Literature context: ance, MMS-435PDako, Z0334Sigma, A5228Dako, A0008R&D Systems, AF2400Si
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that leads to gliosis, demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal death. The MS disease aetiology is unknown, though a polymorphism of the TNFRSF1A gene, rs1800693, is known to confer an increased risk for MS. Using retroviral delivery of reprogramming transgenes, we generated six MS patient-specific iPSC lines with two distinct genotypes, CC or TT, of the polymorphism rs1800693. iPSC lines had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency genes and differentiated into the three germ layers. These lines offer a good tool to study MS pathomechanisms and for drug testing.
Literature context: :500 Sigma-Aldrich, Cat# A5228, RRID:AB_262054 Secondary antibodies Anti-mouse
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. PD can result from a mutation of alpha-synuclein (α-SNCA), such as α-SNCA A53T. Using episomal vectors, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from skin fibroblasts with the α-SNCA A53T mutation. A huge bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) harboring the normal α-SNCA gene successfully corrected the α-SNCA A53T-mutant iPSCs. Melting curve analysis for allelic composition indicated that the BAC DNA was precisely targeted to the α-SNCA A53T mutation allele, without random integration. The corrected PD-iPSCs displayed the normal karyotype and pluripotency, with the capability to differentiate to any cell type.
Literature context: RRID:AB_262054 Mouse monoclonal anti-nitrotyro
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, the role of FGF21 in hypertension remains elusive. Here we show that FGF21 deficiency significantly exacerbates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction, whereas such negative effects are reversed by replenishment of FGF21. Mechanistically, FGF21 acts on adipocytes and renal cells to promote induction of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which in turn converts angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7), then inhibits hypertension and reverses vascular damage. In addition, ACE2 deficiency strikingly abrogates these beneficial effects of FGF21 in mice, including alleviation of angiotensin II-associated hypertension and vascular damage. Otherwise, pharmaceutical inhibition of angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates the protective effect of FGF21 on angiotensin II-induced vascular dysfunction, but not on hypertension. Thus, FGF21 protects against angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular impairment by activation of the ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) axis via fine-tuning the multi-organ crosstalk between liver, adipose tissue, kidney, and blood vessels.
Literature context: (Abcam catalogue number ab7817, RRID:AB_262054). All primary antibodies were u
INTRODUCTION: The precise mechanisms of the inflammatory responses after cerebral ischemia in vivo are difficult to elucidate because of the complex nature of multiple series of interactions between cells and molecules. This study explored temporal patterns of secretion of 30 cytokines and chemokines from Sprague Dawley rat astrocytes in primary culture in order to elucidate signaling pathways that are triggered by astrocytes during anoxia. METHODS: Primary cultures of rat brain astrocytes were incubated for periods of 2-24 hr in the absence of oxygen (anoxia) or under normal partial pressure of oxygen (controls). Simultaneous detection of 29 cytokines and chemokines in the samples was performed using a rat cytokine array panel, while the temporal pattern of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) secretion was determined separately using ELISA. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare normoxic and anoxic samples and the Hodge-Lehman estimator with exact 95% confidence intervals was computed to assess the size of differences in cytokine secretion. The obtained data were imported into the Core Analysis tool of Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software in order to relate changes in secretion of cytokines and chemokines from astrocytes during anoxia to potential molecular signal networks. RESULTS: With the exception of Ang-1, concentrations of all cytokines/chemokines in samples collected after anoxia exposure were either the same, or higher, than in control groups. No clear pattern of changes could be established for groups of cytokines with similar effects (i.e., pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines). The pattern of changes in cytokine secretion during anoxia was associated with the HIF-1α-mediated response, as well as cytokines IL-1β and cathepsin S pathways, which are related to initiation of inflammation and antigen presentation, respectively, and to ciliary neurotrophic factor. CONCLUSIONS: These in vitro findings suggest that astrocytes may play a role in triggering inflammation during anoxia/ischemia of the brain.
