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Penta·His Antibody, BSA-free

RRID:AB_2619735

Antibody ID

AB_2619735

Target Antigen

Penta-His

Proper Citation

(Qiagen Cat# 34660, RRID:AB_2619735)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Qiagen

Cat Num

34660

SOD1 Phosphorylation by mTORC1 Couples Nutrient Sensing and Redox Regulation.

  • Tsang CK
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nutrients are not only organic compounds fueling bioenergetics and biosynthesis, but also key chemical signals controlling growth and metabolism. Nutrients enormously impact the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play essential roles in normal physiology and diseases. How nutrient signaling is integrated with redox regulation is an interesting, but not fully understood, question. Herein, we report that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a conserved component of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) nutrient signaling. mTORC1 regulates SOD1 activity through reversible phosphorylation at S39 in yeast and T40 in humans in response to nutrients, which moderates ROS level and prevents oxidative DNA damage. We further show that SOD1 activation enhances cancer cell survival and tumor formation in the ischemic tumor microenvironment and protects against the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Collectively, these findings identify a conserved mechanism by which eukaryotes dynamically regulate redox homeostasis in response to changing nutrient conditions.

Funding information:
  • Austrian Science Fund FWF - P 21643(Austria)

Complex Interplay between Epitope Specificity and Isotype Dictates the Biological Activity of Anti-human CD40 Antibodies.

  • Yu X
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that promote or inhibit receptor function hold promise as therapeutics for cancer and autoimmunity. Rules governing their diverse range of functions, however, are lacking. Here we determined characteristics of nine hCD40 mAbs engaging epitopes throughout the CD40 extracellular region expressed as varying isotypes. All mAb formats were strong agonists when hyper-crosslinked; however, only those binding the membrane-distal cysteine-rich domain 1 (CRD1) retained agonistic activity with physiological Fc gamma receptor crosslinking or as human immunoglobulin G2 isotype; agonistic activity decreased as epitopes drew closer to the membrane. In addition, all CRD2-4 binding mAbs blocked CD40 ligand interaction and were potent antagonists. Thus, the membrane distal CRD1 provides a region of choice for selecting CD40 agonists while CRD2-4 provides antagonistic epitopes.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA148062(United States)

Prp19/Pso4 Is an Autoinhibited Ubiquitin Ligase Activated by Stepwise Assembly of Three Splicing Factors.

  • de Moura TR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human nineteen complex (NTC) acts as a multimeric E3 ubiquitin ligase in DNA repair and splicing. The transfer of ubiquitin is mediated by Prp19-a homotetrameric component of NTC whose elongated coiled coils serve as an assembly axis for two other proteins called SPF27 and CDC5L. We find that Prp19 is inactive on its own and have elucidated the structural basis of its autoinhibition by crystallography and mutational analysis. Formation of the NTC core by stepwise assembly of SPF27, CDC5L, and PLRG1 onto the Prp19 tetramer enables ubiquitin ligation. Protein-protein crosslinking of NTC, functional assays in vitro, and assessment of its role in DNA damage response provide mechanistic insight into the organization of the NTC core and the communication between PLRG1 and Prp19 that enables E3 activity. This reveals a unique mode of regulation for a complex E3 ligase and advances understanding of its dynamics in various cellular pathways.

Funding information:
  • Department of Health - II-FS-0109-11028(United Kingdom)

Structural Basis for Draxin-Modulated Axon Guidance and Fasciculation by Netrin-1 through DCC.

  • Liu Y
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axon guidance involves the spatiotemporal interplay between guidance cues and membrane-bound cell-surface receptors, present on the growth cone of the axon. Netrin-1 is a prototypical guidance cue that binds to deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), and it has been proposed that the guidance cue Draxin modulates this interaction. Here, we present structural snapshots of Draxin/DCC and Draxin/Netrin-1 complexes, revealing a triangular relationship that affects Netrin-mediated haptotaxis and fasciculation. Draxin interacts with DCC through the N-terminal four immunoglobulin domains, and Netrin-1 through the EGF-3 domain, in the same region where DCC binds. Netrin-1 and DCC bind to adjacent sites on Draxin, which appears to capture Netrin-1 and tether it to the DCC receptor. We propose the conformational flexibility of the single-pass membrane receptor DCC is used to promote fasciculation and regulate axon guidance through concerted Netrin-1/Draxin binding. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

Nuclear TRIM25 Specifically Targets Influenza Virus Ribonucleoproteins to Block the Onset of RNA Chain Elongation.

