X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Anti-Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide antibody produced in rabbit

RRID:AB_259091

Antibody ID

AB_259091

Target Antigen

Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) rat

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# C8198, RRID:AB_259091)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Vendor recommendations: Immunohistochemistry; Radioimmunoassay; Western Blot; Dot blot, Immunohistochemistry, Radioimmunoassay

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Loss of Atoh1 from neurons regulating hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoresponses causes neonatal respiratory failure in mice.

  • van der Heijden ME
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Atoh1-null mice die at birth from respiratory failure, but the precise cause has remained elusive. Loss of Atoh1 from various components of the respiratory circuitry (e.g., the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN)) have so far produced at most 50% neonatal lethality. To identify other Atoh1-lineage neurons that contribute to postnatal survival, we examined parabrachial complex neurons derived from the rostral rhombic lip (rRL) and found that they are activated during respiratory chemochallenges. Atoh1-deletion from the rRL does not affect survival, but causes apneas and respiratory depression during hypoxia, likely due to loss of projections to the preBötzinger Complex and RTN. Atoh1 thus promotes the development of the neural circuits governing hypoxic (rRL) and hypercapnic (RTN) chemoresponses, and combined loss of Atoh1 from these regions causes fully penetrant neonatal lethality. This work underscores the importance of modulating respiratory rhythms in response to chemosensory information during early postnatal life.

Funding information:
  • American Heart Association - Predoctoral fellowship award number 17PRE33660616()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM083975(United States)

Optogenetic Inhibition of CGRPα Sensory Neurons Reveals Their Distinct Roles in Neuropathic and Incisional Pain.

  • Cowie AM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cutaneous somatosensory neurons convey innocuous and noxious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli from peripheral tissues to the CNS. Among these are nociceptive neurons that express calcitonin gene-related peptide-α (CGRPα). The role of peripheral CGRPα neurons (CANs) in acute and injury-induced pain has been studied using diphtheria toxin ablation, but their functional roles remain controversial. Because ablation permanently deletes a neuronal population, compensatory changes may ensue that mask the physiological or pathophysiological roles of CANs, particularly for injuries that occur after ablation. Therefore, we sought to define the role of intact CANs in vivo under baseline and injury conditions by using noninvasive transient optogenetic inhibition. We assessed pain behavior longitudinally from acute to chronic time points. We generated adult male and female mice that selectively express the outward rectifying proton pump archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) in CANs, and inhibited their peripheral cutaneous terminals in models of neuropathic (spared nerve injury) and inflammatory (skin-muscle incision) pain using transdermal light activation of Arch. After nerve injury, brief activation of Arch reversed the chronic mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivity, alleviated the spontaneous pain, and reversed the sensitized mechanical currents in primary afferent somata. In contrast, Arch inhibition of CANs did not alter incision-induced hypersensitivity. Instead, incision-induced mechanical and heat hypersensitivity was alleviated by peripheral blockade of CGRPα peptide-receptor signaling. These results reveal that CANs have distinct roles in the time course of pain during neuropathic and incisional injuries and suggest that targeting peripheral CANs or CGRPα peptide-receptor signaling could selectively treat neuropathic or postoperative pain, respectively.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The contribution of sensory afferent CGRPα neurons (CANs) to neuropathic and inflammatory pain is controversial. Here, we left CANs intact during neuropathic and perioperative incision injury by using transient transdermal optogenetic inhibition of CANs. We found that peripheral CANs are required for neuropathic mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivity, spontaneous pain, and sensitization of mechanical currents in afferent somata. However, they are dispensable for incisional pain transmission. In contrast, peripheral pharmacological inhibition of CGRPα peptide-receptor signaling alleviated the incisional mechanical and heat hypersensitivity, but had no effect on neuropathic pain. These results show that CANs have distinct roles in neuropathic and incisional pain and suggest that their targeting via novel peripheral treatments may selectively alleviate neuropathic versus incisional pain.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK-067286-01(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F31 GM123778()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS040538()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS070711()

Blocking Neuronal Signaling to Immune Cells Treats Streptococcal Invasive Infection.