Literature context: 7, RRID:AB_262054 Rabbit anti Krt5 Covance Cat#PR
The mouse trachea is thought to contain two distinct stem cell compartments that contribute to airway repair-basal cells in the surface airway epithelium (SAE) and an unknown submucosal gland (SMG) cell type. Whether a lineage relationship exists between these two stem cell compartments remains unclear. Using lineage tracing of glandular myoepithelial cells (MECs), we demonstrate that MECs can give rise to seven cell types of the SAE and SMGs following severe airway injury. MECs progressively adopted a basal cell phenotype on the SAE and established lasting progenitors capable of further regeneration following reinjury. MECs activate Wnt-regulated transcription factors (Lef-1/TCF7) following injury and Lef-1 induction in cultured MECs promoted transition to a basal cell phenotype. Surprisingly, dose-dependent MEC conditional activation of Lef-1 in vivo promoted self-limited airway regeneration in the absence of injury. Thus, modulating the Lef-1 transcriptional program in MEC-derived progenitors may have regenerative medicine applications for lung diseases.
Literature context: use anti-SMA1:300Sigma-Aldrich; cat. A5228Mouse anti-AFP1:300Sigma-Aldrich
An amyloid precursor protein (APP) A673T mutation was found to be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive decline in the Icelandic population and to associate with decreased levels of plasma β-amyloid in a Finnish population-based cohort. Human fibroblasts from a Finnish male individual carrying the protective mutation were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) line by Sendai virus technology. The iPSC line retained the mutation and expressed pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype and differentiated into all three germ layers.
Literature context: 1:400 Sigma-Aldrich Cat# A5228, RRID:AB_262054 Secondary antibodies Alexa 555
Two human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were generated from fibroblasts of two siblings with methylmalonic acidemia cblB type carrying mutations in the MMAB gene: c.287T➔C (p.Ile96Thr) and a splicing loss-of-function variant c.584G➔A affecting the last nucleotide of exon 7 in MMAB (p.Ser174Cysfs*23). Reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC were delivered using a non-integrative method based on the Sendai virus. Once established, iPSCs have shown full pluripotency, differentiation capacity and genetic stability.
Literature context: -11:500Abcam 7751Mesoderm markerMouse anti-SMA1:300Sigma A5228Endoderm markerMouse anti-AFP1:2
The human iPSC cell line, derived from foreskin fibroblasts was generated by non-integrative, non-viral reprogramming technology using OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, LIN28, c-MYC mRNAs.
Literature context: Î±SMA) Sigma-Aldrich Cat# A5228; RRID:AB_262054 Alexa Fluor conjugated secondar
Every animal species has a signature blood glucose level or glycemic set point. These set points are different, and the normal glycemic levels (normoglycemia) of one species would be life threatening for other species. Mouse normoglycemia can be considered diabetic for humans. The biological determinants of the glycemic set point remain unclear. Here we show that the pancreatic islet imposes its glycemic set point on the organism, making it the bona fide glucostat in the body. Moreover, and in contrast to rodent islets, glucagon input from the alpha cell to the insulin-secreting beta cell is necessary to fine-tune the distinctive human set point. These findings affect transplantation and regenerative approaches to treat diabetes because restoring normoglycemia may require more than replacing only the beta cells. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies using glucagon receptor antagonists as hypoglycemic agents need to be reassessed, as they may reset the overall glucostat in the organism.
Literature context: i-human Î±-SMA R&D Cat# MAB1420; RRID:AB_262054 Rabbit anti-human Collagen I Ab
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundant and heterogeneous stromal cells in tumor microenvironment that are critically involved in cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate that two cell-surface molecules, CD10 and GPR77, specifically define a CAF subset correlated with chemoresistance and poor survival in multiple cohorts of breast and lung cancer patients. CD10+GPR77+ CAFs promote tumor formation and chemoresistance by providing a survival niche for cancer stem cells (CSCs). Mechanistically, CD10+GPR77+ CAFs are driven by persistent NF-κB activation via p65 phosphorylation and acetylation, which is maintained by complement signaling via GPR77, a C5a receptor. Furthermore, CD10+GPR77+ CAFs promote successful engraftment of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), and targeting these CAFs with a neutralizing anti-GPR77 antibody abolishes tumor formation and restores tumor chemosensitivity. Our study reveals a functional CAF subset that can be defined and isolated by specific cell-surface markers and suggests that targeting the CD10+GPR77+ CAF subset could be an effective therapeutic strategy against CSC-driven solid tumors.
