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Polyclonal Goat Anti- Mouse Immunoglobulins antibody

RRID:AB_2617137

Antibody ID

AB_2617137

Target Antigen

Mouse IgG, Mouse IgM

Proper Citation

(Agilent Cat# P0447, RRID:AB_2617137)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Original Manufacturer: Dako. Now part of Agilent.

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Agilent

Histone Methylation by SETD1A Protects Nascent DNA through the Nucleosome Chaperone Activity of FANCD2.

  • Higgs MR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Components of the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination pathways play a vital role in protecting newly replicated DNA from uncontrolled nucleolytic degradation, safeguarding genome stability. Here we report that histone methylation by the lysine methyltransferase SETD1A is crucial for protecting stalled replication forks from deleterious resection. Depletion of SETD1A sensitizes cells to replication stress and leads to uncontrolled DNA2-dependent resection of damaged replication forks. The ability of SETD1A to prevent degradation of these structures is mediated by its ability to catalyze methylation on Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) at replication forks, which enhances FANCD2-dependent histone chaperone activity. Suppressing H3K4 methylation or expression of a chaperone-defective FANCD2 mutant leads to loss of RAD51 nucleofilament stability and severe nucleolytic degradation of replication forks. Our work identifies epigenetic modification and histone mobility as critical regulatory mechanisms in maintaining genome stability by restraining nucleases from irreparably damaging stalled replication forks.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR024574(United States)

Proteomic Analyses of Human Regulatory T Cells Reveal Adaptations in Signaling Pathways that Protect Cellular Identity.

  • Cuadrado E
  • Immunity
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

To obtain a molecular definition of regulatory T (Treg) cell identity, we performed proteomics and transcriptomics on various populations of human regulatory and conventional CD4+ T (Tconv) cells. A protein expression signature was identified that defines all Treg cells, and another signature that defines effector Treg cells. These signatures could not be extrapolated from transcriptome data. Unique cell-biological and metabolic features in Treg cells were defined, as well as specific adaptations in cytokine, TCR, and costimulatory receptor signaling pathways. One such adaptation-selective STAT4 deficiency-prevented destabilization of Treg cell identity and function by inflammatory cytokines, while these signals could still induce critical transcription factors and homing receptors via other pathways. Furthermore, our study revealed surface markers that identify FOXP3+CD4+ T cells with distinct functional properties. Our findings suggest that adaptation in signaling pathways protect Treg cell identity and present a resource for further research into Treg cell biology.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BBS/E/B/0000C230(United Kingdom)

The TIA1 RNA-Binding Protein Family Regulates EIF2AK2-Mediated Stress Response and Cell Cycle Progression.

  • Meyer C
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

TIA1 and TIAL1 encode a family of U-rich element mRNA-binding proteins ubiquitously expressed and conserved in metazoans. Using PAR-CLIP, we determined that both proteins bind target sites with identical specificity in 3' UTRs and introns proximal to 5' as well as 3' splice sites. Double knockout (DKO) of TIA1 and TIAL1 increased target mRNA abundance proportional to the number of binding sites and also caused accumulation of aberrantly spliced mRNAs, most of which are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. Loss of PRKRA by mis-splicing triggered the activation of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase EIF2AK2/PKR and stress granule formation. Ectopic expression of PRKRA cDNA or knockout of EIF2AK2 in DKO cells rescued this phenotype. Perturbation of maturation and/or stability of additional targets further compromised cell cycle progression. Our study reveals the essential contributions of the TIA1 protein family to the fidelity of mRNA maturation, translation, and RNA-stress-sensing pathways in human cells.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM104962()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK068429(United States)

Enhanced Transmission at the Calyx of Held Synapse in a Mouse Model for Angelman Syndrome.

