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DAPI (4',6-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole, Dihydrochloride) antibody

RRID:AB_2629482

Conditional Deletion of FOXL2 and SMAD4 in Gonadotropes of Adult Mice Causes Isolated FSH Deficiency.

  • Li Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The glycoprotein FSH, a product of pituitary gonadotrope cells, regulates ovarian follicle development in females and spermatogenesis in males. FSH is a heterodimer of the common α gonadotropin subunit and the hormone-specific FSHβ subunit (a product of the Fshb gene). Using a conditional knockout approach (Cre-lox), we previously demonstrated that Fshb expression in mice depends on the transcription factors forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) and SMAD4. Deletion of Foxl2 or Smad4 alone led to FSH deficiency, female subfertility, and oligozoospermia in males. Simultaneous deletion of the two genes yielded a greater suppression of FSH and female sterility. The Cre-driver used previously was first active during embryonic development. Therefore, it is unclear whether FOXL2 and SMAD4 play important roles in the development or adult function of gonadotropes, or both. To address this question, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver line, which enabled Foxl2 and Smad4 gene deletions in gonadotropes of adult mice. After tamoxifen treatment, females with previously demonstrated fertility exhibited profound reductions in FSH levels, arrested ovarian follicle development, and sterility. FSH levels were comparably reduced in males 1 or 2 months after treatment; however, spermatogenesis was unaffected. These data indicate that (1) FOXL2 and SMAD4 are necessary to maintain FSH synthesis in gonadotrope cells of adult mice, (2) FSH is essential for female reproduction but appears to be unnecessary for the maintenance of spermatogenesis in adult male mice, and (3) the inducible Cre-driver line developed here provides a powerful tool to interrogate gene function in gonadotrope cells of adult mice.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL101200(United States)

Phospholipase PLA2G6, a Parkinsonism-Associated Gene, Affects Vps26 and Vps35, Retromer Function, and Ceramide Levels, Similar to α-Synuclein Gain.

  • Lin G
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in PLA2G6 (PARK14) cause neurodegenerative disorders in humans, including autosomal recessive neuroaxonal dystrophy and early-onset parkinsonism. We show that loss of iPLA2-VIA, the fly homolog of PLA2G6, reduces lifespan, impairs synaptic transmission, and causes neurodegeneration. Phospholipases typically hydrolyze glycerol phospholipids, but loss of iPLA2-VIA does not affect the phospholipid composition of brain tissue but rather causes an elevation in ceramides. Reducing ceramides with drugs, including myriocin or desipramine, alleviates lysosomal stress and suppresses neurodegeneration. iPLA2-VIA binds the retromer subunits Vps35 and Vps26 and enhances retromer function to promote protein and lipid recycling. Loss of iPLA2-VIA impairs retromer function, leading to a progressive increase in ceramide. This induces a positive feedback loop that affects membrane fluidity and impairs retromer function and neuronal function. Similar defects are observed upon loss of vps26 or vps35 or overexpression of α-synuclein, indicating that these defects may be common in Parkinson disease.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA130893(United States)

A Drosophila Tumor Suppressor Gene Prevents Tonic TNF Signaling through Receptor N-Glycosylation.

  • de Vreede G
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Drosophila tumor suppressor genes have revealed molecular pathways that control tissue growth, but mechanisms that regulate mitogenic signaling are far from understood. Here we report that the Drosophila TSG tumorous imaginal discs (tid), whose phenotypes were previously attributed to mutations in a DnaJ-like chaperone, are in fact driven by the loss of the N-linked glycosylation pathway component ALG3. tid/alg3 imaginal discs display tissue growth and architecture defects that share characteristics of both neoplastic and hyperplastic mutants. Tumorous growth is driven by inhibited Hippo signaling, induced by excess Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. We show that ectopic JNK activation is caused by aberrant glycosylation of a single protein, the fly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor homolog, which results in increased binding to the continually circulating TNF. Our results suggest that N-linked glycosylation sets the threshold of TNF receptor signaling by modifying ligand-receptor interactions and that cells may alter this modification to respond appropriately to physiological cues.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD07495-26/30(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM090150()

Atypical Cadherin Dachsous1b Interacts with Ttc28 and Aurora B to Control Microtubule Dynamics in Embryonic Cleavages.