  • Meyerson NR
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

TRIM25 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates RIG-I to promote the antiviral interferon response. The NS1 protein from all strains of influenza A virus binds TRIM25, although not all virus strains block the interferon response, suggesting alternative mechanisms for TRIM25 action. Here we present a nuclear role for TRIM25 in specifically restricting influenza A virus replication. TRIM25 inhibits viral RNA synthesis through a direct mechanism that is independent of its ubiquitin ligase activity and the interferon pathway. This activity can be inhibited by the viral NS1 protein. TRIM25 inhibition of viral RNA synthesis results from its binding to viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs), the structures containing individual viral RNA segments, the viral polymerase, and multiple viral nucleoproteins. TRIM25 binding does not inhibit initiation of capped-RNA-primed viral mRNA synthesis by the viral polymerase. Rather, the onset of RNA chain elongation is inhibited because TRIM25 prohibits the movement of RNA into the polymerase complex.

Structural basis for CRMP2-induced axonal microtubule formation.

  • Niwa S
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Sep 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microtubule associated protein Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) regulates neuronal polarity in developing neurons through interactions with tubulins or microtubules. However, how CRMP2 promotes axonal formation by affecting microtubule behavior remains unknown. This study aimed to obtain the structural basis for CRMP2-tubulin/microtubule interaction in the course of axonogenesis. The X-ray structural studies indicated that the main interface to the soluble tubulin-dimer is the last helix H19 of CRMP2 that is distinct from the known C-terminal tail-mediated interaction with assembled microtubules. In vitro structural and functional studies also suggested that the H19-mediated interaction promoted the rapid formation of GTP-state microtubules directly, which is an important feature of the axon. Consistently, the H19 mutants disturbed axon elongation in chick neurons, and failed to authorize the structural features for axonal microtubules in Caenorhabditis elegans. Thus, CRMP2 induces effective axonal microtubule formation through H19-mediated interactions with a soluble tubulin-dimer allowing axonogenesis to proceed.

A UTX-MLL4-p300 Transcriptional Regulatory Network Coordinately Shapes Active Enhancer Landscapes for Eliciting Transcription.

  • Wang SP
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Enhancer activation is a critical step for gene activation. Here we report an epigenetic crosstalk at enhancers between the UTX (H3K27 demethylase)-MLL4 (H3K4 methyltransferase) complex and the histone acetyltransferase p300. We demonstrate that UTX, in a demethylase activity-independent manner, facilitates conversion of inactive enhancers in embryonic stem cells to an active (H3K4me1+/H3K27ac+) state by recruiting and coupling the enzymatic functions of MLL4 and p300. Loss of UTX leads to attenuated enhancer activity, characterized by reduced levels of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac as well as impaired transcription. The UTX-MLL4 complex enhances p300-dependent H3K27 acetylation through UTX-dependent stimulation of p300 recruitment, while MLL4-mediated H3K4 monomethylation, reciprocally, requires p300 function. Importantly, MLL4-generated H3K4me1 further enhances p300-dependent transcription. This work reveals a previously unrecognized cooperativity among enhancer-associated chromatin modulators, including a unique function for UTX, in establishing an "active enhancer landscape" and defines a detailed mechanism for the joint deposition of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA129325()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA178765()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK071900()

Structural Basis of Egg Coat-Sperm Recognition at Fertilization.

  • Raj I
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recognition between sperm and the egg surface marks the beginning of life in all sexually reproducing organisms. This fundamental biological event depends on the species-specific interaction between rapidly evolving counterpart molecules on the gametes. We report biochemical, crystallographic, and mutational studies of domain repeats 1-3 of invertebrate egg coat protein VERL and their interaction with cognate sperm protein lysin. VERL repeats fold like the functionally essential N-terminal repeat of mammalian sperm receptor ZP2, whose structure is also described here. Whereas sequence-divergent repeat 1 does not bind lysin, repeat 3 binds it non-species specifically via a high-affinity, largely hydrophobic interface. Due to its intermediate binding affinity, repeat 2 selectively interacts with lysin from the same species. Exposure of a highly positively charged surface of VERL-bound lysin suggests that complex formation both disrupts the organization of egg coat filaments and triggers their electrostatic repulsion, thereby opening a hole for sperm penetration and fusion.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 260759()

Stable and Potent Selenomab-Drug Conjugates.