  • Pinho-Ribeiro FA
  • Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nervous system, the immune system, and microbial pathogens interact closely at barrier tissues. Here, we find that a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, hijacks pain and neuronal regulation of the immune response to promote bacterial survival. Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft tissue infection in which "pain is out of proportion" to early physical manifestations. We find that S. pyogenes, the leading cause of necrotizing fasciitis, secretes streptolysin S (SLS) to directly activate nociceptor neurons and produce pain during infection. Nociceptors, in turn, release the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) into infected tissues, which inhibits the recruitment of neutrophils and opsonophagocytic killing of S. pyogenes. Botulinum neurotoxin A and CGRP antagonism block neuron-mediated suppression of host defense, thereby preventing and treating S. pyogenes necrotizing infection. We conclude that targeting the peripheral nervous system and blocking neuro-immune communication is a promising strategy to treat highly invasive bacterial infections. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK080448(United States)

Spatial-Temporal Lineage Restrictions of Embryonic p63+ Progenitors Establish Distinct Stem Cell Pools in Adult Airways.

  • Yang Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Basal cells (BCs) are p63-expressing multipotent progenitors of skin, tracheoesophageal and urinary tracts. p63 is abundant in developing airways; however, it remains largely unclear how embryonic p63+ cells contribute to the developing and postnatal respiratory tract epithelium, and ultimately how they relate to adult BCs. Using lineage-tracing and functional approaches in vivo, we show that p63+ cells arising from the lung primordium are initially multipotent progenitors of airway and alveolar lineages but later become restricted proximally to generate the tracheal adult stem cell pool. In intrapulmonary airways, these cells are maintained immature to adulthood in bronchi, establishing a rare p63+Krt5- progenitor cell population that responds to H1N1 virus-induced severe injury. Intriguingly, this pool includes a CC10 lineage-labeled p63+Krt5- cell subpopulation required for a full H1N1-response. These data elucidate key aspects in the establishment of regionally distinct adult stem cell pools in the respiratory system, potentially with relevance to other organs.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA HL006151-02(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA112403()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA193455()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R35 HL135834()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - HHSN272201400008C()

Serotonin Receptor 5-HT3A Affects Development of Bladder Innervation and Urinary Bladder Function.

  • Ritter KE
  • Front Neurosci
  • 2018 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The autonomic and sensory nervous systems are required for proper function of all visceral organs, including the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction, effective treatment options remain limited. Pelvic innervation regenerative strategies are promising, but surprisingly little is known about the molecular factors driving the development of bladder innervation. Given prior evidence that serotonin receptor 5-HT3A is expressed early in LUT development and is an important mediator of adult bladder function, we sought to determine if 5-HT3A is required for the development of autonomic innervation of the bladder. We found that 5-HT3A is expressed early in fetal mouse pelvic ganglia and is maintained through adulthood. Htr3a knockout male mice, but not females, exhibit increased urinary voiding frequency compared to wild type littermates. Analysis of LUT function via anesthetized cystometry revealed decreased voiding efficiency in male Htr3a mutants. Htr3a-/- mutant animals exhibit a transient disturbance of autonomic neuronal subtype markers (tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyl transferase) within the fetal pelvic ganglia, although the imbalance of neuronal subtype markers assayed is no longer apparent in adulthood. Loss of 5-HT3A activity results in a higher density of autonomic and sensory neuronal fibers supplying bladder smooth muscle in both fetal and adult mice. Collectively, our findings highlight 5-HT3A as a critical component in the autonomic control of micturition and identify a novel role for this serotonin receptor in peripheral nervous system development.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA068485()
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY008126()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD015052()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK-70813(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK097938()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK058404()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P60 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R13 DK103410()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK101038()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH096972()

Discrete Circuits Support Generalized versus Context-Specific Vocal Learning in the Songbird.

