Literature context: ibody Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165, RRID:AB_259529 HA mouse monoclonal antibody, c
The cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS recognizes viral DNA and synthesizes the second messenger cGAMP upon viral infection. cGAMP binds to the adaptor protein MITA/STING to activate downstream signaling events, leading to induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and antiviral effector genes. Here we identify the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein UL31 as an inhibitor of cGAS. UL31 interacts directly with cGAS and disassociates DNA from cGAS, thus inhibiting cGAS enzymatic functions and reducing cGAMP production. UL31 overexpression markedly reduces antiviral responses stimulated by cytosolic DNA, while knockdown or knockout of UL31 heightens HCMV-triggered induction of type I IFNs and downstream antiviral genes. Moreover, wild-type HCMV replicates more efficiently than UL31-deficient HCMV, a phenotype that is reversed in cGAS null cells. These results highlight the importance of cGAS in the host response to HCMV as well as an important viral strategy to evade this innate immune sensor.
Literature context: 40. RRID:AB_259529.
Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDIα) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part by locking Rho GTPases in an inactive GDP-bound form. The onset of GSIS causes phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174, a critical inhibitory site for GDIα, leading to the release of Rho GTPases and their subsequent activation. However, the kinase regulator(s) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of GDIα in islet β-cells remains elusive. We propose that SAD-A, a member of AMPK-related kinases that promotes GSIS as an effector kinase for incretin signaling, interact with and inhibit GDIα through phosphorylation of Ser174 during the onset GSIS from islet β-cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and phosphorylation analyses were carried out to identify the physical interaction and phosphorylation site of GDIα by SAD-A in the context of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 β-cells and primary islets. We identified GDIα directly binds to SAD-A kinase domain and phosphorylated by SAD-A on Ser174, leading to dissociation of Rho GTPases from GDIα complexes. Accordingly, overexpression of SAD-A significantly stimulated GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174 in response to GSIS, which is dramatically potentiated by GLP-1, an incretin hormone. Conversely, SAD-A deficiency, which is mediated by shRNA transfection in INS-1 cells, significantly attenuated endogenous GDIα phosphorylation at Ser174. Consequently, co-expression of SAD-A completely prevented the inhibitory effect of GDIα on insulin secretion in islets. In summary, glucose and incretin stimulate insulin secretion through the phosphorylation of GDIα at Ser174 by SAD-A which leads to the activation of Rho GTPases, culminating in insulin exocytosis.
Literature context: body (Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165, RRID:AB_259529).
Maintenance of transcription programs is challenged during mitosis when chromatin becomes condensed and transcription is silenced. How do the daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Here, we report that the TATA-binding protein (TBP), a key component of the core transcriptional machinery, remains bound globally to active promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells during mitosis. Using live-cell single-molecule imaging, we observed that TBP mitotic binding is highly stable, with an average residence time of minutes, in stark contrast to typical TFs with residence times of seconds. To test the functional effect of mitotic TBP binding, we used a drug-inducible degron system and found that TBP promotes the association of RNA Polymerase II with mitotic chromosomes, and facilitates transcriptional reactivation following mitosis. These results suggest that the core transcriptional machinery promotes efficient transcription maintenance globally.
Literature context: : RRID:AB_259529) were purchased from Sigma-Aldr
Shade avoidance syndrome enables shaded plants to grow and compete effectively against their neighbors. In Arabidopsis, the shade-induced de-phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF7 (PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 7) is the key event linking light perception to stem elongation. However, the mechanism through which phosphorylation regulates the activity of PIF7 is unclear. Here, we show that shade light induces the de-phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of PIF7. Phosphorylation-resistant site mutations in PIF7 result in increased nuclear localization and shade-induced gene expression, and consequently augment hypocotyl elongation. PIF7 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins. Blocking the interaction between PIF7 and 14-3-3 proteins or reducing the expression of 14-3-3 proteins accelerates shade-induced nuclear localization and de-phosphorylation of PIF7, and enhances the shade phenotype. By contrast, the 14-3-3 overexpressing line displays an attenuated shade phenotype. These studies demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent translocation of PIF7 when plants are in shade and a novel mechanism involving 14-3-3 proteins, mediated by the retention of PIF7 in the cytoplasm that suppresses the shade response.
Literature context: -FLAG antibody Sigma Cat# F3165 RRID:AB_259529; 1.0 Âµg/ml) in BSA-DPBS on ice
The identification of novel genes underlying complex mouse behavioral traits remains an important step in understanding normal brain function and its dysfunction in mental health disorders. To identify dominant mutations that influence locomotor activity, we performed a mouse N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) forward mutagenesis screen and mapped several loci as quantitative traits. Here we describe the fine-mapping and positional cloning of a hyperactivity locus mapped to the medial portion of mouse chromosome four. We employed a modified recombinant progeny testing approach to fine-map the confidence interval from ≈20 Mb down to ≈5 Mb. Whole exome resequencing of all exons in this region revealed a single missense mutation in the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (Bai2). This mutation, R619W, is located in a critical extracellular domain that is a hotspot for mutations in this receptor class. We find that in two different mammalian cell lines, surface expression of Bai2 R619W is markedly reduced relative to wild-type Bai2, suggesting that R619W is a loss-of-function mutation. Our results highlight the powerful combination of ENU mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing to identify specific mutations that manifest as subtle behavioral phenotypes.
Literature context: a-Aldrich Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit monoclonal anti-pGSK3a/b
The mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)-signaling system plays a critical role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by sensing and integrating multiple extracellular and intracellular cues. Therefore, uncovering the effectors of mTORC1 signaling is pivotal to understanding its pathophysiological effects. Here we report that the transcription factor forkhead/winged helix family k1 (Foxk1) is a mediator of mTORC1-regulated gene expression. Surprisingly, Foxk1 phosphorylation is increased upon mTORC1 suppression, which elicits a 14-3-3 interaction, a reduction of DNA binding, and nuclear exclusion. Mechanistically, this occurs by mTORC1-dependent suppression of nuclear signaling by the Foxk1 kinase, Gsk3. This pathway then regulates the expression of multiple genes associated with glycolysis and downstream anabolic pathways directly modulated by Foxk1 and/or by Foxk1-regulated expression of Hif-1α. Thus, Foxk1 mediates mTORC1-driven metabolic rewiring, and it is likely to be critical for metabolic diseases where improper mTORC1 signaling plays an important role.
Literature context: FLAG (clone M2)Sigma-AldrichCat#F3165Rabbit polyclonal anti-GAPDHAbca
A class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has architectural functions in nuclear body construction; however, specific RNA domains dictating their architectural functions remain uninvestigated. Here, we identified the domains of the architectural NEAT1 lncRNA that construct paraspeckles. Systematic deletion of NEAT1 portions using CRISPR/Cas9 in haploid cells revealed modular domains of NEAT1 important for RNA stability, isoform switching, and paraspeckle assembly. The middle domain, containing functionally redundant subdomains, was responsible for paraspeckle assembly. Artificial tethering of the NONO protein to a NEAT1_2 mutant lacking the functional subdomains rescued paraspeckle assembly, and this required the NOPS dimerization domain of NONO. Paraspeckles exhibit phase-separated properties including susceptibility to 1,6-hexanediol treatment. RNA fragments of the NEAT1_2 subdomains preferentially bound NONO/SFPQ, leading to phase-separated aggregates in vitro. Thus, we demonstrate that the enrichment of NONO dimers on the redundant NEAT1_2 subdomains initiates construction of phase-separated paraspeckles, providing mechanistic insights into lncRNA-based nuclear body formation.
Literature context: anti-Flag Sigma-Aldrich F3165 RRID:AB_259529 Antibody Rabbit polyclonal
TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN. At segmentation stages, GRN-associated TALE occupancy expands to include HEXA motifs near PBX:HOX sites. Hence, TALE factors control a key GRN, but utilize distinct DNA motifs and protein partners at different stages - a strategy that may also explain their oncogenic potential and may be employed by other broadly expressed TFs.
Literature context: y, Clone M2 Sigma-Aldrich F3165 RRID:AB_259529 Mouse Anti-UQCRC1 Monoclonal An
Mitochondria are composed of many small proteins that control protein synthesis, complex assembly, metabolism, and ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We show that a skeletal muscle- and heart-enriched long non-coding RNA, LINC00116, encodes a highly conserved 56-amino-acid microprotein that we named mitoregulin (Mtln). Mtln localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it binds cardiolipin and influences protein complex assembly. In cultured cells, Mtln overexpression increases mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration rates, and Ca2+ retention capacity while decreasing mitochondrial ROS and matrix-free Ca2+. Mtln-knockout mice display perturbations in mitochondrial respiratory (super)complex formation and activity, fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, and Ca2+ retention capacity. Blue-native gel electrophoresis revealed that Mtln co-migrates alongside several complexes, including the complex I assembly module, complex V, and supercomplexes. Under denaturing conditions, Mtln remains in high-molecular-weight complexes, supporting its role as a sticky molecular tether that enhances respiratory efficiency by bolstering protein complex assembly and/or stability.
Literature context: Cambridge, MA, USA); Flag (Cat# F3165) and actin (Cat# SI-A5441) anti
Lipotoxicity is associated with a high level of fatty acid accumulation in pancreatic β-cells. An overload of free fatty acids contributes to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Insulin secretion involves sequential ionic events upon glucose stimulation. ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channels serve as glucose sensors and effectively initiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This study investigated the effects of lipotoxicity on the trafficking of KATP channels in pancreatic β cells using chronic palmitic acid -injected mice and treated insulinoma cells. The chronic palmitic acid -injected mice displayed type II diabetic characteristics. The pancreatic sections of these mice exhibited a decrease in the expression of KATP channels. We then tested the time and dose effects of palmitic acid on the cell viability of INS-1 cells. We observed a significant decrease in the surface expression of KATP channels after 72 h of treatment with 0.4 mM palmitic acid. In addition, this treatment induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase 3 protein level. Our results demonstrated cotreatment with glibenclamide, the sulfonylurea compounds for type II diabetes mellitus, in palmitic acid -treated cells reduces cell death and recovers the glucose stimulated insulin secretion through increasing the surface expression of KATP channels. Importantly, glibenclamide also improved glucose tolerance, triglyceride concentration, and insulin sensitivity in the palmitic acid-injected mice. In conclusion, an increase in the surface expression of KATP channels restores insulin secretion, reduces pancreatic β-cell's apoptosis, highlighting correct trafficking of KATP channels is important in survival of β-cells during lipotoxicity.
Literature context: dy (clone M2) Sigma Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-LMNB1 antibody Abca
The DNA-binding protein REST forms complexes with histone deacetylases (HDACs) to repress neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. In differentiating neurons, REST is downregulated predominantly by transcriptional silencing. Here we report that post-transcriptional inactivation of REST by alternative splicing is required for hearing in humans and mice. We show that, in the mechanosensory hair cells of the mouse ear, regulated alternative splicing of a frameshift-causing exon into the Rest mRNA is essential for the derepression of many neuronal genes. Heterozygous deletion of this alternative exon of mouse Rest causes hair cell degeneration and deafness, and the HDAC inhibitor SAHA (Vorinostat) rescues the hearing of these mice. In humans, inhibition of the frameshifting splicing event by a novel REST variant is associated with dominantly inherited deafness. Our data reveal the necessity for alternative splicing-dependent regulation of REST in hair cells, and they identify a potential treatment for a group of hereditary deafness cases.
Literature context: ibody Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F1804; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal antibody anti-
Cancer cell survival is dependent on oxidative-stress defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS) that accumulate during tumorigenesis. Here, we show a non-canonical oxidative-stress defense mechanism through TRPA1, a neuronal redox-sensing Ca2+-influx channel. In TRPA1-enriched breast and lung cancer spheroids, TRPA1 is critical for survival of inner cells that exhibit ROS accumulation. Moreover, TRPA1 promotes resistance to ROS-producing chemotherapies, and TRPA1 inhibition suppresses xenograft tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity. TRPA1 does not affect redox status but upregulates Ca2+-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways. NRF2, an oxidant-defense transcription factor, directly controls TRPA1 expression, thus providing an orthogonal mechanism for protection against oxidative stress together with canonical ROS-neutralizing mechanisms. These findings reveal an oxidative-stress defense program involving TRPA1 that could be exploited for targeted cancer therapies.
Literature context: 1000) Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-GAPDH (WB
Asymmetrically dividing muscle stem cells in skeletal muscle give rise to committed cells, where the myogenic determination factor Myf5 is transcriptionally activated by Pax7. This activation is dependent on Carm1, which methylates Pax7 on multiple arginine residues, to recruit the ASH2L:MLL1/2:WDR5:RBBP5 histone methyltransferase complex to the proximal promoter of Myf5. Here, we found that Carm1 is a specific substrate of p38γ/MAPK12 and that phosphorylation of Carm1 prevents its nuclear translocation. Basal localization of the p38γ/p-Carm1 complex in muscle stem cells occurs via binding to the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) through β1-syntrophin. In dystrophin-deficient muscle stem cells undergoing asymmetric division, p38γ/β1-syntrophin interactions are abrogated, resulting in enhanced Carm1 phosphorylation. The resulting progenitors exhibit reduced Carm1 binding to Pax7, reduced H3K4-methylation of chromatin, and reduced transcription of Myf5 and other Pax7 target genes. Therefore, our experiments suggest that dysregulation of p38γ/Carm1 results in altered epigenetic gene regulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Literature context: at#: F3165;RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-FLAG Sigma-Aldrich
Dendritic filopodia select synaptic partner axons by interviewing the cell surface of potential targets, but how filopodia decipher the complex pattern of adhesive and repulsive molecular cues to find appropriate contacts is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in cortical neurons that a single cue is sufficient for dendritic filopodia to reject or select specific axonal contacts for elaboration as synaptic sites. Super-resolution and live-cell imaging reveals that EphB2 is located in the tips of filopodia and at nascent synaptic sites. Surprisingly, a genetically encoded indicator of EphB kinase activity, unbiased classification, and a photoactivatable EphB2 reveal that simple differences in the kinetics of EphB kinase signaling at the tips of filopodia mediate the choice between retraction and synaptogenesis. This may enable individual filopodia to choose targets based on differences in the activation rate of a single tyrosine kinase, greatly simplifying the process of partner selection and suggesting a general principle.
Literature context: ty gel Sigma-Aldrich Cat#A2220, RRID:AB_259529 Mouse-IgG Agarose Sigma-Aldrich
Tools to understand how the spliceosome functions in vivo have lagged behind advances in the structural biology of the spliceosome. Here, methods are described to globally profile spliceosome-bound pre-mRNA, intermediates, and spliced mRNA at nucleotide resolution. These tools are applied to three yeast species that span 600 million years of evolution. The sensitivity of the approach enables the detection of canonical and non-canonical events, including interrupted, recursive, and nested splicing. This application of statistical modeling uncovers independent roles for the size and position of the intron and the number of introns per transcript in substrate progression through the two catalytic stages. These include species-specific inputs suggestive of spliceosome-transcriptome coevolution. Further investigations reveal the ATP-dependent discard of numerous endogenous substrates after spliceosome assembly in vivo and connect this discard to intron retention, a form of splicing regulation. Spliceosome profiling is a quantitative, generalizable global technology used to investigate an RNP central to eukaryotic gene expression.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 Anti-Puromycin mouse monoclonal
Pseudouridylation (Ψ) is the most abundant and widespread type of RNA epigenetic modification in living organisms; however, the biological role of Ψ remains poorly understood. Here, we show that a Ψ-driven posttranscriptional program steers translation control to impact stem cell commitment during early embryogenesis. Mechanistically, the Ψ "writer" PUS7 modifies and activates a novel network of tRNA-derived small fragments (tRFs) targeting the translation initiation complex. PUS7 inactivation in embryonic stem cells impairs tRF-mediated translation regulation, leading to increased protein biosynthesis and defective germ layer specification. Remarkably, dysregulation of this posttranscriptional regulatory circuitry impairs hematopoietic stem cell commitment and is common to aggressive subtypes of human myelodysplastic syndromes. Our findings unveil a critical function of Ψ in directing translation control in stem cells with important implications for development and disease.
Literature context: a Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-GFP Novus Biologica
Binding of sweet, umami, and bitter tastants to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in apical membranes of type II taste bud cells (TBCs) triggers action potentials that activate a voltage-gated nonselective ion channel to release ATP to gustatory nerves mediating taste perception. Although calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is necessary for ATP release, the molecular identification of the channel complex that provides the conductive ATP-release mechanism suitable for action potential-dependent neurotransmission remains to be determined. Here we show that CALHM3 interacts with CALHM1 as a pore-forming subunit in a CALHM1/CALHM3 hexameric channel, endowing it with fast voltage-activated gating identical to that of the ATP-release channel in vivo. Calhm3 is co-expressed with Calhm1 exclusively in type II TBCs, and its genetic deletion abolishes taste-evoked ATP release from taste buds and GPCR-mediated taste perception. Thus, CALHM3, together with CALHM1, is essential to form the fast voltage-gated ATP-release channel in type II TBCs required for GPCR-mediated tastes.
Literature context: n this study include anti-FLAG (RRID:AB_259529), anti-HA (RRID:AB_514506), ant
The vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects the roots of plants to cause Verticillium wilt. The molecular mechanisms underlying V. dahliae virulence and host resistance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a secretory protein, VdSCP41, functions as an intracellular effector that promotes V. dahliae virulence. The Arabidopsis master immune regulators CBP60g and SARD1 and cotton GhCBP60b are targeted by VdSCP41. VdSCP41 binds the C-terminal portion of CBP60g to inhibit its transcription factor activity. Further analyses reveal a transcription activation domain within CBP60g that is required for VdSCP41 targeting. Mutations in both CBP60g and SARD1 compromise Arabidopsis resistance against V. dahliae and partially impair VdSCP41-mediated virulence. Moreover, virus-induced silencing of GhCBP60b compromises cotton resistance to V. dahliae. This work uncovers a virulence strategy in which the V. dahliae secretory protein VdSCP41 directly targets plant transcription factors to inhibit immunity, and reveals CBP60g, SARD1 and GhCBP60b as crucial components governing V. dahliae resistance.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 Antibody Anti-Myc (9B11)
The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family is the largest subfamily of RTKs playing critical roles in many developmental processes such as tissue patterning, neurogenesis and neuronal circuit formation, angiogenesis, etc. How the 14 Eph proteins, via their highly similar cytoplasmic domains, can transmit diverse and sometimes opposite cellular signals upon engaging ephrins is a major unresolved question. Here, we systematically investigated the bindings of each SAM domain of Eph receptors to the SAM domains from SHIP2 and Odin, and uncover a highly specific SAM-SAM interaction-mediated cytoplasmic Eph-effector binding pattern. Comparative X-ray crystallographic studies of several SAM-SAM heterodimer complexes, together with biochemical and cell biology experiments, not only revealed the exquisite specificity code governing Eph/effector interactions but also allowed us to identify SAMD5 as a new Eph binding partner. Finally, these Eph/effector SAM heterodimer structures can explain many Eph SAM mutations identified in patients suffering from cancers and other diseases.
Literature context: (M2, Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165, RRID:AB_259529), anti-GAPDH (Santa Cruz Biotec
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) plays fundamental roles in synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Here, we describe a new recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome with global developmental delay, seizures and intellectual disability. Using linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we found that this disease maps to chromosome 5q31.1-q34 and is caused by a biallelic germline mutation in CAMK2A. The missense mutation, p.His477Tyr is located in the CAMK2A association domain that is critical for its function and localization. Biochemically, the p.His477Tyr mutant is defective in self-oligomerization and unable to assemble into the multimeric holoenzyme.In vivo, CAMK2AH477Y failed to rescue neuronal defects in C. elegans lacking unc-43, the ortholog of human CAMK2A. In vitro, neurons derived from patient iPSCs displayed profound synaptic defects. Together, our data demonstrate that a recessive germline mutation in CAMK2A leads to neurodevelopmental defects in humans and suggest that dysfunctional CAMK2 paralogs may contribute to other neurological disorders.