  • Wang T
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by intellectual disability, motor dysfunction, distinct behavioral aspects, and epilepsy. AS is caused by a loss of the maternally expressed UBE3A gene, and many of the symptoms are recapitulated in a Ube3a mouse model of this syndrome. At the cellular level, changes in the axon initial segment (AIS) have been reported, and changes in vesicle cycling have indicated the presence of presynaptic deficits. Here we studied the role of UBE3A in the auditory system by recording synaptic transmission at the calyx of Held synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) through in vivo whole cell and juxtacellular recordings. We show that MNTB principal neurons in Ube3a mice exhibit a hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, an increased action potential (AP) amplitude and a decreased AP half width. Moreover, both the pre- and postsynaptic AP in the calyx of Held synapse of Ube3a mice showed significantly faster recovery from spike depression. An increase in AIS length was observed in the principal MNTB neurons of Ube3a mice, providing a possible substrate for these gain-of-function changes. Apart from the effect on APs, we also observed that EPSPs showed decreased short-term synaptic depression (STD) during long sound stimulations in AS mice, and faster recovery from STD following these tones, which is suggestive of a presynaptic gain-of-function. Our findings thus provide in vivo evidence that UBE3A plays a critical role in controlling synaptic transmission and excitability at excitatory synapses.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM069593(United States)

Long-Range Signaling Activation and Local Inhibition Separate the Mesoderm and Endoderm Lineages.

  • van Boxtel AL
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Specification of the three germ layers by graded Nodal signaling has long been seen as a paradigm for patterning through a single morphogen gradient. However, by exploiting the unique properties of the zebrafish embryo to capture the dynamics of signaling and cell fate allocation, we now demonstrate that Nodal functions in an incoherent feedforward loop, together with Fgf, to determine the pattern of endoderm and mesoderm specification. We show that Nodal induces long-range Fgf signaling while simultaneously inducing the cell-autonomous Fgf signaling inhibitor Dusp4 within the first two cell tiers from the margin. The consequent attenuation of Fgf signaling in these cells allows specification of endoderm progenitors, while the cells further from the margin, which receive Nodal and/or Fgf signaling, are specified as mesoderm. This elegant model demonstrates the necessity of feedforward and feedback interactions between multiple signaling pathways for providing cells with temporal and positional information.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - 5T15LM007359(United States)

Heterogeneity of the Axon Initial Segment in Interneurons and Pyramidal Cells of Rodent Visual Cortex.

  • Höfflin F
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2017 Nov 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The microdomain that orchestrates action potential initiation in neurons is the axon initial segment (AIS). It has long been considered to be a rather homogeneous domain at the very proximal axon hillock with relatively stable length, particularly in cortical pyramidal cells. However, studies in other brain regions paint a different picture. In hippocampal CA1, up to 50% of axons emerge from basal dendrites. Further, in about 30% of thick-tufted layer V pyramidal neurons in rat somatosensory cortex, axons have a dendritic origin. Consequently, the AIS is separated from the soma. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cellular excitability is a function of AIS length/position and somatodendritic morphology, undermining a potentially significant impact of AIS heterogeneity for neuronal function. We therefore investigated neocortical axon morphology and AIS composition, hypothesizing that the initial observation of seemingly homogeneous AIS is inadequate and needs to take into account neuronal cell types. Here, we biolistically transfected cortical neurons in organotypic cultures to visualize the entire neuron and classify cell types in combination with immunolabeling against AIS markers. Using confocal microscopy and morphometric analysis, we investigated axon origin, AIS position, length, diameter as well as distance to the soma. We find a substantial AIS heterogeneity in visual cortical neurons, classified into three groups: (I) axons with somatic origin with proximal AIS at the axon hillock; (II) axons with somatic origin with distal AIS, with a discernible gap between the AIS and the soma; and (III) axons with dendritic origin (axon-carrying dendrite cell, AcD cell) and an AIS either starting directly at the axon origin or more distal to that point. Pyramidal cells have significantly longer AIS than interneurons. Interneurons with vertical columnar axonal projections have significantly more distal AIS locations than all other cells with their prevailing phenotype as an AcD cell. In contrast, neurons with perisomatic terminations display most often an axon originating from the soma. Our data contribute to the emerging understanding that AIS morphology is highly variable, and potentially a function of the cell type.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA108462(United States)

Androgen Action via the Androgen Receptor in Neurons Within the Brain Positively Regulates Muscle Mass in Male Mice.