  • Tian LY
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motor skills depend on the reuse of individual gestures in multiple sequential contexts (e.g., a single phoneme in different words). Yet optimal performance requires that a given gesture be modified appropriately depending on the sequence in which it occurs. To investigate the neural architecture underlying such context-dependent modifications, we studied Bengalese finch song, which, like speech, consists of variable sequences of "syllables." We found that when birds are instructed to modify a syllable in one sequential context, learning generalizes across contexts; however, if unique instruction is provided in different contexts, learning is specific for each context. Using localized inactivation of a cortical-basal ganglia circuit specialized for song, we show that this balance between generalization and specificity reflects a hierarchical organization of neural substrates. Primary motor circuitry encodes a core syllable representation that contributes to generalization, while top-down input from cortical-basal ganglia circuitry biases this representation to enable context-specific learning.

Notch Signaling Controls Transdifferentiation of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells in Response to Lung Injury.

  • Yao E
  • Stem Cells
  • 2017 Nov 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Production of an appropriate number of distinct cell types in precise locations during embryonic development is critical for proper tissue function. Homeostatic renewal or repair of damaged tissues in adults also requires cell expansion and transdifferentiation to replenish lost cells. However, the responses of diverse cell types to tissue injury are not fully elucidated. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. This knowledge is essential for harnessing the regenerative potential of individual cell types. This study investigated the fate of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) following lung damage to understand their plasticity and potential. PNECs are proposed to carry out diverse physiological functions in the lung and can also be the cells of origin of human small cell lung cancer. We found that Notch signaling is activated in proliferating PNECs in response to epithelial injury. Forced induction of high levels of Notch signaling in PNECs in conjunction with lung injury results in extensive proliferation and transdifferentiation of PNECs toward the fate of club cells, ciliated cells and goblet cells. Conversely, inactivating Notch signaling in PNECs abolishes their ability to switch cell fate following lung insult. We also established a connection between PNEC transdifferentiation and epigenetic modification mediated by the polycomb repressive complex 2 and inflammatory responses that involve the IL6-STAT3 pathway. These studies not only reveal a major pathway that controls PNEC fate change following lung injury but also provide tools to uncover the molecular basis of cell proliferation and fate determination in response to lung injury. Stem Cells 2018;36:377-391.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI083450-04(United States)

A Novel Small Molecule GDNF Receptor RET Agonist, BT13, Promotes Neurite Growth from Sensory Neurons in Vitro and Attenuates Experimental Neuropathy in the Rat.

  • Sidorova YA
  • Front Pharmacol
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage is a common and severe class of chronic pain. Disease-modifying clinical therapies are needed as current treatments typically provide only symptomatic relief; show varying clinical efficacy; and most have significant adverse effects. One approach is targeting either neurotrophic factors or their receptors that normalize sensory neuron function and stimulate regeneration after nerve damage. Two candidate targets are glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and artemin (ARTN), as these GDNF family ligands (GFLs) show efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain (Boucher et al., 2000; Gardell et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2008, 2014). As these protein ligands have poor drug-like properties and are expensive to produce for clinical use, we screened 18,400 drug-like compounds to develop small molecules that act similarly to GFLs (GDNF mimetics). This screening identified BT13 as a compound that selectively targeted GFL receptor RET to activate downstream signaling cascades. BT13 was similar to NGF and ARTN in selectively promoting neurite outgrowth from the peptidergic class of adult sensory neurons in culture, but was opposite to ARTN in causing neurite elongation without affecting initiation. When administered after spinal nerve ligation in a rat model of neuropathic pain, 20 and 25 mg/kg of BT13 decreased mechanical hypersensitivity and normalized expression of sensory neuron markers in dorsal root ganglia. In control rats, BT13 had no effect on baseline mechanical or thermal sensitivity, motor coordination, or weight gain. Thus, small molecule BT13 selectively activates RET and offers opportunities for developing novel disease-modifying medications to treat neuropathic pain.

Serotonergic paraneurones in the female mouse urethral epithelium and their potential role in peripheral sensory information processing.