Literature context: Anti-FLAG Sigma-Aldrich F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Anti-EZH2 (Western) Prof. Krist
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) consists of core subunits SUZ12, EED, RBBP4/7, and EZH1/2 and is responsible for mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3. Whereas two distinct forms exist, PRC2.1 (containing one polycomb-like protein) and PRC2.2 (containing AEBP2 and JARID2), little is known about their differential functions. Here, we report the discovery of a family of vertebrate-specific PRC2.1 proteins, "PRC2 associated LCOR isoform 1" (PALI1) and PALI2, encoded by the LCOR and LCORL gene loci, respectively. PALI1 promotes PRC2 methyltransferase activity in vitro and in vivo and is essential for mouse development. Pali1 and Aebp2 define mutually exclusive, antagonistic PRC2 subtypes that exhibit divergent H3K27-tri-methylation activities. The balance of these PRC2.1/PRC2.2 activities is required for the appropriate regulation of polycomb target genes during differentiation. PALI1/2 potentially link polycombs with transcriptional co-repressors in the regulation of cellular identity during development and in cancer.
Literature context: : AB_331817Anti-FlagSigmaF3165; RRID: AB_259529Anti-HACovance/BioLegendMMS-101P
Nutrient deprivation induces autophagy through inhibiting TORC1 activity. We describe a novel mechanism in Drosophila by which TORC1 regulates RNA processing of Atg transcripts and alters ATG protein levels and activities via the cleavage and polyadenylation (CPA) complex. We show that TORC1 signaling inhibits CDK8 and DOA kinases, which directly phosphorylate CPSF6, a component of the CPA complex. These phosphorylation events regulate CPSF6 localization, RNA binding, and starvation-induced alternative RNA processing of transcripts involved in autophagy, nutrient, and energy metabolism, thereby controlling autophagosome formation and metabolism. Similarly, we find that mammalian CDK8 and CLK2, a DOA ortholog, phosphorylate CPSF6 to regulate autophagy and metabolic changes upon starvation, revealing an evolutionarily conserved mechanism linking TORC1 signaling with RNA processing, autophagy, and metabolism.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 1:500
Dynamic post-transcriptional control of RNA expression by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is critical during immune response. ZFP36 RBPs are prominent inflammatory regulators linked to autoimmunity and cancer, but functions in adaptive immunity are less clear. We used HITS-CLIP to define ZFP36 targets in mouse T cells, revealing unanticipated actions in regulating T-cell activation, proliferation, and effector functions. Transcriptome and ribosome profiling showed that ZFP36 represses mRNA target abundance and translation, notably through novel AU-rich sites in coding sequence. Functional studies revealed that ZFP36 regulates early T-cell activation kinetics cell autonomously, by attenuating activation marker expression, limiting T cell expansion, and promoting apoptosis. Strikingly, loss of ZFP36 in vivo accelerated T cell responses to acute viral infection and enhanced anti-viral immunity. These findings uncover a critical role for ZFP36 RBPs in restraining T cell expansion and effector functions, and suggest ZFP36 inhibition as a strategy to enhance immune-based therapies.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 1:2000 Overnight 4Â°C
CRISPR/Cas9 can be used for precise genetic knock-in of epitope tags into endogenous genes, simplifying experimental analysis of protein function. However, Cas9-assisted epitope tagging in primary mammalian cell cultures is often inefficient and reliant on plasmid-based selection strategies. Here, we demonstrate improved knock-in efficiencies of diverse tags (V5, 3XFLAG, Myc, HA) using co-delivery of Cas9 protein pre-complexed with two-part synthetic modified RNAs (annealed crRNA:tracrRNA) and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) repair templates. Knock-in efficiencies of ~5-30%, were achieved without selection in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural stem (NS) cells, and brain-tumor-derived stem cells. Biallelic-tagged clonal lines were readily derived and used to define Olig2 chromatin-bound interacting partners. Using our novel web-based design tool, we established a 96-well format pipeline that enabled V5-tagging of 60 different transcription factors. This efficient, selection-free and scalable epitope tagging pipeline enables systematic surveys of protein expression levels, subcellular localization, and interactors across diverse mammalian stem cells.
Literature context: igma Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rat monoclonal anti-HA (clone 3
Whereas the actions of enhancers in gene transcriptional regulation are well established, roles of JmjC-domain-containing proteins in mediating enhancer activation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that recruitment of the JmjC-domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-bound active enhancers is required for RNA polymerase II recruitment and enhancer RNA production on enhancers, resulting in transcriptional pause release of cognate estrogen target genes. JMJD6 is found to interact with MED12 in the mediator complex to regulate its recruitment. Unexpectedly, JMJD6 is necessary for MED12 to interact with CARM1, which methylates MED12 at multiple arginine sites and regulates its chromatin binding. Consistent with its role in transcriptional activation, JMJD6 is required for estrogen/ERα-induced breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis. Our data have uncovered a critical regulator of estrogen/ERα-induced enhancer coding gene activation and breast cancer cell potency, providing a potential therapeutic target of ER-positive breast cancers.
Literature context: e M2) Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-HA (clone
Manganese (Mn) is essential for many physiological processes, but its functions in innate immunity remain undefined. Here, we found that Mn2+ was required for the host defense against DNA viruses by increasing the sensitivity of the DNA sensor cGAS and its downstream adaptor protein STING. Mn2+ was released from membrane-enclosed organelles upon viral infection and accumulated in the cytosol where it bound directly to cGAS. Mn2+ enhanced the sensitivity of cGAS to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and its enzymatic activity, enabling cGAS to produce secondary messenger cGAMP in the presence of low concentrations of dsDNA that would otherwise be non-stimulatory. Mn2+ also enhanced STING activity by augmenting cGAMP-STING binding affinity. Mn-deficient mice showed diminished cytokine production and were more vulnerable to DNA viruses, and Mn-deficient STING-deficient mice showed no increased susceptibility. These findings indicate that Mn is critically involved and required for the host defense against DNA viruses.
Literature context: tibody (Sigma; Cat.# F3165, RRID:AB_259529), rat anti-HA monoclonal antibo
Drebrin is a major F-actin binding protein in dendritic spines that is critically involved in the regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis, pathology, and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel drebrin-binding protein involved in spine morphogenesis and synaptic plasticity. We confirmed the beta subunit of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIβ) as a drebrin-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system, and investigated the drebrin-CaMKIIβ relationship in dendritic spines using rat hippocampal neurons. Drebrin knockdown resulted in diffuse localization of CaMKIIβ in dendrites during the resting state, suggesting that drebrin is involved in the accumulation of CaMKIIβ in dendritic spines. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed that drebrin knockdown increased the stable fraction of CaMKIIβ, indicating the presence of drebrin-independent, more stable CaMKIIβ. NMDA receptor activation also increased the stable fraction in parallel with drebrin exodus from dendritic spines. These findings suggest that CaMKIIβ can be classified into distinct pools: CaMKIIβ associated with drebrin, CaMKIIβ associated with post-synaptic density (PSD), and CaMKIIβ free from PSD and drebrin. CaMKIIβ appears to be anchored to a protein complex composed of drebrin-binding F-actin during the resting state. NMDA receptor activation releases CaMKIIβ from drebrin resulting in CaMKIIβ association with PSD.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 1:10,000
26S proteasome abundance is tightly regulated at multiple levels, including the elimination of excess or inactive particles by autophagy. In yeast, this proteaphagy occurs upon nitrogen starvation but not carbon starvation, which instead stimulates the rapid sequestration of proteasomes into cytoplasmic puncta termed proteasome storage granules (PSGs). Here, we show that PSGs help protect proteasomes from autophagic degradation. Both the core protease and regulatory particle sub-complexes are sequestered separately into PSGs via pathways dependent on the accessory proteins Blm10 and Spg5, respectively. Modulating PSG formation, either by perturbing cellular energy status or pH, or by genetically eliminating factors required for granule assembly, not only influences the rate of proteasome degradation, but also impacts cell viability upon recovery from carbon starvation. PSG formation and concomitant protection against proteaphagy also occurs in Arabidopsis, suggesting that PSGs represent an evolutionarily conserved cache of proteasomes that can be rapidly re-mobilized based on energy availability.
Literature context: Sigma Aldrich Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Goat polyclonal anti-Mouse, Ale
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts through its extracellular domain with seven different growth factors. These factors induce different structures within the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane (JM) segment of the dimeric receptor and propagate different growth factor-dependent signals to the cell interior. How this process occurs is unknown. Here we apply diverse experimental and computational tools to show that growth factor identity is encoded by the EGFR transmembrane (TM) helix into discrete helix dimer populations that differ in both cross-location and cross-angle. Helix dimers with smaller cross-angles at multiple cross locations are decoded to induce an EGF-type coiled coil in the adjacent JM, whereas helix dimers with larger cross-angles at fewer cross locations induce the TGF-α-type coiled coil. We propose an updated model for how conformational coupling across multiple EGFR domains results in growth factor-specific information transfer, and demonstrate that this model applies to both EGFR and the related receptor ErbB2.
Literature context: Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-hnRNPA2B1
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with prion-like domains (PrLDs) phase transition to functional liquids, which can mature into aberrant hydrogels composed of pathological fibrils that underpin fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Several nuclear RBPs with PrLDs, including TDP-43, FUS, hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA2, mislocalize to cytoplasmic inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders, and mutations in their PrLDs can accelerate fibrillization and cause disease. Here, we establish that nuclear-import receptors (NIRs) specifically chaperone and potently disaggregate wild-type and disease-linked RBPs bearing a NLS. Karyopherin-β2 (also called Transportin-1) engages PY-NLSs to inhibit and reverse FUS, TAF15, EWSR1, hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA2 fibrillization, whereas Importin-α plus Karyopherin-β1 prevent and reverse TDP-43 fibrillization. Remarkably, Karyopherin-β2 dissolves phase-separated liquids and aberrant fibrillar hydrogels formed by FUS and hnRNPA1. In vivo, Karyopherin-β2 prevents RBPs with PY-NLSs accumulating in stress granules, restores nuclear RBP localization and function, and rescues degeneration caused by disease-linked FUS and hnRNPA2. Thus, NIRs therapeutically restore RBP homeostasis and mitigate neurodegeneration.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit polyclonal anti-Flag Sig
The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain. Consistently, PRMT2 phenocopied Cobl functions in both gain- and loss-of-function studies. Both PRMT2- and Cobl-promoted dendritogenesis relied on methylation. PRMT2 effects require both its catalytic domain and SH3 domain. Cobl-mediated dendritic arborization required PRMT2, complex formation with PRMT2, and PRMT2's catalytic activity. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cobl methylation is key for Cobl actin binding. Therefore, arginine methylation is a regulatory mechanism reaching beyond controlling nuclear processes. It also controls a major, cytosolic, cytoskeletal component shaping neuronal cells.
Literature context: a-Aldrich Sigma-Aldrich: F3165; RRID:AB_259529 IB 1:2000
Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) preferentially regulates the long-term IGF activities including growth and metabolism. Kinetics of ligand-dependent IGF-IR endocytosis determines how IGF induces such downstream signaling outputs. Here, we find that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 modulates how long ligand-activated IGF-IR remains at the cell surface before undergoing endocytosis in mammalian cells. IRS-1 interacts with the clathrin adaptor complex AP2. IRS-1, but not an AP2-binding-deficient mutant, delays AP2-mediated IGF-IR endocytosis after the ligand stimulation. Mechanistically, IRS-1 inhibits the recruitment of IGF-IR into clathrin-coated structures; for this reason, IGF-IR avoids rapid endocytosis and prolongs its activity on the cell surface. Accelerating IGF-IR endocytosis via IRS-1 depletion induces the shift from sustained to transient Akt activation and augments FoxO-mediated transcription. Our study establishes a new role for IRS-1 as an endocytic regulator of IGF-IR that ensures sustained IGF bioactivity, independent of its classic role as an adaptor in IGF-IR signaling.
Literature context: a-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-HA Sigma-
EGFR activates phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), but the mechanism underlying this activation is not completely understood. We demonstrated here that EGFR activation resulted in lysine acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5)-mediated K395 acetylation of the platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKP) and subsequent translocation of PFKP to the plasma membrane, where the PFKP was phosphorylated at Y64 by EGFR. Phosphorylated PFKP binds to the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, which is distinct from binding of Gab1 to the C-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, and recruited p85α to the plasma membrane resulting in PI3K activation. PI3K-dependent AKT activation results in enhanced phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) phosphorylation and production of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which in turn promotes PFK1 activation. PFKP Y64 phosphorylation-enhanced PI3K/AKT-dependent PFK1 activation and GLUT1 expression promoted the Warburg effect, tumor cell proliferation, and brain tumorigenesis. These findings underscore the instrumental role of PFKP in PI3K activation and enhanced glycolysis through PI3K/AKT-dependent positive-feedback regulation.
Literature context: RID: RRID:AB_259529 Flag Cell Signaling Technology
Pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase) is a secreted enzyme critical for host defense. We discover an intrinsic RNase function, serving as a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The closely related bovine RNase A and human RNase 5 (angiogenin [ANG]) can trigger oncogenic transformation independently of their catalytic activities via direct association with EGFR. Notably, high plasma ANG level in PDAC patients is positively associated with response to EGFR inhibitor erlotinib treatment. These results identify a role of ANG as a serum biomarker that may be used to stratify patients for EGFR-targeted therapies, and offer insights into the ligand-receptor relationship between RNase and RTK families.
Literature context: 3165; RRID:AB_259529 UBE4A (for IF) Bethyl Laborator
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are critical DNA lesions that robustly activate the elaborate DNA damage response (DDR) network. We identified a critical player in DDR fine-tuning: the E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase UBE4A. UBE4A's recruitment to sites of DNA damage is dependent on primary E3 ligases in the DDR and promotes enhancement and sustainment of K48- and K63-linked ubiquitin chains at these sites. This step is required for timely recruitment of the RAP80 and BRCA1 proteins and proper organization of RAP80- and BRCA1-associated protein complexes at DSB sites. This pathway is essential for optimal end resection at DSBs, and its abrogation leads to upregulation of the highly mutagenic alternative end-joining repair at the expense of error-free homologous recombination repair. Our data uncover a critical regulatory level in the DSB response and underscore the importance of fine-tuning the complex DDR network for accurate and balanced execution of DSB repair.
Literature context: 804 or F3165; RRID:AB_262044 or RRID:AB_259529AntibodyHDAC2AbcamAbcam:ab7029;
The DUX4 transcription factor is encoded by a retrogene embedded in each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat. DUX4 is normally expressed in the cleavage-stage embryo, whereas chromatin repression prevents DUX4 expression in most somatic tissues. Failure of this repression causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) due to mis-expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 engineered chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) locus-specific proteomics to characterize D4Z4-associated proteins. These and other approaches identified the Nucleosome Remodeling Deacetylase (NuRD) and Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) complexes as necessary for DUX4 repression in human skeletal muscle cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, DUX4-induced expression of MBD3L proteins partly relieved this repression in FSHD muscle cells. Together, these findings identify NuRD and CAF-1 as mediators of DUX4 chromatin repression and suggest a mechanism for the amplification of DUX4 expression in FSHD muscle cells.
Literature context: y Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 RbBP4 Antibody Bethyl Laborator
Developmentally regulated accessory subunits dictate PRC2 function. Here, we report the crystal structures of a 120 kDa heterotetrameric complex consisting of Suz12, Rbbp4, Jarid2, and Aebp2 fragments that is minimally active in nucleosome binding and of an inactive binary complex of Suz12 and Rbbp4. Suz12 contains two unique structural platforms that define distinct classes of PRC2 holo complexes for chromatin binding. Aebp2 and Phf19 compete for binding of a non-canonical C2 domain of Suz12; Jarid2 and EPOP occupy an overlapped Suz12 surface required for chromatin association of PRC2. Suz12 and Aebp2 progressively block histone H3K4 binding to Rbbp4, suggesting that Rbbp4 may not be directly involved in PRC2 inhibition by the active H3K4me3 histone mark. Nucleosome binding enabled by Jarid2 and Aebp2 is in part accounted for by the structures, which also reveal that disruption of the Jarid2-Suz12 interaction may underlie the disease mechanism of an oncogenic chromosomal translocation of Suz12.
Literature context: t#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Anti-Prp19 Homemade N/A
Human nineteen complex (NTC) acts as a multimeric E3 ubiquitin ligase in DNA repair and splicing. The transfer of ubiquitin is mediated by Prp19-a homotetrameric component of NTC whose elongated coiled coils serve as an assembly axis for two other proteins called SPF27 and CDC5L. We find that Prp19 is inactive on its own and have elucidated the structural basis of its autoinhibition by crystallography and mutational analysis. Formation of the NTC core by stepwise assembly of SPF27, CDC5L, and PLRG1 onto the Prp19 tetramer enables ubiquitin ligation. Protein-protein crosslinking of NTC, functional assays in vitro, and assessment of its role in DNA damage response provide mechanistic insight into the organization of the NTC core and the communication between PLRG1 and Prp19 that enables E3 activity. This reveals a unique mode of regulation for a complex E3 ligase and advances understanding of its dynamics in various cellular pathways.
Literature context: -Aldrich Cat# F3165; Clone# M2; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal Anti-beta-Acti
Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Mechanistically, chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T) signals through its product CHSA to enhance casein kinase 2 (CK2)-PTEN binding and consequent phosphorylation and inhibition of PTEN, which requires CHSA chains and is essential to sustain AKT activation in BRAF V600E-expressing melanoma cells. However, this CHSA-dependent PTEN inhibition is dispensable in cancer cells expressing mutant NRAS or PI3KCA, which directly activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. These results suggest that dietary supplements may exhibit oncogene-dependent pro-tumor effects.
Literature context: se anti-Flag-tag Sigma F3165 RRID:AB_259529
The insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, insulinomas, characterized by increased pancreatic islet β-cell proliferation, express the phosphorylated isoform of the β-cell differentiation factor HLXB9 that interacts with NONO/p54NRB, a survival factor. Interestingly, two different homozygous germline mutations in HLXB9, p.F248L and p.F272L, were reported in neonatal diabetes, a condition with functional β-cell deficiency. Also, two somatic heterozygous NONO mutations were found in endocrine-related tumors, p.H146R (parathyroid) and p.R293H (small intestine neuroendocrine tumor). However, the biological consequence of the mutations, and the role of HLXB9-NONO interaction in normal or abnormal β cells, is not known. Expression, localization, and functional analysis of the clinically relevant HLXB9 and NONO mutants showed that HLXB9/p.F248L mutant localized in the nucleus but lacked phosphorylation, and NONO/p.R293H mutant was structurally impaired. The HLXB9 and NONO mutants retained the ability to interact, and overexpression of wild-type or mutant HXLB9 in MIN6 cells suppressed cell proliferation. To further understand the biological consequence of the HLXB9-NONO interaction, we mapped the NONO-interacting region in HLXB9. An 80-amino acid conserved region of HLXB9 could compete with full-length HLXB9 to interact with NONO; however, in functional assays, nuclear expression of this HLXB9-conserved region in MIN6 cells did not interfere with cell proliferation. Overall, our results highlight the importance of HLXB9 in conditions of β-cell excess (insulinomas) and in conditions of β-cell loss or dysfunction (diabetes). Our studies implicate therapeutic strategies for either reducing β-cell proliferation in insulinomas or alleviating normal β-cell deficiency in diabetes through the modulation of HLXB9 phosphorylation.