  • Li X
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Selenomabs are engineered monoclonal antibodies with one or more translationally incorporated selenocysteine residues. The unique reactivity of the selenol group of selenocysteine permits site-specific conjugation of drugs. Compared with other natural and unnatural amino acid and carbohydrate residues that have been used for the generation of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates, selenocysteine is particularly reactive, permitting fast, single-step, and efficient reactions under near physiological conditions. Using a tailored conjugation chemistry, we generated highly stable selenomab-drug conjugates and demonstrated their potency and selectivity in vitro and in vivo. These site-specific antibody-drug conjugates built on a selenocysteine interface revealed broad therapeutic utility in liquid and solid malignancy models.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA181258()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA174844()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U54 GM104942()

The Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Integrates Proteostasis and Aging by Regulation of Insulin Receptor Turnover.

  • Tawo R
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is attended by a progressive decline in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), aggravating the risk for protein aggregation diseases. To understand the coordination between proteome imbalance and longevity, we addressed the mechanistic role of the quality-control ubiquitin ligase CHIP, which is a key regulator of proteostasis. We observed that CHIP deficiency leads to increased levels of the insulin receptor (INSR) and reduced lifespan of worms and flies. The membrane-bound INSR regulates the insulin and IGF1 signaling (IIS) pathway and thereby defines metabolism and aging. INSR is a direct target of CHIP, which triggers receptor monoubiquitylation and endocytic-lysosomal turnover to promote longevity. However, upon proteotoxic stress conditions and during aging, CHIP is recruited toward disposal of misfolded proteins, reducing its capacity to degrade the INSR. Our study indicates a competitive relationship between proteostasis and longevity regulation through CHIP-assisted proteolysis, providing a mechanistic concept for understanding the impact of proteome imbalance on aging.

Mechanism of Substrate Translocation in an Alternating Access Transporter.

  • Latorraca NR
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transporters shuttle molecules across cell membranes by alternating among distinct conformational states. Fundamental questions remain about how transporters transition between states and how such structural rearrangements regulate substrate translocation. Here, we capture the translocation process by crystallography and unguided molecular dynamics simulations, providing an atomic-level description of alternating access transport. Simulations of a SWEET-family transporter initiated from an outward-open, glucose-bound structure reported here spontaneously adopt occluded and inward-open conformations. Strikingly, these conformations match crystal structures, including our inward-open structure. Mutagenesis experiments further validate simulation predictions. Our results reveal that state transitions are driven by favorable interactions formed upon closure of extracellular and intracellular "gates" and by an unfavorable transmembrane helix configuration when both gates are closed. This mechanism leads to tight allosteric coupling between gates, preventing them from opening simultaneously. Interestingly, the substrate appears to take a "free ride" across the membrane without causing major structural rearrangements in the transporter.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM117108()

A widely employed germ cell marker is an ancient disordered protein with reproductive functions in diverse eukaryotes.

  • Carmell MA
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The advent of sexual reproduction and the evolution of a dedicated germline in multicellular organisms are critical landmarks in eukaryotic evolution. We report an ancient family of GCNA (germ cell nuclear antigen) proteins that arose in the earliest eukaryotes, and feature a rapidly evolving intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Phylogenetic analysis reveals that GCNA proteins emerged before the major eukaryotic lineages diverged; GCNA predates the origin of a dedicated germline by a billion years. Gcna gene expression is enriched in reproductive cells across eukarya - either just prior to or during meiosis in single-celled eukaryotes, and in stem cells and germ cells of diverse multicellular animals. Studies of Gcna-mutant C. elegans and mice indicate that GCNA has functioned in reproduction for at least 600 million years. Homology to IDR-containing proteins implicated in DNA damage repair suggests that GCNA proteins may protect the genomic integrity of cells carrying a heritable genome.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS47484(United States)

Motility and microtubule depolymerization mechanisms of the Kinesin-8 motor, KIF19A.

  • Wang D
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The kinesin-8 motor, KIF19A, accumulates at cilia tips and controls cilium length. Defective KIF19A leads to hydrocephalus and female infertility because of abnormally elongated cilia. Uniquely among kinesins, KIF19A possesses the dual functions of motility along ciliary microtubules and depolymerization of microtubules. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these functions we solved the crystal structure of its motor domain and determined its cryo-electron microscopy structure complexed with a microtubule. The features of KIF19A that enable its dual function are clustered on its microtubule-binding side. Unexpectedly, a destabilized switch II coordinates with a destabilized L8 to enable KIF19A to adjust to both straight and curved microtubule protofilaments. The basic clusters of L2 and L12 tether the microtubule. The long L2 with a characteristic acidic-hydrophobic-basic sequence effectively stabilizes the curved conformation of microtubule ends. Hence, KIF19A utilizes multiple strategies to accomplish the dual functions of motility and microtubule depolymerization by ATP hydrolysis.