  • Kullmann FA
  • Acta Physiol (Oxf)
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

AIM: The mechanisms underlying detection and transmission of sensory signals arising from visceral organs, such as the urethra, are poorly understood. Recently, specialized ACh-expressing cells embedded in the urethral epithelium have been proposed as chemosensory sentinels for detection of bacterial infection. Here, we examined the morphology and potential role in sensory signalling of a different class of specialized cells that express serotonin (5-HT), termed paraneurones. METHODS: Urethrae, dorsal root ganglia neurones and spinal cords were isolated from adult female mice and used for immunohistochemistry and calcium imaging. Visceromotor reflexes (VMRs) were recorded in vivo. RESULTS: We identified two morphologically distinct groups of 5-HT+ cells with distinct regional locations: bipolar-like cells predominant in the mid-urethra and multipolar-like cells predominant in the proximal and distal urethra. Sensory nerve fibres positive for calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and TRPV1 were found in close proximity to 5-HT+ paraneurones. In vitro 5-HT (1 μm) stimulation of urethral primary afferent neurones, mimicking 5-HT release from paraneurones, elicited changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) mediated by 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors. Approximately 50% of 5-HT responding cells also responded to capsaicin with changes in the [Ca2+ ]i . In vivo intra-urethral 5-HT application increased VMRs induced by urethral distention and activated pERK in lumbosacral spinal cord neurones. CONCLUSION: These morphological and functional findings provide insights into a putative paraneurone-neural network within the urethra that utilizes 5-HT signalling, presumably from paraneurones, to modulate primary sensory pathways carrying nociceptive and non-nociceptive (mechano-sensitive) information to the central nervous system.

Genetic Tracing of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in the Peripheral Nervous System.

  • Bernal Sierra YA
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Mar 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Cav3.2 channel is predominantly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the peripheral nervous system, the activation of the promoter starts at E9.5 in neural crest cells that will give rise to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, but not sympathetic neurons. As development progresses the number of DRG cells expressing the Cav3.2 channel reaches around 7% of the DRG at E16.5, and remains constant until E18.5. Characterization of sensory neuron subpopulations at E18.5 showed that EGFP+ cells are a heterogeneous population consisting mainly of TrkB+ and TrkC+ cells, while only a small percentage of DRG cells were TrkA+. Genetic tracing of the sensory nerve end-organ innervation of the skin showed that the activity of the Cav3.2 channel promoter in sensory progenitors marks many mechanoreceptor and nociceptor endings, but spares slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with endings associated with Merkel cells. Our genetic analysis reveals for the first time that progenitors that express the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel, defines a sensory specific lineage that populates a large proportion of the DRG. Using our Cav3.2-Cre mice together with AAV viruses containing a conditional fluorescent reporter (tdTomato) we could also show that Cre expression is largely restricted to two functionally distinct sensory neuron types in the adult ganglia. Cav3.2 positive neurons innervating the skin were found to only form lanceolate endings on hair follicles and are probably identical to D-hair receptors. A second population of nociceptive sensory neurons expressing the Cav3.2 gene was found to be positive for the calcitonin-gene related peptide but these neurons are deep tissue nociceptors that do not innervate the skin.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 294678()

Immunohistochemical analysis of huntingtin-associated protein 1 in adult rat spinal cord and its regional relationship with androgen receptor.

  • Islam MN
  • Neuroscience
  • 2017 Jan 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neuronal interactor with causatively polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded huntingtin in Huntington's disease and also associated with pathologically polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR) in spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), being considered as a protective factor against neurodegenerative apoptosis. In normal brains, it is abundantly expressed particularly in the limbic-hypothalamic regions that tend to be spared from neurodegeneration, whereas the areas with little HAP1 expression, including the striatum, thalamus, cerebral neocortex and cerebellum, are targets in several neurodegenerative diseases. While the spinal cord is another major neurodegenerative target, HAP1-immunoreactive (ir) structures have yet to be determined there. In the current study, HAP1 expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in light and electron microscopy through the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cords of the adult male rat. Our results showed that HAP1 is specifically expressed in neurons through the spinal segments and that more than 90% of neurons expressed HAP1 in lamina I-II, lamina X, and autonomic preganglionic regions. Double-immunostaining for HAP1 and AR demonstrated that more than 80% of neurons expressed both in laminae I-II and X. In contrast, HAP1 was specifically lacking in the lamina IX motoneurons with or without AR expression. The present study first demonstrated that HAP1 is abundantly expressed in spinal neurons of the somatosensory, viscerosensory, and autonomic regions but absent in somatomotor neurons, suggesting that the spinal motoneurons are, due to lack of putative HAP1 protectivity, more vulnerable to stresses in neurodegenerative diseases than other HAP1-expressing neurons probably involved in spinal sensory and autonomic functions.