Literature context: ntibody(mouse monoclonal) Sigma RRID:AB_259529
Luminal fluid reabsorption plays a fundamental role in male fertility. We demonstrated that the ubiquitous GPCR signaling proteins Gq and β-arrestin-1 are essential for fluid reabsorption because they mediate coupling between an orphan receptor ADGRG2 (GPR64) and the ion channel CFTR. A reduction in protein level or deficiency of ADGRG2, Gq or β-arrestin-1 in a mouse model led to an imbalance in pH homeostasis in the efferent ductules due to decreased constitutive CFTR currents. Efferent ductule dysfunction was rescued by the specific activation of another GPCR, AGTR2. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that β-arrestin-1 acts as a scaffold for ADGRG2/CFTR complex formation in apical membranes, whereas specific residues of ADGRG2 confer coupling specificity for different G protein subtypes, this specificity is critical for male fertility. Therefore, manipulation of the signaling components of the ADGRG2-Gq/β-arrestin-1/CFTR complex by small molecules may be an effective therapeutic strategy for male infertility.
Literature context: ced in mouse) Sigma F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Polyclonal anti-ANKS6 (produced
Head-to-tail polymers of sterile alpha motifs (SAM) can scaffold large macromolecular complexes. Several SAM-domain proteins that bind each other are mutated in patients with cystic kidneys or laterality defects, including the Ankyrin (ANK) and SAM domain-containing proteins ANKS6 and ANKS3, and the RNA-binding protein Bicc1. To address how their interactions are regulated, we first determined a high-resolution crystal structure of a Bicc1-SAM polymer, revealing a canonical SAM polymer with a high degree of flexibility in the subunit interface orientations. We further mapped interactions between full-length and distinct domains of Bicc1, ANKS3, and ANKS6. Neither ANKS3 nor ANKS6 alone formed macroscopic homopolymers in vivo. However, ANKS3 recruited ANKS6 to Bicc1, and the three proteins together cooperatively generated giant macromolecular complexes. Thus, the giant assemblies are shaped by SAM domains, their flanking sequences, and SAM-independent protein-protein and protein-mRNA interactions.
Literature context: igma-Aldrich Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Bacterial and Virus Strains
Heterochromatin plays important roles in transcriptional silencing and genome maintenance by the formation of condensed chromatin structures, which determine the epigenetic status of eukaryotic cells. The trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3), a target of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), is a hallmark of heterochromatin formation. However, the mechanism by which HP1 folds chromatin-containing H3K9me3 into a higher-order structure has not been elucidated. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of the H3K9me3-containing dinucleosomes complexed with human HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ, determined by cryogenic electron microscopy with a Volta phase plate. In the structures, two H3K9me3 nucleosomes are bridged by a symmetric HP1 dimer. Surprisingly, the linker DNA between the nucleosomes does not directly interact with HP1, thus allowing nucleosome remodeling by the ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor (ACF). The structure depicts the fundamental architecture of heterochromatin.
Literature context: Mouse anti-FLAG Sigma F3165, RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-PPP4C Bethyl A310-8
mRNA processing, transport, translation, and ultimately degradation involve a series of dedicated protein complexes that often assemble into large membraneless structures such as stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs). Here, systematic in vivo proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) analysis of 119 human proteins associated with different aspects of mRNA biology uncovers 7424 unique proximity interactions with 1,792 proteins. Classical bait-prey analysis reveals connections of hundreds of proteins to distinct mRNA-associated processes or complexes, including the splicing and transcriptional elongation machineries (protein phosphatase 4) and the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex (CEP85, RNF219, and KIAA0355). Analysis of correlated patterns between endogenous preys uncovers the spatial organization of RNA regulatory structures and enables the definition of 144 core components of SGs and PBs. We report preexisting contacts between most core SG proteins under normal growth conditions and demonstrate that several core SG proteins (UBAP2L, CSDE1, and PRRC2C) are critical for the formation of microscopically visible SGs.
Literature context: Monoclonal to Flag Sigma F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Monoclonal to G3BP1 BD 611126;
TIA1 and TIAL1 encode a family of U-rich element mRNA-binding proteins ubiquitously expressed and conserved in metazoans. Using PAR-CLIP, we determined that both proteins bind target sites with identical specificity in 3' UTRs and introns proximal to 5' as well as 3' splice sites. Double knockout (DKO) of TIA1 and TIAL1 increased target mRNA abundance proportional to the number of binding sites and also caused accumulation of aberrantly spliced mRNAs, most of which are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. Loss of PRKRA by mis-splicing triggered the activation of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase EIF2AK2/PKR and stress granule formation. Ectopic expression of PRKRA cDNA or knockout of EIF2AK2 in DKO cells rescued this phenotype. Perturbation of maturation and/or stability of additional targets further compromised cell cycle progression. Our study reveals the essential contributions of the TIA1 protein family to the fidelity of mRNA maturation, translation, and RNA-stress-sensing pathways in human cells.
Literature context: : AB_2160343FLAGSigmaCat#F3165; RRID: AB_259529Ki67Thermo ScientificCat#MA5-145
Oncogene-induced senescence, e.g., in melanocytic nevi, terminates the expansion of pre-malignant cells via transcriptional silencing of proliferation-related genes due to decoration of their promoters with repressive trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) marks. We show here that structurally distinct H3K9-active demethylases-the lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) and several Jumonji C domain-containing moieties (such as JMJD2C)-disable senescence and permit Ras/Braf-evoked transformation. In mouse and zebrafish models, enforced LSD1 or JMJD2C expression promoted Braf-V600E-driven melanomagenesis. A large subset of established melanoma cell lines and primary human melanoma samples presented with a collective upregulation of related and unrelated H3K9 demethylase activities, whose targeted inhibition restored senescence, even in Braf inhibitor-resistant melanomas, evoked secondary immune effects and controlled tumor growth in vivo.
Literature context: onal anti-FLAGSigma-AldrichCat# F3165Mouse monoclonal anti-mini-AID-t
piRNAs (Piwi-interacting small RNAs) engage Piwi Argonautes to silence transposons and promote fertility in animal germlines. Genetic and computational studies have suggested that C. elegans piRNAs tolerate mismatched pairing and in principle could target every transcript. Here we employ in vivo cross-linking to identify transcriptome-wide interactions between piRNAs and target RNAs. We show that piRNAs engage all germline mRNAs and that piRNA binding follows microRNA-like pairing rules. Targeting correlates better with binding energy than with piRNA abundance, suggesting that piRNA concentration does not limit targeting. In mRNAs silenced by piRNAs, secondary small RNAs accumulate at the center and ends of piRNA binding sites. In germline-expressed mRNAs, however, targeting by the CSR-1 Argonaute correlates with reduced piRNA binding density and suppression of piRNA-associated secondary small RNAs. Our findings reveal physiologically important and nuanced regulation of individual piRNA targets and provide evidence for a comprehensive post-transcriptional regulatory step in germline gene expression.
Literature context: a-Aldrich Cat#F3165, RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-Flag-HRP
UV-B light (UV-B radiation) is known to inhibit plant growth, but the mechanism is not well understood. UVR8 (UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8) is a UV-B light photoreceptor that mediates UV-B light responses in plants. We report here that UV-B inhibits plant growth by repressing plant steroid hormone brassinosteroid (BR)-promoted plant growth. UVR8 physically interacts with the functional dephosphorylated BES1 (BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR1) and BIM1 (BES1-INTERACTING MYC-LIKE 1) transcription factors that mediate BR-regulated gene expression and plant growth to inhibit their activities. Genome-wide gene expression analysis defined a BES1-dependent UV-B-regulated transcriptome, which is enriched with genes involved in cell elongation and plant growth. We further showed that UV-B-activated and nucleus-localized UVR8 inhibited the DNA-binding activities of BES1/BIM1 to directly regulate transcription of growth-related genes. Our results therefore establish that UVR8-BES1/BIM1 interaction represents an early photoreceptor signaling mechanism in plants and serves as an important module integrating light and BR signaling.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
Protein-protein interactions mediate essential cellular processes, however the detection of native interactions is challenging since they are often low affinity and context dependent. Here, we develop a chemical proteomics approach in vivo CLASPI [iCLASPI] (in vivo crosslinking-assisted and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture [SILAC]-based protein identification) relying upon photo-crosslinking, amber suppression, and SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to profile context-dependent protein-protein interactions in living cells. First, we use iCLASPI to profile in vivo binding partners of the N-terminal tails of soluble histone H3 or H4. We identify known histone chaperones and modifying proteins, thereby validating our approach, and find an interaction between soluble histone H3 and UBR7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediated by UBR7's PHD domain. Furthermore, we apply iCLASPI to profile the context-dependent protein-protein interactions of chromatin-associated histone H3 at different cell-cycle stages, and identify ANP32A as a mitosis-specific interactor. Our results demonstrate that the iCLASPI approach can provide a general strategy for identifying native, context-dependent direct protein-protein interactions using photo-crosslinking and quantitative proteomics.
Literature context: ID:RRID:AB_259529 Alexa FluorÂ®594-conjugated seco
Infections have been identified as possible risk factors for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, but it remains unclear whether infection-related immune molecules have a causative role in neurodegeneration during aging. Here, we reveal an unexpected role of an epidermally expressed antimicrobial peptide, NLP-29 (neuropeptide-like protein 29), in triggering aging-associated dendrite degeneration in C. elegans. The age-dependent increase of nlp-29 expression is regulated by the epidermal tir-1/SARM-pmk-1/p38 MAPK innate immunity pathway. We further identify an orphan G protein-coupled receptor NPR-12 (neuropeptide receptor 12) acting in neurons as a receptor for NLP-29 and demonstrate that the autophagic machinery is involved cell autonomously downstream of NPR-12 to transduce degeneration signals. Finally, we show that fungal infections cause dendrite degeneration using a similar mechanism as in aging, through NLP-29, NPR-12, and autophagy. Our findings reveal an important causative role of antimicrobial peptides, their neuronal receptors, and the autophagy pathway in aging- and infection-associated dendrite degeneration.
Literature context: Mouse anti-FLAGSigmaCat# F3165; RRID: AB_259529Mouse anti-Î±-tubulinSigmaCat# T6
Centrosomes [1, 2] play a central role during spindle assembly in most animal cells . In early mitosis, they organize two symmetrical microtubule arrays that upon separation define the two poles of the forming spindle. Centrosome separation is tightly regulated [4, 5], occurring through partially redundant mechanisms that rely on the action of microtubule-based dynein and kinesin motors and the actomyosin system . While centrosomes can separate in prophase or in prometaphase after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), prophase centrosome separation optimizes spindle assembly and minimizes the occurrence of abnormal chromosome attachments that could end in aneuploidy [7, 8]. Prophase centrosome separation relies on the activity of Eg5/KIF11, a mitotic kinesin  that accumulates around centrosomes in early mitosis under the control of CDK1 and the Nek9/Nek6/7 kinase module [10-17]. Here, we show that Eg5 localization and centrosome separation in prophase depend on the nuclear microtubule-associated protein TPX2 , a pool of which localizes to the centrosomes before NEBD. This localization involves RHAMM/HMMR  and the kinase Nek9 , which phosphorylates TPX2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) preventing its interaction with importin and nuclear import. The pool of centrosomal TPX2 in prophase has a critical role for both microtubule aster organization and Eg5 localization, and thereby for centrosome separation. Our results uncover an unsuspected role for TPX2 before NEBD and define a novel regulatory mechanism for centrosome separation in prophase. They furthermore suggest NLS phosphorylation as a novel regulatory mechanism for spindle assembly factors controlled by the importin/Ran system.
Literature context: tibody Sigma-Aldrich Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit polyclonal anti-CamKK2 (
Loss of LKB1 is associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in lung cancer, but the development of targeted agents is in its infancy. Here we report that a glutaminolytic enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1), upregulated upon detachment via pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), provides anti-anoikis and pro-metastatic signals in LKB1-deficient lung cancer. Mechanistically, the GDH1 product α-KG activates CamKK2 by enhancing its substrate AMPK binding, which contributes to energy production that confers anoikis resistance. The effect of GDH1 on AMPK is evident in LKB1-deficient lung cancer, where AMPK activation predominantly depends on CamKK2. Targeting GDH1 with R162 attenuated tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenograft model and correlation studies in lung cancer patients further validated the clinical relevance of our finding. Our study provides insight into the molecular mechanism by which GDH1-mediated metabolic reprogramming of glutaminolysis mediates lung cancer metastasis and offers a therapeutic strategy for patients with LKB1-deficient lung cancer.
Literature context: AG (clone M2) - IB Sigma F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit mono anti-GFP (clone D5.
Mechanisms of selective autophagy of the ER, known as ER-phagy, require molecular delineation, particularly in vivo. It is unclear how these events control ER proteostasis and cellular health. Here, we identify cell-cycle progression gene 1 (CCPG1), an ER-resident protein with no known physiological role, as a non-canonical cargo receptor that directly binds to core autophagy proteins via an LIR motif to mammalian ATG8 proteins and, independently and via a discrete motif, to FIP200. These interactions facilitate ER-phagy. The CCPG1 gene is inducible by the unfolded protein response and thus directly links ER stress to ER-phagy. In vivo, CCPG1 protects against ER luminal protein aggregation and consequent unfolded protein response hyperactivation and tissue injury of the exocrine pancreas. Thus, via identification of this autophagy protein, we describe an unexpected molecular mechanism of ER-phagy and provide evidence that this may be physiologically relevant in ER luminal proteostasis.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-GM130 BD
Salmonella Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever, a major global health concern. An essential virulence factor of this pathogen is typhoid toxin. In contrast to most AB-type toxins, typhoid toxin is exclusively expressed by intracellular bacteria. The regulatory networks that ensure this unique gene expression pattern are unknown. Here, we developed FAST-INSeq, a genome-wide screening approach to identify S. Typhi genes required for typhoid toxin expression within infected cells. We find that typhoid toxin expression is controlled by a silencing and counter-silencing mechanism through the opposing actions of the PhoP/PhoQ two-component regulatory system and the histone-like protein H-NS. The screen also identified bacterial mutants that alter the proportion of intracellular S. Typhi that reside within an intravacuolar environment, which was essential for toxin expression. Collectively, these data describe a regulatory mechanism that allows a bacterial pathogen to exclusively express a virulence factor when located within a specific intracellular compartment.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 (1:1000)
Eukaryotic cells internalize transmembrane receptors via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but it remains unclear how the machinery underpinning this process is regulated. We recently discovered that membrane-associated muniscin proteins such as FCHo and SGIP initiate endocytosis by converting the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex to an open, active conformation that is then phosphorylated (Hollopeter et al., 2014). Here we report that loss of ncap-1, the sole C. elegans gene encoding an adaptiN Ear-binding Coat-Associated Protein (NECAP), bypasses the requirement for FCHO-1. Biochemical analyses reveal AP2 accumulates in an open, phosphorylated state in ncap-1 mutant worms, suggesting NECAPs promote the closed, inactive conformation of AP2. Consistent with this model, NECAPs preferentially bind open and phosphorylated forms of AP2 in vitro and localize with constitutively open AP2 mutants in vivo. NECAPs do not associate with phosphorylation-defective AP2 mutants, implying that phosphorylation precedes NECAP recruitment. We propose NECAPs function late in endocytosis to inactivate AP2.
Literature context: Antibody FLAG Sigma Aldrich RRID:AB_259529 (1:2000)
Cytochrome c oxidase of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system reduces molecular oxygen with redox equivalent-derived electrons. The conserved mitochondrial-encoded COX1- and COX2-subunits are the heme- and copper-center containing core subunits that catalyze water formation. COX1 and COX2 initially follow independent biogenesis pathways creating assembly modules with subunit-specific, chaperone-like assembly factors that assist in redox centers formation. Here, we find that COX16, a protein required for cytochrome c oxidase assembly, interacts specifically with newly synthesized COX2 and its copper center-forming metallochaperones SCO1, SCO2, and COA6. The recruitment of SCO1 to the COX2-module is COX16- dependent and patient-mimicking mutations in SCO1 affect interaction with COX16. These findings implicate COX16 in CuA-site formation. Surprisingly, COX16 is also found in COX1-containing assembly intermediates and COX2 recruitment to COX1. We conclude that COX16 participates in merging the COX1 and COX2 assembly lines.
Literature context: Mouse anti-FLAG Sigma F3165, RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-MYC Cell Signaling
X-linked diseases typically exhibit more severe phenotypes in males than females. In contrast, protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) mutations cause epilepsy in heterozygous females but spare hemizygous males. The cellular mechanism responsible for this unique pattern of X-linked inheritance is unknown. We show that PCDH19 contributes to adhesion specificity in a combinatorial manner such that mosaic expression of Pcdh19 in heterozygous female mice leads to striking sorting between cells expressing wild-type (WT) PCDH19 and null PCDH19 in the developing cortex, correlating with altered network activity. Complete deletion of PCDH19 in heterozygous mice abolishes abnormal cell sorting and restores normal network activity. Furthermore, we identify variable cortical malformations in PCDH19 epilepsy patients. Our results highlight the role of PCDH19 in determining cell adhesion affinities during cortical development and the way segregation of WT and null PCDH19 cells is associated with the unique X-linked inheritance of PCDH19 epilepsy.
Literature context: a-Aldrich Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit polyclonal anti-OsbHLH00
Improvement of chilling tolerance is a major target in rice breeding. The signaling pathways regulating chilling consist of complex networks, including key transcription factors and their targets. However, it remains largely unknown how transcription factors are activated by chilling stress. Here, we report that the transcription factor OsbHLH002/OsICE1 is phosphorylated by OsMAPK3 under chilling stress. The osbhlh002-1 knockout mutant and antisense transgenic plants showed chilling hypersensitivity, whereas OsbHLH002-overexpressing plants exhibited enhanced chilling tolerance. OsbHLH002 can directly target OsTPP1, which encodes a key enzyme for trehalose biosynthesis. OsMAPK3 interacts with OsbHLH002 to prevent its ubiquitination by the E3 ligase OsHOS1. Under chilling stress, active OsMAPK3 phosphorylates OsbHLH002, leading to accumulation of phospho-OsbHLH002, which promotes OsTPP1 expression and increases trehalose content and resistance to chilling damage. Taken together, these results indicate that OsbHLH002 is phosphorylated by OsMAPK3, which enhances OsbHLH002 activation to its target OsTPP1 during chilling stress.
Literature context: ti-Flag Sigma-Aldrich Cat#F3165;RRID:AB_259529 Cat#F7425; RRID:AB_439687
ATG4B stimulates autophagy by promoting autophagosome formation through reversible modification of ATG8. We identify ATG4B as a substrate of mammalian sterile20-like kinase (STK) 26/MST4. MST4 phosphorylates ATG4B at serine residue 383, which stimulates ATG4B activity and increases autophagic flux. Inhibition of MST4 or ATG4B activities using genetic approaches or an inhibitor of ATG4B suppresses autophagy and the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Furthermore, radiation induces MST4 expression, ATG4B phosphorylation, and autophagy. Inhibiting ATG4B in combination with radiotherapy in treating mice with intracranial GBM xenograft markedly slows tumor growth and provides a significant survival benefit. Our work describes an MST4-ATG4B signaling axis that influences GBM autophagy and malignancy, and whose therapeutic targeting enhances the anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy.
Literature context: a-Aldrich Cat#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-Ubiquitin
Low temperatures affect plant growth, development, productivity, and ecological distribution. Expression of the C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) transcription factors is induced by cold stress, which in turn activates downstream cold-responsive (COR) genes that are required for the acquisition of freezing tolerance. Inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) is a master regulator of CBFs, and ICE1 stability is crucial for its function. However, the regulation of ICE1 is not well understood. Here, we report that mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 interact with and phosphorylate ICE1, which reduces its stability and transcriptional activity. Consistently, the mpk3 and mpk6 single mutants and the mpk3 mpk6 double mutants show enhanced freezing tolerance, whereas MPK3/MPK6 activation attenuates freezing tolerance. Phosphor-inactive mutations of ICE1 complement freezing sensitivity in the ice1-2 mutant. These combined results indicate that MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylate and destabilize ICE1, which negatively regulates CBF expression and freezing tolerance in plants.