Literature context: SMA) (Sigma-Aldrich Cat# A5228, RRID:AB_262054; monoclonal mouse antibody; lot
Canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) resembles the early stages of myxomatous pathology seen in human non-syndromic mitral valve prolapse, a common valvular heart disease in the adult human population. Canine MMVD is seen in older subjects, suggesting age-related epigenetic dysregulation leading to derangements in valvular cell populations and matrix synthesis or degradation. We hypothesized that valvular interstitial cells (VICs) undergo disease-relevant changes in miRNA expression. In primary VIC lines from diseased and control valves, miRNA expression was profiled using RT-qPCR and next generation sequencing. VICs from diseased valves showed phenotypic changes consistent with myofibroblastic differentiation (vimentinlow+, α-SMAhigh+), increases in senescence markers (p21, SA-β-gαl), and decreased cell viability and proliferation potential. RT-qPCR and miRNA sequencing analyses both showed significant (p<0.05) downregulation of let-7c, miR-17, miR-20a, and miR-30d in VICs from diseased valves compared to controls. Decreased let-7c, miR-17, and miR-20a may contribute to myofibroblastic differentiation in addition to cell senescence, and decreased miR-30d may disinhibit cell apoptosis. These data support the hypothesis that epigenetic dysregulation plays an important role in age-related canine MMVD.
Literature context: no. A5228, lot. no. 065M4762V; RRID:AB_262054) and anti-Î²-tubulin (cat. no. T
The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis by catalyzing cystine uptake and glutamate release. The released glutamate may modulate normal neural signaling and contribute to excitotoxicity in pathological situations. Uncertainty, however, remains as neither the expression levels nor the distribution of xCT have been unambiguously determined. In fact, xCT has been reported in astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia, but most of the information derives from cell cultures. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting that xCT is widely expressed in the central nervous system of both sexes. The labeling specificity was validated using tissue from xCT knockout mice as controls. Astrocytes were selectively labeled, but showed greatly varying labeling intensities. This astroglial heterogeneity resulted in an astrocyte domain-like labeling pattern. Strong xCT labeling was also found in the leptomeninges, along some blood vessels, in selected circumventricular organs and in a subpopulation of tanycytes residing the lateral walls of the ventral third ventricle. Neurons, oligodendrocytes and resting microglia, as well as reactive microglia induced by glutamine synthetase deficiency, were unlabeled. The concentration of xCT protein in hippocampus was compared with that of the EAAT3 glutamate transporter by immunoblotting using a chimeric xCT-EAAT3 protein to normalize xCT and EAAT3 labeling intensities. The immunoblots suggested an xCT/EAAT3 ratio close to one (0.75 ± 0.07; average ± SEM; n = 4) in adult C57BL6 mice. CONCLUSIONS: xCT is present in select blood/brain/CSF interface areas and in an astrocyte subpopulation, in sufficient quantities to support the notion that system xc- provides physiologically relevant transport activity.
Literature context: 1:500 Sigma-Aldrich Cat# A5228, RRID:AB_262054 Goat anti-SOX17 1:50 R&D System
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key nuclear receptor that mediates drug metabolism and stimulates hepatocyte proliferation. However, the lack of PXR expression in human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes limits their application for drug screening and toxicity testing. Here, we generated a PXR-mCherry reporter human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. PXR-mCherry hiPSCs were pluripotent and had differentiation potential and a normal karyotype. This cell line is an important tool for identifying factors that increase PXR-mediated drug metabolism and hepatocyte proliferation.