Dynamic Expression of Serotonin Receptor 5-HT3A in Developing Sensory Innervation of the Lower Urinary Tract.

  • Ritter KE
  • Front Neurosci
  • 2017 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sensory afferent signaling is required for normal function of the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain syndromes, few effective treatment options are available. Serotonin receptor 5-HT3A is a known mediator of visceral afferent signaling and has been implicated in bladder function. However, basic expression patterns for this gene and others among developing bladder sensory afferents that could be used to inform regenerative efforts aimed at treating deficiencies in pelvic innervation are lacking. To gain greater insight into the molecular characteristics of bladder sensory innervation, we conducted a thorough characterization of Htr3a expression in developing and adult bladder-projecting lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Using a transgenic Htr3a-EGFP reporter mouse line, we identified 5-HT3A expression at 10 days post coitus (dpc) in neural crest derivatives and in 12 dpc lumbosacral DRG. Using immunohistochemical co-localization we observed Htr3a-EGFP expression in developing lumbosacral DRG that partially coincides with neuropeptides CGRP and Substance P and capsaicin receptor TRPV1. A majority of Htr3a-EGFP+ DRG neurons also express a marker of myelinated Aδ neurons, NF200. There was no co-localization of 5-HT3A with the TRPV4 receptor. We employed retrograde tracing in adult Htr3a-EGFP mice to quantify the contribution of 5-HT3A+ DRG neurons to bladder afferent innervation. We found that 5-HT3A is expressed in a substantial proportion of retrograde traced DRG neurons in both rostral (L1, L2) and caudal (L6, S1) axial levels that supply bladder innervation. Most bladder-projecting Htr3a-EGFP+ neurons that co-express CGRP, Substance P, or TRPV1 are found in L1, L2 DRG, whereas Htr3a-EGFP+, NF200+ bladder-projecting neurons are from the L6, S1 axial levels. Our findings contribute much needed information regarding the development of LUT innervation and highlight the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor as a candidate for future studies of neurally mediated bladder control.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK097938()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK101038()

Neurochemical features of boar lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion neurons and characterization of sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder trigone.

  • Russo D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Porcine lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were neurochemically characterized by using six neuronal markers: calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), neurofilament 200kDa (NF200), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and isolectin B4 (IB4) from Griffonia simplicifolia. In addition, the phenotype and cross-sectional area of DRG neurons innervating the urinary bladder trigone (UBT) were evaluated by coupling retrograde tracer technique and immunohistochemistry. Lumbar and sacral DRG neuronal subpopulations were immunoreactive (IR) for CGRP (30 ± 3% and 29 ± 3%, respectively), SP (26 ± 8% and 27 ± 12%, respectively), nNOS (21 ± 4% and 26 ± 7%, respectively), NF200 (75 ± 14% and 81 ± 7%, respectively), and TRPV1 (48 ± 13% and 43 ± 6%, respectively), and labeled for IB4 (56 ± 6% and 43 ± 10%, respectively). UBT sensory neurons, which were distributed from L2 to Ca1 DRG, had a segmental localization, showing their highest density in L4-L5 and S2-S4 DRG. Lumbar and sacral UBT sensory neurons expressed similar percentages of NF200 immunoreactivity (64 ± 33% and 58 ± 12%, respectively) but showed a significantly different immunoreactivity for CGRP, SP, nNOS, and TRPV1 (56 ± 9%, 39 ± 15%, 17 ± 13%, 62 ± 10% vs. 16 ± 6%, 16 ± 11%, 6 ± 1%, 45 ± 24%, respectively). Lumbar and sacral UBT sensory neurons also showed different IB4 labeling (67 ± 19% and 48 ± 16, respectively). Taken together, these data indicate that the lumbar and sacral pathways probably play different roles in sensory transmission from the UBT. The findings related to cell size also reinforced this hypothesis, because lumbar UBT sensory neurons were significantly larger than sacral ones (1,112 ± 624 μm(2) vs. 716 ± 421 μm(2) ).