Literature context: ag M2 Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-Cyclin D1
TP53 missense mutations significantly influence the development and progression of various human cancers via their gain of new functions (GOF) through different mechanisms. Here we report a unique mechanism underlying the GOF of p53-R249S (p53-RS), a p53 mutant frequently detected in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is highly related to hepatitis B infection and aflatoxin B1. A CDK inhibitor blocks p53-RS's nuclear translocation in HCC, whereas CDK4 interacts with p53-RS in the G1/S phase of the cells, phosphorylates it, and enhances its nuclear localization. This is coupled with binding of a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) to p53-RS, but not the p53 form with mutations of four serines/threonines previously shown to be crucial for PIN1 binding. As a result, p53-RS interacts with c-Myc and enhances c-Myc-dependent rDNA transcription key for ribosomal biogenesis. These results unveil a CDK4-PIN1-p53-RS-c-Myc pathway as a novel mechanism for the GOF of p53-RS in HCC.
Literature context: M2 Anti-Flag Sigma CAT#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Anti-Phospho-Src family Y416 Ce
ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein that functions in innate immunity both as an intracellular protein modifier and as an extracellular signaling molecule that stimulates IFN-γ secretion. The extracellular function, important for resistance to mycobacterial disease, has remained biochemically uncharacterized. We have established an NK-92 cell-based assay for IFN-γ release, identified residues critical for ISG15 signaling, and identified the cell surface receptor as LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18; αLβ2 integrin). LFA-1 inhibition blocked IFN-γ secretion, splenocytes from CD11a-/- mice did not respond to ISG15, and ISG15 bound directly to the αI domain of CD11a in vitro. ISG15 also enhanced secretion of IL-10, indicating a broader role for ISG15 in cytokine signaling. ISG15 engagement of LFA-1 led to the activation of SRC family kinases (SFKs) and SFK inhibition blocked cytokine secretion. These findings establish the molecular basis of the extracellular function of ISG15 and the initial outside-in signaling events that drive ISG15-dependent cytokine secretion.
Literature context: Cat# F3165 RRID:AB_259529 (1:200)
Nanos RNA-binding proteins are required for germline development in metazoans, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have profiled the transcriptome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) lacking the nanos homologs nos-1 and nos-2 in C. elegans. nos-1nos-2 PGCs fail to silence hundreds of transcripts normally expressed in oocytes. We find that this misregulation is due to both delayed turnover of maternal transcripts and inappropriate transcriptional activation. The latter appears to be an indirect consequence of delayed turnover of the maternally-inherited transcription factor LIN-15B, a synMuvB class transcription factor known to antagonize PRC2 activity. PRC2 is required for chromatin reprogramming in the germline, and the transcriptome of PGCs lacking PRC2 resembles that of nos-1nos-2 PGCs. Loss of maternal LIN-15B restores fertility to nos-1nos-2 mutants. These findings suggest that Nanos promotes germ cell fate by downregulating maternal RNAs and proteins that would otherwise interfere with PRC2-dependent reprogramming of PGC chromatin.
Literature context: Aldrich Cat# F3165 RRID:AB_259529; dilution 1:5000), GAPDH (Santa
Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis). While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, JNK-promoted anoikis required pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of proteins. We show that JNK acts through a BAK/BAX-dependent apoptotic pathway by increasing BIM expression and phosphorylating BMF, leading to death of detached epithelial cells.
Literature context: e M2 Sigma-Aldrich Cat#: F3165, RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal Î±-tubulin Sigm
In the brain, many types of interneurons make functionally diverse inhibitory synapses onto principal neurons. Although numerous molecules have been identified to function in inhibitory synapse development, it remains unknown whether there is a unifying mechanism for development of diverse inhibitory synapses. Here we report a general molecular mechanism underlying hippocampal inhibitory synapse development. In developing neurons, the establishment of GABAergic transmission depends on Neuroligin 2 (NL2), a synaptic cell adhesion molecule (CAM). During maturation, inhibitory synapse development requires both NL2 and Slitrk3 (ST3), another CAM. Importantly, NL2 and ST3 interact with nanomolar affinity through their extracellular domains to synergistically promote synapse development. Selective perturbation of the NL2-ST3 interaction impairs inhibitory synapse development with consequent disruptions in hippocampal network activity and increased seizure susceptibility. Our findings reveal how unique postsynaptic CAMs work in concert to control synaptogenesis and establish a general framework for GABAergic synapse development.
Literature context: G M2 (Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165, RRID:AB_259529, 1:5000) and mouse anti-HA 12CA
The COPI coat forms transport vesicles from the Golgi complex and plays a poorly defined role in endocytic trafficking. Here we show that COPI binds K63-linked polyubiquitin and this interaction is crucial for trafficking of a ubiquitinated yeast SNARE (Snc1). Snc1 is a v-SNARE that drives fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane, and then recycles through the endocytic pathway to the Golgi for reuse in exocytosis. Removal of ubiquitin from Snc1, or deletion of a β'-COP subunit propeller domain that binds K63-linked polyubiquitin, disrupts Snc1 recycling causing aberrant accumulation in internal compartments. Moreover, replacement of the β'-COP propeller domain with unrelated ubiquitin-binding domains restores Snc1 recycling. These results indicate that ubiquitination, a modification well known to target membrane proteins to the lysosome or vacuole for degradation, can also function as recycling signal to sort a SNARE into COPI vesicles in a non-degradative pathway.
Literature context: ution, Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165 RRID:AB_259529) and anti-His antibodies (1:800
BACKGROUND: Proper DNA replication is essential for faithful transmission of the genome. However, replication stress has serious impact on the integrity of the cell, leading to stalling or collapse of replication forks, and has been determined as a driving force of carcinogenesis. Mus81-Mms4 complex is a structure-specific endonuclease previously shown to be involved in processing of aberrant replication intermediates and promotes POLD3-dependent DNA synthesis via break-induced replication. However, how replication components might be involved in this process is not known. RESULTS: Herein, we show the interaction and robust stimulation of Mus81-Mms4 nuclease activity by heteropentameric replication factor C (RFC) complex, the processivity factor of replicative DNA polymerases that is responsible for loading of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) during DNA replication and repair. This stimulation is enhanced by RFC-dependent ATP hydrolysis and by PCNA loading on the DNA. Moreover, this stimulation is not specific to Rfc1, the largest of subunit of this complex, thus indicating that alternative clamp loaders may also play a role in the stimulation. We also observed a targeting of Mus81 by RFC to the nick-containing DNA substrate and we provide further evidence that indicates cooperation between Mus81 and the RFC complex in the repair of DNA lesions generated by various DNA-damaging agents. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of new interacting partners and modulators of Mus81-Mms4 nuclease, RFC, and PCNA imply the cooperation of these factors in resolution of stalled replication forks and branched DNA structures emanating from the restarted replication forks under conditions of replication stress.
Literature context: -Flag Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165, RRID:AB_259529 rabbit polyclonal anti-MyD88 Ab
Many infections and stress signals can rapidly activate the NLRP3 inflammasome to elicit robust inflammatory responses. This activation requires a priming step, which is thought to be mainly for upregulating NLRP3 transcription. However, recent studies report that the NLRP3 inflammasome can be activated independently of transcription, suggesting that the priming process has unknown essential regulatory steps. Here, we report that JNK1-mediated NLRP3 phosphorylation at S194 is a critical priming event and is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is disrupted in NLRP3-S194A knockin mice. JNK1-mediated NLRP3 S194 phosphorylation is critical for NLRP3 deubiquitination and facilitates its self-association and the subsequent inflammasome assembly. Importantly, we demonstrate that blocking S194 phosphorylation prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Thus, our study reveals a key priming molecular event that is a prerequisite for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Inhibiting NLRP3 phosphorylation could be an effective treatment for NLRP3-related diseases.
Literature context: Sigma F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-Myc Sigma
Spt6 coordinates nucleosome dis- and re-assembly, transcriptional elongation, and mRNA processing. Here, we report that depleting Spt6 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) reduced expression of pluripotency factors, increased expression of cell-lineage-affiliated developmental regulators, and induced cell morphological and biochemical changes indicative of ESC differentiation. Selective downregulation of pluripotency factors upon Spt6 depletion may be mechanistically explained by its enrichment at ESC super-enhancers, where Spt6 controls histone H3K27 acetylation and methylation and super-enhancer RNA transcription. In ESCs, Spt6 interacted with the PRC2 core subunit Suz12 and prevented H3K27me3 accumulation at ESC super-enhancers and associated promoters. Biochemical as well as functional experiments revealed that Spt6 could compete for binding of the PRC2 methyltransferase Ezh2 to Suz12 and reduce PRC2 chromatin engagement. Thus, in addition to serving as a histone chaperone and transcription elongation factor, Spt6 counteracts repression by opposing H3K27me3 deposition at critical genomic regulatory regions.
Literature context: 0) Sigma Cat# F3165, RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-GFP (ChIP) ThermoFi
Reproductive isolation defines species divergence and is linked to adaptive evolution of hybrid incompatibility genes. Hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans are sterile, and phenocopy mutations in the PIWI interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, which silences transposons and shows pervasive adaptive evolution, and Drosophila rhino and deadlock encode rapidly evolving components of a complex that binds to piRNA clusters. We show that Rhino and Deadlock interact and co-localize in simulans and melanogaster, but simulans Rhino does not bind melanogaster Deadlock, due to substitutions in the rapidly evolving Shadow domain. Significantly, a chimera expressing the simulans Shadow domain in a melanogaster Rhino backbone fails to support piRNA production, disrupts binding to piRNA clusters, and leads to ectopic localization to bulk heterochromatin. Fusing melanogaster Deadlock to simulans Rhino, by contrast, restores localization to clusters. Deadlock binding thus directs Rhino to piRNA clusters, and Rhino-Deadlock co-evolution has produced cross-species incompatibilities, which may contribute to reproductive isolation.
Literature context: RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-V5 Cell Signaling 1
YAP/TAZ are the major mediators of mammalian Hippo signaling; however, their precise function in the gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. Here we dissect the distinct roles of YAP/TAZ in endodermal epithelium and mesenchyme and find that, although dispensable for gastrointestinal epithelial development and homeostasis, YAP/TAZ function as the critical molecular switch to coordinate growth and patterning in gut mesenchyme. Our genetic analyses reveal that Lats1/2 kinases suppress expansion of the primitive mesenchymal progenitors, where YAP activation also prevents induction of the smooth muscle lineage through transcriptional repression of Myocardin. During later development, zone-restricted downregulation of YAP/TAZ provides the positional cue and allows smooth muscle cell differentiation induced by Hedgehog signaling. Taken together, our studies identify the mesenchymal requirement of YAP/TAZ in the gastrointestinal tract and highlight the functional interplays between Hippo and Hedgehog signaling underlying temporal and spatial control of tissue growth and specification in developing gut.
Literature context: lonal anti-FLAG M2 Sigma F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse monoclonal anti-His Tag A
In the Drosophila immune response, bacterial derived diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan binds the receptors PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE, which through interaction with the adaptor protein Imd leads to activation of the NF-κB homolog Relish and robust antimicrobial peptide gene expression. PGRP-LC, PGRP-LE, and Imd each contain a motif with some resemblance to the RIP Homotypic Interaction Motif (RHIM), a domain found in mammalian RIPK proteins forming functional amyloids during necroptosis. Here we found that despite sequence divergence, these Drosophila cryptic RHIMs formed amyloid fibrils in vitro and in cells. Amyloid formation was required for signaling downstream of Imd, and in contrast to the mammalian RHIMs, was not associated with cell death. Furthermore, amyloid formation constituted a regulatable step and could be inhibited by Pirk, an endogenous feedback regulator of this pathway. Thus, diverse sequence motifs are capable of forming amyloidal signaling platforms, and the formation of these platforms may present a regulatory point in multiple biological processes.
Literature context: -FLAG Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rat anti-HA Roche Cat# ROAHAHA;
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secreted signaling protein that is implicated in cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorder, and cancer. Outside of its role in lipid metabolism, ANGPTL4 signaling remains poorly understood. Here, we identify ANGPTL4 as a Wnt signaling antagonist that binds to syndecans and forms a ternary complex with the Wnt co-receptor Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). This protein complex is internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and degraded in lysosomes, leading to attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Angptl4 is expressed in the Spemann organizer of Xenopus embryos and acts as a Wnt antagonist to promote notochord formation and prevent muscle differentiation. This unexpected function of ANGPTL4 invites re-interpretation of its diverse physiological effects in light of Wnt signaling and may open therapeutic avenues for human disease.
Literature context: al anti-FLAG M2 (Sigma-Aldrich, RRID:AB_259529) for 1 hr at 4Â°C and protein A/
Nervous system function relies on precise synaptic connections. A number of widely-conserved cell adhesion proteins are implicated in cell recognition between synaptic partners, but how these proteins act as a group to specify a complex neural network is poorly understood. Taking advantage of known connectivity in C. elegans, we identified and studied cell adhesion genes expressed in three interacting neurons in the mating circuits of the adult male. Two interacting pairs of cell surface proteins independently promote fasciculation between sensory neuron HOA and its postsynaptic target interneuron AVG: BAM-2/neurexin-related in HOA binds to CASY-1/calsyntenin in AVG; SAX-7/L1CAM in sensory neuron PHC binds to RIG-6/contactin in AVG. A third, basal pathway results in considerable HOA-AVG fasciculation and synapse formation in the absence of the other two. The features of this multiplexed mechanism help to explain how complex connectivity is encoded and robustly established during nervous system development.
Literature context: a-Aldrich F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Bacterial and Virus Strains
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a transducer of local dendritic translation, participates in learning and memory processes as well as in mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviors. Using an unbiased RNA-seq approach, we identified Prosapip1 as a novel downstream target of mTORC1 whose translation and consequent synaptic protein expression are increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice excessively consuming alcohol. We demonstrate that alcohol-dependent increases in Prosapip1 levels promote the formation of actin filaments, leading to changes in dendritic spine morphology of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We further demonstrate that Prosapip1 is required for alcohol-dependent synaptic localization of GluA2 lacking AMPA receptors in NAc shell MSNs. Finally, we present data implicating Prosapip1 in mechanisms underlying alcohol self-administration and reward. Together, these data suggest that Prosapip1 in the NAc is a molecular transducer of structural and synaptic alterations that drive and/or maintain excessive alcohol use.
Literature context: ma-Aldrich: M2 mouse anti-FLAG (RRID:AB_259529), rabbit anti-FLAG (RRID:AB_439
Cell junctions are scaffolds that integrate mechanical and chemical signaling. We previously showed that a desmosomal cadherin promotes keratinocyte differentiation in an adhesion-independent manner by dampening Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activity. Here we identify a potential mechanism by which desmosomes assist the de-neddylating COP9 signalosome (CSN) in attenuating EGFR through an association between the Cops3 subunit of the CSN and desmosomal components, Desmoglein1 (Dsg1) and Desmoplakin (Dp), to promote epidermal differentiation. Silencing CSN or desmosome components shifts the balance of EGFR modifications from ubiquitination to neddylation, inhibiting EGFR dynamics in response to an acute ligand stimulus. A reciprocal relationship between loss of Dsg1 and neddylated EGFR was observed in a carcinoma model, consistent with a role in sustaining EGFR activity during tumor progression. Identification of this previously unrecognized function of the CSN in regulating EGFR neddylation has broad-reaching implications for understanding how homeostasis is achieved in regenerating epithelia.
Literature context: ibody Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
Approximately one-third of global CO2 fixation is performed by eukaryotic algae. Nearly all algae enhance their carbon assimilation by operating a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) built around an organelle called the pyrenoid, whose protein composition is largely unknown. Here, we developed tools in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the localizations of 135 candidate CCM proteins and physical interactors of 38 of these proteins. Our data reveal the identity of 89 pyrenoid proteins, including Rubisco-interacting proteins, photosystem I assembly factor candidates, and inorganic carbon flux components. We identify three previously undescribed protein layers of the pyrenoid: a plate-like layer, a mesh layer, and a punctate layer. We find that the carbonic anhydrase CAH6 is in the flagella, not in the stroma that surrounds the pyrenoid as in current models. These results provide an overview of proteins operating in the eukaryotic algal CCM, a key process that drives global carbon fixation.
Literature context: anti-FLAG M2 Sigma Cat# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit anti-FLAG Sigma Cat# F74
Axonal targeting of signaling receptors is essential for neuronal responses to extracellular cues. Here, we report that retrograde signaling by target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) is necessary for soma-to-axon transcytosis of TrkA receptors in sympathetic neurons, and we define the molecular underpinnings of this positive feedback regulation that enhances neuronal sensitivity to trophic factors. Activated TrkA receptors are retrogradely transported in signaling endosomes from distal axons to cell bodies, where they are inserted on soma surfaces and promote phosphorylation of resident naive receptors, resulting in their internalization. Endocytosed TrkA receptors are then dephosphorylated by PTP1B, an ER-resident protein tyrosine phosphatase, prior to axonal transport. PTP1B inactivation prevents TrkA exit from soma and causes receptor degradation, suggesting a "gatekeeper" mechanism that ensures targeting of inactive receptors to axons to engage with ligand. In mice, PTP1B deletion reduces axonal TrkA levels and attenuates neuron survival and target innervation under limiting NGF (NGF+/-) conditions.
Literature context: n this study: mAb Flag [F3165, (RRID:AB_259529); Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA], mA
PSD95 is an abundant postsynaptic scaffold protein in glutamatergic synapses that assembles into supercomplexes composed of over 80 proteins including neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels and adhesion proteins. How these diverse constituents are organized into PSD95 supercomplexes in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we dissected the supercomplexes in mice combining endogenous gene-tagging, targeted mutations and quantitative biochemical assays. Generating compound heterozygous mice with two different gene-tags, one on each Psd95 allele, showed that each ~1.5 MDa PSD95-containing supercomplex contains on average two PSD95 molecules. Gene-tagging the endogenous GluN1 and PSD95 with identical Flag tags revealed N-methyl D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) containing supercomplexes that represent only 3% of the total population of PSD95 supercomplexes, suggesting there are many other subtypes. To determine whether this extended population of different PSD95 supercomplexes use genetically defined mechanisms to specify their assembly, we tested the effect of five targeted mouse mutations on the assembly of known PSD95 interactors, Kir2.3, Arc, IQsec2/BRAG1 and Adam22. Unexpectedly, some mutations were highly selective, whereas others caused widespread disruption, indicating that PSD95 interacting proteins are organized hierarchically into distinct subfamilies of ~1.5 MDa supercomplexes, including a subpopulation of Kir2.3-NMDAR ion channel-channel supercomplexes. Kir2.3-NMDAR ion channel-channel supercomplexes were found to be anatomically restricted to particular brain regions. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that govern the constituents of postsynaptic supercomplexes and the diversity of synapse types. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 500. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13811.
Literature context: G M2 Antibody from Sigma (F3165 RRID:AB_259529) and anti-COPS7b antibody from
The importance of natural gene expression variation for human behavior is undisputed, but its impact on circadian physiology remains mostly unexplored. Using umbilical cord fibroblasts, we have determined by genome-wide association how common genetic variation impacts upon cellular circadian function. Gene set enrichment points to differences in protein catabolism as one major source of clock variation in humans. The two most significant alleles regulated expression of COPS7B, a subunit of the COP9 signalosome. We further show that the signalosome complex is imported into the nucleus in timed fashion to stabilize the essential circadian protein BMAL1, a novel mechanism to oppose its proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, circadian clock properties depend in part upon a genetically-encoded competition between stabilizing and destabilizing forces, and genetic alterations in these mechanisms provide one explanation for human chronotype.