Literature context: # ab7817, RRID:AB_262054), von Will
Numerous protocols exist for isolating aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells from small animals. However, establishing a protocol for isolating pure cell populations from large animal vessels that are more elastic has been challenging. We developed a simple sequential enzymatic approach to isolate highly purified populations of porcine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The lumen of a porcine aorta was filled with 25 U/ml dispase solution and incubated at 37°C to dissociate the endothelial cells. The smooth muscle cells were isolated by mincing the tunica media of the treated aorta and incubating the pieces in 0.2% and then 0.1% collagenase type I solution. The isolated endothelial cells stained positive for von Willebrand factor, and 97.2% of them expressed CD31. Early and late passage endothelial cells had a population doubling time of 38 hr and maintained a capacity to take up DiI-Ac-LDL and form tubes in Matrigel®. The isolated smooth muscle cells stained highly positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, and an impurities assessment showed that only 1.8% were endothelial cells. Population doubling time for the smooth muscle cells was ∼70 hr at passages 3 and 7; and the cells positively responded to endothelin-1, as shown by a 66% increase in the intracellular calcium level. This simple protocol allows for the isolation of highly pure populations of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from porcine aorta that can survive continued passage in culture without losing functionality or becoming overgrown by fibroblasts.
Literature context: uorescence Sigma Aldrich A5228; RRID:AB_262054 Rabbit anti-Collagen I for immu
Aortic aneurysms are life-threatening conditions with effective treatments mainly limited to emergency surgery or trans-arterial endovascular stent grafts, thus calling for the identification of specific molecular targets. Genetic studies have highlighted controversial roles of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in aneurysm development. Here, we report on aneurysms developing in adult mice after smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific inactivation of Smad4, an intracellular transducer of TGF-β. The results revealed that Smad4 inhibition activated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in SMCs. This danger signal later recruited innate immunity in the adventitia through chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and modified the mechanical properties of the aortic wall, thus favoring vessel dilation. SMC-specific Smad4 deletion in Il1r1- or Ccr2-null mice resulted in milder aortic pathology. A chronic treatment with anti-IL-1β antibody effectively hampered aneurysm development. These findings identify a mechanistic target for controlling the progression of aneurysms with compromised TGF-β signaling, such as those driven by SMAD4 mutations.
Literature context: otechnology Inc. Cat# sc-32251; RRID:AB_262054 chicken anti-GFP Aves Labs Inc.
The lung harbors its basal stem/progenitor cells (BSCs) in the protected environment of the cartilaginous airways. After major lung injuries, BSCs are activated and recruited to sites of injury. Here, we show that during homeostasis, BSCs in cartilaginous airways maintain their stem cell state by downregulating the Hippo pathway (resulting in increased nuclear Yap), which generates a localized Fgf10-expressing stromal niche; in contrast, differentiated epithelial cells in non-cartilaginous airways maintain quiescence by activating the Hippo pathway and inhibiting Fgf10 expression in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). However, upon injury, surviving differentiated epithelial cells spread to maintain barrier function and recruit integrin-linked kinase to adhesion sites, which leads to Merlin degradation, downregulation of the Hippo pathway, nuclear Yap translocation, and expression and secretion of Wnt7b. Epithelial-derived Wnt7b, then in turn, induces Fgf10 expression in ASMCs, which extends the BSC niche to promote regeneration.
Literature context: igma Cat# A5228; RRID:AB_262054 PDPN (hamster) DSHB Cat# 8.1.1;
The diversity of mesenchymal cell types in the lung that influence epithelial homeostasis and regeneration is poorly defined. We used genetic lineage tracing, single-cell RNA sequencing, and organoid culture approaches to show that Lgr5 and Lgr6, well-known markers of stem cells in epithelial tissues, are markers of mesenchymal cells in the adult lung. Lgr6+ cells comprise a subpopulation of smooth muscle cells surrounding airway epithelia and promote airway differentiation of epithelial progenitors via Wnt-Fgf10 cooperation. Genetic ablation of Lgr6+ cells impairs airway injury repair in vivo. Distinct Lgr5+ cells are located in alveolar compartments and are sufficient to promote alveolar differentiation of epithelial progenitors through Wnt activation. Modulating Wnt activity altered differentiation outcomes specified by mesenchymal cells. This identification of region- and lineage-specific crosstalk between epithelium and their neighboring mesenchymal partners provides new understanding of how different cell types are maintained in the adult lung.
