Literature context: C [Research Resource Identifier RRID:AB_2631168; Cell Signaling Technology] and
Disseminated castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a common disease in men that is characterized by limited survival and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy. The increase in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) signaling contributes to androgen receptor activity in a subset of patients with CRPC; however, enigmatically, HER2-targeted therapies have demonstrated a lack of efficacy in patients with CRPC. Aberrant glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer and involves key processes that support cancer progression. Using transcriptomic analysis of prostate cancer data sets, histopathologic examination of clinical specimens, and in vivo experiments of xenograft models, we reveal in this study a coordinated increase in glycan-binding protein, galectin-4, specific glycosyltransferases of core 1 synthase, glycoprotein- N-acetylgalactosamine 3-β-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1GALT1) and ST3 beta-galactoside α-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 (ST3GAL1), and resulting mucin-type O-glycans during the progression of CRPC. Furthermore, galectin-4 engaged with C1GALT1-dependent O-glycans to promote castration resistance and metastasis by activating receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cancer cell stemness properties mediated by SRY-box 9 (SOX9). This galectin-glycan interaction up-regulated the MYC-dependent expression of C1GALT1 and ST3GAL1, which altered cellular mucin-type O-glycosylation to allow for galectin-4 binding. In clinical prostate cancer, high-level expression of C1GALT1 and galectin-4 together predict poor overall survival compared with low-level expression of C1GALT1 and galectin-4. In summary, MYC regulates abnormal O-glycosylation, thus priming cells for binding to galectin-4 and downstream signaling, which promotes castration resistance and metastasis.-Tzeng, S.-F., Tsai, C.-H., Chao, T.-K., Chou, Y.-C., Yang, Y.-C., Tsai, M.-H., Cha, T.-L., Hsiao, P.-W. O-Glycosylation-mediated signaling circuit drives metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2631168 MYC Cell signaling Cat# 9402; R
We characterized the epigenetic landscape of genes encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) across 6,475 tumors and 455 cancer cell lines. In stark contrast to the CpG island hypermethylation phenotype in cancer, we observed a recurrent hypomethylation of 1,006 lncRNA genes in cancer, including EPIC1 (epigenetically-induced lncRNA1). Overexpression of EPIC1 is associated with poor prognosis in luminal B breast cancer patients and enhances tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, EPIC1 promotes cell-cycle progression by interacting with MYC through EPIC1's 129-283 nt region. EPIC1 knockdown reduces the occupancy of MYC to its target genes (e.g., CDKN1A, CCNA2, CDC20, and CDC45). MYC depletion abolishes EPIC1's regulation of MYC target and luminal breast cancer tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Literature context: ignaling Technology Cat# 13987, RRID:AB_2631168 eIF3A (D51F4) Rabbit mAb Cell S
N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most prevalent internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), plays critical roles in many bioprocesses. However, its functions in normal and malignant hematopoiesis remain elusive. Here, we report that METTL14, a key component of the m6A methyltransferase complex, is highly expressed in normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells carrying t(11q23), t(15;17), or t(8;21) and is downregulated during myeloid differentiation. Silencing of METTL14 promotes terminal myeloid differentiation of normal HSPCs and AML cells and inhibits AML cell survival/proliferation. METTL14 is required for development and maintenance of AML and self-renewal of leukemia stem/initiation cells (LSCs/LICs). Mechanistically, METTL14 exerts its oncogenic role by regulating its mRNA targets (e.g., MYB and MYC) through m6A modification, while the protein itself is negatively regulated by SPI1. Collectively, our results reveal the SPI1-METTL14-MYB/MYC signaling axis in myelopoiesis and leukemogenesis and highlight the critical roles of METTL14 and m6A modification in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
Literature context: ll signaling Cat#13987; RRID:AB_2631168 Rabbit monoclonal anti-Acetyl Î±
Combining DNA-demethylating agents (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors [DNMTis]) with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) holds promise for enhancing cancer immune therapy. Herein, pharmacologic and isoform specificity of HDACis are investigated to guide their addition to a DNMTi, thus devising a new, low-dose, sequential regimen that imparts a robust anti-tumor effect for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using in-vitro-treated NSCLC cell lines, we elucidate an interferon α/β-based transcriptional program with accompanying upregulation of antigen presentation machinery, mediated in part through double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction. This is accompanied by suppression of MYC signaling and an increase in the T cell chemoattractant CCL5. Use of this combination treatment schema in mouse models of NSCLC reverses tumor immune evasion and modulates T cell exhaustion state towards memory and effector T cell phenotypes. Key correlative science metrics emerge for an upcoming clinical trial, testing enhancement of immune checkpoint therapy for NSCLC.
Literature context: chnology; RRID:AB_2631168), and anti
The human ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 has key roles in tumorigenesis, yet it is unkown how its activity is regulated. We present the crystal structure of a C-terminal part of HUWE1, including the catalytic domain, and reveal an asymmetric auto-inhibited dimer. We show that HUWE1 dimerizes in solution and self-associates in cells, and that both occurs through the crystallographic dimer interface. We demonstrate that HUWE1 is inhibited in cells and that it can be activated by disruption of the dimer interface. We identify a conserved segment in HUWE1 that counteracts dimer formation by associating with the dimerization region intramolecularly. Our studies reveal, intriguingly, that the tumor suppressor p14ARF binds to this segment and may thus shift the conformational equilibrium of HUWE1 toward the inactive state. We propose a model, in which the activity of HUWE1 underlies conformational control in response to physiological cues-a mechanism that may be exploited for cancer therapy.