Literature context: ntibodies: Flag M2 RRID:AB_259529; Anti Vinculin RRID:AB_10746313
The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that promotes tissue remodeling, tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion. uPAR mediates degradation of the extracellular matrix through protease recruitment and enhances cell adhesion, migration and signaling through vitronectin binding and interactions with integrins. Full-length uPAR is released from the cell surface, but the mechanism and significance of uPAR shedding remain obscure. Here we identify transmembrane glycerophosphodiesterase GDE3 as a GPI-specific phospholipase C that cleaves and releases uPAR with consequent loss of function, whereas its homologue GDE2 fails to attack uPAR. GDE3 overexpression depletes uPAR from distinct basolateral membrane domains in breast cancer cells, resulting in a less transformed phenotype, it slows tumor growth in a xenograft model and correlates with prolonged survival in patients. Our results establish GDE3 as a negative regulator of the uPAR signaling network and, furthermore, highlight GPI-anchor hydrolysis as a cell-intrinsic mechanism to alter cell behavior.
Literature context: gma, #F3165, RRID:AB_259529), 1:1000 anti-ubiquitin HRP-con
In fission yeast, meiosis-specific transcripts are selectively eliminated during vegetative growth by the combined action of the YTH-family RNA-binding protein Mmi1 and the nuclear exosome. Upon nutritional starvation, the master regulator of meiosis Mei2 inactivates Mmi1, thereby allowing expression of the meiotic program. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit Not4/Mot2 of the evolutionarily conserved Ccr4-Not complex, which associates with Mmi1, promotes suppression of meiotic transcripts expression in mitotic cells. Our analyses suggest that Mot2 directs ubiquitination of Mei2 to preserve the activity of Mmi1 during vegetative growth. Importantly, Mot2 is not involved in the constitutive pathway of Mei2 turnover, but rather plays a regulatory role to limit its accumulation or inhibit its function. We propose that Mmi1 recruits the Ccr4-Not complex to counteract its own inhibitor Mei2, thereby locking the system in a stable state that ensures the repression of the meiotic program by Mmi1.
Literature context: 5, Sigma-Aldrich Biotechnology, RRID:AB_259529) at 4Â°C overnight. After washin
Optineurin (OPTN) is an autophagy receptor protein that has been implicated in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. OPTN-mediated autophagy is a complex process involving many autophagy-regulating proteins. Autophagy plays a critical role in removing damaged organelles, intracellular pathogens, and protein aggregates to maintain cellular homeostasis. We identified Ypt1 as a novel interaction partner of OPTN by performing a large-scale yeast-human two-hybrid assay. Coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that OPTN interacted with Rab1, the mammalian homolog of yeast Ypt1, in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cell line. We confirmed this interaction by confocal microscopy showing intracellular colocalization of the two proteins. We observed that a zinc finger domain of OPTN is important for Rab1a binding. Rab1a activity is also required for the binding with OPTN. The role of the OPTN-Rab1a complex in neuronal autophagy was determined by measuring the translocation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-EGFP to autophagosomes. In N2a cells, OPTN-induced autophagosome formation was inhibited by Rab1a knockdown, indicating the important role of OPTN-Rab1a interaction in neuronal autophagy processes. Similarly, in N2a cells overexpressing Rab1a, serum starvation-induced formation of autophagosome was enhanced, while OPTN knockdown reduced the Rab1a-induced autophagy. These results show that the OPTN-Rab1a complex modulates autophagosome formation in neuroblastoma cells.
Literature context: uz, Sc-47778, 1:1000 dilution), Flag (Sigma, F3165-2MG, 1:2000 dilut
TAp63, a member of the p53 family, has been shown to regulate energy metabolism. Here, we report coiled coil domain-containing 3 (CCDC3) as a new TAp63 target. TAp63, but not ΔNp63, p53 or p73, upregulates CCDC3 expression by directly binding to its enhancer region. The CCDC3 expression is markedly reduced in TAp63-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and brown adipose tissues and by tumor necrosis factor alpha that reduces p63 transcriptional activity, but induced by metformin, an anti-diabetic drug that activates p63. Also, the expression of CCDC3 is positively correlated with TAp63 levels, but conversely with ΔNp63 levels, during adipocyte differentiation. Interestingly, CCDC3, as a secreted protein, targets liver cancer cells and increases long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but decreases ceramide in the cells. CCDC3 alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and steatosis formation in transgenic CCDC3 mice on high-fat diet (HFD) by reducing the expression of hepatic PPARγ and its target gene CIDEA as well as other genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Similar results are reproduced by hepatic expression of ectopic CCDC3 in mice on HFD. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CCDC3 modulates liver lipid metabolism by inhibiting liver de novo lipogenesis as a downstream player of the p63 network.
Literature context: t: F3165; RRID:AB_259529 BCL9 antib
MicroRNA-122, an abundant and conserved liver-specific miRNA, regulates hepatic metabolism and functions as a tumor suppressor, yet systematic and direct biochemical elucidation of the miR-122 target network remains incomplete. To this end, we performed Argonaute crosslinking immunoprecipitation (Argonaute [Ago]-CLIP) sequencing in miR-122 knockout and control mouse livers, as well as in matched human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and benign liver tissue to identify miRNA target sites transcriptome-wide in two species. We observed a majority of miR-122 binding on 3' UTRs and coding exons followed by extensive binding to other genic and non-genic sites. Motif analysis of miR-122-dependent binding revealed a G-bulged motif in addition to canonical motifs. A large number of miR-122 targets were found to be species specific. Upregulation of several common mouse and human targets, most notably BCL9, predicted survival in HCC patients. These results broadly define the molecular consequences of miR-122 downregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Literature context: ch F3165; RRID:AB_259529 anti-HA mo
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved homeostatic program that is activated by misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, it became evident that aberrant lipid compositions of the ER membrane, referred to as lipid bilayer stress, are equally potent in activating the UPR. The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remained unclear. We show that the most conserved transducer of ER stress, Ire1, uses an amphipathic helix (AH) to sense membrane aberrancies and control UPR activity. In vivo and in vitro experiments, together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, identify the physicochemical properties of the membrane environment that control Ire1 oligomerization. This work establishes the molecular mechanism of UPR activation by lipid bilayer stress.
Literature context: -FLAG-M2 (F3165: Sigma-Aldrich, RRID:AB_259529), anti-FLAG-M2-HRP (A8592: Sigm
SUV39H is the major histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9)-specific methyltransferase that targets pericentric regions and is crucial for assembling silent heterochromatin. SUV39H recognizes trimethylated H3K9 (H3K9me3) via its chromodomain (CD), and enriched H3K9me3 allows SUV39H to target specific chromosomal regions. However, the detailed targeting mechanisms, especially for naïve chromatin without preexisting H3K9me3, are poorly understood. Here we show that Suv39h1's CD (Suv39h1-CD) binds nucleic acids, and this binding is important for its function in heterochromatin assembly. Suv39h1-CD had higher binding affinity for RNA than DNA, and its ability to bind nucleic acids was independent of its H3K9me3 recognition. Suv39h1 bound major satellite RNAs in vivo, and knockdown of major satellite RNAs lowered Suv39h1 retention on pericentromere. Suv39h1 mutational studies indicated that both the nucleic acid-binding and H3K9me-binding activities of Suv39h1-CD were crucial for its pericentric heterochromatin assembly. These results suggest that chromatin-bound RNAs contribute to creating SUV39H's target specificity.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
Proteins of the Rbfox family act with a complex of proteins called the Large Assembly of Splicing Regulators (LASR). We find that Rbfox interacts with LASR via its C-terminal domain (CTD), and this domain is essential for its splicing activity. In addition to LASR recruitment, a low-complexity (LC) sequence within the CTD contains repeated tyrosines that mediate higher-order assembly of Rbfox/LASR and are required for splicing activation by Rbfox. This sequence spontaneously aggregates in solution to form fibrous structures and hydrogels, suggesting an assembly similar to the insoluble cellular inclusions formed by FUS and other proteins in neurologic disease. Unlike the pathological aggregates, we find that assembly of the Rbfox CTD plays an essential role in its normal splicing function. Rather than simple recruitment of individual regulators to a target exon, alternative splicing choices also depend on the higher-order assembly of these regulators within the nucleus.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Autophagy traditionally sustains metabolism in stressed cells by promoting intracellular catabolism and nutrient recycling. Here, we demonstrate that in response to stresses requiring increased glycolytic demand, the core autophagy machinery also facilitates glucose uptake and glycolytic flux by promoting cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1/Slc2a1. During metabolic stress, LC3+ autophagic compartments bind and sequester the RabGAP protein TBC1D5 away from its inhibitory interactions with the retromer complex, thereby enabling retromer recruitment to endosome membranes and GLUT1 plasma membrane translocation. In contrast, TBC1D5 inhibitory interactions with the retromer are maintained in autophagy-deficient cells, leading to GLUT1 mis-sorting into endolysosomal compartments. Furthermore, TBC1D5 depletion in autophagy-deficient cells rescues retromer recruitment to endosomal membranes and GLUT1 surface recycling. Hence, TBC1D5 shuttling to autophagosomes during metabolic stress facilitates retromer-dependent GLUT1 trafficking. Overall, our results illuminate key interconnections between the autophagy and endosomal pathways dictating GLUT1 trafficking and extracellular nutrient uptake.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 anti-H3K14
Faithful propagation of functionally distinct chromatin states is crucial for maintaining cellular identity, and its breakdown can lead to diseases such as cancer. Whereas mechanisms that sustain repressed states have been intensely studied, regulatory circuits that protect active chromatin from inactivating signals are not well understood. Here we report a positive feedback loop that preserves the transcription-competent state of RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. We found that Pdp3 recruits the histone acetyltransferase Mst2 to H3K36me3-marked chromatin. Thereby, Mst2 binds to all transcriptionally active regions genome-wide. Besides acetylating histone H3K14, Mst2 also acetylates Brl1, a component of the histone H2B ubiquitin ligase complex. Brl1 acetylation increases histone H2B ubiquitination, which positively feeds back on transcription and prevents ectopic heterochromatin assembly. Our work uncovers a molecular pathway that secures epigenome integrity and highlights the importance of opposing feedback loops for the partitioning of chromatin into transcriptionally active and inactive states.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit ant
Mutations in cancer reprogram amino acid metabolism to drive tumor growth, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified mTORC2 as a critical regulator of amino acid metabolism in cancer via phosphorylation of the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT. mTORC2 phosphorylates serine 26 at the cytosolic N terminus of xCT, inhibiting its activity. Genetic inhibition of mTORC2, or pharmacologic inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, promotes glutamate secretion, cystine uptake, and incorporation into glutathione, linking growth factor receptor signaling with amino acid uptake and utilization. These results identify an unanticipated mechanism regulating amino acid metabolism in cancer, enabling tumor cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Literature context: t#H00008878-M01; RRID: AB_437085Mouse anti-FLAG (Clone M2)Sigma-AldrichF3165Mouse anti-WIPI2N/AMouse ant
Autophagy maintains cellular health and homeostasis during stress by delivering cytosolic material captured by autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation is complex: initiated by the recruitment of autophagy (Atg) proteins to the formation site, it is sustained by activation of Atg proteins to allow growth and closure of the autophagosome. How Atg proteins are translocated to the forming autophagosome is not fully understood. Transport of the ATG8 family member GABARAP from the centrosome occurs during starvation-induced autophagosome biogenesis, but how centrosomal proteins regulate GABARAP localization is unknown. We show that the centriolar satellite protein PCM1 regulates the recruitment of GABARAP to the pericentriolar material. In addition to residing on the pericentriolar material, GABARAP marks a subtype of PCM1-positive centriolar satellites. GABARAP, but not another ATG8 family member LC3B, binds directly to PCM1 through a canonical LIR motif. Loss of PCM1 results in destabilization of GABARAP, but not LC3B, through proteasomal degradation. GABARAP instability is mediated through the centriolar satellite E3 ligase Mib1, which interacts with GABARAP through its substrate-binding region and promotes K48-linked ubiquitination of GABARAP. Ubiquitination of GABARAP occurs in the N terminus, a domain associated with ATG8-family-specific functions during autophagosome formation, on residues absent in the LC3 family. Furthermore, PCM1-GABARAP-positive centriolar satellites colocalize with forming autophagosomes. PCM1 enhances GABARAP/WIPI2/p62-positive autophagosome formation and flux but has no significant effect on LC3B-positive autophagosome formation. These data suggest a mechanism for how centriolar satellites can specifically regulate an ATG8 ortholog, the centrosomal GABARAP reservoir, and centrosome-autophagosome crosstalk.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Extracellular cues that regulate cellular shape, motility, and navigation are generally classified as growth promoting (i.e., growth factors/chemoattractants and attractive guidance cues) or growth preventing (i.e., repellents and inhibitors). Yet, these designations are often based on complex assays and undefined signaling pathways and thus may misrepresent direct roles of specific cues. Here, we find that a recognized growth-promoting signaling pathway amplifies the F-actin disassembly and repulsive effects of a growth-preventing pathway. Focusing on Semaphorin/Plexin repulsion, we identified an interaction between the F-actin-disassembly enzyme Mical and the Abl tyrosine kinase. Biochemical assays revealed Abl phosphorylates Mical to directly amplify Mical Redox-mediated F-actin disassembly. Genetic assays revealed that Abl allows growth factors and Semaphorin/Plexin repellents to combinatorially increase Mical-mediated F-actin disassembly, cellular remodeling, and repulsive axon guidance. Similar roles for Mical in growth factor/Abl-related cancer cell behaviors further revealed contexts in which characterized positive effectors of growth/guidance stimulate such negative cellular effects as F-actin disassembly/repulsion.
Literature context: anti-FLAG M2 Sigma Cat#: F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Alexa 790 Goat anti-Mouse IgG I
Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations in Presenilins (PSEN) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) lead to production of longer amyloidogenic Aβ peptides. The shift in Aβ length is fundamental to the disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that substrate shortening progressively destabilizes the consecutive enzyme-substrate (E-S) complexes that characterize the sequential γ-secretase processing of APP. Remarkably, pathogenic PSEN or APP mutations further destabilize labile E-S complexes and thereby promote generation of longer Aβ peptides. Similarly, destabilization of wild-type E-S complexes by temperature, compounds, or detergent promotes release of amyloidogenic Aβ. In contrast, E-Aβn stabilizers increase γ-secretase processivity. Our work presents a unifying model for how PSEN or APP mutations enhance amyloidogenic Aβ production, suggests that environmental factors may increase AD risk, and provides the theoretical basis for the development of γ-secretase/substrate stabilizing compounds for the prevention of AD.
Literature context: ch F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rat monocl
Alternative splicing (AS) patterns have diverged rapidly during vertebrate evolution, yet the functions of most species- and lineage-specific splicing events are not known. We observe that mammalian-specific AS events are enriched in transcript sequences encoding intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins, in particular those containing glycine/tyrosine repeats that mediate formation of higher-order protein assemblies implicated in gene regulation and human disease. These evolutionary changes impact nearly all members of the hnRNP A and D families of RNA binding proteins. Regulation of these events requires formation of unusual, long-range mammalian-specific RNA duplexes. Differential inclusion of the alternative exons controls the formation of tyrosine-dependent multivalent hnRNP assemblies that, in turn, function to globally regulate splicing. Together, our results demonstrate that AS control of IDR-mediated interactions between hnRNPs represents an important and recurring mechanism underlying splicing regulation. Furthermore, this mechanism has expanded the regulatory capacity of mammalian cells.
Literature context: nal antibody Sigma Cat # F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Chemicals, Peptides, and Recomb
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate diverse signaling in part through interaction with arrestins, whose binding promotes receptor internalization and signaling through G protein-independent pathways. High-affinity arrestin binding requires receptor phosphorylation, often at the receptor's C-terminal tail. Here, we report an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) crystal structure of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex, in which the phosphorylated C terminus of rhodopsin forms an extended intermolecular β sheet with the N-terminal β strands of arrestin. Phosphorylation was detected at rhodopsin C-terminal tail residues T336 and S338. These two phospho-residues, together with E341, form an extensive network of electrostatic interactions with three positively charged pockets in arrestin in a mode that resembles binding of the phosphorylated vasopressin-2 receptor tail to β-arrestin-1. Based on these observations, we derived and validated a set of phosphorylation codes that serve as a common mechanism for phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of arrestins by GPCRs.
Literature context: 65, RRID:AB_259529), and anti-HA (MBL, M180-3, AB_
Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification which is catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Here, we report that PRMT1 is highly expressed in neural stem/precursor cells (NS/PCs) of mouse embryos, and knockdown of PRMT1 in NS/PCs suppresses the generation of astrocytes. The luciferase assay demonstrated that knockdown of PRMT1 inhibits activation of the promoter of a typical astrocytic marker gene, glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), in NS/PCs. The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is known to generally be critical for astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs. We found that PRMT1 methylates arginine residue(s) of STAT3 to regulate its activity positively, resulting in the promotion of astrocytic differentiation of NS/PCs.
Literature context: ma F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Goat anti-
R loops have positive physiological roles, but they can also be deleterious by causing genome instability, and the mechanisms for this are unknown. Here we identified yeast histone H3 and H4 mutations that facilitate R loops but do not cause instability. R loops containing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), versus RNA-DNA hybrids alone, were demonstrated using ssDNA-specific human AID and bisulfite. Notably, they are similar size regardless of whether or not they induce genome instability. Contrary to mutants causing R loop-mediated instability, these histone mutants do not accumulate H3 serine-10 phosphate (H3S10-P). We propose a two-step mechanism in which, first, an altered chromatin facilitates R loops, and second, chromatin is modified, including H3S10-P, as a requisite for compromising genome integrity. Consistently, these histone mutations suppress the high H3S10 phosphorylation and genomic instability of hpr1 and sen1 mutants. Therefore, contrary to what was previously believed, R loops do not cause genome instability by themselves.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in tumor growth. Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generated from glucose and acetate uptake is important for histone acetylation and gene expression. However, how acetyl-CoA is produced under nutritional stress is unclear. We demonstrate here that glucose deprivation results in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) phosphorylation at S659, which exposed the nuclear localization signal of ACSS2 for importin α5 binding and nuclear translocation. In the nucleus, ACSS2 binds to transcription factor EB and translocates to lysosomal and autophagy gene promoter regions, where ACSS2 incorporates acetate generated from histone acetylation turnover to locally produce acetyl-CoA for histone H3 acetylation in these regions and promote lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy, cell survival, and brain tumorigenesis. In addition, ACSS2 S659 phosphorylation positively correlates with AMPK activity in glioma specimens and grades of glioma malignancy. These results underscore the significance of nuclear ACSS2-mediated histone acetylation in maintaining cell homeostasis and tumor development.