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01GM079203(United States)

Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters type 1 and 2 in sensory and autonomic neurons innervating the mouse colorectum.

  • Brumovsky PR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been extensively studied in various neuronal systems, but their expression in visceral sensory and autonomic neurons remains to be analyzed in detail. Here we studied VGLUTs type 1 and 2 (VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , respectively) in neurons innervating the mouse colorectum. Lumbosacral and thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG), lumbar sympathetic chain (LSC), and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons innervating the colorectum of BALB/C mice were retrogradely traced with Fast Blue, dissected, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Tissue from additional naïve mice was included. Previously characterized antibodies against VGLUT(1) , VGLUT(2) , and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were used. Riboprobe in situ hybridization, using probes against VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , was also performed. Most colorectal DRG neurons expressed VGLUT(2) and often colocalized with CGRP. A smaller percentage of neurons expressed VGLUT(1) . VGLUT(2) -immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the MPG were rare. Abundant VGLUT(2) -IR nerves were detected in all layers of the colorectum; VGLUT(1) -IR nerves were sparse. A subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressed VGLUT2 protein and mRNA, but VGLUT1 mRNA was undetectable. In conclusion, we show 1) that most colorectal DRG neurons express VGLUT(2) , and to a lesser extent, VGLUT(1) ; 2) abundance of VGLUT2-IR fibers innervating colorectum; and 3) a subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressing VGLUT(2). Altogether, our data suggests a role for VGLUT(2) in colorectal glutamatergic neurotransmission, potentially influencing colorectal sensitivity and motility.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01DC008981(United States)

Delayed reinnervation by nonpeptidergic nociceptive afferents of the glabrous skin of the rat hindpaw in a neuropathic pain model.

  • Peleshok JC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Painful peripheral neuropathies have been associated with a reorganization of skin innervation. However, the detailed changes in skin innervation by the different afferent fiber types following a neuropathic nerve injury have never been characterized in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Our objective was to thoroughly characterize such changes in the thick skin of the foot in a well-established rat model of neuropathic pain, namely, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. We used the immunofluorescence detection of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), purinergic receptor P2X3, and NF200 as markers of peptidergic nociceptive fibers, nonpeptidergic nociceptive C fibers, and myelinated afferents, respectively. We observed that CCI-operated animals developed significant mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia as well as thermal hyperalgesia. At 3 days following nerve injury, all CCI-operated animals had a significant decrease in the density of fibers immunoreactive (IR) for CGRP, P2X3, and NF200 within the upper dermis. A recovery of CGRP-IR fibers occurred within 4 weeks of nerve injury and sprouting above control levels was observed at 16 weeks. However, the myelinated (NF200-IR) fibers never recovered to control levels within a period of 16 weeks following nerve injury. Interestingly, the P2X3-IR fibers took considerably more time to recover than the CGRP-IR fibers following the initial loss. A loss in P2X3-IR fibers persisted to 16 weeks and recovered to levels above that of control at 1.5 years following nerve injury. Further studies are required to clarify the relevance of these innervation changes for neuropathic pain generation and maintenance.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG004695(United States)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE016061(United States)

Distribution of P2X(3)-immunoreactive fibers in hairy and glabrous skin of the rat.