  • Chen J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Atypical cadherin Dachsous (Dchs) is a conserved regulator of planar cell polarity, morphogenesis, and tissue growth during animal development. Dchs functions in part by regulating microtubules by unknown molecular mechanisms. Here we show that maternal zygotic (MZ) dchs1b zebrafish mutants exhibit cleavage furrow progression defects and impaired midzone microtubule assembly associated with decreased microtubule turnover. Mechanistically, Dchs1b interacts via a conserved motif in its intracellular domain with the tetratricopeptide motifs of Ttc28 and regulates its subcellular distribution. Excess Ttc28 impairs cleavages and decreases microtubule turnover, while ttc28 inactivation increases turnover. Moreover, ttc28 deficiency in dchs1b mutants suppresses the microtubule dynamics and midzone microtubule assembly defects. Dchs1b also binds to Aurora B, a known regulator of cleavages and microtubules. Embryonic cleavages in MZdchs1b mutants exhibit increased, and in MZttc28 mutants decreased, sensitivity to Aurora B inhibition. Thus, Dchs1b regulates microtubule dynamics and embryonic cleavages by interacting with Ttc28 and Aurora B.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15GM100402(United States)

Efficient Generation of CA3 Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Enables Modeling of Hippocampal Connectivity In Vitro.

  • Sarkar A
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite widespread interest in using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in neurological disease modeling, a suitable model system to study human neuronal connectivity is lacking. Here, we report a comprehensive and efficient differentiation paradigm for hiPSCs that generate multiple CA3 pyramidal neuron subtypes as detected by single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). This differentiation paradigm exhibits characteristics of neuronal network maturation, and rabies virus tracing revealed synaptic connections between stem cell-derived dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vitro recapitulating the neuronal connectivity within the hippocampus. Because hippocampal dysfunction has been implicated in schizophrenia, we applied DG and CA3 differentiation paradigms to schizophrenia-patient-derived hiPSCs. We detected reduced activity in DG-CA3 co-culture and deficits in spontaneous and evoked activity in CA3 neurons from schizophrenia-patient-derived hiPSCs. Our approach offers critical insights into the network activity aspects of schizophrenia and may serve as a promising tool for modeling diseases with hippocampal vulnerability. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01-AA07112(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS093130()

Exportin Crm1 is repurposed as a docking protein to generate microtubule organizing centers at the nuclear pore.

  • Bao XX
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) are important for microtubule organization in many cell types. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the protein Mto1, together with partner protein Mto2 (Mto1/2 complex), recruits the γ-tubulin complex to multiple non-centrosomal MTOCs, including the nuclear envelope (NE). Here, we develop a comparative-interactome mass spectrometry approach to determine how Mto1 localizes to the NE. Surprisingly, we find that Mto1, a constitutively cytoplasmic protein, docks at nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), via interaction with exportin Crm1 and cytoplasmic FG-nucleoporin Nup146. Although Mto1 is not a nuclear export cargo, it binds Crm1 via a nuclear export signal-like sequence, and docking requires both Ran in the GTP-bound state and Nup146 FG repeats. In addition to determining the mechanism of MTOC formation at the NE, our results reveal a novel role for Crm1 and the nuclear export machinery in the stable docking of a cytoplasmic protein complex at NPCs.

Funding information:
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP17H01444()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP17H03636()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP25116006()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM096193(United States)
  • Wellcome - 091020()
  • Wellcome - 094517()
  • Wellcome - 108504()
  • Wellcome - 203149()
  • Wellcome - 91020()
  • Wellcome - 94517()
  • Wellcome Trust - JP16H01309()

Ari-1 Regulates Myonuclear Organization Together with Parkin and Is Associated with Aortic Aneurysms.

  • Tan KL
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nuclei are actively positioned and anchored to the cytoskeleton via the LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex. We identified mutations in the Parkin-like E3 ubiquitin ligase Ariadne-1 (Ari-1) that affect the localization and distribution of LINC complex members in Drosophila. ari-1 mutants exhibit nuclear clustering and morphology defects in larval muscles. We show that Ari-1 mono-ubiquitinates the core LINC complex member Koi. Surprisingly, we discovered functional redundancy between Parkin and Ari-1: increasing Parkin expression rescues ari-1 mutant phenotypes and vice versa. We further show that rare variants in the human homolog of ari-1 (ARIH1) are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, conditions resulting from smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction. Human ARIH1 rescues fly ari-1 mutant phenotypes, whereas human variants found in patients fail to do so. In addition, SMCs obtained from patients display aberrant nuclear morphology. Hence, ARIH1 is critical in anchoring myonuclei to the cytoskeleton.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

A Hypothalamic Midbrain Pathway Essential for Driving Maternal Behaviors.

