Literature context: ch N2280 082M4835 Mouse 1:1000 RRID:AB_260754 Parvalbumin Synaptic System 195
In cortical structures, principal cell activity is tightly regulated by different GABAergic interneurons (INs). In particular, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP+) INs innervate preferentially other INs, providing a structural basis for temporal disinhibition of principal cells. However, relatively little is known about VIP+ INs in the amygdaloid basolateral complex (BLA). In this study, we report that VIP+ INs have a variable density in the distinct subdivisions of the mouse BLA. Based on different anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological criteria, VIP+ INs could be identified as interneuron-selective INs and basket cells expressing CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Whole-cell recordings of VIP+ interneuron-selective INs revealed 3 different spiking patterns, which did not associate with the expression of calretinin. Genetic targeting combined with optogenetics and in vitro recordings allowed us to identify several types of BLA INs innervated by VIP+ INs, including other interneuron-selective INs, basket and neurogliaform cells. Moreover, light stimulation of VIP+ basket cell axon terminals, characterized by CB1 sensitivity, evoked IPSPs in ∼20% of principal neurons. Finally, we show that VIP+ INs receive a dense innervation from both GABAergic, although only 10% from other VIP+ INs, and distinct glutamatergic inputs, identified by their expression of different vesicular glutamate transporters.In conclusion, our study provides a wide-range analysis of single-cell properties of VIP+ INs in the mouse BLA and of their intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. Our results reinforce the knowledge that VIP+ INs are structurally and functionally heterogeneous and that this heterogeneity could mediate different roles in amygdala-dependent functions.Significance statement:We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of VIP+ interneurons across the entire mouse BLA, as well as of their morphological and physiological properties. VIP+ interneurons in the neocortex preferentially target other interneurons to form a disinhibitory network that facilitates principal cell firing. Our study is the first to demonstrate the presence of such a disinhibitory circuitry in the BLA. We observed structural and functional heterogeneity of these INs and characterized their input/output connectivity. We also identified several types of BLA interneurons postsynaptic to VIP+ INs, whose inhibition may provide a temporal window for principal cell firing and facilitate associative plasticity, e.g. in fear learning. Disinhibition, thus, is emerging as a general mechanism, not limited to the neocortex.
Despite the pathophysiological importance of neurohumoral activation in patients with heart failure (HF), the precise underlying mechanisms contributing to elevated vasopressin (VP) activation in HF remains unknown. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that stimulates VP neuronal firing activity. Recently, we showed that the excitatory effect of CO on VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was mediated by inhibition of nitric oxide (NO). Given that previous studies showed that VP neuronal activity is enhanced, whereas NO inhibitory signaling is blunted in HF rats, we tested whether an enhanced endogenous CO availability within the PVN contributes to elevated VP neuronal activity and blunted NO signaling in HF rats. We found that both haeme-oxygenase 1 (the CO-synthesizing enzyme) protein and mRNA expression levels were enhanced in the PVN of HF compared with sham rats (∼18% and ∼38%, respectively). We report that in sham rats, bath application of a CO donor (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium dimer) increased the firing activity of identified PVN VP neurons (P < .05), whereas inhibition of endogenous CO production (Tin-protoporphyrin IX [SnPP]) failed to affect neuronal activity. In HF rats, however, SnPP decreased VP activity (P < .05), an effect that was occluded by previous NO synathase blockade NG-nitro-larginine methyl ester. Finally, we found that SnPP increased the mean frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid inhibitory postsynaptic currents in VP neurons in HF (P < .05) but not sham rats. Our results support an enhanced endogenous CO excitatory signaling in VP neurons, which likely contributes to blunted NO and γ-aminobutyric acid inhibitory function in HF rats.
Literature context: t# N2280, RRID:AB_260754 Mouse mono
Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neuronal interactor with causatively polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded huntingtin in Huntington's disease and also associated with pathologically polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR) in spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), being considered as a protective factor against neurodegenerative apoptosis. In normal brains, it is abundantly expressed particularly in the limbic-hypothalamic regions that tend to be spared from neurodegeneration, whereas the areas with little HAP1 expression, including the striatum, thalamus, cerebral neocortex and cerebellum, are targets in several neurodegenerative diseases. While the spinal cord is another major neurodegenerative target, HAP1-immunoreactive (ir) structures have yet to be determined there. In the current study, HAP1 expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in light and electron microscopy through the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cords of the adult male rat. Our results showed that HAP1 is specifically expressed in neurons through the spinal segments and that more than 90% of neurons expressed HAP1 in lamina I-II, lamina X, and autonomic preganglionic regions. Double-immunostaining for HAP1 and AR demonstrated that more than 80% of neurons expressed both in laminae I-II and X. In contrast, HAP1 was specifically lacking in the lamina IX motoneurons with or without AR expression. The present study first demonstrated that HAP1 is abundantly expressed in spinal neurons of the somatosensory, viscerosensory, and autonomic regions but absent in somatomotor neurons, suggesting that the spinal motoneurons are, due to lack of putative HAP1 protectivity, more vulnerable to stresses in neurodegenerative diseases than other HAP1-expressing neurons probably involved in spinal sensory and autonomic functions.