  • Taylor AM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The skin is innervated by two populations of unmyelinated sensory fibers, the peptidergic and nonpeptidergic, which transmit nociceptive information to the central nervous system. The peptidergic population expresses neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and has both cutaneous and visceral targets. The nonpeptidergic population expresses the purinergic receptor P2X(3), binds the isolectin B4 (IB4), and innervates mainly the epidermis. To date, the peptidergic nociceptor population in cutaneous tissue of the rat has been well characterized, whereas the nonpeptidergic innervation pattern has lacked an adequate description. To this aim, we used light microscopic immunocytochemistry to investigate the pattern of P2X(3)-immunoreactive (-IR) fiber innervation of both hairy and glabrous skin from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show extensive P2X(3)-IR fibers throughout the upper and lower dermis. Thick bundles of P2X(3)-IR fibers were found to run in parallel with the dermal-epidermal junction and projected multiple thin collateral axons that penetrated the epidermal layer, creating a dense network of innervation throughout the entire epidermis. The distribution of P2X(3)-IR fibers in the epidermis was far more extensive than the distribution of CGRP-IR fibers. P2X(3)-IR fibers also innervate hair follicles but were rarely found in close proximity to glands and blood vessels. The present results suggest a primary role for P2X(3)-IR fibers in the detection of noxious stimuli in cutaneous tissue and provide an anatomical basis for future studies examining a possible functionally distinct role of nonpeptidergic nociceptors in the transmission of nociceptive signals.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD044775(United States)

Anatomical and functional characterization of neuropil in the gracile fasciculus.

  • Ramer MS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

A fundamental organizational principle of the central nervous system is that gray matter is the province of neuronal somata, white matter their processes. However, the rat and primate dorsal columns (archetypal spinal "white matter" tracts) are actually of intermediate character, insofar as they contain a surprisingly prominent neuropil of unknown function. Here I report on the morphology, inputs, projections, and functional properties of these neurons. Small fusiform and larger lentiform neurons are most abundant in the gracile fasciculus of the cervical and lumbar enlargements and are absent from the cuneate fasciculus and corticospinal tract. Many have dendrites that run along the dorsal pia, and, although in transverse sections these neurons appear isolated from the gray matter, they are also connected to area X by varicose and sometimes loosely fasciculated dendrites. These neurons receive neurochemically diverse, compartmentalized synaptic inputs (primary afferent, intrinsic and descending), half express the substance P receptor, and some project supraspinally. Unlike substantia gelatinosa neurons, they do not express protein kinase C gamma. Functionally, they have small receptive fields, which are somatotopically appropriate with respect to their anterior-posterior position along the neuraxis. They respond to innocuous and/or noxious mechanical stimulation of the distal extremities, and some are prone to central sensitization or "windup." Morphologically, neurochemically, and functionally, therefore, these cells most closely resemble neurons in laminae III-VI in the dorsal horn. The proximity of their dorsal dendrites to the pia mater may also reflect an ability to integrate internal (e.g., changes in cerebrospinal fluid compostition) and external (e.g., somatic) stimuli.

Bone morphogenetic protein regulation of enteric neuronal phenotypic diversity: relationship to timing of cell cycle exit.

  • Chalazonitis A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on enteric neuron development were examined in transgenic mice overexpressing either the BMP inhibitor, noggin, or BMP4 under control of the neuron specific enolase (NSE) promoter. Noggin antagonism of BMP signaling increased total numbers of enteric neurons and those of subpopulations derived from precursors that exit the cell cycle early in neurogenesis (serotonin, calretinin, calbindin). In contrast, noggin overexpression decreased numbers of neurons derived from precursors that exit the cell cycle late (gamma-aminobutyric acid, tyrosine hydroxylase [TH], dopamine transporter, calcitonin gene-related peptide, TrkC). The numbers of TH- and TrkC-expressing neurons were increased by overexpression of BMP4. These observations are consistent with the idea that phenotypic expression in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is determined, in part, by the number of proliferative divisions neuronal precursors undergo before their terminal mitosis. BMP signaling may thus regulate enteric neuronal phenotypic diversity by promoting the exit of precursors from the cell cycle. BMP2 increased the numbers of TH- and TrkC-expressing neurons developing in vitro from immunoselected enteric crest-derived precursors; BMP signaling may thus also specify or promote the development of dopaminergic TrkC/NT-3-dependent neurons. The developmental defects in the ENS of noggin-overexpressing mice caused a relatively mild disturbance of motility (irregular rapid transit and increased stool frequency, weight, and water content). Although the function of the gut thus displays a remarkable tolerance for ENS defects, subtle functional abnormalities in motility or secretion may arise when ENS defects short of aganglionosis occur during development.

Distribution and neurochemical identification of pancreatic afferents in the mouse.