Literature context: -Aldrich; RRID:AB_259529) rabbit an
Polarity is a shared feature of most cells. In epithelia, apical-basal polarity often coexists, and sometimes intersects with planar cell polarity (PCP), which orients cells in the epithelial plane. From a limited set of core building blocks (e.g. the Par complexes for apical-basal polarity and the Frizzled/Dishevelled complex for PCP), a diverse array of polarized cells and tissues are generated. This suggests the existence of little-studied tissue-specific factors that rewire the core polarity modules to the appropriate conformation. In Drosophila sensory organ precursors (SOPs), the core PCP components initiate the planar polarization of apical-basal determinants, ensuring asymmetric division into daughter cells of different fates. We show that Meru, a RASSF9/RASSF10 homologue, is expressed specifically in SOPs, recruited to the posterior cortex by Frizzled/Dishevelled, and in turn polarizes the apical-basal polarity factor Bazooka (Par3). Thus, Meru belongs to a class of proteins that act cell/tissue-specifically to remodel the core polarity machinery.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
Genetic studies have elucidated critical roles of Piwi proteins in germline development in animals, but whether Piwi is an actual disease gene in human infertility remains unknown. We report germline mutations in human Piwi (Hiwi) in patients with azoospermia that prevent its ubiquitination and degradation. By modeling such mutations in Piwi (Miwi) knockin mice, we demonstrate that the genetic defects are directly responsible for male infertility. Mechanistically, we show that MIWI binds the histone ubiquitin ligase RNF8 in a Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-independent manner, and MIWI stabilization sequesters RNF8 in the cytoplasm of late spermatids. The resulting aberrant sperm show histone retention, abnormal morphology, and severely compromised activity, which can be functionally rescued via blocking RNF8-MIWI interaction in spermatids with an RNF8-N peptide. Collectively, our findings identify Piwi as a factor in human infertility and reveal its role in regulating the histone-to-protamine exchange during spermiogenesis.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
During eukaryotic evolution, ribosomes have considerably increased in size, forming a surface-exposed ribosomal RNA (rRNA) shell of unknown function, which may create an interface for yet uncharacterized interacting proteins. To investigate such protein interactions, we establish a ribosome affinity purification method that unexpectedly identifies hundreds of ribosome-associated proteins (RAPs) from categories including metabolism and cell cycle, as well as RNA- and protein-modifying enzymes that functionally diversify mammalian ribosomes. By further characterizing RAPs, we discover the presence of ufmylation, a metazoan-specific post-translational modification (PTM), on ribosomes and define its direct substrates. Moreover, we show that the metabolic enzyme, pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM), interacts with sub-pools of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated ribosomes, exerting a non-canonical function as an RNA-binding protein in the translation of ER-destined mRNAs. Therefore, RAPs interconnect one of life's most ancient molecular machines with diverse cellular processes, providing an additional layer of regulatory potential to protein expression.
Literature context: 5, Sigma, RRID:AB_259529), anti-Î²-a
RIG-I is a key cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that interacts with MAVS to induce type I interferons (IFNs) against RNA virus infection. In this study, we found that cyclophilin A (CypA), a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, functioned as a critical positive regulator of RIG-I-mediated antiviral immune responses. Deficiency of CypA impaired RIG-I-mediated type I IFN production and promoted viral replication in human cells and mice. Upon Sendai virus infection, CypA increased the interaction between RIG-I and its E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25, leading to enhanced TRIM25-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I that facilitated recruitment of RIG-I to MAVS. In addition, CypA and TRIM25 competitively interacted with MAVS, thereby inhibiting TRIM25-induced K48-linked ubiquitination of MAVS. Taken together, our findings reveal an essential role of CypA in boosting RIG-I-mediated antiviral immune responses by controlling the ubiquitination of RIG-I and MAVS.
Literature context: at#F3165: RRID:AB_259529 Bacterial
The androgen receptor (AR) is critical for the progression of prostate cancer to a castration-resistant (CRPC) state. AR antagonists are ineffective due to their inability to repress the expression of AR or its splice variant, AR-V7. Here, we report that the tyrosine kinase ACK1 (TNK2) phosphorylates histone H4 at tyrosine 88 upstream of the AR transcription start site. The WDR5/MLL2 complex reads the H4-Y88-phosphorylation marks and deposits the transcriptionally activating H3K4-trimethyl marks promoting AR transcription. Reversal of the pY88-H4 epigenetic marks by the ACK1 inhibitor (R)-9bMS-sensitized naive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells and reduced AR and AR-V7 levels to mitigate CRPC tumor growth. Thus, a feedforward ACK1/pY88-H4/WDR5/MLL2/AR epigenetic circuit drives CRPC and is necessary for maintenance of the malignant state.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Maintenance of a minimal telomere length is essential to prevent cellular senescence. When critically short telomeres arise in the absence of telomerase, they can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) to prevent premature senescence onset. It is unclear why specifically the shortest telomeres are targeted for HDR. We demonstrate that the non-coding RNA TERRA accumulates as HDR-promoting RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) preferentially at very short telomeres. The increased level of TERRA and R-loops, exclusively at short telomeres, is due to a local defect in RNA degradation by the Rat1 and RNase H2 nucleases, respectively. Consequently, the coordination of TERRA degradation with telomere replication is altered at shortened telomeres. R-loop persistence at short telomeres contributes to activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and promotes recruitment of the Rad51 recombinase. Thus, the telomere length-dependent regulation of TERRA and TERRA R-loops is a critical determinant of the rate of replicative senescence.
Literature context: -Aldrich, RRID:AB_259529), or anti-
Based on observations of markers for DNA lesions, such as phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and open DNA ends, it has been suggested that post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (PM-DSBs) enable chromatin remodeling during animal spermiogenesis. However, the existence of PM-DSBs is unconfirmed, and the mechanism responsible for their formation is unclear. Here, we report the first direct observation of programmed PM-DSBs via the electrophoretic separation of DSB-generated DNA fragments in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. These PM-DSBs are accompanied by switching from a heterochromatic to euchromatic chromatin structure in the haploid pronucleus. Both a topoisomerase II paralog with exclusive pronuclear expression and Spo11 are prerequisites for PM-DSB induction. Reduced PM-DSB induction blocks euchromatin formation, characterized by histone H3K56 acetylation, leading to a failure in gametic nuclei production. We propose that PM-DSBs are responsible for histone replacement during the reprogramming of generative to undifferentiated progeny nuclei.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
Cytosolic nucleic acid sensing elicits interferon production for primary antiviral defense through cascades controlled by protein ubiquitination and Ser/Thr phosphorylation. Here we show that TBK1, a core kinase of antiviral pathways, is inhibited by tyrosine phosphorylation. The Src family kinases (SFKs) Lck, Hck, and Fgr directly phosphorylate TBK1 at Tyr354/394, to prevent TBK1 dimerization and activation. Accordingly, antiviral sensing and resistance were substantially enhanced in Lck/Hck/Fgr triple knockout cells and ectopic expression of Lck/Hck/Fgr dampened the antiviral defense in cells and zebrafish. Small-molecule inhibitors of SFKs, which are conventional anti-tumor therapeutics, enhanced antiviral responses and protected zebrafish and mice from viral attack. Viral infection induced the expression of Lck/Hck/Fgr through TBK1-mediated mobilization of IRF3, thus constituting a negative feedback loop. These findings unveil the negative regulation of TBK1 via tyrosine phosphorylation and the functional integration of SFKs into innate antiviral immunity.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit ant
CRISPR-Cas nucleoproteins target foreign DNA via base pairing with a crRNA. However, a quantitative description of protein binding and nuclease activation at off-target DNA sequences remains elusive. Here, we describe a chip-hybridized association-mapping platform (CHAMP) that repurposes next-generation sequencing chips to simultaneously measure the interactions between proteins and ∼107 unique DNA sequences. Using CHAMP, we provide the first comprehensive survey of DNA recognition by a type I-E CRISPR-Cas (Cascade) complex and Cas3 nuclease. Analysis of mutated target sequences and human genomic DNA reveal that Cascade recognizes an extended protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Cascade recognizes DNA with a surprising 3-nt periodicity. The identity of the PAM and the PAM-proximal nucleotides control Cas3 recruitment by releasing the Cse1 subunit. These findings are used to develop a model for the biophysical constraints governing off-target DNA binding. CHAMP provides a framework for high-throughput, quantitative analysis of protein-DNA interactions on synthetic and genomic DNA. PAPERCLIP.
Literature context: CloneM2, RRID:AB_259529), anti-FLA
IRE1α is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized endonuclease activated by misfolded proteins in the ER. Previously, we demonstrated that IRE1α forms a complex with the Sec61 translocon, to which its substrate XBP1u mRNA is recruited for cleavage during ER stress (Plumb et al., 2015). Here, we probe IRE1α complexes in cells with blue native PAGE immunoblotting. We find that IRE1α forms a hetero-oligomeric complex with the Sec61 translocon that is activated upon ER stress with little change in the complex. In addition, IRE1α oligomerization, activation, and inactivation during ER stress are regulated by Sec61. Loss of the IRE1α-Sec61 translocon interaction as well as severe ER stress conditions causes IRE1α to form higher-order oligomers that exhibit continuous activation and extended cleavage of XBP1u mRNA. Thus, we propose that the Sec61-IRE1α complex defines the extent of IRE1α activity and may determine cell fate decisions during ER stress conditions.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Goat polyc
The C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like 1) is a regulatory hub for transcriptional coactivators and repressors that compete for binding and, consequently, contributes to period determination of the mammalian circadian clock. Here, we report the discovery of two distinct conformational states that slowly exchange within the dynamic TAD to control timing. This binary switch results from cis/trans isomerization about a highly conserved Trp-Pro imide bond in a region of the TAD that is required for normal circadian timekeeping. Both cis and trans isomers interact with transcriptional regulators, suggesting that isomerization could serve a role in assembling regulatory complexes in vivo. Toward this end, we show that locking the switch into the trans isomer leads to shortened circadian periods. Furthermore, isomerization is regulated by the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases, highlighting the potential for regulation of BMAL1 protein dynamics in period determination.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Maintenance of proper levels of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is critical for a wide variety of biological processes. We demonstrate that the N6-adenosine methyltransferase METTL16 regulates expression of human MAT2A, which encodes the SAM synthetase expressed in most cells. Upon SAM depletion by methionine starvation, cells induce MAT2A expression by enhanced splicing of a retained intron. Induction requires METTL16 and its methylation substrate, a vertebrate conserved hairpin (hp1) in the MAT2A 3' UTR. Increasing METTL16 occupancy on the MAT2A 3' UTR is sufficient to induce efficient splicing. We propose that, under SAM-limiting conditions, METTL16 occupancy on hp1 increases due to inefficient enzymatic turnover, which promotes MAT2A splicing. We further show that METTL16 is the long-unknown methyltransferase for the U6 spliceosomal small nuclear RNA (snRNA). These observations suggest that the conserved U6 snRNA methyltransferase evolved an additional function in vertebrates to regulate SAM homeostasis.
Literature context: a #F3165, RRID:AB_259529, 1:1000).
The etiological underpinnings of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are complex and incompletely understood, although contributions to pathogenesis by regulators of proteolytic pathways have become increasingly apparent. Here, we present a novel variant in UBQLN4 that is associated with ALS and show that its expression compromises motor axon morphogenesis in mouse motor neurons and in zebrafish. We further demonstrate that the ALS-associated UBQLN4 variant impairs proteasomal function, and identify the Wnt signaling pathway effector beta-catenin as a UBQLN4 substrate. Inhibition of beta-catenin function rescues the UBQLN4 variant-induced motor axon phenotypes. These findings provide a strong link between the regulation of axonal morphogenesis and a new ALS-associated gene variant mediated by protein degradation pathways.
Literature context: ch F3165; RRID:AB_259529 human albu
Efforts to identify pharmaceuticals to treat heritable metabolic liver diseases have been hampered by the lack of models. However, cells with hepatocyte characteristics can be produced from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that cardiac glycosides reduce the production of apolipoprotein B (apoB) from human hepatocytes in culture and the serum of avatar mice harboring humanized livers. The drugs act by increasing the turnover of apoB protein. Analyses of patient medical records revealed that the treatment of patients with cardiac glycosides reduced serum LDL-C levels. These studies highlight the effectiveness of using iPSCs to screen for potential treatments for inborn errors of hepatic metabolism and suggest that cardiac glycosides could provide an approach for reducing hepatocyte production of apoB and treating hypercholesterolemia.
Literature context: F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Polyclonal
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is an epigenetic enzyme that regulates key cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell survival, by deacetylating histone substrates. Aberrant expression of HDAC1 is implicated in multiple diseases, including cancer. As a consequence, HDAC inhibitors have emerged as effective anti-cancer drugs. HDAC inhibitor-induced G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest has been attributed to epigenetic transcriptional changes mediated by histone acetylation. However, the mechanism of G2/M arrest remains poorly understood. Here, we identified mitosis-related protein Eg5 (KIF11) as an HDAC1 substrate using a trapping mutant strategy. HDAC1 colocalized with Eg5 during mitosis and influenced the ATPase activity of Eg5. Importantly, an HDAC1- and HDAC2-selective inhibitor caused mitotic arrest and monopolar spindle formation, consistent with a model in which Eg5 deacetylation by HDAC1 is critical for mitotic progression. These findings revealed a previously unknown mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors involving Eg5 acetylation, and provide a compelling mechanistic hypothesis for HDAC inhibitor-mediated G2/M arrest.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Biological
The dynamic and reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification installed and erased by N6-methyltransferases and demethylases regulates gene expression and cell fate. We show that the m6A demethylase ALKBH5 is highly expressed in glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). Silencing ALKBH5 suppresses the proliferation of patient-derived GSCs. Integrated transcriptome and m6A-seq analyses revealed altered expression of certain ALKBH5 target genes, including the transcription factor FOXM1. ALKBH5 demethylates FOXM1 nascent transcripts, leading to enhanced FOXM1 expression. Furthermore, a long non-coding RNA antisense to FOXM1 (FOXM1-AS) promotes the interaction of ALKBH5 with FOXM1 nascent transcripts. Depleting ALKBH5 and FOXM1-AS disrupted GSC tumorigenesis through the FOXM1 axis. Our work uncovers a critical function for ALKBH5 and provides insight into critical roles of m6A methylation in glioblastoma.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Purified M
Hedgehog (Hh) has been known as the only cholesterol-modified morphogen playing pivotal roles in development and tumorigenesis. A major unsolved question is how Hh signaling regulates the activity of Smoothened (SMO). Here, we performed an unbiased biochemical screen and identified that SMO was covalently modified by cholesterol on the Asp95 (D95) residue through an ester bond. This modification was inhibited by Patched-1 (Ptch1) but enhanced by Hh. The SMO(D95N) mutation, which could not be cholesterol modified, was refractory to Hh-stimulated ciliary localization and failed to activate downstream signaling. Furthermore, homozygous SmoD99N/D99N (the equivalent residue in mouse) knockin mice were embryonic lethal with severe cardiac defects, phenocopying the Smo-/- mice. Together, the results of our study suggest that Hh signaling transduces to SMO through modulating its cholesterylation and provides a therapeutic opportunity to treat Hh-pathway-related cancers by targeting SMO cholesterylation.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is the methyl donor for biological methylation modifications that regulate protein and nucleic acid functions. Here, we show that methylation of a phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), is a major consumer of SAM. The induction of phospholipid biosynthetic genes is accompanied by induction of the enzyme that hydrolyzes S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a product and inhibitor of methyltransferases. Beyond its function for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the methylation of PE facilitates the turnover of SAM for the synthesis of cysteine and glutathione through transsulfuration. Strikingly, cells that lack PE methylation accumulate SAM, which leads to hypermethylation of histones and the major phosphatase PP2A, dependency on cysteine, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Without PE methylation, particular sites on histones then become methyl sinks to enable the conversion of SAM to SAH. These findings reveal an unforeseen metabolic function for phospholipid and histone methylation intrinsic to the life of a cell.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit ant
Aging is attended by a progressive decline in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), aggravating the risk for protein aggregation diseases. To understand the coordination between proteome imbalance and longevity, we addressed the mechanistic role of the quality-control ubiquitin ligase CHIP, which is a key regulator of proteostasis. We observed that CHIP deficiency leads to increased levels of the insulin receptor (INSR) and reduced lifespan of worms and flies. The membrane-bound INSR regulates the insulin and IGF1 signaling (IIS) pathway and thereby defines metabolism and aging. INSR is a direct target of CHIP, which triggers receptor monoubiquitylation and endocytic-lysosomal turnover to promote longevity. However, upon proteotoxic stress conditions and during aging, CHIP is recruited toward disposal of misfolded proteins, reducing its capacity to degrade the INSR. Our study indicates a competitive relationship between proteostasis and longevity regulation through CHIP-assisted proteolysis, providing a mechanistic concept for understanding the impact of proteome imbalance on aging.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
During pancreatic development, proliferating pancreatic progenitors activate the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into islet cells. The mechanisms that direct robust NEUROG3 expression within a subset of progenitor cells control the size of the endocrine population. Here we demonstrate that NEUROG3 is phosphorylated within the nucleus on serine 183, which catalyzes its hyperphosphorylation and proteosomal degradation. During progression through the progenitor cell cycle, NEUROG3 phosphorylation is driven by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4/6 at G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint. Using models of mouse and human pancreas development, we show that lengthening of the G1 phase of the pancreatic progenitor cell cycle is essential for proper induction of NEUROG3 and initiation of endocrine cell differentiation. In sum, these studies demonstrate that progenitor cell-cycle G1 lengthening, through its actions on stabilization of NEUROG3, is an essential variable in normal endocrine cell genesis.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit ant
In cells experiencing unrelieved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the ER transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease (RNase)-IRE1α-endonucleolytically degrades ER-localized mRNAs to promote apoptosis. Here we find that the ABL family of tyrosine kinases rheostatically enhances IRE1α's enzymatic activities, thereby potentiating ER stress-induced apoptosis. During ER stress, cytosolic ABL kinases localize to the ER membrane, where they bind, scaffold, and hyperactivate IRE1α's RNase. Imatinib-an anti-cancer tyrosine kinase inhibitor-antagonizes the ABL-IRE1α interaction, blunts IRE1α RNase hyperactivity, reduces pancreatic β cell apoptosis, and reverses type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. A mono-selective kinase inhibitor that allosterically attenuates IRE1α's RNase-KIRA8-also efficaciously reverses established diabetes in NOD mice by sparing β cells and preserving their physiological function. Our data support a model wherein ER-stressed β cells contribute to their own demise during T1D pathogenesis and implicate the ABL-IRE1α axis as a drug target for the treatment of an autoimmune disease.
Literature context: at#F3165, RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster of the Rieske protein, UQCRFS1, is essential for Complex III (CIII) activity, though the mechanism for Fe-S cluster transfer has not previously been elucidated. Recent studies have shown that the co-chaperone HSC20, essential for Fe-S cluster biogenesis of SDHB, directly binds LYRM7, formerly described as a chaperone that stabilizes UQCRFS1 prior to its insertion into CIII. Here we report that a transient subcomplex involved in CIII assembly, composed of LYRM7 bound to UQCRFS1, interacts with components of an Fe-S transfer complex, consisting of HSC20, its cognate chaperone HSPA9, and the holo-scaffold ISCU. Binding of HSC20 to the LYR motif of LYRM7 in a pre-assembled UQCRFS1-LYRM7 intermediate in the mitochondrial matrix facilitates Fe-S cluster transfer to UQCRFS1. The five Fe-S cluster subunits of Complex I also interact with HSC20 to acquire their clusters, highlighting the crucial role of HSC20 in the assembly of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Literature context: O;Â F3165; RRID:AB_259529) were used
Mutations in FAM20A cause tooth enamel defects known as Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) and renal calcification. We previously showed that Fam20A is a secretory pathway pseudokinase and allosterically activates the physiological casein kinase Fam20C to phosphorylate secreted proteins important for biomineralization (Cui et al., 2015). Here we report the nucleotide-free and ATP-bound structures of Fam20A. Fam20A exhibits a distinct disulfide bond pattern mediated by a unique insertion region. Loss of this insertion due to abnormal mRNA splicing interferes with the structure and function of Fam20A, resulting in AI. Fam20A binds ATP in the absence of divalent cations, and strikingly, ATP is bound in an inverted orientation compared to other kinases. Fam20A forms a dimer in the crystal, and residues in the dimer interface are critical for Fam20C activation. Together, these results provide structural insights into the function of Fam20A and shed light on the mechanism by which Fam20A mutations cause disease.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
Autophagy is crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. However, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy initiation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that glutamine deprivation and hypoxia result in inhibition of mTOR-mediated acetyl-transferase ARD1 S228 phosphorylation, leading to ARD1-dependent phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) K388 acetylation and subsequent PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation enhances ATG14L-associated class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase VPS34 activity by increasing the binding of phosphatidylinositol to VPS34. ARD1-dependent PGK1 acetylation and PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation are required for glutamine deprivation- and hypoxia-induced autophagy and brain tumorigenesis. Furthermore, PGK1 K388 acetylation levels correlate with Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation levels and poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Our study unearths an important mechanism underlying cellular-stress-induced autophagy initiation in which the protein kinase activity of the metabolic enzyme PGK1 plays an instrumental role and reveals the significance of the mutual regulation of autophagy and cell metabolism in maintaining cell homeostasis.