Literature context: e 1:500 No N/A RRID:AB_262054 SOX2 Santa Cruz Biotechnology S
The embryonic mouse lung is a widely used substitute for human lung development. For example, attempts to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to lung epithelium rely on passing through progenitor states that have only been described in mouse. The tip epithelium of the branching mouse lung is a multipotent progenitor pool that self-renews and produces differentiating descendants. We hypothesized that the human distal tip epithelium is an analogous progenitor population and tested this by examining morphology, gene expression and in vitro self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human tips. These experiments confirm that human and mouse tips are analogous and identify signalling pathways that are sufficient for long-term self-renewal of human tips as differentiation-competent organoids. Moreover, we identify mouse-human differences, including markers that define progenitor states and signalling requirements for long-term self-renewal. Our organoid system provides a genetically-tractable tool that will allow these human-specific features of lung development to be investigated.
Literature context: A5228; RRID:AB_262054 N-cadherin
Prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis is frequently associated with bone-forming lesions, but the source of the osteoblastic lesions remains unclear. We show that the tumor-induced bone derives partly from tumor-associated endothelial cells that have undergone endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion. The tumor-associated osteoblasts in PCa bone metastasis specimens and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were found to co-express endothelial marker Tie-2. BMP4, identified in PDX-conditioned medium, promoted EC-to-OSB conversion of 2H11 endothelial cells. BMP4 overexpression in non-osteogenic C4-2b PCa cells led to ectopic bone formation under subcutaneous implantation. Tumor-induced bone was reduced in trigenic mice (Tie2cre/Osxf/f/SCID) with endothelial-specific deletion of osteoblast cell-fate determinant OSX compared with bigenic mice (Osxf/f/SCID). Thus, tumor-induced EC-to-OSB conversion is one mechanism that leads to osteoblastic bone metastasis of PCa.
Literature context: at#A5228; RRID:AB_262054 Rat monocl
The kidney contains the functional units, the nephrons, surrounded by the renal interstitium. Previously we discovered that, once Six2-expressing nephron progenitor cells and Foxd1-expressing renal interstitial progenitor cells form at the onset of kidney development, descendant cells from these populations contribute exclusively to the main body of nephrons and renal interstitial tissues, respectively, indicating a lineage boundary between the nephron and renal interstitial compartments. Currently it is unclear how lineages are regulated during kidney organogenesis. We demonstrate that nephron progenitor cells lacking Pax2 fail to differentiate into nephron cells but can switch fates into renal interstitium-like cell types. These data suggest that Pax2 function maintains nephron progenitor cells by repressing a renal interstitial cell program. Thus, the lineage boundary between the nephron and renal interstitial compartments is maintained by the Pax2 activity in nephron progenitor cells during kidney organogenesis.
Literature context: le actin (RRID:AB_262054) (Sigma-Al
Cerebral blood flow is highly sensitive to changes in CO2/H+ where an increase in CO2/H+ causes vasodilation and increased blood flow. Tissue CO2/H+ also functions as the main stimulus for breathing by activating chemosensitive neurons that control respiratory output. Considering that CO2/H+-induced vasodilation would accelerate removal of CO2/H+ and potentially counteract the drive to breathe, we hypothesize that chemosensitive brain regions have adapted a means of preventing vascular CO2/H+-reactivity. Here, we show in rat that purinergic signaling, possibly through P2Y2/4 receptors, in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) maintains arteriole tone during high CO2/H+ and disruption of this mechanism decreases the CO2ventilatory response. Our discovery that CO2/H+-dependent regulation of vascular tone in the RTN is the opposite to the rest of the cerebral vascular tree is novel and fundamentally important for understanding how regulation of vascular tone is tailored to support neural function and behavior, in this case the drive to breathe.
