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gamma H2A.X (phospho S139) antibody

RRID:AB_297813

Antibody ID

AB_297813

Target Antigen

gamma H2A.X (phospho S139) antibody human, mouse, dictyostelium discoideum, human, amoeba/protozoa, mouse

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab11174, RRID:AB_297813)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Flow Cyt, ICC, ICC/IF, WB; Immunofluorescence; Flow Cytometry; Immunocytochemistry; Western Blot

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Abcam

Replication Stress Shapes a Protective Chromatin Environment across Fragile Genomic Regions.

  • Kim J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent integrative epigenome analyses highlight the importance of functionally distinct chromatin states for accurate cell function. How these states are established and maintained is a matter of intense investigation. Here, we present evidence for DNA damage as an unexpected means to shape a protective chromatin environment at regions of recurrent replication stress (RS). Upon aberrant fork stalling, DNA damage signaling and concomitant H2AX phosphorylation coordinate the FACT-dependent deposition of macroH2A1.2, a histone variant that promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). MacroH2A1.2, in turn, facilitates the accumulation of the tumor suppressor and HR effector BRCA1 at replication forks to protect from RS-induced DNA damage. Consequently, replicating primary cells steadily accrue macroH2A1.2 at fragile regions, whereas macroH2A1.2 loss in these cells triggers DNA damage signaling-dependent senescence, a hallmark of RS. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that recurrent DNA damage contributes to the chromatin landscape to ensure the epigenomic integrity of dividing cells.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC011282-01()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM073046(United States)

Huwe1 Regulates the Establishment and Maintenance of Spermatogonia by Suppressing DNA Damage Response.

  • Fok KL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spermatogenesis is sustained by a heterogeneous population of spermatogonia that includes the spermatogonial stem cells. However, the mechanisms underlying their establishment from gonocyte embryonic precursors and their maintenance thereafter remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that inactivation of the ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 in male germ cells in mice led to the degeneration of spermatogonia in neonates and resulted in a Sertoli cell-only phenotype in the adult. Huwe1 knockout gonocytes showed a decrease in mitotic re-entry, which inhibited their transition to spermatogonia. Inactivation of Huwe1 in primary spermatogonial culture or the C18-4 cell line resulted in cell degeneration. Degeneration of Huwe1 knockout spermatogonia was associated with an increased level of histone H2AX and an elevated DNA damage response that led to apparent mitotic catastrophe but not apoptosis or senescence. Blocking this increase in H2AX prevented the degeneration of Huwe1-depleted cells. Taken together, these results reveal a previously undefined role of Huwe1 in orchestrating the physiological DNA damage response in the male germline that contributes to the establishment and maintenance of spermatogonia.

iASPP Is an Antioxidative Factor and Drives Cancer Growth and Drug Resistance by Competing with Nrf2 for Keap1 Binding.

  • Ge W
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important signaling molecules that play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and cytotoxic responses. Nrf2 is the master regulator of ROS balance. Thus, uncovering mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation is important for the development of alternative treatment strategies for cancers. Here, we demonstrate that iASPP, a known p53 inhibitor, lowers ROS independently of p53. Mechanistically, iASPP competes with Nrf2 for Keap1 binding via a DLT motif, leading to decreased Nrf2 ubiquitination and increased Nrf2 accumulation, nuclear translocation, and antioxidative transactivation. This iASPP-Keap1-Nrf2 axis promotes cancer growth and drug resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, iASPP is an antioxidative factor and represents a promising target to improve cancer treatment, regardless of p53 status.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01CA169200(United States)

TGF-β reduces DNA ds-break repair mechanisms to heighten genetic diversity and adaptability of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells.

  • Pal D
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many lines of evidence have indicated that both genetic and non-genetic determinants can contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity and influence cancer outcomes. Among the best described sub-population of cancer cells generated by non-genetic mechanisms are cells characterized by a CD44+/CD24- cell surface marker profile. Here, we report that human CD44+/CD24- cancer cells are genetically highly unstable because of intrinsic defects in their DNA-repair capabilities. In fact, in CD44+/CD24- cells, constitutive activation of the TGF-beta axis was both necessary and sufficient to reduce the expression of genes that are crucial in coordinating DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consequently, we observed that cancer cells that reside in a CD44+/CD24- state are characterized by increased accumulation of DNA copy number alterations, greater genetic diversity and improved adaptability to drug treatment. Together, these data suggest that the transition into a CD44+/CD24- cell state can promote intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity, spur tumor evolution and increase tumor fitness.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA129243()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA045508()