Literature context: Cat#F3165 RRID:AB_259529 Myc-tag Sa
Intracellular signaling via the covalent attachment of different ubiquitin linkages to protein substrates is fundamental to many cellular processes. Although linkage-selective ubiquitin interactors have been studied on a case-by-case basis, proteome-wide analyses have not been conducted yet. Here, we present ubiquitin interactor affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry (UbIA-MS), a quantitative interaction proteomics method that makes use of chemically synthesized diubiquitin to enrich and identify ubiquitin linkage interactors from crude cell lysates. UbIA-MS reveals linkage-selective diubiquitin interactions in multiple cell types. For example, we identify TAB2 and TAB3 as novel K6 diubiquitin interactors and characterize UCHL3 as a K27-linkage selective interactor that regulates K27 polyubiquitin chain formation in cells. Additionally, we show a class of monoubiquitin and K6 diubiquitin interactors whose binding is induced by DNA damage. We expect that our proteome-wide diubiquitin interaction landscape and established workflows will have broad applications in the ongoing efforts to decipher the complex language of ubiquitin signaling.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse anti
In budding yeast, the nuclear RNA surveillance system is active on all pre-mRNA transcripts and modulated by nutrient availability. To test the role of nuclear surveillance in reprogramming gene expression, we identified transcriptome-wide binding sites for RNA polymerase II and the exosome cofactors Mtr4 (TRAMP complex) and Nab3 (NNS complex) by UV crosslinking immediately following glucose withdrawal (0, 4, and 8 min). In glucose, mRNA binding by Nab3 and Mtr4 was mainly restricted to promoter-proximal sites, reflecting early transcription termination. Following glucose withdrawal, many growth-related mRNAs showed reduced transcription but increased Nab3 binding, accompanied by downstream recruitment of Mtr4, and oligo(A) tailing. We conclude that transcription termination is followed by TRAMP-mediated RNA decay. Upregulated transcripts evaded increased surveillance factor binding following glucose withdrawal. Some upregulated genes showed use of alternative transcription starts to bypass strong NNS binding sites. We conclude that nuclear surveillance pathways regulate both positive and negative responses to glucose availability.
Literature context: ch F3165; RRID:AB_259529 HA Sigma-A
Telomeres employ TRF2 to protect chromosome ends from activating the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), thereby repressing ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. How TRF2 prevents MRN activation at dysfunctional telomeres is unclear. Here, we show that the phosphorylation status of NBS1 determines the repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres. The crystal structure of the TRF2-NBS1 complex at 3.0 Å resolution shows that the NBS1 429YQLSP433 motif interacts specifically with the TRF2TRFH domain. Phosphorylation of NBS1 serine 432 by CDK2 in S/G2 dissociates NBS1 from TRF2, promoting TRF2-Apollo/SNM1B complex formation and the protection of leading-strand telomeres. Classical-NHEJ-mediated repair of telomeres lacking TRF2 requires phosphorylated NBS1S432 to activate ATM, while interaction of de-phosphorylated NBS1S432 with TRF2 promotes alternative-NHEJ repair of telomeres lacking POT1-TPP1. Our work advances understanding of how the TRF2TRFH domain orchestrates telomere end protection and reveals how the phosphorylation status of the NBS1S432 dictates repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres.
Literature context: mouseSigma-AldrichF3165; RRID: AB_259529Anti-FLAG, rabbitCell Signaling#
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of RNA-binding proteins plays an important role in the formation of multiple membrane-less organelles involved in RNA metabolism, including stress granules. Defects in stress granule homeostasis constitute a cornerstone of ALS/FTLD pathogenesis. Polar residues (tyrosine and glutamine) have been previously demonstrated to be critical for phase separation of ALS-linked stress granule proteins. We now identify an active role for arginine-rich domains in these phase separations. Moreover, arginine-rich dipeptide repeats (DPRs) derived from C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions similarly undergo LLPS and induce phase separation of a large set of proteins involved in RNA and stress granule metabolism. Expression of arginine-rich DPRs in cells induced spontaneous stress granule assembly that required both eIF2α phosphorylation and G3BP. Together with recent reports showing that DPRs affect nucleocytoplasmic transport, our results point to an important role for arginine-rich DPRs in the pathogenesis of C9orf72 ALS/FTLD.
Literature context: at# F3165 RRID:AB_259529; 1:300), a
Obligate intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis replicate in a membrane-bound vacuole called inclusion, which serves as a signaling interface with the host cell. Here, we show that the chlamydial deubiquitinating enzyme (Cdu) 1 localizes in the inclusion membrane and faces the cytosol with the active deubiquitinating enzyme domain. The structure of this domain revealed high similarity to mammalian deubiquitinases with a unique α-helix close to the substrate-binding pocket. We identified the apoptosis regulator Mcl-1 as a target that interacts with Cdu1 and is stabilized by deubiquitination at the chlamydial inclusion. A chlamydial transposon insertion mutant in the Cdu1-encoding gene exhibited increased Mcl-1 and inclusion ubiquitination and reduced Mcl-1 stabilization. Additionally, inactivation of Cdu1 led to increased sensitivity of C. trachomatis for IFNγ and impaired infection in mice. Thus, the chlamydial inclusion serves as an enriched site for a deubiquitinating activity exerting a function in selective stabilization of host proteins and protection from host defense.
Literature context: 2Sigma-AldrichCat# F3165, RRID: AB_259529Mouse anti-GFPClontech Laborator
Protein aggregation is associated with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and polyglutamine diseases. As a causal relationship between protein aggregation and neurodegeneration remains elusive, understanding the cellular mechanisms regulating protein aggregation will help develop future treatments. To identify such mechanisms, we conducted a forward genetic screen in a C. elegans model of polyglutamine aggregation and identified the protein MOAG-2/LIR-3 as a driver of protein aggregation. In the absence of polyglutamine, MOAG-2/LIR-3 regulates the RNA polymerase III-associated transcription of small non-coding RNAs. This regulation is lost in the presence of polyglutamine, which mislocalizes MOAG-2/LIR-3 from the nucleus to the cytosol. We then show biochemically that MOAG-2/LIR-3 can also catalyze the aggregation of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin. These results suggest that polyglutamine can induce an aggregation-promoting activity of MOAG-2/LIR-3 in the cytosol. The concept that certain aggregation-prone proteins can convert other endogenous proteins into drivers of aggregation and toxicity adds to the understanding of how cellular homeostasis can be deteriorated in protein misfolding diseases.
Literature context: t# F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rat anti-m
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs essential for animal germ cell development. Despite intense investigation of post-transcriptional processing, chromatin regulators for piRNA biogenesis in mammals remain largely unexplored. Here we document that BTBD18 is a pachytene nuclear protein in mouse testes that occupies a subset of pachytene piRNA-producing loci. Ablation of Btbd18 in mice disrupts piRNA biogenesis, prevents spermiogenesis, and results in male sterility. Transcriptome profiling, chromatin accessibility, and RNA polymerase II occupancy demonstrate that BTBD18 facilitates expression of pachytene piRNA precursors by promoting transcription elongation. Thus, our study identifies BTBD18 as a specific controller for transcription activation through RNA polymerase II elongation at a subset of genomic piRNA loci.
Literature context: . #F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Diverse cellular stressors have been observed to trigger site-specific ubiquitination on several ribosomal proteins. However, the ubiquitin ligases, biochemical consequences, and physiologic pathways linked to these modifications are not known. Here, we show in mammalian cells that the ubiquitin ligase ZNF598 is required for ribosomes to terminally stall during translation of poly(A) sequences. ZNF598-mediated stalling initiated the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) pathway for degradation of nascent truncated proteins. Biochemical ubiquitination reactions identified two sites of mono-ubiquitination on the 40S protein eS10 as the primary ribosomal target of ZNF598. Cells lacking ZNF598 activity or containing ubiquitination-resistant eS10 ribosomes failed to stall efficiently on poly(A) sequences. In the absence of stalling, read-through of poly(A) produces a poly-lysine tag, which might alter the localization and solubility of the associated protein. Thus, ribosome ubiquitination can modulate translation elongation and impacts co-translational quality control to minimize production of aberrant proteins.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Environmental cues provoke rapid transitions in gene expression to support growth and cellular plasticity through incompletely understood mechanisms. Lin28 RNA-binding proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in post-transcriptional coordination of pro-growth gene expression, but signaling pathways allowing trophic stimuli to induce Lin28 have remained uncharacterized. We find that Lin28a protein exhibits rapid basal turnover in neurons and that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of the RNA-silencing factor HIV TAR-RNA-binding protein (TRBP) promotes binding and stabilization of Lin28a, but not Lin28b, with an accompanying reduction in Lin28-regulated miRNAs, downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Binding of Lin28a to TRBP in vitro is also enhanced by phospho-mimic TRBP. Further, phospho-TRBP recapitulates BDNF-induced neuronal dendritic spine growth in a Lin28a-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate MAPK-dependent TRBP and Lin28a induction, with physiological function in growth and survival, downstream of diverse growth factors in multiple primary cell types, supporting a broad role for this pathway in trophic responses.
Literature context: at# F3165 RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Ribosomes that experience terminal stalls during translation are resolved by ribosome-associated quality control (QC) pathways that oversee mRNA and nascent chain destruction and recycle ribosomal subunits. The proximal factors that sense stalled ribosomes and initiate mammalian ribosome-associated QC events remain undefined. We demonstrate that the ZNF598 ubiquitin ligase and the 40S ribosomal protein RACK1 help to resolve poly(A)-induced stalled ribosomes. They accomplish this by regulating distinct and overlapping regulatory 40S ribosomal ubiquitylation events. ZNF598 primarily mediates regulatory ubiquitylation of RPS10 and RPS20, whereas RACK1 regulates RPS2, RPS3, and RPS20 ubiquitylation. Gain or loss of ZNF598 function or mutations that block RPS10 or RPS20 ubiquitylation result in defective resolution of stalled ribosomes and subsequent readthrough of poly(A)-containing stall sequences. Together, our results indicate that ZNF598, RACK1, and 40S regulatory ubiquitylation plays a pivotal role in mammalian ribosome-associated QC pathways.
Literature context: FLAG-M2 (RRID:AB_259529), GST (RRI
The ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 is a key regulator of canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulation. Here, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1 (OTUD2) as a novel interactor of TRAF6 in human cells. YOD1 binds to the C-terminal TRAF homology domain of TRAF6 that also serves as the interaction surface for the adaptor p62/Sequestosome-1, which is required for IL-1 signaling to NF-κB. We show that YOD1 competes with p62 for TRAF6 association and abolishes the sequestration of TRAF6 to cytosolic p62 aggregates by a non-catalytic mechanism. YOD1 associates with TRAF6 in unstimulated cells but is released upon IL-1β stimulation, thereby facilitating TRAF6 auto-ubiquitination as well as NEMO/IKKγ substrate ubiquitination. Further, IL-1 triggered IKK/NF-κB signaling and induction of target genes is decreased by YOD1 overexpression and augmented after YOD1 depletion. Hence, our data define that YOD1 antagonizes TRAF6/p62-dependent IL-1 signaling to NF-κB.
Literature context: nti-FLAG (RRID:AB_259529) antibodie
The high levels of serine (S) and threonine (T) residues within the Presenilin 1 (PS1) N-terminus and in the large hydrophilic loop region suggest that the enzymatic function of PS1/γ-secretase can be modulated by its 'phosphorylated' and 'dephosphorylated' states. However, the functional outcome of PS1 phosphorylation and its significance for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, comprehensive analysis using FRET-based imaging reveals that activity-driven and Protein Kinase A-mediated PS1 phosphorylation at three domains (domain 1: T74, domain 2: S310 and S313, domain 3: S365, S366, and S367), with S367 being critical, is responsible for the PS1 pathogenic 'closed' conformation, and resulting increase in the Aβ42/40 ratio. Moreover, we have established novel imaging assays for monitoring PS1 conformation in vivo, and report that PS1 phosphorylation induces the pathogenic conformational shift in the living mouse brain. These phosphorylation sites represent potential new targets for AD treatment.
Literature context: t# F3165, RRID:AB_259529 ANTI-FLAG
Chromosomal translocations of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with various partner genes result in aggressive leukemia with dismal outcomes. Despite similar expression at the mRNA level from the wild-type and chimeric MLL alleles, the chimeric protein is more stable. We report that UBE2O functions in regulating the stability of wild-type MLL in response to interleukin-1 signaling. Targeting wild-type MLL degradation impedes MLL leukemia cell proliferation, and it downregulates a specific group of target genes of the MLL chimeras and their oncogenic cofactor, the super elongation complex. Pharmacologically inhibiting this pathway substantially delays progression, and it improves survival of murine leukemia through stabilizing wild-type MLL protein, which displaces the MLL chimera from some of its target genes and, therefore, relieves the cellular oncogenic addiction to MLL chimeras. Stabilization of MLL provides us with a paradigm in the development of therapies for aggressive MLL leukemia and perhaps for other cancers caused by translocations.
Literature context: t#:F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit Con
CBP/p300 are transcription co-activators whose binding is a signature of enhancers, cis-regulatory elements that control patterns of gene expression in multicellular organisms. Active enhancers produce bi-directional enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and display CBP/p300-dependent histone acetylation. Here, we demonstrate that CBP binds directly to RNAs in vivo and in vitro. RNAs bound to CBP in vivo include a large number of eRNAs. Using steady-state histone acetyltransferase (HAT) assays, we show that an RNA binding region in the HAT domain of CBP-a regulatory motif unique to CBP/p300-allows RNA to stimulate CBP's HAT activity. At enhancers where CBP interacts with eRNAs, stimulation manifests in RNA-dependent changes in the histone acetylation mediated by CBP, such as H3K27ac, and by corresponding changes in gene expression. By interacting directly with CBP, eRNAs contribute to the unique chromatin structure at active enhancers, which, in turn, is required for regulation of target genes.
Literature context: nts were incubated with 2Â Âµg of anti-Flag antibody (Sigma, M2) bound to protein-AG
Mutations in SIX1 and in its co-factor, EYA1, underlie Branchiootorenal Spectrum disorder (BOS), which is characterized by variable branchial arch, otic and kidney malformations. However, mutations in these two genes are identified in only half of patients. We screened for other potential co-factors, and herein characterize one of them, Pa2G4 (aka Ebp1/Plfap). In human embryonic kidney cells, Pa2G4 binds to Six1 and interferes with the Six1-Eya1 complex. In Xenopus embryos, knock-down of Pa2G4 leads to down-regulation of neural border zone, neural crest and cranial placode genes, and concomitant expansion of neural plate genes. Gain-of-function leads to a broader neural border zone, expanded neural crest and altered cranial placode domains. In loss-of-function assays, the later developing otocyst is reduced in size, which impacts gene expression. In contrast, the size of the otocyst in gain-of-function assays is not changed but the expression domains of several otocyst genes are reduced. Together these findings establish an interaction between Pa2G4 and Six1, and demonstrate that it has an important role in the development of tissues affected in BOS. Thereby, we suggest that pa2g4 is a potential candidate gene for BOS.
Literature context: 5, Sigma, RRID:AB_259529), rabbit a
IRBIT is a molecule that interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-binding pocket of the IP3 receptor (IP3R), whereas the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl2l10, binds to another part of the IP3-binding domain. Here we show that Bcl2l10 and IRBIT interact and exert an additive inhibition of IP3R in the physiological state. Moreover, we found that these proteins associate in a complex in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and that their interplay is involved in apoptosis regulation. MAMs are a hotspot for Ca2+ transfer between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and massive Ca2+ release through IP3R in mitochondria induces cell death. We found that upon apoptotic stress, IRBIT is dephosphorylated, becoming an inhibitor of Bcl2l10. Moreover, IRBIT promotes ER mitochondria contact. Our results suggest that by inhibiting Bcl2l10 activity and promoting contact between ER and mitochondria, IRBIT facilitates massive Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria and promotes apoptosis. This work then describes IRBIT as a new regulator of cell death.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Horseradis
S phase and mitotic onset are brought about by the action of multiple different cyclin-CDK complexes. However, it has been suggested that changes in the total level of CDK kinase activity, rather than substrate specificity, drive the temporal ordering of S phase and mitosis. Here, we present a phosphoproteomics-based systems analysis of CDK substrates in fission yeast and demonstrate that the phosphorylation of different CDK substrates can be temporally ordered during the cell cycle by a single cyclin-CDK. This is achieved by rising CDK activity and the differential sensitivity of substrates to CDK activity over a wide dynamic range. This is combined with rapid phosphorylation turnover to generate clearly resolved substrate-specific activity thresholds, which in turn ensures the appropriate ordering of downstream cell-cycle events. Comparative analysis with wild-type cells expressing multiple cyclin-CDK complexes reveals how cyclin-substrate specificity works alongside activity thresholds to fine-tune the patterns of substrate phosphorylation.
Literature context: t# F3165, RRID:AB_259529 Anti Mex67
Chromatin dynamics play an essential role in regulating DNA transaction processes, but it is unclear whether transcription-associated chromatin modifications control the mRNA ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) pipeline from synthesis to nuclear exit. Here, we identify the yeast ISW1 chromatin remodeling complex as an unanticipated mRNP nuclear export surveillance factor that retains export-incompetent transcripts near their transcription site. This tethering activity of ISW1 requires chromatin binding and is independent of nucleosome sliding activity or changes in RNA polymerase II processivity. Combination of in vivo UV-crosslinking and genome-wide RNA immunoprecipitation assays show that Isw1 and its cofactors interact directly with premature mRNPs. Our results highlight that the concerted action of Isw1 and the nuclear exosome ensures accurate surveillance mechanism that proofreads the efficiency of mRNA biogenesis.
Literature context: G (RRID:AB_259529, M2, Sigma-Aldrich, 1: 2000), m
Although it is currently understood that the exon junction complex (EJC) is recruited on spliced mRNA by a specific interaction between its central protein, eIF4AIII, and splicing factor CWC22, we found that eIF4AIII and the other EJC core proteins Y14 and MAGO bind the nascent transcripts of not only intron-containing but also intronless genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. Additionally, Y14 ChIP-seq demonstrates that association with transcribed genes is also splicing-independent in Drosophila S2 cells. The association of the EJC proteins with nascent transcripts does not require CWC22 and that of Y14 and MAGO is independent of eIF4AIII. We also show that eIF4AIII associates with both polysomal and monosomal RNA in S2 cell extracts, whereas Y14 and MAGO fractionate separately. Cumulatively, our data indicate a global role of eIF4AIII in gene expression, which would be independent of Y14 and MAGO, splicing, and of the EJC, as currently understood.
Literature context: 3165 Lot# RRID:AB_259529), Rabbit a
Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue. Our evidence supports dual roles for Dlish. Dlish tethers Dachs to the subapical cell cortex, an effect partly mediated by the palmitoyltransferase Approximated under the control of Fat. Conversely, Dlish promotes the Fat-mediated degradation of Dachs.