Literature context: de SynthaseMouse1:500Sigma N2280RRID:AB_260754Neuropeptide YRabbit1:5000Immuno
Corticostriatal afferents can engage parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons to rapidly curtail the activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), thus shaping striatal output. Schemes of basal ganglia circuit dynamics generally consider striatal PV+ interneurons to be homogenous, despite considerable heterogeneity in both form and function. We demonstrate that the selective co-expression of another calcium-binding protein, secretagogin (Scgn), separates PV+ interneurons in rat and primate striatum into two topographically-, physiologically- and structurally-distinct cell populations. In rats, these two interneuron populations differed in their firing rates, patterns and relationships with cortical oscillations in vivo. Moreover, the axons of identified PV+/Scgn+ interneurons preferentially targeted the somata of SPNs of the so-called 'direct pathway', whereas PV+/Scgn- interneurons preferentially targeted 'indirect pathway' SPNs. These two populations of interneurons could therefore provide a substrate through which either of the striatal output pathways can be rapidly and selectively inhibited to subsequently mediate the expression of behavioral routines.
Kainate receptors mediate fast, excitatory synaptic transmission for a range of inner neurons in the mammalian retina. However, allocation of functional kainate receptors to known cell types and their sensitivity remains unresolved. Using the cation channel probe 1-amino-4-guanidobutane agmatine (AGB), we investigated kainate sensitivity of neurochemically identified cell populations within the structurally intact rat retina. Most inner retinal neuron populations responded to kainate in a concentration-dependent manner. OFF cone bipolar cells demonstrated the highest sensitivity of all inner neurons to kainate. Immunocytochemical localization of AGB and macromolecular markers confirmed that type 2 bipolar cells were part of this kainate-sensitive population. The majority of amacrine (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs) showed kainate responses with different sensitivities between major neurochemical classes (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]/glycine ACs > glycine ACs > GABA ACs; glutamate [Glu]/weakly GABA GCs > Glu GCs). Conventional and displaced cholinergic ACs were highly responsive to kainate, whereas dopaminergic ACs do not appear to express functional kainate receptors. These findings further contribute to our understanding of neuronal networks in complex multicellular tissues.
Tangential cell dispersion in the retina is a spacing mechanism that establishes a regular mosaic organization among cell types and contributes to their final positioning. The present study has used the X-inactivation transgenic mouse expressing the lacZ reporter gene on one X chromosome. Due to X chromosome inactivation, 50% of early progenitor cells express beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal); therefore, all cells derived from a particular beta-Gal-expressing progenitor cell can be identified in labeled columns. The radial segregation of clonally related beta-Gal-positive and beta-Gal-negative cells can be used to determine whether single cells transgress a clonal boundary in the retina. We investigated the extent to which particular cell classes tangentially disperse by analyzing the placement of labeled cells expressing particular markers at several ages and quantifying their tangential displacement. Retinal neurons expressing cell markers at postnatal day (P) 1 have a greater degree of tangential dispersion compared with amacrine and bipolar cells at P5-6. We also studied whether there is a functional correlation with these dispersion patterns by investigating the emergence of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors. To determine the degree of functional glutamate receptor activation, agmatine (AGB) was used in combination with cell-specific labeling. AGB permeates functional glutamate receptor channels following activation with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Within these receptor groups, high concentrations of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA are associated with a high degree of tangential dispersion in the adult. Developmentally, functional kainate and AMPA receptors were detected by P1 and were associated with tangentially dispersed cells. Functional NMDA receptors were not detected as early as kainate and AMPA receptors. These results indicate that cells generated early during development are more likely to disperse tangentially compared with those generated later in development. Therefore, functional AMPA and kainate receptors may play a critical role in tangentially displacing cell types.
The sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) of the intermediolateral cell column (IML) play a critical role in the maintenance of vascular tone. We undertook a comparative neuroanatomical analysis of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in the SPN of the mature normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The anatomical relationship between nNOS and the NO signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was also determined. All animals were male, age > 6 months. Fluorogold (FG) retrograde labeling of SPN (detected with immunohistochemistry) was combined with NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry for NOS in the thoracic spinal cord (T1-11, n = 5 WKY, 5 SHR). There was no difference in the total number of FG-labeled SPN (WKY 6,542 +/- 828, SHR 6,091 +/- 820), but the proportion of FG-labeled cells expressing NOS was significantly less in the SHR (WKY 64.4 +/- 5.1 vs. SHR 55.6 +/- 2.1, P < 0.05). Fluorescence immunohistochemistry for nNOS/cGMP (n = 4 WKY, 4 SHR) was also performed. Confocal microscopy revealed that all nNOS-positive SPN contain cGMP and confirmed a strain-specific anatomical arrangement of SPN cell clusters. A novel subpopulation of cGMP-only cells were also identified. Double labeling for cGMP and choline acetyltransferase (n = 3 WKY, 3 SHR), confirmed these cells as SPN in both WKY and SHR. These results suggest that cGMP is a key signaling molecule in SPN, and that a reduced number of NOS neurons in the SHR may play a role in the increase in sympathetic tone associated with hypertension in these animals.