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Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor Plus 488


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Rabbit IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-Adsorbed rabbit

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# A32731, RRID:AB_2633280)


polyclonal antibody


Applications: IF (1-10 µg/mL), ICC (1-10 µg/mL), WB (0.1-0.4 µg/mL)

Host Organism



Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Coordination of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling and Interfacial Tension Dynamics Drives Radial Intercalation and Tube Elongation.

  • Neumann NM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


We sought to understand how cells collectively elongate epithelial tubes. We first used 3D culture and biosensor imaging to demonstrate that epithelial cells enrich Ras activity, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), and F-actin to their leading edges during migration within tissues. PIP3 enrichment coincided with, and could enrich despite inhibition of, F-actin dynamics, revealing a conserved migratory logic compared with single cells. We discovered that migratory cells can intercalate into the basal tissue surface and contribute to tube elongation. We then connected molecular activities to subcellular mechanics using force inference analysis. Migration and transient intercalation required specific and similar anterior-posterior ratios of interfacial tension. Permanent intercalations were distinguished by their capture at the boundary through time-varying tension dynamics. Finally, we integrated our experimental and computational data to generate a finite element model of tube elongation. Our model revealed that intercalation, interfacial tension dynamics, and high basal stress are together sufficient for mammary morphogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - G12RR026250-03(United States)

Drd3 Signaling in the Lateral Septum Mediates Early Life Stress-Induced Social Dysfunction.

  • Shin S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Early life stress (ELS) in the form of child abuse/neglect is associated with an increased risk of developing social dysfunction in adulthood. Little is known, however, about the neural substrates or the neuromodulatory signaling that govern ELS-induced social dysfunction. Here, we show that ELS-induced downregulation of dopamine receptor 3 (Drd3) signaling and its corresponding effects on neural activity in the lateral septum (LS) are both necessary and sufficient to cause social abnormalities in adulthood. Using in vivo Ca2+ imaging, we found that Drd3-expressing-LS (Drd3LS) neurons in animals exposed to ELS show blunted activity in response to social stimuli. In addition, optogenetic activation of Drd3LS neurons rescues ELS-induced social impairments. Furthermore, pharmacological treatment with a Drd3 agonist, which increases Drd3LS neuronal activity, normalizes the social dysfunctions of ELS mice. Thus, we identify Drd3 in the LS as a critical mediator and potential therapeutic target for the social abnormalities caused by ELS.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - P50AR0455503(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH107742()

Loss of CLOCK Results in Dysfunction of Brain Circuits Underlying Focal Epilepsy.

  • Li P
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Because molecular mechanisms underlying refractory focal epilepsy are poorly defined, we performed transcriptome analysis on human epileptogenic tissue. Compared with controls, expression of Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) is decreased in epileptogenic tissue. To define the function of CLOCK, we generated and tested the Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox and PV-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse lines with targeted deletions of the Clock gene in excitatory and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing inhibitory neurons, respectively. The Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse line alone has decreased seizure thresholds, but no laminar or dendritic defects in the cortex. However, excitatory neurons from the Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse have spontaneous epileptiform discharges. Both neurons from Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse and human epileptogenic tissue exhibit decreased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Finally, video-EEG of Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mice reveals epileptiform discharges during sleep and also seizures arising from sleep. Altogether, these data show that disruption of CLOCK alters cortical circuits and may lead to generation of focal epilepsy.

CpG and UpA dinucleotides in both coding and non-coding regions of echovirus 7 inhibit replication initiation post-entry.

  • Fros JJ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 29

Literature context:


Most vertebrate and plant RNA and small DNA viruses suppress genomic CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies, apparently mimicking host mRNA composition. Artificially increasing CpG/UpA dinucleotides attenuates viruses through an entirely unknown mechanism. Using the echovirus 7 (E7) model in several cell types, we show that the restriction in E7 replication in mutants with increased CpG/UpA dinucleotides occurred immediately after viral entry, with incoming virions failing to form replication complexes. Sequences of CpG/UpA-high virus stocks showed no evidence of increased mutational errors that would render them replication defective, these viral RNAs were not differentially sequestered in cytoplasmic stress granules nor did they induce a systemic antiviral state. Importantly, restriction was not mediated through effects on translation efficiency since replicons with high CpG/UpA sequences inserted into a non-coding region were similarly replication defective. Host-cells thus possess intrinsic defence pathways that prevent replication of viruses with increased CpG/UpA frequencies independently of codon usage.

Warts Signaling Controls Organ and Body Growth through Regulation of Ecdysone.

  • Moeller ME
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]. The interplay between insulin and ecdysone signaling regulates systemic growth and controls organismal size. Here, we show that Warts (Wts; LATS1/2) signaling regulates systemic growth in Drosophila by activating basal ecdysone production, which negatively regulates body growth. Further, we provide evidence that Wts mediates effects of insulin and the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) on regulation of ecdysone production through Yorkie (Yki; YAP/TAZ) and the microRNA bantam (ban). Thus, Wts couples insulin signaling with ecdysone production to adjust systemic growth in response to nutritional conditions during development. Inhibition of Wts activity in the ecdysone-producing cells non-autonomously slows the growth of the developing imaginal-disc tissues while simultaneously leading to overgrowth of the animal. This indicates that ecdysone, while restricting overall body growth, is limiting for growth of certain organs. Our data show that, in addition to its well-known intrinsic role in restricting organ growth, Wts/Yki/ban signaling also controls growth systemically by regulating ecdysone production, a mechanism that we propose controls growth between tissues and organismal size in response to nutrient availability.

Complement Component 3 Adapts the Cerebrospinal Fluid for Leptomeningeal Metastasis.

  • Boire A
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 9

Literature context:


We molecularly dissected leptomeningeal metastasis, or spread of cancer to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is a frequent and fatal condition mediated by unknown mechanisms. We selected lung and breast cancer cell lines for the ability to infiltrate and grow in CSF, a remarkably acellular, mitogen-poor metastasis microenvironment. Complement component 3 (C3) was upregulated in four leptomeningeal metastatic models and proved necessary for cancer growth within the leptomeningeal space. In human disease, cancer cells within the CSF produced C3 in correlation with clinical course. C3 expression in primary tumors was predictive of leptomeningeal relapse. Mechanistically, we found that cancer-cell-derived C3 activates the C3a receptor in the choroid plexus epithelium to disrupt the blood-CSF barrier. This effect allows plasma components, including amphiregulin, and other mitogens to enter the CSF and promote cancer cell growth. Pharmacologic interference with C3 signaling proved therapeutically beneficial in suppressing leptomeningeal metastasis in these preclinical models.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA129243()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA163167()