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Rabbit Anti-RNA polymerase II, phospho (Ser2 / Ser9) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_304749

Antibody ID

AB_304749

Target Antigen

RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) - ChIP Grade human, reacts with human, mouse, rat, caenorhabditis elegans(pmid 19251593), fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster), saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe and xenopus laevis (pmid 19783735)predicted to react with a wide range of other species due to sequence homology

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab5095, RRID:AB_304749)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Chromatin IP, Chromatin IPseq, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry-Fr, Immunohistochemistry-P, Western Blot

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Abcam

The HIV-1 Tat protein recruits a ubiquitin ligase to reorganize the 7SK snRNP for transcriptional activation.

  • Faust TB
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The HIV-1 Tat protein hijacks P-TEFb kinase to activate paused RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) at the viral promoter. Tat binds additional host factors, but it is unclear how they regulate RNAP II elongation. Here, we identify the cytoplasmic ubiquitin ligase UBE2O as critical for Tat transcriptional activity. Tat hijacks UBE2O to ubiquitinate the P-TEFb kinase inhibitor HEXIM1 of the 7SK snRNP, a fraction of which also resides in the cytoplasm bound to P-TEFb. HEXIM1 ubiquitination sequesters it in the cytoplasm and releases P-TEFb from the inhibitory 7SK complex. Free P-TEFb then becomes enriched in chromatin, a process that is also stimulated by treating cells with a CDK9 inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrate that UBE2O is critical for P-TEFb recruitment to the HIV-1 promoter. Together, the data support a unique model of elongation control where non-degradative ubiquitination of nuclear and cytoplasmic 7SK snRNP pools increases P-TEFb levels for transcriptional activation.

Funding information:
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - R01AI114362()
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - RO1AI114362()
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - P50GM082250()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R15 HL071526(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI027763()
  • Welch Foundation - I-1782()

Promoter of lncRNA Gene PVT1 Is a Tumor-Suppressor DNA Boundary Element.

  • Cho SW
  • Cell
  • 2018 May 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Noncoding mutations in cancer genomes are frequent but challenging to interpret. PVT1 encodes an oncogenic lncRNA, but recurrent translocations and deletions in human cancers suggest alternative mechanisms. Here, we show that the PVT1 promoter has a tumor-suppressor function that is independent of PVT1 lncRNA. CRISPR interference of PVT1 promoter enhances breast cancer cell competition and growth in vivo. The promoters of the PVT1 and the MYC oncogenes, located 55 kb apart on chromosome 8q24, compete for engagement with four intragenic enhancers in the PVT1 locus, thereby allowing the PVT1 promoter to regulate pause release of MYC transcription. PVT1 undergoes developmentally regulated monoallelic expression, and the PVT1 promoter inhibits MYC expression only from the same chromosome via promoter competition. Cancer genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations encompassing the human PVT1 promoter, and genome editing verified that PVT1 promoter mutation promotes cancer cell growth. These results highlight regulatory sequences of lncRNA genes as potential disease-associated DNA elements.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 5K08HL87951(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA209919()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - P50 HG007735()

SETD7 Drives Cardiac Lineage Commitment through Stage-Specific Transcriptional Activation.

  • Lee J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cardiac development requires coordinated and large-scale rearrangements of the epigenome. The roles and precise mechanisms through which specific epigenetic modifying enzymes control cardiac lineage specification, however, remain unclear. Here we show that the H3K4 methyltransferase SETD7 controls cardiac differentiation by reading H3K36 marks independently of its enzymatic activity. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that SETD7 targets distinct sets of genes to drive their stage-specific expression during cardiomyocyte differentiation. SETD7 associates with different co-factors at these stages, including SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling factors during mesodermal formation and the transcription factor NKX2.5 in cardiac progenitors to drive their differentiation. Further analyses revealed that SETD7 binds methylated H3K36 in the bodies of its target genes to facilitate RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription. Moreover, abnormal SETD7 expression impairs functional attributes of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. Together, these results reveal how SETD7 acts at sequential steps in cardiac lineage commitment, and they provide insights into crosstalk between dynamic epigenetic marks and chromatin-modifying enzymes.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA124596(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K99 HL133473()

Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway In Vivo Elicits Changes in CSL Nuclear Dynamics.

  • Gomez-Lamarca MJ
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

A key feature of Notch signaling is that it directs immediate changes in transcription via the DNA-binding factor CSL, switching it from repression to activation. How Notch generates both a sensitive and accurate response-in the absence of any amplification step-remains to be elucidated. To address this question, we developed real-time analysis of CSL dynamics including single-molecule tracking in vivo. In Notch-OFF nuclei, a small proportion of CSL molecules transiently binds DNA, while in Notch-ON conditions CSL recruitment increases dramatically at target loci, where complexes have longer dwell times conferred by the Notch co-activator Mastermind. Surprisingly, recruitment of CSL-related corepressors also increases in Notch-ON conditions, revealing that Notch induces cooperative or "assisted" loading by promoting local increase in chromatin accessibility. Thus, in vivo Notch activity triggers changes in CSL dwell times and chromatin accessibility, which we propose confer sensitivity to small input changes and facilitate timely shut-down.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - CA084179(United Kingdom)
  • Wellcome Trust - R01 CA178974()

The Transcriptionally Permissive Chromatin State of Embryonic Stem Cells Is Acutely Tuned to Translational Output.

  • Bulut-Karslioglu A
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A permissive chromatin environment coupled to hypertranscription drives the rapid proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and peri-implantation embryos. We carried out a genome-wide screen to systematically dissect the regulation of the euchromatic state of ESCs. The results revealed that cellular growth pathways, most prominently translation, perpetuate the euchromatic state and hypertranscription of ESCs. Acute inhibition of translation rapidly depletes euchromatic marks in mouse ESCs and blastocysts, concurrent with delocalization of RNA polymerase II and reduction in nascent transcription. Translation inhibition promotes rewiring of chromatin accessibility, which decreases at a subset of active developmental enhancers and increases at histone genes and transposable elements. Proteome-scale analyses revealed that several euchromatin regulators are unstable proteins and continuously depend on a high translational output. We propose that this mechanistic interdependence of euchromatin, transcription, and translation sets the pace of proliferation at peri-implantation and may be employed by other stem/progenitor cells.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - F30 HD093116()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM113014()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM123556()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM55040(United States)

The Augmented R-Loop Is a Unifying Mechanism for Myelodysplastic Syndromes Induced by High-Risk Splicing Factor Mutations.

  • Chen L
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in several general pre-mRNA splicing factors have been linked to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and solid tumors. These mutations have generally been assumed to cause disease by the resultant splicing defects, but different mutations appear to induce distinct splicing defects, raising the possibility that an alternative common mechanism is involved. Here we report a chain of events triggered by multiple splicing factor mutations, especially high-risk alleles in SRSF2 and U2AF1, including elevated R-loops, replication stress, and activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)-Chk1 pathway. We further demonstrate that enhanced R-loops, opposite to the expectation from gained RNA binding with mutant SRSF2, result from impaired transcription pause release because the mutant protein loses its ability to extract the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) kinase-the positive transcription elongation factor complex (P-TEFb)-from the 7SK complex. Enhanced R-loops are linked to compromised proliferation of bone-marrow-derived blood progenitors, which can be partially rescued by RNase H overexpression, suggesting a direct contribution of augmented R-loops to the MDS phenotype.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM65115(United States)

A Non-catalytic Function of SETD1A Regulates Cyclin K and the DNA Damage Response.

  • Hoshii T
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

MLL/SET methyltransferases catalyze methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 and play critical roles in development and cancer. We assessed MLL/SET proteins and found that SETD1A is required for survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Mutagenesis studies and CRISPR-Cas9 domain screening show the enzymatic SET domain is not necessary for AML cell survival but that a newly identified region termed the "FLOS" (functional location on SETD1A) domain is indispensable. FLOS disruption suppresses DNA damage response genes and induces p53-dependent apoptosis. The FLOS domain acts as a cyclin-K-binding site that is required for chromosomal recruitment of cyclin K and for DNA-repair-associated gene expression in S phase. These data identify a connection between the chromatin regulator SETD1A and the DNA damage response that is independent of histone methylation and suggests that targeting SETD1A and cyclin K complexes may represent a therapeutic opportunity for AML and, potentially, for other cancers.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD070056-01(United States)

The Transcription Factor STAT6 Mediates Direct Repression of Inflammatory Enhancers and Limits Activation of Alternatively Polarized Macrophages.