  • Davey RA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although it is well established that exogenous androgens have anabolic effects on skeletal muscle mass in humans and mice, data from muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) knockout (ARKO) mice indicate that myocytic expression of the AR is dispensable for hind-limb muscle mass accrual in males. To identify possible indirect actions of androgens via the AR in neurons to regulate muscle, we generated neuron-ARKO mice in which the dominant DNA binding-dependent actions of the AR are deleted in neurons of the cortex, forebrain, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb. Serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were elevated twofold in neuron-ARKO males compared with wild-type littermates due to disruption of negative feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Despite this increase in serum testosterone levels, which was expected to increase muscle mass, the mass of the mixed-fiber gastrocnemius (Gast) and the fast-twitch fiber extensor digitorum longus hind-limb muscles was decreased by 10% in neuron-ARKOs at 12 weeks of age, whereas muscle strength and fatigue of the Gast were unaffected. The mass of the soleus muscle, however, which consists of a high proportion of slow-twitch fibers, was unaffected in neuron-ARKOs, demonstrating a stimulatory action of androgens via the AR in neurons to increase the mass of fast-twitch hind-limb muscles. Furthermore, neuron-ARKOs displayed reductions in voluntary and involuntary physical activity by up to 60%. These data provide evidence for a role of androgens via the AR in neurons to positively regulate fast-twitch hind-limb muscle mass and physical activity in male mice.

aPKC Cycles between Functionally Distinct PAR Protein Assemblies to Drive Cell Polarity.

  • Rodriguez J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The conserved polarity effector proteins PAR-3, PAR-6, CDC-42, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) form a core unit of the PAR protein network, which plays a central role in polarizing a broad range of animal cell types. To functionally polarize cells, these proteins must activate aPKC within a spatially defined membrane domain on one side of the cell in response to symmetry-breaking cues. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote as a model, we find that the localization and activation of aPKC involve distinct, specialized aPKC-containing assemblies: a PAR-3-dependent assembly that responds to polarity cues and promotes efficient segregation of aPKC toward the anterior but holds aPKC in an inactive state, and a CDC-42-dependent assembly in which aPKC is active but poorly segregated. Cycling of aPKC between these distinct functional assemblies, which appears to depend on aPKC activity, effectively links cue-sensing and effector roles within the PAR network to ensure robust establishment of polarity.

Transcription Impacts the Efficiency of mRNA Translation via Co-transcriptional N6-adenosine Methylation.

  • Slobodin B
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcription and translation are two main pillars of gene expression. Due to the different timings, spots of action, and mechanisms of regulation, these processes are mainly regarded as distinct and generally uncoupled, despite serving a common purpose. Here, we sought for a possible connection between transcription and translation. Employing an unbiased screen of multiple human promoters, we identified a positive effect of TATA box on translation and a general coupling between mRNA expression and translational efficiency. Using a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated approach, genome-wide analyses, and in vitro experiments, we show that the rate of transcription regulates the efficiency of translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that m6A modification of mRNAs is co-transcriptional and depends upon the dynamics of the transcribing RNAPII. Suboptimal transcription rates lead to elevated m6A content, which may result in reduced translation. This study uncovers a general and widespread link between transcription and translation that is governed by epigenetic modification of mRNAs.

Functional characterization of obesity-associated variants involving the α and β isoforms of human SH2B1.

  • Pearce LR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously reported rare variants in sarcoma (Src) homology 2 (SH2) B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and maladaptive behavior. Here, we identify 4 additional SH2B1 variants by sequencing 500 individuals with severe early-onset obesity. SH2B1 has 4 alternatively spliced isoforms. One variant (T546A) lies within the N-terminal region common to all isoforms. As shown for past variants in this region, T546A impairs SH2B1β enhancement of nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth, and the individual with the T546A variant exhibits mild developmental delay. The other 3 variants (A663V, V695M, and A723V) lie in the C-terminal tail of SH2B1α. SH2B1α variant carriers were hyperinsulinemic but did not exhibit the behavioral phenotype observed in individuals with SH2B1 variants that disrupt all isoforms. In in vitro assays, SH2B1α, like SH2B1β, enhances insulin- and leptin-induced insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) phosphorylation and GH-induced cell motility. None of the variants affect SH2B1α enhancement of insulin- and leptin-induced IRS2 phosphorylation. However, T546A, A663V, and A723V all impair the ability of SH2B1α to enhance GH-induced cell motility. In contrast to SH2B1β, SH2B1α does not enhance nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. These studies suggest that genetic variants that disrupt isoforms other than SH2B1β may be functionally significant. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism by which the individual isoforms regulate energy homeostasis and behavior.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163793(United States)