  • Fang YY
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maternal behaviors are essential for the survival of the young. Previous studies implicated the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as an important region for maternal behaviors, but details of the maternal circuit remain incompletely understood. Here we identify estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1)-expressing cells in the MPOA as key mediators of pup approach and retrieval. Reversible inactivation of MPOAEsr1+ cells impairs those behaviors, whereas optogenetic activation induces immediate pup retrieval. In vivo recordings demonstrate preferential activation of MPOAEsr1+ cells during maternal behaviors and changes in MPOA cell responses across reproductive states. Furthermore, channelrhodopsin-assisted circuit mapping reveals a strong inhibitory projection from MPOAEsr1+ cells to ventral tegmental area (VTA) non-dopaminergic cells. Pathway-specific manipulations reveal that this projection is essential for driving pup approach and retrieval and that VTA dopaminergic cells are reliably activated during those behaviors. Altogether, this study provides new insight into the neural circuit that generates maternal behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI046706(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R21 HD090563()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH101377()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH105774()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - DP2 NS105553()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R00 NS087098()

Basal Cells Show Increased Expression of Aromatase and Estrogen Receptor α in Prostate Epithelial Lesions of Male Aging Rats.

  • Morais-Santos M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Besides androgens, estrogen signaling plays a key role in normal development and pathologies of the prostate. Irreversible synthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by aromatase. Interestingly, animals lacking aromatase do not develop cancer or prostatitis, whereas those with overexpression of aromatase and, consequently, high estrogen levels develop prostatitis and squamous metaplasia via estrogen receptor 1 (ERα). Even with this evidence, the aromatase expression in the prostate is controversial. Moreover, little is known about the occurrence of age-dependent variation of aromatase and its association with histopathological changes commonly found in advanced age, a knowledge gap that is addressed herein. For this purpose, the immunoexpression of aromatase was evaluated in the prostatic complex of young adult to senile Wistar rats. ERα was also investigated, to extend our understanding of estrogen responsiveness in the prostate. Moderate cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for aromatase was detected in the glandular epithelium. Eventually, some basal cells showed intense staining for aromatase. The expression pattern for aromatase appeared similar in the normal epithelium when young and senile rats were compared; this result was corroborated by Western blotting. Conversely, in senile rats, there was an increase in the frequency of basal cells intensely stained for aromatase, which appeared concentrated in areas of intraepithelial proliferation and prostatitis. These punctual areas also presented increased ERα positivity. Together, these findings suggest a plausible source for hormonal imbalance favoring estrogen production, which, by acting through ERα, may favor the development of prostatic lesions commonly found in advanced age.

Natural Parasite Exposure Induces Protective Human Anti-Malarial Antibodies.

  • Triller G
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Antibodies against the NANP repeat of circumsporozoite protein (CSP), the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites, can protect from malaria in animal models but protective humoral immunity is difficult to induce in humans. Here we cloned and characterized rare affinity-matured human NANP-reactive memory B cell antibodies elicited by natural Pf exposure that potently inhibited parasite transmission and development in vivo. We unveiled the molecular details of antibody binding to two distinct protective epitopes within the NANP repeat. NANP repeat recognition was largely mediated by germline encoded and immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) residues, whereas affinity maturation contributed predominantly to stabilizing the antigen-binding site conformation. Combined, our findings illustrate the power of exploring human anti-CSP antibody responses to develop tools for malaria control in the mammalian and the mosquito vector and provide a molecular basis for the structure-based design of next-generation CSP malaria vaccines.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - F32 AI114113()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - 5R01 ES010807(United States)

A Balance of Yki/Sd Activator and E2F1/Sd Repressor Complexes Controls Cell Survival and Affects Organ Size.

  • Zhang P
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Hippo/Yki and RB/E2F pathways both regulate tissue growth by affecting cell proliferation and survival, but interactions between these parallel control systems are poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that interaction between Drosophila E2F1 and Sd disrupts Yki/Sd complex formation and thereby suppresses Yki target gene expression. RBF modifies these effects by reducing E2F1/Sd interaction. This regulation has significant effects on apoptosis, organ size, and progenitor cell proliferation. Using a combination of DamID-seq and RNA-seq, we identified a set of Yki targets that play a diversity of roles during development and are suppressed by E2F1. Further, we found that human E2F1 competes with YAP for TEAD1 binding, affecting YAP activity, indicating that this mode of cross-regulation is conserved. In sum, our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism in which RBF and E2F1 modify Hippo signaling responses to modulate apoptosis, organ growth, and homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 268515()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA091956(United States)

Melanopsin ganglion cell outer retinal dendrites: Morphologically distinct and asymmetrically distributed in the mouse retina.

  • Sondereker KB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A small population of retinal ganglion cells expresses the photopigment melanopsin and function as autonomous photoreceptors. They encode global luminance levels critical for light-mediated non-image forming visual processes including circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. There are five melanopsin ganglion cell subtypes (M1-M5). M1 and displaced M1 (M1d) cells have dendrites that ramify within the outermost layer of the inner plexiform layer. It was recently discovered that some melanopsin ganglion cells extend dendrites into the outer retina. Outer Retinal Dendrites (ORDs) either ramify within the outer plexiform layer (OPL) or the inner nuclear layer, and while present in the mature retina, are most abundant postnatally. Anatomical evidence for synaptic transmission between cone photoreceptor terminals and ORDs suggests a novel photoreceptor to ganglion cell connection in the mammalian retina. While it is known that the number of ORDs in the retina is developmentally regulated, little is known about the morphology, the cells from which they originate, or their spatial distribution throughout the retina. We analyzed the morphology of melanopsin-immunopositive ORDs in the OPL at different developmental time points in the mouse retina and identified five types of ORDs originating from either M1 or M1d cells. However, a pattern emerges within these: ORDs from M1d cells are generally longer and more highly branched than ORDs from conventional M1 cells. Additionally, we found ORDs asymmetrically distributed to the dorsal retina. This morphological analysis provides the first step in identifying a potential role for biplexiform melanopsin ganglion cell ORDs.

Midkine Controls Arteriogenesis by Regulating the Bioavailability of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and the Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 and 3.

  • Lautz T
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Midkine is a pleiotropic factor, which is involved in angiogenesis. However, its mode of action in this process is still ill defined. The function of midkine in arteriogenesis, the growth of natural bypasses from pre-existing collateral arteries, compensating for the loss of an occluded artery has never been investigated. Arteriogenesis is an inflammatory process, which relies on the proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. We show that midkine deficiency strikingly interferes with the proliferation of endothelial cells in arteriogenesis, thereby interfering with the process of collateral artery growth. We identified midkine to be responsible for increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), necessary and sufficient to promote endothelial cell proliferation in growing collaterals. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that leukocyte domiciled midkine mediates increased plasma levels of VEGFA relevant for upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 1 and 3, necessary for proper endothelial cell proliferation, and that non-leukocyte domiciled midkine additionally improves vasodilation. The data provided on the role of midkine in endothelial proliferation are likely to be relevant for both, the process of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. Moreover, our data might help to estimate the therapeutic effect of clinically applied VEGFA in patients with vascular occlusive diseases.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MR/J006742/1(United Kingdom)

Regulatory T Cell Migration Is Dependent on Glucokinase-Mediated Glycolysis.

  • Kishore M
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Migration of activated regulatory T (Treg) cells to inflamed tissue is crucial for their immune-modulatory function. While metabolic reprogramming during Treg cell differentiation has been extensively studied, the bioenergetics of Treg cell trafficking remains undefined. We have investigated the metabolic demands of migrating Treg cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that glycolysis was instrumental for their migration and was initiated by pro-migratory stimuli via a PI3K-mTORC2-mediated pathway culminating in induction of the enzyme glucokinase (GCK). Subsequently, GCK promoted cytoskeletal rearrangements by associating with actin. Treg cells lacking this pathway were functionally suppressive but failed to migrate to skin allografts and inhibit rejection. Similarly, human carriers of a loss-of-function GCK regulatory protein gene-leading to increased GCK activity-had reduced numbers of circulating Treg cells. These cells displayed enhanced migratory activity but similar suppressive function, while conventional T cells were unaffected. Thus, GCK-dependent glycolysis regulates Treg cell migration.

The Primate-Specific Gene TMEM14B Marks Outer Radial Glia Cells and Promotes Cortical Expansion and Folding.

  • Liu J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG. Expression of TMEM14B in embryonic NPs induces cortical thickening and gyrification in postnatal mice. This is accompanied by SVZ expansion, the appearance of outer RG-like cells, and the proliferation of multiple NP subsets, with proportional increases in all cortical layers and normal lamination. TMEM14B drives NP proliferation by increasing the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IQGAP1, which in turn promotes G1/S cell cycle transitions. These data show that a single primate-specific gene can drive neurodevelopmental changes that contribute to brain evolution.

Myosin II Controls Junction Fluctuations to Guide Epithelial Tissue Ordering.

  • Curran S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Under conditions of homeostasis, dynamic changes in the length of individual adherens junctions (AJs) provide epithelia with the fluidity required to maintain tissue integrity in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic forces. While the contribution of AJ remodeling to developmental morphogenesis has been intensively studied, less is known about AJ dynamics in other circumstances. Here, we study AJ dynamics in an epithelium that undergoes a gradual increase in packing order, without concomitant large-scale changes in tissue size or shape. We find that neighbor exchange events are driven by stochastic fluctuations in junction length, regulated in part by junctional actomyosin. In this context, the developmental increase of isotropic junctional actomyosin reduces the rate of neighbor exchange, contributing to tissue order. We propose a model in which the local variance in tension between junctions determines whether actomyosin-based forces will inhibit or drive the topological transitions that either refine or deform a tissue.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P51RR165(United States)

Optimized method for isolating highly purified and functional porcine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  • Beigi F
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Numerous protocols exist for isolating aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells from small animals. However, establishing a protocol for isolating pure cell populations from large animal vessels that are more elastic has been challenging. We developed a simple sequential enzymatic approach to isolate highly purified populations of porcine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The lumen of a porcine aorta was filled with 25 U/ml dispase solution and incubated at 37°C to dissociate the endothelial cells. The smooth muscle cells were isolated by mincing the tunica media of the treated aorta and incubating the pieces in 0.2% and then 0.1% collagenase type I solution. The isolated endothelial cells stained positive for von Willebrand factor, and 97.2% of them expressed CD31. Early and late passage endothelial cells had a population doubling time of 38 hr and maintained a capacity to take up DiI-Ac-LDL and form tubes in Matrigel®. The isolated smooth muscle cells stained highly positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, and an impurities assessment showed that only 1.8% were endothelial cells. Population doubling time for the smooth muscle cells was ∼70 hr at passages 3 and 7; and the cells positively responded to endothelin-1, as shown by a 66% increase in the intracellular calcium level. This simple protocol allows for the isolation of highly pure populations of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from porcine aorta that can survive continued passage in culture without losing functionality or becoming overgrown by fibroblasts.

Control of Cell Shape, Neurite Outgrowth, and Migration by a Nogo-A/HSPG Interaction.

  • Kempf A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) critically modulate adhesion-, growth-, and migration-related processes. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein, Nogo-A, inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading in neurons and Nogo-A-responsive cell lines via HSPGs. The extracellular, active 180 amino acid Nogo-A region, named Nogo-A-Δ20, binds to heparin and brain-derived heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but not to the closely related chondroitin sulfate GAGs. HSPGs are required for Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion, cell spreading, and neurite outgrowth, as well as for RhoA activation. Surprisingly, we show that Nogo-A-Δ20 can act via HSPGs independently of its receptor, Sphingosine-1-Phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2). We thereby identify the HSPG family members syndecan-3 and syndecan-4 as functional receptors for Nogo-A-Δ20. Finally, we show in explant cultures ex vivo that Nogo-A-Δ20 promotes the migration of neuroblasts via HSPGs but not S1PR2.

Neutrophils Are Critical for Myelin Removal in a Peripheral Nerve Injury Model of Wallerian Degeneration.

  • Lindborg JA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages, which use the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our laboratory has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2-/- mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2-/- mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils. In response to the loss of CCR2, injured Ccr2-/- sciatic nerves demonstrate prolonged expression of neutrophil chemokines, a concomitant extended increase in the accumulation of neutrophils in the nerve, and elevated phagocytosis by neutrophils. Neutrophil depletion substantially inhibits myelin clearance after nerve injury in both male WT and Ccr2-/- mice, highlighting a novel role for these cells in peripheral nerve degeneration that spans genotypes.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The accepted view in the basic and clinical neurosciences is that the clearance of axonal and myelin debris after a nerve injury is directed primarily by inflammatory CCR2+ macrophages. However, we demonstrate that this clearance is nearly identical in WT and Ccr2-/- mice, and that neutrophils replace CCR2+ macrophages as the primary phagocytic cell. We find that neutrophils play a major role in myelin clearance not only in Ccr2-/- mice but also in WT mice, highlighting their necessity during nerve degeneration in the peripheral nervous system. These degeneration studies may propel improvements in nerve regeneration and draw critical parallels to mechanisms of nerve degeneration and regeneration in the CNS and in the context of peripheral neuropathies.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY011373()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097223()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R56 DK097223()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016164()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS093694()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095017()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS067431()

Paclitaxel Reduces Axonal Bclw to Initiate IP3R1-Dependent Axon Degeneration.

  • Pease-Raissi SE
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect of many cancer treatments. The hallmark of CIPN is degeneration of long axons required for transmission of sensory information; axonal degeneration causes impaired tactile sensation and persistent pain. Currently the molecular mechanisms of CIPN are not understood, and there are no available treatments. Here we show that the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel triggers CIPN by altering IP3 receptor phosphorylation and intracellular calcium flux, and activating calcium-dependent calpain proteases. Concomitantly paclitaxel impairs axonal trafficking of RNA-granules and reduces synthesis of Bclw (bcl2l2), a Bcl2 family member that binds IP3R1 and restrains axon degeneration. Surprisingly, Bclw or a stapled peptide corresponding to the Bclw BH4 domain interact with axonal IP3R1 and prevent paclitaxel-induced degeneration, while Bcl2 and BclxL cannot do so. Together these data identify a Bclw-IP3R1-dependent cascade that causes axon degeneration and suggest that Bclw-mimetics could provide effective therapy to prevent CIPN.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA205255()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197583()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R50 CA211399()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS050674()

Directional migration of mesenchymal stem cells under an SDF-1α gradient on a microfluidic device.

  • Park S
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Sep 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Homing of peripheral stem cells is regulated by one of the most representative homing factors, stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α), which specifically binds to the plasma membrane receptor CXCR4 of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to initiate the signaling pathways that lead to directional migration and homing of stem cells. This complex homing process and directional migration of stem cells have been mimicked on a microfluidic device that is capable of generating a chemokine gradient within the collagen matrix and embedding endothelial cell (EC) monolayers to mimic blood vessels. On the microfluidic device, stem cells showed directional migration toward the higher concentration of SDF-1α, whereas treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 caused loss of directionality of stem cells. Furthermore, inhibition of stem cell's main migratory signaling pathways, Rho-ROCK and Rac pathways, caused blockage of actomyosin and lamellipodia formation, decreasing the migration distance but maintaining directionality. Stem cell homing regulated by SDF-1α caused directional migration of stem cells, while the migratory ability was affected by the activation of migration-related signaling pathways.

Zika-Virus-Encoded NS2A Disrupts Mammalian Cortical Neurogenesis by Degrading Adherens Junction Proteins.

  • Yoon KJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Zika virus (ZIKV) directly infects neural progenitors and impairs their proliferation. How ZIKV interacts with the host molecular machinery to impact neurogenesis in vivo is not well understood. Here, by systematically introducing individual proteins encoded by ZIKV into the embryonic mouse cortex, we show that expression of ZIKV-NS2A, but not Dengue virus (DENV)-NS2A, leads to reduced proliferation and premature differentiation of radial glial cells and aberrant positioning of newborn neurons. Mechanistically, in vitro mapping of protein-interactomes and biochemical analysis suggest interactions between ZIKA-NS2A and multiple adherens junction complex (AJ) components. Functionally, ZIKV-NS2A, but not DENV-NS2A, destabilizes the AJ complex, resulting in impaired AJ formation and aberrant radial glial fiber scaffolding in the embryonic mouse cortex. Similarly, ZIKA-NS2A, but not DENV-NS2A, reduces radial glial cell proliferation and causes AJ deficits in human forebrain organoids. Together, our results reveal pathogenic mechanisms underlying ZIKV infection in the developing mammalian brain.

Differential neuronal and glial expression of nuclear factor I proteins in the cerebral cortex of adult mice.

  • Chen KS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors plays an important role in the development of the cerebral cortex in humans and mice. Disruption of nuclear factor IA (NFIA), nuclear factor IB (NFIB), or nuclear factor IX (NFIX) results in abnormal development of the corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, and hippocampus. However, the expression or function of these genes has not been examined in detail in the adult brain, and the cell type-specific expression of NFIA, NFIB, and NFIX is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of each NFI protein shows a distinct laminar pattern in the adult mouse neocortex and that their cell type-specific expression differs depending on the family member. NFIA expression was more frequently observed in astrocytes and oligodendroglia, whereas NFIB expression was predominantly localized to astrocytes and neurons. NFIX expression was most commonly observed in neurons. The NFI proteins were equally distributed within microglia, and the ependymal cells lining the ventricles of the brain expressed all three proteins. In the hippocampus, the NFI proteins were expressed during all stages of neural stem cell differentiation in the dentate gyrus, with higher expression intensity in neuroblast cells as compared to quiescent stem cells and mature granule neurons. These findings suggest that the NFI proteins may play distinct roles in cell lineage specification or maintenance, and establish the basis for further investigation of their function in the adult brain and their emerging role in disease.