  • Czimmerer Z
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The molecular basis of signal-dependent transcriptional activation has been extensively studied in macrophage polarization, but our understanding remains limited regarding the molecular determinants of repression. Here we show that IL-4-activated STAT6 transcription factor is required for the direct transcriptional repression of a large number of genes during in vitro and in vivo alternative macrophage polarization. Repression results in decreased lineage-determining transcription factor, p300, and RNA polymerase II binding followed by reduced enhancer RNA expression, H3K27 acetylation, and chromatin accessibility. The repressor function of STAT6 is HDAC3 dependent on a subset of IL-4-repressed genes. In addition, STAT6-repressed enhancers show extensive overlap with the NF-κB p65 cistrome and exhibit decreased responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide after IL-4 stimulus on a subset of genes. As a consequence, macrophages exhibit diminished inflammasome activation, decreased IL-1β production, and pyroptosis. Thus, the IL-4-STAT6 signaling pathway establishes an alternative polarization-specific epigenenomic signature resulting in dampened macrophage responsiveness to inflammatory stimuli.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - 1DP2OD001315-01(United States)

Pioneer Factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 Assist Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling in Human Endometrial Cells.

  • Whirledge S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Successful pregnancy relies on dynamic control of cell signaling to achieve uterine receptivity and the necessary biological changes required for endometrial decidualization, embryo implantation, and fetal development. Glucocorticoids are master regulators of intracellular signaling and can directly regulate embryo implantation and endometrial remodeling during murine pregnancy. In immortalized human uterine cells, we have shown that glucocorticoids and estradiol (E2) coregulate thousands of genes. Recently, glucocorticoids and E2 were shown to coregulate the expression of Left-right determination factor 1 (LEFTY1), previously implicated in the regulation of decidualization. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which glucocorticoids and E2 regulate the expression of LEFTY1, immortalized and primary human endometrial cells were evaluated for gene expression and receptor recruitment to regulatory regions of the LEFTY1 gene. Glucocorticoid administration induced expression of LEFTY1 messenger RNA and protein and recruitment of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and activated polymerase 2 to the promoter of LEFTY1. Glucocorticoid-mediated recruitment of GR was dependent on pioneer factors FOXA1 and FOXA2. E2 was found to antagonize glucocorticoid-mediated induction of LEFTY1 by reducing recruitment of GR, FOXA1, FOXA2, and activated polymerase 2 to the LEFTY1 promoter. Gene expression analysis identified several genes whose glucocorticoid-dependent induction required FOXA1 and FOXA2 in endometrial cells. These results suggest a molecular mechanism by which E2 antagonizes GR-dependent induction of specific genes by preventing the recruitment of the pioneer factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 in a physiologically relevant model.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH084989(United States)

Early-Life Gene Expression in Neurons Modulates Lasting Epigenetic States.

  • Stroud H
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

In mammals, the environment plays a critical role in promoting the final steps in neuronal development during the early postnatal period. While epigenetic factors are thought to contribute to this process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in the brain during early life, the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A transiently binds across transcribed regions of lowly expressed genes, and its binding specifies the pattern of DNA methylation at CA sequences (mCA) within these genes. We find that DNMT3A occupancy and mCA deposition within the transcribed regions of genes is negatively regulated by gene transcription and may be modified by early-life experience. Once deposited, mCA is bound by the methyl-DNA-binding protein MECP2 and functions in a rheostat-like manner to fine-tune the cell-type-specific transcription of genes that are critical for brain function.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F32 NS089186()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS048276()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS007484()

Evolutionarily Conserved Principles Predict 3D Chromatin Organization.

  • Rowley MJ
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Topologically associating domains (TADs), CTCF loop domains, and A/B compartments have been identified as important structural and functional components of 3D chromatin organization, yet the relationship between these features is not well understood. Using high-resolution Hi-C and HiChIP, we show that Drosophila chromatin is organized into domains we term compartmental domains that correspond precisely with A/B compartments at high resolution. We find that transcriptional state is a major predictor of Hi-C contact maps in several eukaryotes tested, including C. elegans and A. thaliana. Architectural proteins insulate compartmental domains by reducing interaction frequencies between neighboring regions in Drosophila, but CTCF loops do not play a distinct role in this organism. In mammals, compartmental domains exist alongside CTCF loop domains to form topological domains. The results suggest that compartmental domains are responsible for domain structure in all eukaryotes, with CTCF playing an important role in domain formation in mammals.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F32 GM113570()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM035463()

GCL and CUL3 Control the Switch between Cell Lineages by Mediating Localized Degradation of an RTK.

  • Pae J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The separation of germline from somatic lineages is fundamental to reproduction and species preservation. Here, we show that Drosophila Germ cell-less (GCL) is a critical component in this process by acting as a switch that turns off a somatic lineage pathway. GCL, a conserved BTB (Broad-complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac) protein, is a substrate-specific adaptor for Cullin3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3GCL). We show that CRL3GCL promotes PGC fate by mediating degradation of Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and major determinant of somatic cell fate. This mode of RTK degradation does not depend upon receptor activation but is prompted by release of GCL from the nuclear envelope during mitosis. The cell-cycle-dependent change in GCL localization provides spatiotemporal specificity for RTK degradation and sequesters CRL3GCL to prevent it from participating in excessive activities. This precisely orchestrated mechanism of CRL3GCL function and regulation defines cell fate at the single-cell level.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R37 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA160002()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD041900()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R37 HD041900()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM057587()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

DNA Replication Is Required for Circadian Clock Function by Regulating Rhythmic Nucleosome Composition.

  • Liu X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although the coupling between circadian and cell cycles allows circadian clocks to gate cell division and DNA replication in many organisms, circadian clocks were thought to function independently of cell cycle. Here, we show that DNA replication is required for circadian clock function in Neurospora. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of DNA replication abolished both overt and molecular rhythmicities by repressing frequency (frq) gene transcription. DNA replication is essential for the rhythmic changes of nucleosome composition at the frq promoter. The FACT complex, known to be involved in histone disassembly/reassembly, is required for clock function and is recruited to the frq promoter in a replication-dependent manner to promote replacement of histone H2A.Z by H2A. Finally, deletion of H2A.Z uncoupled the dependence of the circadian clock on DNA replication. Together, these results establish circadian clock and cell cycle as interdependent coupled oscillators and identify DNA replication as a critical process in the circadian mechanism.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118118()

Telomere Length Determines TERRA and R-Loop Regulation through the Cell Cycle.

  • Graf M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maintenance of a minimal telomere length is essential to prevent cellular senescence. When critically short telomeres arise in the absence of telomerase, they can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) to prevent premature senescence onset. It is unclear why specifically the shortest telomeres are targeted for HDR. We demonstrate that the non-coding RNA TERRA accumulates as HDR-promoting RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) preferentially at very short telomeres. The increased level of TERRA and R-loops, exclusively at short telomeres, is due to a local defect in RNA degradation by the Rat1 and RNase H2 nucleases, respectively. Consequently, the coordination of TERRA degradation with telomere replication is altered at shortened telomeres. R-loop persistence at short telomeres contributes to activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and promotes recruitment of the Rad51 recombinase. Thus, the telomere length-dependent regulation of TERRA and TERRA R-loops is a critical determinant of the rate of replicative senescence.

The Dynamic Epigenetic Landscape of the Retina During Development, Reprogramming, and Tumorigenesis.

  • Aldiri I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the developing retina, multipotent neural progenitors undergo unidirectional differentiation in a precise spatiotemporal order. Here we profile the epigenetic and transcriptional changes that occur during retinogenesis in mice and humans. Although some progenitor genes and cell cycle genes were epigenetically silenced during retinogenesis, the most dramatic change was derepression of cell-type-specific differentiation programs. We identified developmental-stage-specific super-enhancers and showed that most epigenetic changes are conserved in humans and mice. To determine how the epigenome changes during tumorigenesis and reprogramming, we performed integrated epigenetic analysis of murine and human retinoblastomas and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from murine rod photoreceptors. The retinoblastoma epigenome mapped to the developmental stage when retinal progenitors switch from neurogenic to terminal patterns of cell division. The epigenome of retinoblastomas was more similar to that of the normal retina than that of retina-derived iPSCs, and we identified retina-specific epigenetic memory.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - P30 CA021765()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA168875()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY014867()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY018599()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY023619()

Transcriptional Elongation of HSV Immediate Early Genes by the Super Elongation Complex Drives Lytic Infection and Reactivation from Latency.

  • Alfonso-Dunn R
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Apr 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cellular transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 is required for initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) lytic infection and for reactivation from latency in sensory neurons. HCF-1 stabilizes the viral Immediate Early (IE) gene enhancer complex and mediates chromatin transitions to promote IE transcription initiation. In infected cells, HCF-1 was also found to be associated with a network of transcription elongation components including the super elongation complex (SEC). IE genes exhibit characteristics of genes controlled by transcriptional elongation, and the SEC-P-TEFb complex is specifically required to drive the levels of productive IE mRNAs. Significantly, compounds that enhance the levels of SEC-P-TEFb also potently stimulated HSV reactivation from latency both in a sensory ganglia model system and in vivo. Thus, transcriptional elongation of HSV IE genes is a key limiting parameter governing both the initiation of HSV infection and reactivation of latent genomes.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114141()

Distinct Roles of Brd2 and Brd4 in Potentiating the Transcriptional Program for Th17 Cell Differentiation.

  • Cheung KL
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The BET proteins are major transcriptional regulators and have emerged as new drug targets, but their functional distinction has remained elusive. In this study, we report that the BET family members Brd2 and Brd4 exert distinct genomic functions at genes whose transcription they co-regulate during mouse T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Brd2 is associated with the chromatin insulator CTCF and the cohesin complex to support cis-regulatory enhancer assembly for gene transcriptional activation. In this context, Brd2 binds the transcription factor Stat3 in an acetylation-sensitive manner and facilitates Stat3 recruitment to active enhancers occupied with transcription factors Irf4 and Batf. In parallel, Brd4 temporally controls RNA polymerase II (Pol II) processivity during transcription elongation through cyclin T1 and Cdk9 recruitment and Pol II Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our study uncovers both separate and interdependent Brd2 and Brd4 functions in potentiating the genetic program required for Th17 cell development and adaptive immunity.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA087658()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI124465()

A microRNA negative feedback loop downregulates vesicle transport and inhibits fear memory.

  • Mathew RS
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The SNARE-mediated vesicular transport pathway plays major roles in synaptic remodeling associated with formation of long-term memories, but the mechanisms that regulate this pathway during memory acquisition are not fully understood. Here we identify miRNAs that are up-regulated in the rodent hippocampus upon contextual fear-conditioning and identify the vesicular transport and synaptogenesis pathways as the major targets of the fear-induced miRNAs. We demonstrate that miR-153, a member of this group, inhibits the expression of key components of the vesicular transport machinery, and down-regulates Glutamate receptor A1 trafficking and neurotransmitter release. MiR-153 expression is specifically induced during LTP induction in hippocampal slices and its knockdown in the hippocampus of adult mice results in enhanced fear memory. Our results suggest that miR-153, and possibly other fear-induced miRNAs, act as components of a negative feedback loop that blocks neuronal hyperactivity at least partly through the inhibition of the vesicular transport pathway.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD090255()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092578()

Transcription-coupled genetic instability marks acute lymphoblastic leukemia structural variation hotspots.

  • Heinäniemi M
  • Elife
  • 2016 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Progression of malignancy to overt disease requires multiple genetic hits. Activation-induced deaminase (AID) can drive lymphomagenesis by generating off-target DNA breaks at loci that harbor highly active enhancers and display convergent transcription. The first active transcriptional profiles from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients acquired here reveal striking similarity at structural variation (SV) sites. Specific transcriptional features, namely convergent transcription and Pol2 stalling, were detected at breakpoints. The overlap was most prominent at SV with recognition motifs for the recombination activating genes (RAG). We present signal feature analysis to detect vulnerable regions and quantified from human cells how convergent transcription contributes to R-loop generation and RNA polymerase stalling. Wide stalling regions were characterized by high DNAse hypersensitivity and unusually broad H3K4me3 signal. Based on 1382 pre-B-ALL patients, the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion positive patients had over ten-fold elevation in RAG1 while high expression of AID marked pre-B-ALL lacking common cytogenetic changes.