Literature context: #ab7817; RRID:AB_262054), neurokin
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) is an RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. To understand the physiological function of CPEB2, we generated CPEB2 knock-out (KO) mice and found that most died within 3 d after birth. CPEB2 is highly expressed in the brainstem, which controls vital functions, such as breathing. Whole-body plethysmography revealed that KO neonates had aberrant respiration with frequent apnea. Nevertheless, the morphology and function of the respiratory rhythm generator and diaphragm neuromuscular junctions appeared normal. We found that upregulated translation of choline acetyltransferase in the CPEB2 KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus resulted in hyperactivation of parasympathetic signaling-induced bronchoconstriction, as evidenced by increased pulmonary acetylcholine and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 in bronchial smooth muscles. Specific deletion of CPEB2 in cholinergic neurons sufficiently caused increased apnea in neonatal pups and airway hyper-reactivity in adult mice. Moreover, inhalation of an anticholinergic bronchodilator reduced apnea episodes in global and cholinergic CPEB2-KO mice. Together, the elevated airway constriction induced by cholinergic transmission in KO neonates may account for the respiratory defect and mortality. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study first generated and characterized cpeb2 gene-deficient mice. CPEB2-knock-out (KO) mice are born alive but most die within 3 d after birth showing no overt defects in anatomy. We found that the KO neonates showed severe apnea and altered respiratory pattern. Such respiratory defects could be recapitulated in mice with pan-neuron-specific or cholinergic neuron-specific ablation of the cpeb2 gene. Further investigation revealed that cholinergic transmission in the KO dorsal motor nucleus of vagus was overactivated because KO mice lack CPEB2-suppressed translation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of acetylcholine (i.e., choline acetyltransferase). Consequently, increased parasympathetic signaling leads to hyperactivated bronchoconstriction and abnormal respiration in the KO neonates.
Literature context: t# A5228, RRID:AB_262054) and rat a
Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease.
Literature context: ichM5409Originally not specifiedMouse anti-Î±-smooth muscle actinAntibodiesSigmaâ€“AldrichA5228Stoc
The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replicating selected results from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012 were selected on the basis of citations and Altimetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis' by Goetz and colleagues, published in Cell in 2011 (Goetz et al., 2011). The key experiments being replicated are those reported in Figures 7C (a-d), Supplemental Figure S2A, and Supplemental Figure S7C (a-c) (Goetz et al., 2011). In these experiments, which are a subset of all the experiments reported in the original publication, Goetz and colleagues show in a subcutaneous xenograft model that stromal caveolin-1 remodels the intratumoral microenvironment, which is correlated with increased metastasis formation. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange and the results of the replications will be published in eLife.
Vascular calcification (VC) is a degenerative disease that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A negative relationship has been demonstrated between VC and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) expression in the vasculature. Of interest, vitamin D response elements, which allow responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], are present in the promoters of the CaSR gene. We hypothesized that 1,25(OH)2D3, by modulating CaSR expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), might protect against VC. Human VSMCs were exposed to increasing concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.01-10 nmol/L) in noncalcifying (1.8 mmol/L) or procalcifying Ca(2+)0 condition (5.0 mmol/L). Using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting we observed a significant increase in both CaSR mRNA and protein levels after exposure to 1.0 nmol/L 1,25(OH)2D3. This effect was associated with a maximal increase in CaSR expression at the cell surface after 48 hours of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, as assessed by flow cytometry. Down-regulation of the vitamin D receptor by small interfering RNA abolished these effects. In the procalcifying condition, 1.0 nmol/L 1,25(OH)2D3 blocked the Ca(2+)0-induced decrease in total and surface CaSR expression and protected against mineralization. Down-regulation of CaSR expression by CaSR small interfering RNA abolished this protective effect. 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0 nmol/L were also effective, but other (0.01, 0.1, and 10 nmol/L) concentrations did not modify CaSR expression and human VSMC mineralization. In conclusion, these findings suggest that nanomolar concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 induce a CaSR-dependent protection against VC. Both lower and higher concentrations are either ineffective or may even promote VC. Whether this also holds true in the clinical setting requires further study.