  • Fasanella KE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dysfunction of primary afferents innervating the pancreas has been shown to contribute to the development of painful symptoms during acute and chronic pancreatitis. To investigate the distribution and neurochemical phenotype of pancreatic afferents, Alexa Fluor-conjugated cholera toxin B (CTB) was injected into the pancreatic head (CTB-488) and tail (CTB-555) of adult male mice to label neurons retrogradely in both the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nodose ganglia (NG). The NG and DRG (T5-T13) were processed for fluorescent immunohistochemistry and visualized by using confocal microscopy. Spinal pancreatic afferents were observed from T5 to T13, with the greatest contribution coming from T9-T12. The pancreatic afferents were equally distributed between right and left spinal ganglia; however, the innervation from the left NG was significantly greater than from the right. For both spinal and vagal afferents there was significantly greater innervation of the pancreatic head relative to the tail. The total number of retrogradely labeled afferents in the nodose was very similar to the total number of DRG afferents. The neurochemical phenotype of DRG neurons was dominated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-positive neurons (75%), GDNF family receptor alpha-3 (GFRalpha3)-positive neurons (67%), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neurons(65%) neurons. In the NG, TRPV1-, GFRalpha3-, and CGRP-positive neurons constituted only 35%, 1%, and 15% of labeled afferents, respectively. The disparity in peptide and receptor expression between pancreatic afferents in the NG and DRG suggests that even though they contribute a similar number of primary afferents to the pancreas, these two populations may differ in regard to their nociceptive properties and growth factor dependency.

Postnatal changes in the Rexed lamination and markers of nociceptive afferents in the superficial dorsal horn of the rat.

  • Lorenzo LE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In this study, we investigated postnatal changes in Rexed's laminae and distribution of nociceptive afferents in the dorsal horn of the rat lumbar spinal cord at postnatal days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 60. Transverse sections of the L4-L5 segments were processed for triple labeling with isolectin B4 (IB4)-binding as a marker of nonpeptidergic C-fibers, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity to label peptidergic nociceptive afferents, and a fluorescent Nissl stain to visualize cells and lamination at different stages of postnatal development. The Nissl staining revealed that the thickness of lamina I (LI) and outer lamina II remained mostly unchanged from birth until adulthood. CGRP afferents terminated mostly in LI and the outer two-thirds of lamina II, whereas the termination area of fibers binding IB4 was centered on the middle one-third of lamina II at all ages studied. In absolute values, the overall width of the bands of intense CGRP and IB4 labeling increased with age but decreased as a percentage of the overall thickness of the dorsal horn with maturation. The overlap of CGRP termination area with that of IB4 afferents increased with age. The consequences of these findings are twofold. First, the size of the different laminae does not grow evenly across the dorsal horn. Second, CGRP and IB4 labeling cannot be considered per se to be reliable markers of lamination during development. These findings have implications for comparing data obtained in immature and mature tissues with respect to localization of structures in the dorsal horn.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074057(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS16446(United States)

Survival and death of mature avian motoneurons in organotypic slice culture: trophic requirements for survival and different types of degeneration.

  • Brunet N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have developed an organotypic culture technique that uses slices of chick embryo spinal cord, in which trophic requirements for long-term survival of mature motoneurons (MNs) were studied. Slices were obtained from E16 chick embryos and maintained for up to 28 days in vitro (DIV) in a basal medium. Under these conditions, most MNs died. To promote MN survival, 14 different trophic factors were assayed. Among these 14, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor were the most effective. GDNF was able to promote MN survival for at least 28 DIV. K(+) depolarization or caspase inhibition prevented MN death but also induced degenerative-like changes in rescued MNs. Agents that elevate cAMP levels promoted the survival of a proportion of MNs for at least 7 DIV. Examination of dying MNs revealed that, in addition to cells exhibiting a caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pattern, some MNs died by a caspase-3-independent mechanism and displayed autophagic vacuoles, an extremely convoluted nucleus, and a close association with microglia. This organotypic spinal cord slice culture may provide a convenient model for testing conditions that promote survival of mature-like MNs that are affected in late-onset MN disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 098362/Z/12/Z(United Kingdom)