPRSS2:ETS containing VCaP tumors in vivo, suggesting that the presence of TMPRSS2:ETS may limit the growth inhibitory actions of VDR. Our findings suggest that patients with TMPRSS2:ETS negative tumors may be more responsive to VDR-mediated growth inhibition and that TMPRSS2:ETS status should be considered in future clinical trials.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01-MH096705(United States)

The SMRT coregulator enhances growth of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer cells by promotion of cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis.

  • Blackmore JK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


The SMRT coregulator functions as a dual coactivator and corepressor for estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in a gene-specific manner, and in several studies its elevated expression correlates with poor outcome for breast cancer patients. A specific role of SMRT in breast cancer progression has not been elucidated, but SMRT knock-down limits estradiol-dependent growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In this study, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) approaches were used to determine the effects of SMRT depletion on growth of ERα-positive MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells, as well as the ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line. Depletion of SMRT inhibited growth of ERα-positive cells grown in monolayer but had no effect on growth of the ERα-negative cells. Reduced SMRT levels also negatively impacted the anchorage-independent growth of MCF-7 cells as assessed by soft agar colony formation assays. The observed growth inhibitions were due to a loss of estradiol-induced progression through the G1/S transition of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis in SMRT-depleted compared with control cells. Gene expression analyses indicated that SMRT inhibits apoptosis by a coordinated regulation of genes involved in apoptosis. Functioning as a dual coactivator for anti-apoptotic genes and corepressor for pro-apoptotic genes, SMRT can limit apoptosis. Together these data indicate that SMRT promotes breast cancer progression through multiple pathways leading to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS051255(United States)