Literature context: antibody (RRID:AB_262054) is derive
Artemin is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family that has been strongly implicated in development and regeneration of autonomic nerves and modulation of nociception. Whereas other members of this family (GDNF and neurturin) primarily target parasympathetic and nonpeptidergic sensory neurons, the artemin receptor (GFRα3) is expressed by sympathetic and peptidergic sensory neurons that are also the primary sites of action of nerve growth factor, a powerful modulator of bladder nerves. Many bladder sensory neurons express GFRα3 but it is not known if they represent a specific functional subclass. Therefore, our initial aim was to map the distribution of GFRα3-immunoreactive (-IR) axons in the female rat bladder, using cryostat sections and whole wall thickness preparations. We found that GFRα3-IR axons innervated the detrusor, vasculature, and urothelium, but only part of this innervation was sensory. Many noradrenergic sympathetic axons innervating the vasculature were GFRα3-IR, but the noradrenergic innervation of the detrusor was GFRα3-negative. We also identified a prominent source of nonneuronal GFRα3-IR that is likely to be glial. Further characterization of bladder nerves revealed specific structural features of chemically distinct classes of axon terminals, and a major autonomic source of axons labeled with neurofilament-200, which is commonly used to identify myelinated sensory axons within organs. Intramural neurons were also characterized and quantified. Together, these studies reveal a diverse range of potential targets by which artemin could influence bladder function, nerve regeneration, and pain, and provide a strong microanatomical framework for understanding bladder physiology and pathophysiology.
Literature context: o. A5228; RRID:AB_262054) recognize
Previous studies in rats have demonstrated that microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is induced in brain vascular cells that also express inducible cyclooxygenase-2, suggesting that such cells are the source of the increased PGE2 levels that are seen in the brain following peripheral immune stimulation, and that are associated with sickness responses such as fever, anorexia, and stress hormone release. However, while most of what is known about the functional role of mPGES-1 for these centrally evoked symptoms is based on studies on genetically modified mice, the cellular localization of mPGES-1 in the mouse brain has not been thoroughly determined. Here, using a newly developed antibody that specifically recognizes mouse mPGES-1 and dual-labeling for cell-specific markers, we report that mPGES-1 is constitutively expressed in the mouse brain, being present not only in brain endothelial cells, but also in several other cell types and structures, such as capillary-associated pericytes, astroglial cells, leptomeninges, and the choroid plexus. Regional differences were seen with particularly prominent labeling in autonomic relay structures such as the area postrema, the subfornical organ, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the arcuate nucleus, and the preoptic area. Following immune stimulation, mPGES-1 in brain endothelial cells, but not in other mPGES-1-positive cells, was coexpressed with cyclooxygenase-2, whereas there was no coexpression between mPGES-1 and cyclooxygenase-1. These data imply a widespread synthesis of PGE2 or other mPGES-1-dependent products in the mouse brain that may be related to inflammation-induced sickness symptom as well as other functions, such as blood flow regulation.
Recent studies show that mice with selective deletion of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in macrophages are protected from mineralocorticoid-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension without altering cardiac macrophage accumulation. However, it is unclear whether preventing macrophages from entering cardiac tissue would provide similar or additional protection in this disease setting. Therefore, we examined mineralocorticoid-induced cardiovascular disease in mice lacking the CCL2 gene (encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), which have a markedly reduced capacity to recruit proinflammatory tissue macrophages. Male wild-type (WT) and CCL2-null mice were treated for 8 days or 8 weeks with either vehicle (control, CON) or deoxycorticosterone (DOC). At both time points, there was a significant reduction in DOC-induced macrophage recruitment (50% at 8 d and 75% at 8 wk) in the heart with a corresponding suppression of cardiac inflammatory markers in the CCL2-null mice. CCL2-null mice given DOC/salt also displayed 35% less cardiac fibrosis at 8 weeks vs WT DOC. Absence of recruited macrophages in CCL2-null mice promotes greater collagen breakdown by matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the heart and also leads to significantly reduced cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast numbers. Systolic blood pressure (BP) after DOC/salt was significantly lower in CCL2-null than for WT mice. In the aorta at 8 weeks, MR-responsive gene expression remained intact. However, macrophage-mediated proinflammatory gene expression was reduced in the CCL2-null mice and may account for differential regulation of BP. Our data thus demonstrate an important role for CCL2-dependent macrophage recruitment in MR-dependent cardiac inflammation and remodeling and in the regulation of systolic BP.
