Literature context: (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.; RRID:AB_2556546) or Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are negative regulators of heterotrimeric G proteins that act by accelerating Gα-mediated GTPase activity to terminate G protein-coupled receptor-associated signaling. RGS8 is expressed in several brain regions involved with movement and mood. To investigate the role of RGS8 in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing brain RGS8 (RGS8tg). RGS8 gene and protein expressions were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and a significant increase in RGS8 protein was detected in the hippocampal CA1 region compared with wild-type mice (WT). We characterized the phenotypic traits, and found that RGS8tg showed decreased depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test (FST). Previously, RGS8 was identified as a potent negative regulator of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), whose activation is mainly involved in energy homeostasis and emotional processing. Interestingly, acute oral administration of MCHR1 antagonist SNAP94847 did not have antidepressant-like effects on RGS8tg in the FST, but did show antidepressant effects on WT. In contrast, selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor desipramine had a significant effect on RGS8tg in the FST. MCHR1 is enriched in a subset of primary cilia, as sensory organelles that mediate extracellular signaling. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed significant elongation of MCHR1-positive cilia in the CA1 region of RGS8tg compared with WT. Taken together, these findings suggest that RGS8 participates in modulation of depression-like behavior through ciliary MCHR1 expressed in the CA1 region. The present study may support the possible modulation of RGS8 function in mood disorders.
Literature context: Donkey Anti-Rabbit, Cat#125719, RRID:AB_2556546, Alexa Fluor 594 Donkey Anti-Gu
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the neural network that drives daily rhythms in behavior and physiology. The SCN encodes environmental changes through the phasing of cellular rhythms across its anteroposterior axis, but it remains unknown what signaling mechanisms regulate clock function along this axis. Here we demonstrate that arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling organizes the SCN into distinct anteroposterior domains. Spatial mapping of SCN gene expression using in situ hybridization delineated anterior and posterior domains for AVP signaling components, including complementary patterns of V1a and V1b expression that suggest different roles for these two AVP receptors. Similarly, anteroposterior patterning of transcripts involved in Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide- and Prokineticin2 signaling was evident across the SCN. Using bioluminescence imaging, we then revealed that inhibiting V1A and V1B signaling alters period and phase differentially along the anteroposterior SCN. V1 antagonism lengthened period the most in the anterior SCN, whereas changes in phase were largest in the posterior SCN. Further, separately antagonizing V1A and V1B signaling modulated SCN function in a manner that mapped onto anteroposterior expression patterns. Lastly, V1 antagonism influenced SCN period and phase along the dorsoventral axis, complementing effects on the anteroposterior axis. Together, these results indicate that AVP signaling modulates SCN period and phase in a spatially specific manner, which is expected to influence how the master clock interacts with downstream tissues and responds to environmental changes. More generally, we reveal anteroposterior asymmetry in neuropeptide signaling as a recurrent organizational motif that likely influences neural computations in the SCN clock network. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Literature context: her Scientific catalog #R37118, RRID:AB_2556546) and Alexa Fluor 633 goat anti-
Salt intake is an essential dietary requirement, but excessive consumption is implicated in hypertension and associated conditions. Little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms that control motivation to consume salt, although the midbrain dopamine system, which plays a key role in other reward-related behaviors, has been implicated. We, therefore, examined the effects on salt consumption of either optogenetic excitation or chemogenetic inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in male mice. Strikingly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons decreased salt intake in a rapid and reversible manner, despite a strong salt appetite. Importantly, optogenetic excitation was not aversive, did not induce hyperactivity, and did not alter salt concentration preferences in a need-free state. In addition, we found that chemogenetic inhibition of dopamine neurons had no effect on salt intake. Lastly, optogenetic excitation of dopamine neurons reduced consumption of sucrose following an overnight fast, suggesting a more general role of VTA dopamine neuron excitation in organizing motivated behaviors.
Literature context: 7114, RRID: AB_2556542; R37118, RRID: AB_2556546; R37115, RRID: AB_2556543; R371
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters hepatocytes via various entry factors, including scavenger receptor BI (SR-B1), cluster of differentiation 81 (CD81), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), claudin-1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). As CLDN1 and OCLN are not readily accessible due to their tight junctional localization, HCV likely accesses them by either disrupting cellular polarity or migrating to the tight junction. In this study, we image HCV entry into a three-dimensional polarized hepatoma system and reveal that the virus sequentially engages these entry factors through actin-dependent mechanisms. HCV initially localizes with the early entry factors SR-B1, CD81, and EGFR at the basolateral membrane and then accumulates at the tight junction in an actin-dependent manner. HCV associates with CLDN1 and then OCLN at the tight junction and is internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis by an active process requiring EGFR. Thus, HCV uses a dynamic and multi-step process to engage and enter host cells.
Literature context: onjugates (1:1,000, Invitrogen, RRID:AB_2556546 and RRID:AB_2534013).
The spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only source of visual information to the brain. Here, we genetically identify an RGC type in mice that functions as a pixel encoder and increases firing to light increments (PixON-RGC). PixON-RGCs have medium-sized dendritic arbors and non-canonical center-surround receptive fields. From their receptive field center, PixON-RGCs receive only excitatory input, which encodes contrast and spatial information linearly. From their receptive field surround, PixON-RGCs receive only inhibitory input, which is temporally matched to the excitatory center input. As a result, the firing rate of PixON-RGCs linearly encodes local image contrast. Spatially offset (i.e., truly lateral) inhibition of PixON-RGCs arises from spiking GABAergic amacrine cells. The receptive field organization of PixON-RGCs is independent of stimulus wavelength (i.e., achromatic). PixON-RGCs project predominantly to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus and likely contribute to visual perception.
Literature context: ed to Alexa-488 (1:250, R37118, RRID:AB_2556546, Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh,
The statin atorvastatin (ATV) given as a post-treatment has been reported beneficial in stroke, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood so far. Here, we investigated in vitro the effect of post-treatment with ATV and its main bioactive metabolite ortho-hydroxy ATV (o-ATV) on neuroprotection after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), and the role of the pro-survival cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Post-OGD treatment of primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with o-ATV, but not ATV, provided neuroprotection to a specific subset of cortical neurons that were large and positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase (large-GAD(+) neurons, GABAergic). Significantly, only these GABAergic neurons showed an increase in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) early after neuronal cultures were treated post-OGD with o-ATV. We found that o-ATV, but not ATV, increased the neuronal uptake of glutamate from the medium; this provides a rationale for the specific effect of o-ATV on pCREB in large-GABAergic neurons, which have a higher ratio of synaptic (pCREB-promoting) vs extrasynaptic (pCREB-reducing) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDAR) than that of small-non-GABAergic neurons. When we pharmacologically increased pCREB levels post-OGD in non-GABAergic neurons, through the selective activation of synaptic NMDAR, we observed as well long-lasting neuronal survival. We propose that the statin metabolite o-ATV given post-OGD boosts the intrinsic pro-survival factor pCREB in large-GABAergic cortical neurons in vitro, this contributing to protect them from OGD.
Literature context: jugate Invitrogen Cat # R37118; RRID:AB_2556546 Donkey anti-chicken, Alexa 488
How environmental and physiological signals interact to influence neural circuits underlying developmentally programmed social interactions such as male territorial aggression is poorly understood. We have tested the influence of sensory cues, social context, and sex hormones on progesterone receptor (PR)-expressing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) that are critical for male territorial aggression. We find that these neurons can drive aggressive displays in solitary males independent of pheromonal input, gonadal hormones, opponents, or social context. By contrast, these neurons cannot elicit aggression in socially housed males that intrude in another male's territory unless their pheromone-sensing is disabled. This modulation of aggression cannot be accounted for by linear integration of environmental and physiological signals. Together, our studies suggest that fundamentally non-linear computations enable social context to exert a dominant influence on developmentally hard-wired hypothalamus-mediated male territorial aggression.
Literature context: Fisher Scientific Cat# R37118; RRID:AB_2556546 AF568-conjugated phalloidin The
Lower urinary tract infections are among the most common human bacterial infections, but extension to the kidneys is rare. This has been attributed to mechanical forces, such as urine flow, that prevent the ascent of bladder microbes. Here, we show that the regional hypersalinity, required for the kidney's urine-concentrating function, instructs epithelial cells to produce chemokines that localize monocyte-derived mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) to the medulla. This hypersaline environment also increases the intrinsic bactericidal and neutrophil chemotactic activities of MNPs to generate a zone of defense. Because MNP positioning and function are dynamically regulated by the renal salt gradient, we find that patients with urinary concentrating defects are susceptible to kidney infection. Our work reveals a critical accessory role for the homeostatic function of a vital organ in optimizing tissue defense.
Literature context: # R37118, RRID:AB_2556546), polyclon
Hoxa5 is a member of the Hox gene family, which plays critical roles in successive steps of the central nervous system formation during embryonic and fetal development. Hoxa5 expression in the adult mouse brain has been reported, suggesting that this gene may be functionally required in the brain after birth. To provide further insight into the Hoxa5 expression pattern and potential functions in the brain, we have characterized its neuroanatomical profile from embryonic stages to adulthood. While most Hox mapping studies have been based solely on transcript analysis, we extended our analysis to HOXA5 protein localization in adulthood using specific antibodies. Our results show that Hoxa5 expression appears in the most caudal part of the hindbrain at fetal stages, where it is maintained until adulthood. In the medulla oblongata and pons, we detected Hoxa5 expression in many precerebellar neurons and in several nuclei implicated in the control of autonomic functions. In these territories, the HOXA5 protein is present solely in neurons, specifically in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, glutamatergic, and catecholaminergic neurons. Finally, we also detected Hoxa5 transcripts, but not the HOXA5 protein, in the thalamus and the cortex, from postnatal stages to adult stages, and in the cerebellum at adulthood. We provide evidence that some larger variants of Hoxa5 transcripts are present in these territories. Our mapping analysis allowed us to build hypotheses regarding HOXA5 functions in the nervous system after birth, such as a potential role in the establishment and refinement/plasticity of precerebellar circuits during postnatal and adult life. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1155-1175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: # R37118; RRID:AB_2556546 rabbit ant
The thalamus receives sensory input from different circuits in the periphery. How these sensory channels are integrated at the level of single thalamic cells is not well understood. We performed targeted single-cell-initiated transsynaptic tracing to label the retinal ganglion cells that provide input to individual principal cells in the mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). We identified three modes of sensory integration by single LGN cells. In the first, 1-5 ganglion cells of mostly the same type converged from one eye, indicating a relay mode. In the second, 6-36 ganglion cells of different types converged from one eye, revealing a combination mode. In the third, up to 91 ganglion cells converged from both eyes, revealing a binocular combination mode in which functionally specialized ipsilateral inputs joined broadly distributed contralateral inputs. Thus, the LGN employs at least three modes of visual input integration, each exhibiting different degrees of specialization.
We recently showed that the mouse pituitary holds regenerative competence. Young-adult GHCre/iDTR mice, expressing diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor in GH-producing cells, regenerate the GH(+) cells, as ablated by 3-day DT treatment (3DT), up to 60% after 5 months. The pituitary's stem cells participate in this restoration process. Here, we characterized this regenerative capacity in relation to age and recovery period and started to search for underlying molecular mechanisms. Extending the recovery period (up to 19 mo) does not result in higher regeneration levels. In addition, the regenerative competence disappears at older age, coinciding with a reduction in pituitary stem cell number and fitness. Surprisingly, prolonging DT treatment of young-adult mice to 10 days (10DT) completely blocks the regeneration, although the stem cell compartment still reacts by promptly expanding, and retains in vitro stem cell functionality. To obtain a first broad view on molecular grounds underlying reparative capacity and/or failure, the stem cell-clustering side population was analyzed by whole-genome expression analysis. A number of stemness factors and components of embryonic, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, growth factor and Hippo pathways are higher expressed in the stem cell-clustering side population of the regenerating pituitary (after 3DT) when compared with the basal gland and to the nonregenerating pituitary (after 10DT). Together, the regenerative capacity of the pituitary is limited both in age-related terms and final efficacy, and appears to rely on stem cell-associated pathway activation. Dissection of the molecular profiles may eventually identify targets to induce or boost regeneration in situations of (injury-related) pituitary deficiency.
Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in myogenesis, the process required for skeletal muscle development and repair, although the mechanisms have not been established. Skeletal muscle develops from the fusion of precursor myoblasts into myofibers. We have used the C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, primary myoblasts, and mouse models of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) α and β, to determine the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of myoblast differentiation. T3, which activates thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α and β, increased myoblast differentiation whereas GC1, a selective TRβ agonist, was minimally effective. Genetic approaches confirmed that TRα plays an important role in normal myoblast proliferation and differentiation and acts through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Myoblasts with TRα knockdown, or derived from RTH-TRα PV (a frame-shift mutation) mice, displayed reduced proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Moreover, skeletal muscle from the TRα1PV mutant mouse had impaired in vivo regeneration after injury. RTH-TRβ PV mutant mouse model skeletal muscle and derived primary myoblasts did not have altered proliferation, myogenic differentiation, or response to injury when compared with control. In conclusion, TRα plays an essential role in myoblast homeostasis and provides a potential therapeutic target to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration.