Literature context: ell Signaling 14074, RRID:AB_2650491 Rabbit anti-Ki67 (clone SP6) Ab
Paneth cells are post-mitotic intestinal epithelial cells supporting the stem cell niche and mucosal immunity. Paneth cell pathologies are observed in various gastrointestinal diseases, but their plasticity and response to genomic and environmental challenges remain unclear. Using a knockin allele engineered at the mouse Lyz1 locus, we performed detailed Paneth cell-lineage tracing. Irradiation induced a subset of Paneth cells to proliferate and differentiate into villus epithelial cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that Paneth cells sorted from irradiated mice acquired a stem cell-like transcriptome; when cultured in vitro, these individual Paneth cells formed organoids. Irradiation activated Notch signaling, and forced expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in Paneth cells, but not Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation, induced their dedifferentiation. This study documents Paneth cell plasticity, particularly their ability to participate in epithelial replenishment following stem cell loss, adding to a growing body of knowledge detailing the molecular pathways controlling injury-induced regeneration.
Literature context: y Cat# 14074, RRID:AB_2650491) and GAPDH (Cell Signaling Tech
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to play a critical role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Constitutively active EGFR mutations, including in-frame deletion in exon 19 and L858R point mutation in exon 21, contribute about 90% of all EGFR-activating mutations in NSCLC. Although oral EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, show dramatic clinical efficacy with significantly prolonged progression-free survival in patients harboring these EGFR-activating mutations, most of these patients will eventually develop acquired resistance. Researchers have recently named genomic instability as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Genomic instability usually involves a transient phase of polyploidization, in particular tetraploidization. Tetraploid cells can undergo asymmetric cell division or chromosome loss, leading to tumor heterogeneity and multidrug resistance. Therefore, identification of signaling pathways involved in tetraploidization is crucial in overcoming drug resistance. In our present study, we found that gefitinib could activate YAP-MKK3/6-p38 MAPK-STAT3 signaling and induce tetraploidization in gefitinib-resistance cells. Using p38 MAPK inhibitors, SB203580 and losmapimod, we could eliminate gefitinib-induced tetraploidization and overcome gefitinib-resistance. In addition, shRNA approach to knockdown p38α MAPK could prevent tetraploidy formation and showed significant inhibition of cancer cell growth. Finally, in an in vivo study, losmapimod could successfully overcome gefitinib resistance using an in-house established patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model. Overall, these findings suggest that losmapimod could be a potential clinical agent to overcome gefitinib resistance in NSCLC.
Literature context: anti-Yap Cell Signaling 14074; RRID:AB_2650491 Rabbit anti-YAP/TAZ Cell Signal
YAP/TAZ are the major mediators of mammalian Hippo signaling; however, their precise function in the gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. Here we dissect the distinct roles of YAP/TAZ in endodermal epithelium and mesenchyme and find that, although dispensable for gastrointestinal epithelial development and homeostasis, YAP/TAZ function as the critical molecular switch to coordinate growth and patterning in gut mesenchyme. Our genetic analyses reveal that Lats1/2 kinases suppress expansion of the primitive mesenchymal progenitors, where YAP activation also prevents induction of the smooth muscle lineage through transcriptional repression of Myocardin. During later development, zone-restricted downregulation of YAP/TAZ provides the positional cue and allows smooth muscle cell differentiation induced by Hedgehog signaling. Taken together, our studies identify the mesenchymal requirement of YAP/TAZ in the gastrointestinal tract and highlight the functional interplays between Hippo and Hedgehog signaling underlying temporal and spatial control of tissue growth and specification in developing gut.
Literature context: abbit mAb Cell signaling 14074; RRID:AB_2650491 p53 antibody (CM5) Leica (Novoc
The p53 transcription factor is a critical barrier to pancreatic cancer progression. To unravel mechanisms of p53-mediated tumor suppression, which have remained elusive, we analyzed pancreatic cancer development in mice expressing p53 transcriptional activation domain (TAD) mutants. Surprisingly, the p5353,54 TAD2 mutant behaves as a "super-tumor suppressor," with an enhanced capacity to both suppress pancreatic cancer and transactivate select p53 target genes, including Ptpn14. Ptpn14 encodes a negative regulator of the Yap oncoprotein and is necessary and sufficient for pancreatic cancer suppression, like p53. We show that p53 deficiency promotes Yap signaling and that PTPN14 and TP53 mutations are mutually exclusive in human cancers. These studies uncover a p53-Ptpn14-Yap pathway that is integral to p53-mediated tumor suppression.
Literature context: chCat# HPA007415 RRID:AB_1080602YAP (D8H1X) XPÂ®Â Rabbit mAbCell Signaling TechnologyCat# 14
Aberrant WNT signaling drives colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we identify TIAM1 as a critical antagonist of CRC progression through inhibiting TAZ and YAP, effectors of WNT signaling. We demonstrate that TIAM1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus antagonizing TAZ/YAP by distinct mechanisms in the two compartments. In the cytoplasm, TIAM1 localizes to the destruction complex and promotes TAZ degradation by enhancing its interaction with βTrCP. Nuclear TIAM1 suppresses TAZ/YAP interaction with TEADs, inhibiting expression of TAZ/YAP target genes implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion, and consequently suppresses CRC cell migration and invasion. Importantly, high nuclear TIAM1 in clinical specimens associates with increased CRC patient survival. Together, our findings suggest that in CRC TIAM1 suppresses tumor progression by regulating YAP/TAZ activity.
Literature context: nologyCat# 9541; RRID: AB_331426Anti-Rabbit YAP1Cell Signaling TechnologyCat# 14074Anti-Mouse METCell Signaling Tec
Constitutive activation of Gαq signaling by mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 occurs in over 80% of uveal melanomas (UMs) and activates MAPK. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a link, but the mechanistic details remained unclear. We identified PKC δ and ɛ as required and sufficient to activate MAPK in GNAQ mutant melanomas. MAPK activation depends on Ras and is caused by RasGRP3, which is significantly and selectively overexpressed in response to GNAQ/11 mutation in UM. RasGRP3 activation occurs via PKC δ- and ɛ-dependent phosphorylation and PKC-independent, DAG-mediated membrane recruitment, possibly explaining the limited effect of PKC inhibitors to durably suppress MAPK in UM. The findings nominate RasGRP3 as a therapeutic target for cancers driven by oncogenic GNAQ/11.
Literature context: ling Technology (Danvers, MA), #14074) and V5 (Invitrogen (Carlsbad,
TEAD (TEA/ATTS domain) transcription factors are the most distal effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a coactivator protein which, upon binding to TEAD proteins, stimulates their transcriptional activity. Since the Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, designing inhibitors of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive therapeutic strategy for oncology. Understanding the molecular events that take place at the YAP:TEAD interface is therefore important not only to devise drug discovery approaches, but also to gain knowledge on TEAD regulation. In this report, combining single site-directed mutagenesis and double mutant analyses, we conduct a detailed analysis on the role of several residues located at the YAP:TEAD interface. Our results provide quantitative understanding of the interactions taking place at the YAP:TEAD interface and give insights into the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex and more particularly on the interaction between TEAD and the Ω-loop found in YAP.
Literature context: diesAnti-YAPCell SignalingCat#: 14074Anti-pYAP (S127 in humans and S1
Poorly immunogenic tumor cells evade host immunity and grow even in the presence of an intact immune system, but the complex mechanisms regulating tumor immunogenicity have not been elucidated. Here, we discovered an unexpected role of the Hippo pathway in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. We demonstrate that, in three different murine syngeneic tumor models (B16, SCC7, and 4T1), loss of the Hippo pathway kinases LATS1/2 (large tumor suppressor 1 and 2) in tumor cells inhibits tumor growth. Tumor regression by LATS1/2 deletion requires adaptive immune responses, and LATS1/2 deficiency enhances tumor vaccine efficacy. Mechanistically, LATS1/2-null tumor cells secrete nucleic-acid-rich extracellular vesicles, which induce a type I interferon response via the Toll-like receptors-MYD88/TRIF pathway. LATS1/2 deletion in tumors thus improves tumor immunogenicity, leading to tumor destruction by enhancing anti-tumor immune responses. Our observations uncover a key role of the Hippo pathway in modulating tumor immunogenicity and demonstrate a proof of concept for targeting LATS1/2 in cancer immunotherapy.