Uterine leiomyomata (LMs) are the most common tumor affecting the female reproductive organs. The most notable pathophysiologic feature of this tumor is the excessive accumulation of rigid extracellular matrix (ECM) composed mainly of collagen types I and III. It is believed that the rigidity of the collagen-rich ECM causes symptoms such as abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain/pressure. However, the molecular pathogenesis for this ECM-rich tumor has yet to be elucidated. We have established that miR-29b was consistently down-regulated in LM compared with myometrium (MM). Hence, the function of miR-29b in LM was examined in vivo using adult female ovariectomized NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) mice for subrenal xenograft models. In LM xenografts, restoring miR-29b inhibited the accumulation of ECM and the development of solid tumors. Although the miR-29b knockdown in MM cells increased the expression of collagens, it did not transform MM cells into tumorigenic, indicating that the down-regulation of miR-29b is essential but not sufficient for LM tumorigenesis. In addition, 17β-estradiol and progesterone down-regulated miR-29b and up-regulated mRNAs for multiple collagens in LM xenografts. Thus, we conclude that ECM production in LMs is regulated by steroid hormones via down-regulation of miR-29b, which is one of the mechanisms underlying the excessive accumulation of ECM.
Molecules involved in axon guidance have recently also been shown to play a role in blood vessel guidance. To examine whether axon guidance molecules, such as the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase, might also play a role in development of the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature and repair following CNS injury, we examined wild-type and EphA4 null mutant (-/-) mice. EphA4-/- mice exhibited an abnormal CNS vascular structure in both the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord, with disorganized branching and a 30% smaller diameter. During development, EphA4 was expressed on endothelial cells. This pattern of expression was not maintained in the adult. After spinal cord injury in wild-type mice, expression of EphA4 was markedly up-regulated on activated astrocytes, many of which were tightly associated with blood vessels. In EphA4-/- spinal cord following injury, astrocytes were not as tightly associated with blood vessels as the wild-type astrocytes. In uninjured EphA4-/- mice, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) appeared normal, but it showed prolonged leakage following spinal cord injury. These results support a role for EphA4 in CNS vascular formation and guidance during development and an additional role in BBB repair.
A monoclonal antibody (anti-alpha sm-1) recognizing exclusively alpha-smooth muscle actin was selected and characterized after immunization of BALB/c mice with the NH2-terminal synthetic decapeptide of alpha-smooth muscle actin coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Anti-alpha sm-1 helped in distinguishing smooth muscle cells from fibroblasts in mixed cultures such as rat dermal fibroblasts and chicken embryo fibroblasts. In the aortic media, it recognized a hitherto unknown population of cells negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin and for desmin. In 5-d-old rats, this population is about half of the medial cells and becomes only 8 +/- 5% in 6-wk-old animals. In cultures of rat aortic media SMCs, there is a progressive increase of this cell population together with a progressive decrease in the number of alpha-smooth muscle actin-containing stress fibers per cell. Double immunofluorescent studies carried out with anti-alpha sm-1 and anti-desmin antibodies in several organs revealed a heterogeneity of stromal cells. Desmin-negative, alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were found in the rat intestinal muscularis mucosae and in the dermis around hair follicles. Moreover, desmin-positive, alpha-smooth muscle actin-negative cells were identified in the intestinal submucosa, rat testis interstitium, and uterine stroma. alpha-Smooth muscle actin was also found in myoepithelial cells of mammary and salivary glands, which are known to express cytokeratins. Finally, alpha-smooth muscle actin is present in stromal cells of mammary carcinomas, previously considered fibroblastic in nature. Thus, anti-alpha sm-1 antibody appears to be a powerful probe in the study of smooth muscle differentiation in normal and pathological conditions.