Amino Acid Transporter Slc38a5 Controls Glucagon Receptor Inhibition-Induced Pancreatic α Cell Hyperplasia in Mice.

  • Kim J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jun 6

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Abstract:

Glucagon supports glucose homeostasis by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, in part by promoting the uptake and conversion of amino acids into gluconeogenic precursors. Genetic disruption or pharmacologic inhibition of glucagon signaling results in elevated plasma amino acids and compensatory glucagon hypersecretion involving expansion of pancreatic α cell mass. Recent findings indicate that hyperaminoacidemia triggers pancreatic α cell proliferation via an mTOR-dependent pathway. We confirm and extend these findings by demonstrating that glucagon pathway blockade selectively increases expression of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Slc38a5 in a subset of highly proliferative α cells and that Slc38a5 controls the pancreatic response to glucagon pathway blockade; most notably, mice deficient in Slc38a5 exhibit markedly decreased α cell hyperplasia to glucagon pathway blockade-induced hyperaminoacidemia. These results show that Slc38a5 is a key component of the feedback circuit between glucagon receptor signaling in the liver and amino-acid-dependent regulation of pancreatic α cell mass in mice.

A Critical Role of Presynaptic Cadherin/Catenin/p140Cap Complexes in Stabilizing Spines and Functional Synapses in the Neocortex.

  • Li MY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jun 21

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Abstract:

The formation of functional synapses requires coordinated assembly of presynaptic transmitter release machinery and postsynaptic trafficking of functional receptors and scaffolds. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of presynaptic cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complexes in stabilizing functional synapses and spines in the developing neocortex. Importantly, presynaptic expression of stabilized β-catenin in either layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons or L2/3 pyramidal neurons significantly upregulated excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine density in L2/3 pyramidal neurons, while its sparse postsynaptic expression in L2/3 neurons had no such effects. In addition, presynaptic β-catenin expression enhanced release probability of glutamatergic synapses. Newly identified β-catenin-interacting protein p140Cap is required in the presynaptic locus for mediating these effects. Together, our results demonstrate that cadherin/catenin complexes stabilize functional synapses and spines through anterograde signaling in the neocortex and provide important molecular evidence for a driving role of presynaptic components in spinogenesis in the neocortex.

Shigella sonnei Encodes a Functional T6SS Used for Interbacterial Competition and Niche Occupancy.

  • Anderson MC
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Jun 14

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Abstract:

Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, with the majority of infections caused by two subgroups, S. flexneri and S. sonnei. Although S. flexneri has been highly prevalent in low-income countries, global development has brought an increase in S. sonnei at the expense of S. flexneri. However, the mechanisms behind this shift are not understood. Here we report that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri, encodes a type VI secretion system (T6SS) that provides a competitive advantage in the gut. S. sonnei competes against E. coli and S. flexneri in mixed cultures, but this advantage is reduced in T6SS mutant strains. In addition, S. sonnei can persist as well as outcompete E. coli and S. flexneri in mice in a T6SS-dependent manner. These findings suggest that S. sonnei has a competitive advantage over S. flexneri and potentially explain the increasing global prevalence of S. sonnei.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022954(United States)

Brachyury drives formation of a distinct vascular branchpoint critical for fetal-placental arterial union in the mouse gastrula.

  • Rodriguez AM
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2017 May 15

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Abstract:

How the fetal-placental arterial connection is made and positioned relative to the embryonic body axis, thereby ensuring efficient and directed blood flow to and from the mother during gestation, is not known. Here we use a combination of genetics, timed pharmacological inhibition in living mouse embryos, and three-dimensional modeling to link two novel architectural features that, at present, have no status in embryological atlases. The allantoic core domain (ACD) is the extraembryonic extension of the primitive streak into the allantois, or pre-umbilical tissue; the vessel of confluence (VOC), situated adjacent to the ACD, is an extraembryonic vessel that marks the site of fetal-placental arterial union. We show that genesis of the fetal-placental connection involves the ACD and VOC in a series of steps, each one dependent upon the last. In the first, Brachyury (T) ensures adequate extension of the primitive streak into the allantois, which in turn designates the allantoic-yolk sac junction. Next, the streak-derived ACD organizes allantoic angioblasts to the axial junction; upon signaling from Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1), these endothelialize and branch, forming a sprouting VOC that unites the umbilical and omphalomesenteric arteries with the fetal dorsal aortae. Arterial union is followed by the appearance of the medial umbilical roots within the VOC, which in turn designate the correct axial placement of the lateral umbilical roots/common iliac arteries. In addition, we show that the ACD and VOC are conserved across Placentalia, including humans, underscoring their fundamental importance in mammalian biology. We conclude that T is required for correct axial positioning of the VOC via the primitive streak/ACD, while FGFR1, through its role in endothelialization and branching, further patterns it. Together, these genetic, molecular and structural elements safeguard the fetus against adverse outcomes that can result from vascular mispatterning of the fetal-placental arterial connection.

EphA4 Regulates Neuroblast and Astrocyte Organization in a Neurogenic Niche.

  • Todd KL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 22

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Abstract:

Significant migration cues are required to guide and contain newly generated rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroblasts as they transit along the lateral ventricles and then through the anterior forebrain to their ultimate site of differentiation in the olfactory bulbs (OBs). These cues enforce strict neuroblast spatial boundaries within the dense astroglial meshwork of the SVZ and rostral migratory stream (RMS), yet are permissive to large-scale neuroblast migration. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms that define these cues and control dynamic interactions between migratory neuroblasts and surrounding astrocytes are of particular interest. We found that deletion of EphA4 and specifically ablation of EphA4 kinase activity resulted in misaligned neuroblasts and disorganized astrocytes in the RMS/SVZ, linking EphA4 forward signaling to SVZ and RMS spatial organization, orientation, and regulation. In addition, within a 3 week period, there was a significant reduction in the number of neuroblasts that reached the OB and integrated into the periglomerular layer, revealing a crucial role for EphA4 in facilitating efficient neuroblast migration to the OB. Single-cell analysis revealed that EPHA4 and its EFN binding partners are expressed by subpopulations of neuroblasts and astrocytes within the SVZ/RMS/OB system resulting in a cell-specific mosaic, suggesting complex EphA4 signaling involving both homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interactions. Together, our studies reveal a novel molecular mechanism involving EphA4 signaling that functions in stem cell niche organization and ultimately neuroblast migration in the anterior forebrain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The subventricular zone neurogenic stem cell niche generates highly migratory neuroblasts that transit the anterior forebrain along a defined pathway to the olfactory bulb. Postnatal and adult brain organization dictates strict adherence to a narrow migration corridor. Subventricular zone neuroblasts are aligned in tightly bundled chains within a meshwork of astrocytes; however, the cell-cell cues that organize this unique, cell-dense migration pathway are largely unknown. Our studies show that forward signaling through the EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor, mediated by ephrins expressed by subpopulations of neuroblasts and astrocytes, is required for compact, directional organization of neuroblasts and astrocytes within the pathway and efficient transit of neuroblasts through the anterior forebrain to the olfactory bulb.

Neurogenic Radial Glia-like Cells in Meninges Migrate and Differentiate into Functionally Integrated Neurons in the Neonatal Cortex.

  • Bifari F
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

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Abstract:

Whether new neurons are added in the postnatal cerebral cortex is still debated. Here, we report that the meninges of perinatal mice contain a population of neurogenic progenitors formed during embryonic development that migrate to the caudal cortex and differentiate into Satb2+ neurons in cortical layers II-IV. The resulting neurons are electrically functional and integrated into local microcircuits. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified meningeal cells with distinct transcriptome signatures characteristic of (1) neurogenic radial glia-like cells (resembling neural stem cells in the SVZ), (2) neuronal cells, and (3) a cell type with an intermediate phenotype, possibly representing radial glia-like meningeal cells differentiating to neuronal cells. Thus, we have identified a pool of embryonically derived radial glia-like cells present in the meninges that migrate and differentiate into functional neurons in the neonatal cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036715(United States)

Elimination of paternal mitochondria in mouse embryos occurs through autophagic degradation dependent on PARKIN and MUL1.

  • Rojansky R
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 17

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Abstract:

A defining feature of mitochondria is their maternal mode of inheritance. However, little is understood about the cellular mechanism through which paternal mitochondria, delivered from sperm, are eliminated from early mammalian embryos. Autophagy has been implicated in nematodes, but whether this mechanism is conserved in mammals has been disputed. Here, we show that cultured mouse fibroblasts and pre-implantation embryos use a common pathway for elimination of mitochondria. Both situations utilize mitophagy, in which mitochondria are sequestered by autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. The E3 ubiquitin ligases PARKIN and MUL1 play redundant roles in elimination of paternal mitochondria. The process is associated with depolarization of paternal mitochondria and additionally requires the mitochondrial outer membrane protein FIS1, the autophagy adaptor P62, and PINK1 kinase. Our results indicate that strict maternal transmission of mitochondria relies on mitophagy and uncover a collaboration between MUL1 and PARKIN in this process.