Literature context: ch F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Mouse mono
Mitochondrial ribosomes translate membrane integral core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system encoded by mtDNA. These translation products associate with nuclear-encoded, imported proteins to form enzyme complexes that produce ATP. Here, we show that human mitochondrial ribosomes display translational plasticity to cope with the supply of imported nuclear-encoded subunits. Ribosomes expressing mitochondrial-encoded COX1 mRNA selectively engage with cytochrome c oxidase assembly factors in the inner membrane. Assembly defects of the cytochrome c oxidase arrest mitochondrial translation in a ribosome nascent chain complex with a partially membrane-inserted COX1 translation product. This complex represents a primed state of the translation product that can be retrieved for assembly. These findings establish a mammalian translational plasticity pathway in mitochondria that enables adaptation of mitochondrial protein synthesis to the influx of nuclear-encoded subunits.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Two complementary approaches were used in search of the intracellular targets of the toxic PR poly-dipeptide encoded by the repeat sequences expanded in the C9orf72 form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The top categories of PRn-bound proteins include constituents of non-membrane invested cellular organelles and intermediate filaments. PRn targets are enriched for the inclusion of low complexity (LC) sequences. Evidence is presented indicating that LC sequences represent the direct target of PRn binding and that interaction between the PRn poly-dipeptide and LC domains is polymer-dependent. These studies indicate that PRn-mediated toxicity may result from broad impediments to the dynamics of cell structure and information flow from gene to message to protein.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Goat Anti-
Synthetic biology uses living cells as molecular foundries for the biosynthesis of drugs, therapeutic proteins, and other commodities. However, the need for specialized equipment and refrigeration for production and distribution poses a challenge for the delivery of these technologies to the field and to low-resource areas. Here, we present a portable platform that provides the means for on-site, on-demand manufacturing of therapeutics and biomolecules. This flexible system is based on reaction pellets composed of freeze-dried, cell-free transcription and translation machinery, which can be easily hydrated and utilized for biosynthesis through the addition of DNA encoding the desired output. We demonstrate this approach with the manufacture and functional validation of antimicrobial peptides and vaccines and present combinatorial methods for the production of antibody conjugates and small molecules. This synthetic biology platform resolves important practical limitations in the production and distribution of therapeutics and molecular tools, both to the developed and developing world.
Literature context: ma F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Anti-V5 Li
Genome-scale expression studies and comprehensive loss-of-function genetic screens have focused almost exclusively on the highest confidence candidate genes. Here, we describe a strategy for characterizing the lower confidence candidates identified by such approaches. We interrogated 177 genes that we classified as essential for the proliferation of cancer cells exhibiting constitutive β-catenin activity and integrated data for each of the candidates, derived from orthogonal short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9-mediated gene editing knockout screens, to yield 69 validated genes. We then characterized the relationships between sets of these genes using complementary assays: medium-throughput stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry, yielding 3,639 protein-protein interactions, and a CRISPR-mediated pairwise double knockout screen, yielding 375 combinations exhibiting greater- or lesser-than-additive phenotypic effects indicating genetic interactions. These studies identify previously unreported regulators of β-catenin, define functional networks required for the survival of β-catenin-active cancers, and provide an experimental strategy that may be applied to define other signaling networks.
Literature context: at#F3165; RRID:AB_259529 Rabbit pol
Alternative splicing is prevalent in the mammalian brain. To interrogate the functional role of alternative splicing in neural development, we analyzed purified neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons from developing cerebral cortices, revealing hundreds of differentially spliced exons that preferentially alter key protein domains-especially in cytoskeletal proteins-and can harbor disease-causing mutations. We show that Ptbp1 and Rbfox proteins antagonistically govern the NPC-to-neuron transition by regulating neuron-specific exons. Whereas Ptbp1 maintains apical progenitors partly through suppressing a poison exon of Flna in NPCs, Rbfox proteins promote neuronal differentiation by switching Ninein from a centrosomal splice form in NPCs to a non-centrosomal isoform in neurons. We further uncover an intronic human mutation within a PTBP1-binding site that disrupts normal skipping of the FLNA poison exon in NPCs and causes a brain-specific malformation. Our study indicates that dynamic control of alternative splicing governs cell fate in cerebral cortical development.
Literature context: antibody (RRID:AB_259529, Sigma-Ald
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins found in a range of plant pathogenic bacteria, where they play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after they have been injected into the host cells, activate transcription of host genes required for infection success. Here, we show that the basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit TFIIAγ5 from rice is a key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent for bacterial blight. Direct interaction of several TALEs with TFIIAγ5 is required for activation of disease susceptibility genes. Conversely, reduced expression of the TFIIAγ5 host gene limits the induction of susceptibility genes and thus decreases bacterial blight symptoms. Suppression or mutation of TFIIAγ5 can also reduce bacterial streak, another devastating disease of rice caused by TALE-carrying X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. These results have important implications for formulating a widely applicable strategy with which to improve resistance of plants to TALE-carrying pathogens.
Literature context: o. F3165, RRID:AB_259529).
BACKGROUND: MCT14 (SLC16A14) is an orphan member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, also known as the SLC16 family of secondary active transmembrane transporters. Available expression data for this transporter is limited, and in this paper we aim to characterize MCT14 with respect to tissue distribution and cellular localization in mouse brain. RESULTS: Using qPCR, we found that Slc16a14 mRNA was highly abundant in mouse kidney and moderately in central nervous system, testis, uterus and liver. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we determined that MCT14 was highly expressed in excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as epithelial cells in the mouse brain. The expression was exclusively localized to the soma of neurons. Furthermore, we showed with our phylogenetic analysis that MCT14 most closely relate to the aromatic amino acid- and thyroid-hormone transporters MCT8 (SLC16A2) and MCT10 (SLC16A10), in addition to the carnitine transporter MCT9 (SLC16A9). CONCLUSIONS: We provide here the first histological mapping of MCT14 in the brain and our data are consistent with the hypothesis that MCT14 is a neuronal aromatic-amino-acid transporter.
Mechanisms of endocrine secretory granule (SG) formation in thyroid C cells and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cells have not been fully elucidated. Here we directly demonstrated that PROX1, a developmental homeobox gene, is transcriptionally involved in SG formation in MTC, which is derived from C cells. Analyses using gene expression databases on web sites revealed that, among thyroid cancer cells, MTC cells specifically and highly express PROX1 as well as several SG-forming molecule genes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that in vivo MTC and C cells expressed PROX1, although follicular thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer cells, normal follicular cells did not. Knockdown of PROX1 in an MTC cells reduced SGs detected by electron microscopy, and decreased expression of SG-related genes (chromogranin A, chromogranin B, secretogranin II, secretogranin III, synaptophysin, and carboxypeptidase E). Conversely, the introduction of a PROX1 transgene into a papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells induced the expression of SG-related genes. Reporter assays using the promoter sequence of chromogranin A showed that PROX1 activates the chromogranin A gene in addition to the known regulatory mechanisms, which are mediated via the cAMP response element binding protein and the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays demonstrated that PROX1 binds to the transcriptional regulatory element of the chromogranin A gene. In conclusion, PROX1 is an important regulator of endocrine SG formation in MTC cells.
Literature context: -FLAG M2 (RRID:AB_259529; 1:2,500;
The regenerative capacity of the injured CNS in adult mammals is severely limited, yet axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) regrow, albeit to a limited extent, after injury. We reasoned that coordinate regulation of gene expression in injured neurons involving multiple pathways was central to PNS regenerative capacity. To provide a framework for revealing pathways involved in PNS axon regrowth after injury, we applied a comprehensive systems biology approach, starting with gene expression profiling of dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) combined with multi-level bioinformatic analyses and experimental validation of network predictions. We used this rubric to identify a drug that accelerates DRG neurite outgrowth in vitro and optic nerve outgrowth in vivo by inducing elements of the identified network. The work provides a functional genomics foundation for understanding neural repair and proof of the power of such approaches in tackling complex problems in nervous system biology.
Literature context: t# F3165, RRID:AB_259529) of 1:1000
BACKGROUND: Plant terpenoids are known for their diversity, stereochemical complexity, and their commercial interest as pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics. Developing biotechnology approaches for the production of these compounds in heterologous hosts can increase their market availability, reduce their cost, and provide sustainable production platforms. In this context, we aimed at producing the antimicrobial diterpenoid isopimaric acid from Sitka spruce. Isopimaric acid is synthesized using geranylgeranyl diphosphate as a precursor molecule that is cyclized by a diterpene synthase in the chloroplast and subsequently oxidized by a cytochrome P450, CYP720B4. RESULTS: We transiently expressed the isopimaric acid pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and enhanced its productivity by the expression of two rate-limiting steps in the pathway (providing the general precursor of diterpenes). This co-expression resulted in 3-fold increase in the accumulation of both isopimaradiene and isopimaric acid detected using GC-MS and LC-MS methodology. We also showed that modifying or deleting the transmembrane helix of CYP720B4 does not alter the enzyme activity and led to successful accumulation of isopimaric acid in the infiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a modified membrane anchor is a prerequisite for a functional CYP720B4 enzyme when the chloroplast targeting peptide is added. We report the accumulation of 45-55 μg/g plant dry weight of isopimaric acid four days after the infiltration with the modified enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to localize a diterpenoid pathway from spruce fully within the chloroplast of N. benthamiana and a few modifications of the N-terminal sequences of the CYP720B4 can facilitate the expression of plant P450s in the plastids. The coupling of terpene biosynthesis closer to photosynthesis paves the way for light-driven biosynthesis of valuable terpenoids.
Literature context: ginal catalog number unspecifiedMouse monoclonal IgG1 Î± FLAGAntibodySigmaâ€“AldrichF3165Origin
The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate is a competitive inhibitor of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases' by Xu and colleagues, published in Cancer Cell in 2011 (Xu et al., 2011). The key experiments being replicated include Supplemental Figure 3I, which demonstrates that transfection with mutant forms of IDH1 increases levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), Figures 3A and 8A, which demonstrate changes in histone methylation after treatment with 2-HG, and Figures 3D and 7B, which show that mutant IDH1 can effect the same changes as treatment with excess 2-HG. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.
Literature context: s included anti-FLAG M2 (Sigma, catalog no. F3165), anti-HA 12CA5 (Roche, catalog
Ubiquitination by the E3 ligase Nedd4 and deubiquitination by the deubiquitinases USP20 and USP33 have been shown to regulate the lysosomal trafficking and recycling of agonist-activated β2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs). In this work, we demonstrate that, in cells subjected to physiological stress by nutrient starvation, agonist-activated ubiquitinated β2ARs traffic to autophagosomes to colocalize with the autophagy marker protein LC3-II. Furthermore, this trafficking is synchronized by dynamic posttranslational modifications of USP20 that, in turn, are induced in a β2AR-dependent manner. Upon β2AR activation, a specific isoform of the second messenger cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKAα) rapidly phosphorylates USP20 on serine 333 located in its unique insertion domain. This phosphorylation of USP20 correlates with a characteristic SDS-PAGE mobility shift of the protein, blocks its deubiquitinase activity, promotes its dissociation from the activated β2AR complex, and facilitates trafficking of the ubiquitinated β2AR to autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes where receptors are degraded. Dephosphorylation of USP20 has reciprocal effects and blocks trafficking of the β2AR to autophagosomes while promoting plasma membrane recycling of internalized β2ARs. Our findings reveal a dynamic regulation of USP20 by site-specific phosphorylation as well as the interdependence of signal transduction and trafficking pathways in balancing adrenergic stimulation and maintaining cellular homeostasis.
Relaxin-like factor, commonly known as insulin-like factor (INSL3), is essential for testis descent during fetal development; however, its function in the adult testis is still being elucidated. The study aimed to identify a relaxin family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2)-specific antibody suitable for immunological approaches, analyze which testicular germ cell types express RXFP2, and clarify its expression dynamics in the boar testis. In addition, the function of INSL3-RXFP2 signaling on the germ cells was explored by neutralizing INSL3 using long-term active immunization. Samples were collected from Duroc boars, and a commercially available RXFP2-specific antibody directed against the human RXFP2 endodomain was identified by characterizing its specificity in HEK-293 cells expressing mouse RXFP2, and by demonstrating the suitability for analyzing RXFP2 expression in porcine tissues. RXFP2 mRNA and protein were both localized mainly in meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells, but not in Leydig cells. Functional RXFP2, which enables INSL3 to bind, was detected as an ∼85-kDa band, which increased in intensity from the pubertal stage onward. Interestingly, INSL3 immunization significantly reduced testis weight and induced a 4-fold increase in the frequency of apoptotic germ cells, which was associated with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 (CASP3) and BAX, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic XIAP and BCL2, and a substantial reduction in sperm concentration. These results revealed that RXFP2 was expressed in boar meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells, where INSL3 neutralization led to increased germ cell apoptosis and reduced sperm output, suggesting that INSL3 acts as a survival/anti-apoptotic factor in maintaining sperm production.
Several rapid physiological effects of thyroid hormone on mammalian cells in vitro have been shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but the molecular mechanism of PI3K regulation by nuclear zinc finger receptor proteins for thyroid hormone and its relevance to brain development in vivo have not been elucidated. Here we show that, in the absence of hormone, the thyroid hormone receptor TRβ forms a cytoplasmic complex with the p85 subunit of PI3K and the Src family tyrosine kinase, Lyn, which depends on two canonical phosphotyrosine motifs in the second zinc finger of TRβ that are not conserved in TRα. When hormone is added, TRβ dissociates and moves to the nucleus, and phosphatidylinositol (3, 4, 5)-trisphosphate production goes up rapidly. Mutating either tyrosine to a phenylalanine prevents rapid signaling through PI3K but does not prevent the hormone-dependent transcription of genes with a thyroid hormone response element. When the rapid signaling mechanism was blocked chronically throughout development in mice by a targeted point mutation in both alleles of Thrb, circulating hormone levels, TRβ expression, and direct gene regulation by TRβ in the pituitary and liver were all unaffected. However, the mutation significantly impaired maturation and plasticity of the Schaffer collateral synapses on CA1 pyramidal neurons in the postnatal hippocampus. Thus, phosphotyrosine-dependent association of TRβ with PI3K provides a potential mechanism for integrating regulation of development and metabolism by thyroid hormone and receptor tyrosine kinases.
Literature context: g #F3165, RRID:AB_259529) using sta
Most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain are formed on dendritic spines, and spine density has a profound impact on synaptic transmission, integration, and plasticity. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins are intracellular scaffolding proteins with well established roles in synapse function. However, whether MAGUK proteins are required for the formation of dendritic spines in vivo is unclear. We isolated a novel disc large-5 (Dlg5) allele in mice, Dlg5(LP), which harbors a missense mutation in the DLG5 SH3 domain, greatly attenuating its ability to interact with the DLG5 GUK domain. We show here that DLG5 is a MAGUK protein that regulates spine formation, synaptogenesis, and synaptic transmission in cortical neurons. DLG5 regulates synaptogenesis by enhancing the cell surface localization of N-cadherin, revealing a key molecular mechanism for regulating the subcellular localization of this cell adhesion molecule during synaptogenesis.
Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the KISS1 metastasis-suppressor gene, are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor (KISS1R). KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and KISS1R expression in patient breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. We have shown that KP-10 stimulates invasion of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we report that either KP-10 treatment of ERα-negative nonmalignant mammary epithelial MCF10A cells or expression of KISS1R in MCF10A cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype and stimulated invasiveness. Similarly, exogenous expression of KISS1R in ERα-negative SKBR3 breast cancer cells was sufficient to trigger invasion and induced extravasation in vivo. In contrast, KP-10 failed to transactivate EGFR or stimulate invasiveness in the ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. This suggested that ERα negatively regulates KISS1R-dependent breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and EGFR transactivation. In support of this, we found that these KP-10-induced effects were ablated upon exogenous expression of ERα in the MDA-MB-231 cells, by down-regulating KISS1R expression. Lastly, we have identified IQGAP1, an actin cytoskeletal binding protein as a novel binding partner of KISS1R, and have shown that KISS1R regulates EGFR transactivation in breast cancer cells in an IQGAP1-dependent manner. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the ERα status of mammary cells dictates whether KISS1R may be a novel clinical target for treating breast cancer metastasis.
Literature context: ternational, Grand Island, NY), FLAG (F-3165; Sigma-Aldrich), Mad2 (
The cell has many mechanisms for protecting the integrity of its genome. These mechanisms are often weakened or absent in many cancers, leading to high rates of chromosomal instability in tumors. Control of the cell cycle is crucial for the function of these checkpoints, and is frequently lost in cancers as well. Overexpression of Cyclin D1 in a large number of breast cancers causes overactivation of the cyclin-dependent kinases, including Cdk2. Constitutive Cdk2 activation through Cyclin D1 generates tumors in mice that are aneuploid and have many characteristics indicative of chromosomal instability. Expression of these complexes in the MCF10A cell line leads to retinoblastoma protein (Rb) hyperphosphorylation, a subsequent increase in proliferation rate, and increased expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. This results in a strengthening of the spindle assembly checkpoint and renders cells more sensitive to the spindle poison paclitaxel. Constitutive Rb phosphorylation also causes a weakening of the p53-dependent tetraploidy checkpoint. Cells with overactive Cdk2 fail to arrest after mitotic slippage in the presence of paclitaxel or cytokinesis failure during treatment with cytochalasin-B, generating 8N populations. This additional increase in DNA content appears to further intensify the tetraploidy checkpoint in a step-wise manner. These polyploid cells are not viable long-term, either failing to undergo division or creating daughter cells that are unable to undergo subsequent division. This study raises intriguing questions about the treatment of tumors with overactive Cdk2.
Kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 (Kirrel3), a mammalian homolog of the kirre gene of Drosophila melanogaster, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Previously, we have reported that Kirrel3 is expressed in the developing and adult central nervous system. In the present study we investigated the expression of Kirrel3 in the mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and their projection targets. In the adult DRGs, Kirrel3 mRNA was detected in 21.5 +/- 2.3% of total DRG neurons and the expression was mainly prevalent in the medium- and large-sized neurons. In addition, Kirrel3 mRNA predominantly colocalized with tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) C-immunoreactivity. In the developing DRGs, Kirrel3 mRNA was first detected in a few cells at embryonic day (E) 11.5, gradually increased, and reached the adult level at E17.5. During the development, Kirrel3 was expressed in most TrkC-positive DRG neurons. The expression of Kirrel3 was observed in TrkC-positive nerve fibers around neurotrophin 3 (NT3)-positive intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles at E17.5. However, Kirrel3 was not expressed in TrkC-positive nerve fibers projecting to the spinal cord throughout development. Furthermore, nephrin was expressed in the NT3-positive intrafusal muscle fibers and was in close apposition with Kirrel3-immunoreactivity. Coimmunoprecipitation assay revealed that nephrin interacted with Kirrel3 in the developing muscles. These results suggest that Kirrel3 might play a role in the axonal pathfinding, cell recognition, and synapse formation of DRG neurons on appropriate target cells, including the targeting of proprioceptive neurons on muscle spindles through the interaction with nephrin.
Many ligands that affect nervous system development are members of gene families that function together to coordinate the assembly of complex neural circuits. cpg15/neuritin encodes an extracellular ligand that promotes neurite growth, neuronal survival, and synaptic maturation. Here we identify cpg15-2 as the only paralogue of cpg15 in the mouse and human genome. Both genes are expressed predominantly in the nervous system, where their expression is regulated by activity. cpg15-2 expression increases by more than twofold in response to kainate-induced seizures and nearly fourfold in the visual cortex in response to 24 hours of light exposure following dark adaptation. cpg15 and cpg15-2 diverge in their spatial and temporal expression profiles. cpg15-2 mRNA is most abundant in the retina and the olfactory bulb, as opposed to the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus for cpg15. In the retina, they differ in their cell-type specificity. cpg15 is expressed in retinal ganglion cells, whereas cpg15-2 is predominantly in bipolar cells. Developmentally, onset of cpg15-2 expression is delayed compared with cpg15 expression. CPG15-2 is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored to the cell membrane and, like CPG15, can be released in a soluble-secreted form, but with lower efficiency. CPG15 and CPG15-2 were found to form homodimers and heterodimers with each other. In hippocampal explants and dissociated cultures, CPG15 and CPG15-2 promote neurite growth and neuronal survival with similar efficacy. Our findings suggest that CPG15 and CPG15-2 perform similar cellular functions but may play distinct roles in vivo through their cell-type- and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation.